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1.
Trials ; 22(1): 581, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465368

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older people account for 25% of all Emergency Department (ED) admissions. This is expected to rise with an ageing demographic. Older people often present to the ED with complex medical needs in the setting of multiple comorbidities. Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) has been shown to improve outcomes in an inpatient setting but clear evidence of benefit in the ED setting has not been established. It is not feasible to offer this resource-intensive assessment to all older adults in a timely fashion. Screening tools for frailty have been used to identify those at most risk for adverse outcomes following ED visit. The overall aim of this study is to examine the impact of CGA on the quality, safety and cost-effectiveness of care in an undifferentiated population of frail older people with medical complaints who present to the ED and Acute Medical Assessment Unit. METHODS: This will be a parallel 1:1 allocation randomised control trial. All patients who are ≥ 75 years will be screened for frailty using the Identification of Seniors At Risk (ISAR) tool. Those with a score of ≥ 2 on the ISAR will be randomised. The treatment arm will undergo geriatric medicine team-led CGA in the ED or Acute Medical Assessment Unit whereas the non-treatment arm will undergo usual patient care. A dedicated multidisciplinary team of a specialist geriatric medicine doctor, senior physiotherapist, specialist nurse, pharmacist, senior occupational therapist and senior medical social worker will carry out the assessment, as well as interventions that arise from that assessment. Primary outcomes will be the length of stay in the ED or Acute Medical Assessment Unit. Secondary outcomes will include ED re-attendance, re-hospitalisation, functional decline, quality of life and mortality at 30 days and 180 days. These will be determined by telephone consultation and electronic records by a research nurse blinded to group allocation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the Health Service Executive (HSE) Mid-Western Regional Hospital Research Ethics Committee (088/2020). Our lay dissemination strategy will be developed in collaboration with our Patient and Public Involvement stakeholder panel of older people at the Ageing Research Centre and we will present our findings in peer-reviewed journals and national and international conferences. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04629690 . Registered on November 16, 2020.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/terapia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Hospitais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Telefone
2.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34371823

RESUMO

Malnutrition, frailty and sarcopenia are becoming increasingly prevalent among community-dwelling older adults; yet are often unidentified and untreated in community settings. There is an urgent need for community-based healthcare professionals (HCPs) from all disciplines, including medicine, nursing and allied health, to be aware of, and to be able to recognise and appropriately manage these conditions. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of malnutrition, frailty and sarcopenia in the community, including their definitions, prevalence, impacts and causes/risk factors; and guidance on how these conditions may be identified and managed by HCPs in the community. A detailed description of the care process, including screening and referral, assessment and diagnosis, intervention, and monitoring and evaluation, relevant to the community context, is also provided. Further research exploring the barriers/enablers to delivering high-quality nutrition care to older community-dwelling adults who are malnourished, frail or sarcopenic is recommended, to inform the development of specific guidance for HCPs in identifying and managing these conditions in the community.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/métodos , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Serviços de Saúde para Idosos , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Terapia Nutricional/métodos , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Vida Independente , Masculino , Desnutrição/diagnóstico , Desnutrição/terapia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/terapia
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e041091, 2021 08 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34408025

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the extent of implementation of the General Medical Services 2018/2019 'frailty identification and management' contract in general practitioner (GP) practices in England, and link implementation outcomes to a range of practice and Clinical Commissioning Group (CCG) factors. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study design using publicly available datasets relating to the year 2018 for all GP practices in England. SETTINGS: English general practices. DATA: The analysis was conducted across 6632 practices in 193 CCGs with 9 995 558 patients aged 65 years or older. OUTCOMES: Frailty assessment rates, frailty coding rates and frailty prevalence rates, plus rates of medication reviews, falls assessments and enriched Summary Care Records (SCRs). ANALYSIS: Summary statistics were calculated and multilevel negative binomial regression analysis was used to investigate relationships of the six outcomes with explanatory factors. RESULTS: 14.3% of people aged 65 years or older were assessed for frailty, with 35.4% of these-totalling 5% of the eligible population-coded moderately or severely frail. 59.2% received a medications review, but rates of falls assessments (3.7%) and enriched SCRs (21%) were low. However, percentages varied widely across practices and CCGs. Practice differences in contract implementation were most strongly accounted for by their grouping within CCGs, with weaker but still important associations with some practice and CCG factors, particularly healthcare demand-related factors of chronic caseload and (negatively) % of patients aged 65 years or older. CONCLUSION: CCG appears the strongest determinant of practice engagement with the frailty contract, and fuller implementation may depend on greater engagement of CCGs themselves, particularly in commissioning suitable interventions. Practices understandably targeted frailty assessments at patients more likely to be found severely frail, resulting in probable underidentification of moderately frail individuals who might benefit most from early interventions. Frailty prevalence estimates based on the contract data may not reflect actual rates.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Clínicos Gerais , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
4.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 453, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34348660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older Canadians are high users of health care services, however the health care system is not well-designed to meet the complex needs of many older adults. Older persons often look to their primary care practitioners to assess their needs and coordinate their care. The intervention seeks to improve primary care for older persons living with frailty and will be implemented in six primary care clinics in three Canadian provinces. Presently, more than 1.6 million older Canadians are living with frailty, and this is projected to increase to 2.5 million within a decade (Canadian Frailty Network, Frailty Matters, 2020). The model will include frailty screening, an online portal to expedite referrals and improve coordination with community services, and several tools and techniques to support patient and family engagement and shared decision-making. Our project is guided by the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR) (Damschroder LJ, et al. Implement Scil, 4, 50, 2009). As others have done, we adapted the CFIR for our work. Our adapted framework combines elements of the socio-ecological model, key concepts from the CFIR, and elements from other implementation science frameworks. Nested within a broader mixed-method implementation study, the focus of this paper is to outline our guiding conceptual framework and qualitative methods protocol. METHODS: We will use the adapted CFIR framework to inform the data we collect and our analytic approach. Our work is divided into three phases: (1) baseline assessment of 'usual care'; (2) tailoring and implementing a new primary care model; and (3) evaluation. In each of these phases we will engage in qualitative data collection, including clinical observations, focus groups, in-depth interviews and extensive field notes. At each site we will collect data with health care providers, key informants (e.g., executive directors), and rostered patients ≥ 70 years. We will engage in team-based analysis across multiple sites, three provinces and two languages through regular telephone conferences, a comprehensive analysis codebook, leadership from our Qualitative Working Group and a collective appreciation that "science is a team sport" (Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research 471, 701-702, 2013). DISCUSSION: Outcomes of this research may be used by other research teams who chose to adapt the CFIR framework to reflect the unique contexts of their work, and clinicians seeking to implement our model, or other models of care for frail older patients in primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: U.S. National Library of Medicine, NCT03442426 . Registered 22 February 2018- Retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá/epidemiologia , Atenção à Saúde , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde
5.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 30(9): 105958, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34303088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of skeletal muscle is a critical health issue that frequently occurs due to aging and various pathologies. No studies have reported increases in appendicular skeletal muscle mass among elderly patients after stroke. Our hypothesis was that even older individuals after stroke could increase skeletal muscle mass by rehabilitation. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate changes to skeletal muscle mass in elderly patients after stroke rehabilitation and to assess factors associated with skeletal muscle mass increases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Participants in this case-control study were 159 patients ≥ 80 years old in rehabilitation wards after stroke. Body mass index (BMI), appendicular skeletal muscle index (SMI), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), interval from onset to transfer, presence of hemiplegia, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS), length of hospital stay for rehabilitation, period of exercise therapy per day, and protein intake were examined. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify association between these values and SMI increases. RESULTS: SMI at discharge was significantly increased (5.30 kg/m2) compared to baseline (5.20kg/m2; p = 0.002). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that length of hospital stay and protein intake were significantly associated with SMI increases, with odds ratios of 1.013 (95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.022) and 3.746 (95% confidence interval, 1.077-13.028), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The SMI of patients ≥ 80 years old increased significantly with rehabilitation after stroke. In addition, length of hospital stay and protein intake were independently associated with increases in SMI.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Terapia por Exercício , Fragilidade/terapia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Sarcopenia/terapia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Impedância Elétrica , Feminino , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Sarcopenia/diagnóstico , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 389-394, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34262283

RESUMO

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) proposed the integrated care for older people (ICOPE) screening tool to identify functional impairment. We explore the association of geriatric functional impairment and hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia in the community-dwelling elderly. Methods: We enrolled individuals aged at least 65 with hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia; or those aged at least 75 from May to July 2019. We applied ICOPE tools to evaluate six function assessments: cognitive decline, limited mobility, malnutrition, visual impairment, hearing loss, and depressive symptoms. Factors were analyzed using stepwise multivariable linear regression for ICOPE scores and logistic regression for geriatric functional impairment. All analyses were adjusted for age and glomerular filtration rate. Results: We enrolled 457 participants including 303 (66.3%) participants with hypertension, 296 (64.8%) diabetes, and 221 (48.4%) dyslipidemia. Seventy-eight (17.1%) participants have at least one geriatric functional impairment, including 41 (25.9%) participants aged ≥ 75 and 37 (12.4%) aged 65-74. The ICOPE score (0.4 ± 0.6) of participants aged at least 75 was higher than that (0.1 ± 0.4) of the participants aged 65-74 (p < 0.001). Dyslipidemia (p = 0.002) was positively associated with ICOPE score. Dyslipidemia (odds ratio: 2.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.27-3.70, p = 0.005), not hypertension (p = 0.3) and diabetes (p = 0.9), was associated with geriatric functional impairment. Visual impairment was the most common function impairment. Female was linked to limited mobility, renal function was associated with mobility (p < 0.001) and nutrition (p = 0.02). Conclusion: Dyslipidemia but not hypertension, diabetes is linked to geriatric functional impairment in community-dwelling elderly. Lower renal function is associated with decreased mobility and nutrition. More studies are needed to determine if treatment of dyslipidemia reduces geriatric functional impairment.


Assuntos
Dislipidemias/diagnóstico , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Avaliação Geriátrica , Vida Independente , Afeto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Diabetes Mellitus/psicologia , Dislipidemias/fisiopatologia , Dislipidemias/psicologia , Dislipidemias/terapia , Feminino , Fragilidade/fisiopatologia , Fragilidade/psicologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Estado Funcional , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Audição , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Limitação da Mobilidade , Estado Nutricional , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Visão Ocular
8.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 446, 2021 07 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34330220

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty, a syndrome resulting in heightened risk of negative outcomes for older adults, is increasing across the globe. However, little is known about the health service impacts of frailty in low-income countries (LICs), and in particular, sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). This study explores the relationship between frailty and health service 1) utilisation and 2) expenditure within Côte d'Ivoire. METHODS: Participants aged 50 years and over participated in the Living Condition, Health and Resilience among the Elderly study. Frailty was assessed using a 30-item Frailty Index (FI). The association between frailty and self-reported health service utilisation was analysed for general practitioners (GPs), specialists, overnight hospitalisations, traditional practitioners and self-medication. Expenditure over the previous month included consulting, medications, hospitalisations and total expenditure. RESULTS: Among participants [n = 860, mean age (SD) = 61.8 (9.7) years, 42.9% female], 60.0% were frail, 22.8% pre-frail and 17.2% robust. The mean (SD) FI was 0.28 (0.17). Increased health service utilisation was associated with frailty for GP attendance, traditional practitioners and self-medication but not specialists or overnight hospitalisation. Pre-frailty and frailty were associated with increased total health service expenditure, with frailty also associated with aggregate consulting costs and medications. CONCLUSIONS: Although frailty is associated with health service utilisation and expenditure in a variety of contexts, the study results suggest that such impacts may vary across the globe. The experience of frailty in LICs is likely to differ from that experienced elsewhere due to cultural traditions, attitudes to the health system, and accessibility, with more research needed.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Idoso , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Gastos em Saúde , Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 408, 2021 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34215193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Comprehensive geriatric assessment provided in hospital wards in frail patients admitted to hospital has been shown to reduce mortality and increase the likelihood of living at home later. Systematic geriatric assessment provided in emergency departments (ED) may be effective for reducing days in hospital and unnecessary hospital admissions, but this has not yet been proven in randomised trials. METHODS: We conducted a single-centre, randomised controlled trial with a parallel-group, superiority design in an academic hospital ED. ED patients aged ≥ 75 years who were frail, or at risk of frailty, as defined by the Clinical Frailty Scale, were included in the trial. Patients were recruited during the period between December 11, 2018 and June 7, 2019, and followed up for 365 days. For the intervention group, systematic geriatric assessment was added to their standard care in the ED, whereas the control group received standard care only. The primary outcome was cumulative hospital stay during 365-day follow-up. The secondary outcomes included: admission rate from the index visit, total hospital admissions, ED-readmissions, proportion of patients living at home at 365 days, 365-day mortality, and fall-related ED-visits. RESULTS: A total of 432 patients, 63 % female, with median age of 85 years, formed the analytic sample of 213 patients in the intervention group and 219 patients in the control group. Cumulative hospital stay during one-year follow-up as rate per 100 person-years for the intervention and control groups were: 3470 and 3149 days, respectively, with rate ratio of 1.10 (95 % confidence interval, 0.55-2.19, P = .78). Admission rates to hospital wards from the index ED visit for the intervention and control groups were: 62 and 70 %, respectively (P = .10). No significant differences were observed between the groups for any outcomes. CONCLUSION: Systematic geriatric assessment for older adults with frailty in the ED did not reduce hospital stay during one-year follow-up. No statistically significant difference was observed for any secondary outcomes. More coordinated, continuous interventions should be tested for potential benefits in long-term outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial was registered in the ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number and date NCT03751319 23/11/2018).


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Avaliação Geriátrica , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino
10.
Age Ageing ; 50(5): 1802-1810, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34228775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Confidence is a cornerstone concept within health and social care's intermediate care policy in the UK for a population of older people living with frailty. However, these intermediate care services delivering the policy, tasked to promote and build confidence, do so within an evidence vacuum. OBJECTIVES: To explore the meaning of confidence as seen through the lens of older people living with frailty and to re-evaluate current literature-based conceptual understanding. DESIGN: A phenomenological study was undertaken to bring real world lived-experience meaning to the concept of confidence. METHODS: Seventeen individual face-to-face interviews with older people living with frailty were undertaken and the data analysed using van Manen's approach to phenomenology. RESULTS: Four themes are identified, informing a new conceptual model of confidence. This concept consists of four unique but interdependent dimensions. The four dimensions are: social connections, fear, independence and control. Each is ever-present in the confidence experience of the older person living with frailty. For each dimension, identifiable confidence eroding and enabling factors were recognised and are presented to promote aging well and personal resilience opportunities, giving chance to reduce the impact of vulnerability and frailty. CONCLUSIONS: This new and unique understanding of confidence provides a much needed evidence-base for services commissioned to promote and build confidence. It provides greater understanding and clarity to deliver these ambitions to an older population, progressing along the heath-frailty continuum. Empirical referents are required to quantify the concept's impact in future interventional studies.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Medo , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Apoio Social
11.
CMAJ Open ; 9(2): E613-E622, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088732

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: For many patients, health care needs increase toward the end of life, but little is known about the extent of outpatient physician care during that time. The objective of this study was to describe the volume and mix of outpatient physician care over the last 12 months of life among patients dying with different end-of-life trajectories. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective descriptive study involving adults (aged ≥ 18 yr) who died in Ontario between 2013 and 2017, using linked provincial health administrative databases. Decedents were grouped into 5 mutually exclusive end-of-life trajectories (terminal illness, organ failure, frailty, sudden death and other). Over the last 12 months and 3 months of life, we examined the number of physician encounters, the number of unique physician specialties involved per patient and specialty of physician, the number of unique physicians involved per patient, the 5 most frequent types of specialties involved and the number of encounters that took place in the home; these patterns were examined by trajectory. RESULTS: Decedents (n = 359 559) had a median age of 78 (interquartile range 66-86) years. The mean number of outpatient physician encounters over the last year of life was 16.8 (standard deviation [SD] 13.7), of which 9.0 (SD 9.2) encounters were with family physicians. The mean number of encounters ranged from 11.6 (SD 10.4) in the frailty trajectory to 24.2 (SD 15.0) in the terminal illness trajectory across 3.1 (SD 2.0) to 4.9 (SD 2.1) unique specialties, respectively. In the last 3 months of life, the mean number of physician encounters was 6.8 (SD 6.4); a mean of 4.1 (SD 5.4) of these were with family physicians. INTERPRETATION: Multiple physicians are involved in outpatient care in the last 12 months of life for all end-of-life trajectories, with family physicians as the predominant specialty. Those who plan health care models of the end of life should consider support for family physicians as coordinators of patient care.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Morte Súbita/epidemiologia , Morte , Fragilidade , Médicos de Família , Assistência Terminal , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Fragilidade/mortalidade , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Ontário/epidemiologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Padrões de Prática Médica/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assistência Terminal/métodos , Assistência Terminal/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Korean J Intern Med ; 36(5): 1233-1241, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078037

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Frailty increases the risks of in-hospital adverse events such as delirium, falls, and functional decline in older adults. We assessed the feasibility and clinical relevance of frailty status in Korean older inpatients using the Clinical Frailty Scale (CFS) and Korean version of the Fatigue, Resistance, Ambulation, Illnesses, & Loss of Weight scale (K-FRAIL) questionnaires. METHODS: Frailty status was measured using the Korean-translated version of the CFS and K-FRAIL questionnaire within 3 days from admission in 144 consecutive patients aged 60 years or older. The correlation between CFS and K-FRAIL score was assessed. The criterion validity of CFS was assessed using receiver operating characteristic analysis. As outcomes, delirium, bedsore, length of stay (LOS), in-hospital mortality, and unplanned 30-day readmission were measured by reviewing medical records. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population was 70.1 years (range, 60 to 91), and 75 (52.1%) were men. By linear regression analysis, CFS and K-FRAIL were positively correlated (B = 0.72, p < 0.001). A CFS cutoff of ≥ 5 maximized sensitivity + specificity to classify frailty using K-FRAIL as a reference (C-index = 0.893). Higher frailty burden by both CFS and K-FRAIL was associated with higher LOS and bedsores. Unplanned readmission and in-hospital mortality were associated with higher CFS score but not with K-FRAIL score, after adjusting for age, gender, polypharmacy, and multimorbidity. CONCLUSION: Frailty status by CFS was associated with LOS, bedsores, unplanned readmission, and in-hospital mortality. CFS can be used to screen high-risk patients who may benefit from geriatric interventions and discharge planning in acutely hospitalized older adults.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Médicos Hospitalares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/terapia , Avaliação Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Age Ageing ; 50(5): 1785-1791, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087930

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frailty is a disorder of multiple physiological systems impairing the capacity of the organism to cope with insult or stress. It is associated with poor outcomes after acute illness. Our aim was to study the impact of frailty on the functional outcome of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) submitted to endovascular stroke treatment (EST). METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of patients with AIS of the anterior circulation submitted to EST between 2012 and 2017, based on a prospectively collected local registry of consecutive patients. The Hospital Frailty Risk Score (HFRS) at discharge was calculated for each patient. We compared groups of patients with and without favourable 3-month outcome after index AIS (modified Rankin Scale 0-2 and 3-6, respectively). A multivariable logistic regression model was used to identify variables independently associated with favourable 3-month outcome. Diagnostic test statistics were used to compare HFRS with other prognostic scores for AIS. RESULTS: We included 489 patients with median age 75.6 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 65.3-82.3) and median NIHSS 15 (IQR = 11-19). About 29.7% presented a high frailty risk (HFRS >15 points). Patients with favourable 3-month outcome presented lower HFRS and lower prevalence of high frailty risk. High frailty risk was independently associated with decreased likelihood of favourable 3-month outcome (adjusted odds ratio = 0.48, 95% confidence interval = 0.26-0.89). Diagnostic performances of HFRS and other prognostic scores (THRIVE and PRE scores, SPAN-100 index) for outcome at 3-months were similar. DISCUSSION: Frailty is an independent predictor of outcome in AIS patients submitted to EST.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica , Fragilidade , AVC Isquêmico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
Age Ageing ; 50(5): 1854-1858, 2021 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107008

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: many patients brought to emergency departments (EDs) following an emergency medical services (EMS) call have non-urgent needs that could be treated elsewhere. Older people are particularly vulnerable to adverse events while attending the ED. Alternative care pathway models can reduce ED crowding and improve outcomes. Internationally, there is no consensus on which model is recommended. AIM: the aim of this study is to investigate the impact of the Pathfinder model on ED conveyance rates and patient safety. METHODS: the Pathfinder service is a collaboration between the National Ambulance Service and Beaumont Hospital Occupational Therapy and Physiotherapy Departments. It is supported by the Government of Ireland's Sláintecare Integration fund. This is a retrospective cohort study of the Pathfinder service over a 5-month period. RESULTS: one-hundred and seventy-eight patients were responded to by the Pathfinder 'Rapid Response Team'. Average age was 79.6 years (standard deviation 7.6), median clinical frailty score was 6 (interquartile range: 5-6). Sixty-four percent remained at home following initial review. None re-presented to the ED within 24 hours, and 10% re-presented within 7 days. The majority (67%) of patients required follow-up by the Pathfinder 'Follow-Up Team' and/or another community-based service. Feedback demonstrates 99% patient satisfaction with the service. CONCLUSION: the Pathfinder service is a safe alternative to ED conveyance for older people following an EMS call. It is the first model of this kind to be evaluated in Ireland. The overwhelmingly positive feedback confirms that older people want this service. This model could expand, with local adaptation, nationally and internationally.


Assuntos
Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Fragilidade , Idoso , Ambulâncias , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
15.
Nat Rev Endocrinol ; 17(9): 534-548, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172940

RESUMO

The past 50 years have seen a growing ageing population with an increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); now, nearly half of all individuals with diabetes mellitus are older adults (aged ≥65 years). Older adults with T2DM present particularly difficult challenges. For example, the accentuated heterogeneity of these patients, the potential presence of multiple comorbidities, the increased susceptibility to hypoglycaemia, the increased dependence on care and the effect of frailty all add to the complexity of managing diabetes mellitus in this age group. In this Review, we offer an update on the key pathophysiological mechanisms associated with T2DM in older people. We then evaluate new evidence relating particularly to the effects of frailty and sarcopenia, the clinical difficulties of age-associated comorbidities, and the implications for existing guidelines and therapeutic options. Our conclusions will focus on the effect of T2DM on an ageing society.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/complicações , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Prevalência , Sarcopenia/complicações , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/terapia
16.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 343, 2021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34082710

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frailty is characterized by an age-related decline in multiple physiological systems, leading to a high vulnerability to stressors, adverse health outcomes, and low quality of life. Neuroscientific models of pathological aging emphasize the loss of sensorimotor stimulation and reduced neuromodulatory capacities as core processes in age-related cognitive and bodily decline, which may be associated with maladaptive plastic changes in the brain. We plan to increase sensorimotor stimulation in frail persons through a newly developed app-based training program and link the training trials to biological and psychological correlates of age-associated vulnerability and health indices. METHODS: We will conduct a randomized trial, applying an app-based sensorimotor home training (N = 30) in people suffering from frailty. An app-based relaxation training will serve as an active control condition (N = 30). Both interventions will last for 90 days each. The sensorimotor training includes unimodal and multimodal sensory discrimination tasks in the visual, auditory, and tactile domain, as well as sensorimotor precision tasks. The tasks will be implemented using an adaptive training algorithm and enriched with motivational components embedded in a virtual training environment. We expect a pre-post reduction of frailty status and associated functional decline related to refinement of representational maps within the sensorimotor system and improved sensorimotor function such as extremity function. Secondary analyses will study the influence of BDNF genotype as moderating variable. Additional outcomes will include measures of perceptual and cognitive functioning, quality of life as well as BDNF serum levels. Measurements will take place before training (baseline), after 60 days (assessment 1), and at the end of the training after 90 days (assessment 2). DISCUSSION: In our randomized trial, we aim to characterize a multidimensional concept of frailty and to target maladaptive behaviors and neuroplasticity using an app-based sensorimotor training. This type of intervention might provide further knowledge and new possibilities for preventing decline and preserving function in older adults. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03666039 . Registered 11 September 2018 - Retrospectively registered. Protocol version: Version 4 revised (issue date: 19 May 2021).


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Aplicativos Móveis , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Plasticidade Neuronal , Qualidade de Vida
17.
Exp Gerontol ; 150: 111390, 2021 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33962026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: There is a need for interventions to reduce frailty in older people with Alzheimer's dementia (AD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a home-based multimodal exercise program for older adults with AD (AD-HOMEX) on frailty. DESIGN: A parallel single-blind randomized controlled trial comparing a home-based exercise program and usual care. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A home-based program in Brazil. Forty individuals aged 65years or older with mild to moderate AD. METHODS: The intervention group (IG) participated in a 16-week protocol involving three 60-minute sessions per week of progressive individualized physical exercises supervised by a physical therapist. The participants in the control group (CG) maintained their usual care. Frailty was assessed using the FRAIL questionnaire, the Edmonton Frail Scale (EFS) and a subjective assessment by the evaluator (SAE) at baseline and follow-up. Per-protocol analysis was performed. RESULTS: Thirty-five participants completed the program (IG = 16; CG = 19). Frailty improved in the IG based on the EFS (P = .004) and FRAIL (P ≤ .001). An interaction between group and time (P = .008) and a significant difference between times (P = .047) were found for the SAE responsiveness domain. An improvement in the classification of frailty (EFS and FRAIL) was found between times in the IG (P = .003) and between groups at follow-up (P = .027). A significant difference in the SAE classification was found between groups at follow-up (P = .034), with a worsening between times in the CG (P = .032). Interestingly, a more favorable frailty transition pattern was found in the IG based on both the EFS and FRAIL. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: AD-HOMEX seems to reduce frailty and improve frailty transition patterns. Our findings provide a further theoretical basis for designing home-based physical interventions as routine practice for older frail adults with AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Fragilidade , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/terapia , Brasil , Exercício Físico , Terapia por Exercício , Estudos de Viabilidade , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Método Simples-Cego
18.
Age Ageing ; 50(4): 1129-1136, 2021 06 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33993209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with lower limb fractures who are non-weight bearing are at risk of the complications of the associated immobility and disability, particularly people with frailty, but there is lack of clarity about what constitutes optimal care for such patients. A scoping literature review was conducted to explore what evidence is available for the management of this patient group. METHODS: MEDLINE (PubMed) CINAHL, EMBASE and the Cochrane databases of published literature and the HMIC and SIGLE sites for grey literature were searched for primary research studies and expert reports, using an iterative approach initially including the key term 'non-weight bearing'. All study types were included. Analysis was by narrative synthesis. RESULTS: No papers were identified from a search using the key phrase 'non-weight bearing'. With this term removed, 11 indirectly relevant articles on lower limb fractures were retrieved from the searches of the electronic databases comprising three observational studies, five non-systematic review articles, a systematic review, an opinion piece and a survey of expert opinion that had relevance to restricted weight bearing patients. The observational studies indicated depression, cognition and nutrition affect outcome and hence have indirect relevance to management. The non-systematic reviews articles emphasised the importance of maintaining strength and range of movement during immobilisation and advised an orthogeriatric model of care. Fourteen UK and 97 non-UK guidelines relevant to fragility fractures, falls and osteoporosis management were found in the grey literature, but none made specific recommendations regarding the management of any period of non-weight bearing. DISCUSSION: These findings provide a summary of the evidence base that can be used in the development of a clinical guideline for these patients but is not sufficient. We propose that, a guideline should be developed for these patients using an expert consensus process.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Fragilidade , Idoso , Consenso , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Extremidade Inferior , Estado Nutricional
19.
BMJ Open ; 11(5): e042911, 2021 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33986044

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Older Canadians living with frailty are high users of healthcare services; however, the healthcare system is not well designed to meet the complex needs of many older adults. Older persons look to their primary care practitioners to assess their needs and coordinate their care. They may need care from a variety of providers and services, but often this care is not well coordinated. Older adults and their family caregivers are the experts in their own needs and preferences, but often do not have a chance to participate fully in treatment decisions or care planning. As a result, older adults may have health problems that are not properly assessed, managed or treated, resulting in poorer health outcomes and higher economic and social costs. We will be implementing enhanced primary healthcare approaches for older patients, including risk screening, patient engagement and shared decision making and care coordination. These interventions will be tailored to the needs and circumstances of the primary care study sites. In this article, we describe our study protocol for implementing and testing these approaches. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Nine primary care sites in three Canadian provinces will participate in a multi-phase mixed methods study. In phase 1, baseline information will be collected through questionnaires and interviews with patients and healthcare providers (HCPs). In phase 2, HCPs and patients will be consulted to tailor the evidence-based interventions to site-specific needs and circumstances. In phase 3, sites will implement the tailored care model. Evaluation of the care model will include measures of patient and provider experience, a quality of life measure, qualitative interviews and economic evaluation. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has received ethics clearance from the host academic institutions: University of Calgary (REB17-0617), University of Waterloo (ORE#22446) and Université Laval (#MP-13-2019-1500 and 2017-2018-12-MP). Results will be disseminated through traditional means, including peer-reviewed publications and conferences and through an extensive network of knowledge user partners. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03442426;Pre-results.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Participação do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Qualidade de Vida
20.
BMC Geriatr ; 21(1): 320, 2021 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34011271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Age is considered as one of the most important risk-factor for many types of solid and hematological cancers, as their incidence increases with age in parallel to the ever-growing elderly population. Moreover, cancer incidence is constantly increasing as a consequence of the increase in life expectancy that favors the process of cellular senescence. Geriatric assessment has been increasingly recognized as predictive and prognostic instrument to detect frailty in older adults with cancer. In particular, the G8 score is a simple and reproducible instrument to identify elderly patients who should undergo full geriatric evaluation. Due to their frailty, elderly patients may be often under-treated and a therapeutic choice based also on a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) is recommended. With these premises, we aim to test the impact of the CGA based interventions on the quality of life (QoL) of frail elderly onco-hematological patients, identified by the G8 screening, candidate for innovative target directed drugs or treatments including the combination of radiotherapy and chemotherapy (RT + CT). METHODS: Patients aged > 65 years, candidate to target directed agents or to RT + CT treatments are screened for frailty by the G8 test; those patients classified as frail (G8 ≤ 14) are randomized to receive a CGA at baseline or to conventional care. The primary endpoint is QoL, assessed by EORTC QLQ-C30C. As collateral biological study, the potential prognostic/predictive role of T-cell senescence and myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) are evaluated on plasma samples. DISCUSSION: This trial will contribute to define the impact of CGA on the management of frail elderly onco-hematologic patients candidate to innovative biological drugs or to integrated schedules with the association of RT + CT. Furthermore, the use of plasma samples to assess the potential prognostic value of imbalance of immune-competent cells is expected to contribute to the individualized care of elderly patients, resulting into a fine tuning of the therapeutic strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT04478916 . registered July 21, 2020 - retrospectively registered.


Assuntos
Fragilidade , Avaliação Geriátrica , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/diagnóstico , Fragilidade/epidemiologia , Fragilidade/terapia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
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