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1.
Orv Hetil ; 162(162 Suppl 1): 46-53, 2021 03 28.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774608

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: A pertrochanter töréssel kapcsolatos szolgáltatások igénybevétele jelentos terhet jelent a társadalom és az egészségügyi rendszerek számára. Célkituzés: Elemzésünk célja volt a pertrochanter törés okozta éves epidemiológiai és egészségbiztosítási betegségteher meghatározása Magyarországon. Adatok és módszerek: A felhasznált adatok a Nemzeti Egészségbiztosítási Alapkezelo (NEAK) finanszírozási adatbázisából származnak 2018. évre vonatkozóan. A betegszámok alapján meghatároztuk a 100 000 lakosra jutó prevalenciát, az éves egészségbiztosítási kiadásokat korcsoportos és nemenkénti bontásban. Az elemzésbe az érintett egészségbiztosítási ellátások teljes körét bevontuk. A pertrochanter töréseket a Betegségek Nemzetközi Osztályozása (BNO, 10. revízió) szerinti S7210-es kóddal azonosítottuk. Eredmények: A legnagyobb országos betegszámot a járóbeteg-szakellátás esetében találtuk: 2845 férfi, 6312 no, együtt 9157 fo. Ezt követte az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás (2388 férfi és 5858 no, együtt 8246 fo). A valamennyi életkorra számított, 100 000 lakosra vetített prevalencia a férfiaknál 51,1 beteg, a noknél 114,7 beteg, együtt 84,3 beteg volt az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátásban. A pertrochanter törés kezelésére 7,329 milliárd Ft-ot költöttek 2018-ban (27,12 millió USD, illetve 22,98 millió EUR). A kiadások 28,0%-a férfiaknál, 72,0%-a noknél jelent meg. Az egészségbiztosítási kiadások 90,7%-a az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátásban jelentkezett. Az egy betegre jutó átlagos éves összesített egészségbiztosítási kiadás 858 710 Ft (3177 USD/2693 EUR) volt a férfiak és 901 047 Ft (3334 USD/2826 EUR) a nok esetében. Következtetés: A pertrochanter törés elofordulási gyakorisága 2,5-szer magasabb a nok esetében, mint a férfiaknál. Az aktívfekvobeteg-szakellátás igénybevétele bizonyult a legfobb költségtényezonek. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 46-53. INTRODUCTION: Health services utilization related to pertrochanteric fractures represents a significant burden for the society and health care systems. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to analyse the epidemiological and health insurance burden of pertrochanteric fractures in Hungary. DATA AND METHODS: Data were derived from the financial database of the National Health Insurance Fund Administration (NHIFA) of Hungary for the year 2018. The data analysed included annual patient numbers, prevalence per 100 000 population in acute inpatient care, health insurance costs calculated for age groups and sex for all types of care. Patients with pertrochanteric fracture were identified with the code S7210 of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision. RESULTS: We found a significant patient turnover in outpatient care: 2845 men, 6312 women, in total 9157 patients, followed by acute inpatient care (2388 men, 5858 women, together: 8246 patients). Based on patient numbers in acute inpatient care, the prevalence per 100 000 among men was 51.1, among women 114.7, together 84.3 patients. In 2018, NHIFA spent 7.329 billion HUF (27.12 million USD, 22.98 million EUR) on the treatment of pertrochanteric fractures. 28.0% of the costs was spent on the treatment of male, 72.0% on female patients. Reimbursement of acute inpatient care was the main cost driver (90.7% of the total expenditure). The average annual treatment cost per patient was 858 710 HUF (3177 USD/2693 EUR) for men and 901 047 HUF (3334 USD/2826 EUR) for women. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pertrochanteric fracture was 2.5 times higher in women compared to men. Acute inpatient care was the major cost driver in the treatment of pertrochanteric fracture. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(Suppl 1): 46-53.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Fraturas Ósseas , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/economia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Seguro Saúde/economia , Masculino
2.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(3): 160-166, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645278

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in reconfiguration of the NHS. Elective services were stopped and trauma services focused on decreasing patient-clinician interactions and managing injuries nonoperatively wherever possible. The everyday life of the general public changed dramatically with the introduction of a national lockdown to prevent the spread of COVID-19. This paper looks at the experience of a South West London trauma unit. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients reviewed in fracture clinic and by the orthopaedic on-call team between 23 March to 23 April 2020 were included. Data on the mechanism of injury and whether this was a usual activity, the injury sustained and its management were collected. RESULTS: A total of 167 trauma injuries were seen, compared with 735 new patients with injuries in the previous month. The number of trauma operations completed decreased by 38%; 55% of injuries occurred inside the home and 44% outside the home during daily exercise. Some 31% of injuries were secondary to a new activity taken up during lockdown. Three open fractures and two polytrauma cases were seen that would have normally been managed at the local major trauma centre. CONCLUSION: Overall, both the number of injuries seen and trauma operations completed during the enforced lockdown decreased. This is probably due to a change in the way the general public are living their lives, and the reconfigurations within the NHS in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. This is an interesting time within trauma and orthopaedic departments, as they continue to adapt to the changing injuries and working environment.


Assuntos
Acidentes Domésticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Ciclismo/lesões , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/etiologia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Jardinagem , Humanos , Lactente , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas do Rádio/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Rádio/etiologia , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(3): 167-172, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645286

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We describe a new service model, the Orthopaedic Assessment Unit (OAU), designed to provide care for trauma patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients without COVID-19 symptoms and isolated musculoskeletal injuries were redirected to the OAU. METHODS: We prospectively reviewed patients throughput during the peak of the global pandemic (7 May 2020 to 7 June 2020) and compared with our historic service provision (7 May 2019 to 7 June 2019). The Mann-Whitney and Fisher Exact tests were used to test the statistical significance of data. RESULTS: A total of 1,147 patients were seen, with peak attendances between 11am and 2pm; 96% of all referrals were seen within 4h. The majority of patients were seen by orthopaedic registrars (52%) and nurse practitioners (44%). The majority of patients suffered from sprains and strains (39%), followed by fractures (22%) and wounds (20%); 73% of patients were discharged on the same day, 15% given follow up, 8% underwent surgery and 3% were admitted but did not undergo surgery. Our volume of trauma admissions and theatre cases decreased by 22% and 17%, respectively (p=0.058; 0.139). There was a significant reduction of virtual fracture clinic referrals after reconfiguration of services (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Rapid implementation of a specialist OAU during a pandemic can provide early definitive trauma care while exceeding national waiting time standards. The fall in trauma attendances was lower than anticipated. The retention of orthopaedic staff in the department to staff the unit and maintain a high standard of care is imperative.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Ortopedia/organização & administração , Entorses e Distensões/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Profissionais de Enfermagem , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Cirurgiões Ortopédicos , Escócia/epidemiologia , Entorses e Distensões/diagnóstico , Entorses e Distensões/epidemiologia , Centros de Traumatologia , Triagem , Ferimentos e Lesões/diagnóstico , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia
4.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 184(4): 597-606, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33606665

RESUMO

Objective: Several small studies reported increased prevalence and incidence of asymptomatic vertebral fractures in patients with non-functioning adrenal adenomas and adenomas with mild autonomous cortisol secretion. However, the risk of symptomatic fractures at vertebrae, and at other sites remains unknown. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and incidence of symptomatic site-specific fractures in patients with adrenal adenomas. Design: Population-based cohort study, Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA, 1995-2017. Methods: Participants were the patients with adrenal adenoma and age/sex-matched referent subjects. Patients with overt hormone excess were excluded. Main outcomes measures were prevalence and incidence of bone fractures. Results: Of 1004 patients with adrenal adenomas, 582 (58%) were women, and median age at diagnosis was 63 years (20-96). At the time of diagnosis, patients had a higher prevalence of previous fractures than referent subjects (any fracture: 47.9% vs 41.3%, P = 0.003, vertebral fracture: 6.4% vs 3.6%, P = 0.004, combined osteoporotic sites: 16.6% vs 13.3%, P = 0.04). Median duration of follow-up was 6.8 years (range: 0-21.9 years). After adjusting for age, sex, BMI, tobacco use, prior history of fracture, and common causes of secondary osteoporosis, patients with adenoma had hazard ratio of 1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.52) for developing a new fracture during follow up when compared to referent subjects. Conclusions: Patients with adrenal adenomas have higher prevalence of fractures at the time of diagnosis and increased risk to develop new fractures when compared to referent subjects.


Assuntos
Adenoma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Adenoma/complicações , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/complicações , Neoplasias das Glândulas Suprarrenais/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Ann R Coll Surg Engl ; 103(2): 114-119, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559558

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-injury-related factors have been extensively studied in major trauma and have been shown to have a significant impact on patient outcomes. Mental illness and associated medication use has been proven to have a negative effect on bone health and fracture healing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collated data retrospectively from the records of orthopaedic inpatients in a non-COVID and COVID period. We analysed demographic data, referral and admission numbers, orthopaedic injuries, surgery performed and patient comorbidities, including psychiatric history. RESULTS: There were 824 orthopaedic referrals and 358 admissions (six/day) in the non-COVID period, with 38/358 (10.6%) admissions having a psychiatric diagnosis and 30/358 (8.4%) also having a fracture. This was compared with 473 referrals and 195 admissions (three/day) in the COVID period, with 73/195 (37.4%) admissions having a documented psychiatric diagnosis and 47/195 (24.1%) having a fracture. DISCUSSION: There was a reduction in the number of admissions and referrals during the pandemic, but a simultaneous three-fold rise in admissions with a psychiatric diagnosis. The proportion of patients with both a fracture and a psychiatric diagnosis more than doubled and the number of patients presenting due to a traumatic suicide attempt almost tripled. CONCLUSION: While total numbers using the orthopaedic service decreased, the impact of the pandemic and lockdown disproportionately affects those with mental health problems, a group already at higher risk of poorer functional outcomes and non-union. It is imperative that adequate support is in place for patients with vulnerable mental health during these periods, particularly as we look towards a potential 'second wave' of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/tendências , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Tentativa de Suicídio/tendências , Adulto , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/epidemiologia , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Humanos , Luxações Articulares/epidemiologia , Luxações Articulares/cirurgia , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/tratamento farmacológico , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Psicotrópicos/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/epidemiologia , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/cirurgia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/cirurgia
7.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0246956, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic led to the implementation of drastic shutdown measures worldwide. While quarantine, self-isolation and shutdown laws helped to effectively contain and control the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the impact of COVID-19 shutdowns on trauma care in emergency departments (EDs) remains elusive. METHODS: All ED patient records from the 35-day COVID-19 shutdown (SHUTDOWN) period were retrospectively compared to a calendar-matched control period in 2019 (CTRL) as well as to a pre (PRE)- and post (POST)-shutdown period in an academic Level I Trauma Center in Berlin, Germany. Total patient and orthopedic trauma cases and contacts as well as trauma causes and injury patterns were evaluated during respective periods regarding absolute numbers, incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and risk ratios (RRs). FINDINGS: Daily total patient cases (SHUTDOWN vs. CTRL, 106.94 vs. 167.54) and orthopedic trauma cases (SHUTDOWN vs. CTRL, 30.91 vs. 52.06) decreased during the SHUTDOWN compared to the CTRL period with IRRs of 0.64 and 0.59. While absolute numbers decreased for most trauma causes during the SHUTDOWN period, we observed increased incidence proportions of household injuries and bicycle accidents with RRs of 1.31 and 1.68 respectively. An RR of 2.41 was observed for injuries due to domestic violence. We further recorded increased incidence proportions of acute and regular substance abuse during the SHUTDOWN period with RRs of 1.63 and 3.22, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: While we observed a relevant decrease in total patient cases, relative proportions of specific trauma causes and injury patterns increased during the COVID-19 shutdown in Berlin, Germany. As government programs offered prompt financial aid during the pandemic to individuals and businesses, additional social support may be considered for vulnerable domestic environments.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , /prevenção & controle , Fraturas Ósseas/classificação , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Alemanha , Hospitais Universitários/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
8.
Injury ; 52(3): 395-401, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33627252

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in both mechanism and diagnoses of injuries presenting to the orthopaedic department during this lockdown period, as well as to observe any changes in operative case-mix during this time. METHODS: A study period of twelve weeks following the introduction of the nationwide "lockdown period", March 23rd - June 14th, 2020 was identified and compared to the same time period in 2019 as a "baseline period". A retrospective analysis of all emergency orthopaedic referrals and surgical procedures performed during these time frames was undertaken. All data was collected and screened using the 'eTrauma' management platform (Open Medical, UK). The study included data from a five NHS Foundation Trusts within North West London. A total of 6695 referrals were included for analysis. RESULTS: The total number of referrals received during the lockdown period fell by 35.3% (n=2631) compared to the same period in 2019 (n=4064). Falls remained proportionally the most common mechanism of injury across all age groups in both time periods. The proportion sports related injuries compared to the overall number of injuries fell significantly during the lockdown period (p<0.001), however, the proportion of pushbike related accidents increased significantly (p<0.001). The total number of operations performed during the lockdown period fell by 38.8% (n=1046) during lockdown (n=1732). The proportion of patients undergoing operative intervention for Neck of Femur (NOF) and ankle fractures remained similar during both study periods. A more non-operative approach was seen in the management of wrist fractures, with 41.4% of injuries undergoing an operation during the lockdown period compared to 58.6% at baseline (p<0.001). CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the nationwide lockdown has led to a decrease in emergency orthopaedic referrals and procedure numbers. There has been a change in mechanism of injuries, with fewer sporting injuries, conversely, there has been an increase in the number of pushbike or scooter related injuries during the lockdown period. NOF fractures remained at similar levels to the previous year. There was a change in strategy for managing distal radius fractures with more fractures being treated non-operatively.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes de Trânsito/tendências , Ciclismo/lesões , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/tendências , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Traumatismos do Braço/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Braço/etiologia , Traumatismos do Braço/terapia , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/terapia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados , Feminino , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Colo Femoral/cirurgia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Fraturas Expostas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Expostas/etiologia , Fraturas Expostas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Traumatismos da Perna/epidemiologia , Traumatismos da Perna/etiologia , Traumatismos da Perna/terapia , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Traumatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/etiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Traumatismos do Punho/epidemiologia , Traumatismos do Punho/etiologia , Traumatismos do Punho/terapia , Adulto Jovem
9.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 47, 2021 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638754

RESUMO

A meta-analysis to investigate the difference in fracture risk between individuals with and without HIV infection was performed. People living with HIV had lower bone mineral density (BMD) and greater risks of overall fractures and fragility fractures. Reducing fragility and maintaining skeletal strength for PLWH are urgently needed for this population. PURPOSE: The introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy increased the life expectancy of people living with HIV (PLWH). This population now faces problems related to aging such as decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and increased fracture risk. Some antiretroviral therapies may also negatively impact bone health. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the difference in the fracture risk between individuals with and without HIV infection. METHODS: We compared BMD, risk of fragility fracture, and risk of all fracture between the two groups. This study included 35 articles with 106,994 PLWH and 228,794,335 controls. RESULTS: PLWH had lower lumbar spine and hip BMD than controls. PLWH had a higher prevalence of all fracture events (4.08% versus 0.44%) and fragility fractures (2.66% versus 2.19%). The relative risks of all and fragility fractures of PLWH were 1.91 (95% confidence interval (CI), 1.46-2.49; p < 0.001) and 1.68 (95% CI: 1.40-2.01; p < 0.001). PLWH also had more vertebral fractures (1.26% versus 0.37%; RR, 1.97; 95% CI: 1.22-3.2; p < 0.05), hip fractures (1.38% versus 0.81%; RR, 1.88; 95% CI: 0.99-3.57; p = 0.05), and wrist fractures (1.38% versus 1.29%; RR, 1.67; 95% CI: 1.13-2.45; p < 0.05) than healthy controls. The pooled incidence of fractures was 1.72 per 100 person-years in PLWH and 1.29 in healthy controls. CONCLUSION: PLWH had lower BMD and greater risks of all fractures and fragility fractures. Reducing fragility and maintaining skeletal strength for PLWH are urgently needed for this population.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Infecções por HIV , Fraturas do Quadril , Osteoporose , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Densidade Óssea , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Osteoporose/epidemiologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(7): e24839, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607854

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of teriparatide and bisphosphonates in preventing fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We performed a systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared teriparatide and bisphosphonates for osteoporosis treatment. Searches were performed without language restrictions and included studies from beginning of time to March 2019. Two authors independently screened and extracted the selected article. The quality of the included studies was evaluated using the Cochrane system evaluation method. Data were extracted and analysed using RevMan 5.2 software. RESULTS: Nine RCTs were included for a total of 2990 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Of these, 1515 patients were treated with teriparatide and 1475 were treated with bisphosphonates. After pooling the data of 9 studies, there were significant differences between teriparatide and bisphosphonates [relative risk (RR): 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.51, 0.74)] in the prevention of fractures according to different follow-up durations (P < .05), whatever alendronate [RR: 0.51, 95% CI (0.27, 0.95)] and other bisphosphonates [RR: 0.63, 95% CI (0.51, 0.77)]. In addition, we found significant differences between teriparatide and bisphosphonates in the prevention of vertebral fractures [RR: 0.47, 95% CI (0.35, 0.64)] and non-vertebral fractures [RR: 0.76, 95% CI (0.58,0.99)]. There were no significant differences in adverse effects between teriparatide and bisphosphonates [RR: 0.89, 95% CI (0.76, 1.03)]. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of our meta-analysis, teriparatide was better than bisphosphonates in preventing fractures in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis both in the short-term and long-term follow-up periods. Teriparatide was superior to bisphosphonates in preventing vertebral and non-vertebral fractures. These drugs did not differ in terms of their adverse effects. More high-quality studies are needed to compare other factors such as costs and adverse reactions.


Assuntos
Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alendronato/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/complicações , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/epidemiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/etiologia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/prevenção & controle , Teriparatida/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
Maturitas ; 145: 6-11, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541564

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fractures are common and disabling health events, particularly later in life. The presence of clinically significant depressive symptoms has been associated with increased risk of fractures, and we designed the present study to clarify if this association is likely to be causal or due to the confounding effect of measures associated with both fractures and depression. METHOD: Cohort study of a community-derived sample of 4224 men aged 70 to 88 years at the start of the follow-up period of up to 17 years. Clinically significant symptoms of depression were defined as a recorded diagnosis of depressive episode in the Western Australian Data Linkage System (WADLS) or by a total score of 7 or greater on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. Health contacts associated with fractures were retrieved from WADLS. Other measures included age, past history of fractures, education, smoking, frailty, poor vision, falls, medications, and the concentration of vitamin D, homocysteine, hsCRP and testosterone. Death was considered a competing risk for fractures. RESULTS: 911 (21.6%) participants had a bone fracture during follow-up. After adjustment for multiple potential confounders, past and current depression were associated with an increase in the risk of novel fractures; respective odds ratios were 1.41 (95%CI = 1.03, 1.93) and 1.64 (95%CI = 1.20, 2.25). Parsimonious competing risk regression showed that both past and current depression were associated with an increase in the risk of novel fractures: sub-hazard ratio = 1.29 (95%CI = 1.03, 1.63) and 1.27 (95%CI = 1.05, 1.55) respectively. Estimation of confounding due to unmeasured factors showed that a small additional effect could potentially dilute the association between depression and fractures. DISCUSSION: History of clinically significant symptoms of depression is associated with an increased risk of future fractures. This association may be due to multiple other associated risk factors, both measured and unmeasured, but nevertheless the presence of depression should alert clinicians to the need to develop a management plan that includes the management not only of depression but also of fracture risk.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Austrália Ocidental/epidemiologia
12.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(1): e2030405, 2021 01 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404618

RESUMO

Importance: Although estrogen level is positively associated with bone mineral density, there are limited data on the risk of fractures after menopause. Objective: To investigate whether female reproductive factors are associated with fractures among postmenopausal women. Design, Setting, and Participants: This population-based retrospective cohort study used data from the Korean National Health Insurance Service database on 1 272 115 postmenopausal women without previous fracture who underwent both cardiovascular and breast and/or cervical cancer screening from January 1 to December 31, 2009. Outcome data were obtained through December 31, 2018. Exposures: Information was obtained about reproductive factors (age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, breastfeeding, and exogenous hormone use) by self-administered questionnaire. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of any fractures and site-specific fractures (vertebral, hip, and others). Results: Among the 1 272 115 participants, mean (SD) age was 61.0 (8.1) years. Compared with earlier age at menarche (≤12 years), later age at menarche (≥17 years) was associated with a higher risk of any fracture (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.24; 95% CI, 1.17-1.31) and vertebral fracture (aHR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.28-1.58). Compared with earlier age at menopause (<40 years), later age at menopause (≥55 years) was associated with a lower risk of any fracture (aHR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.93), vertebral fracture (aHR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.73-0.81), and hip fracture (aHR, 0.88; 95% CI, 0.78-1.00). Longer reproductive span (≥40 years) was associated with lower risk of fractures compared with shorter reproductive span (<30 years) (any fracture: aHR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.84-0.88; vertebral fracture: aHR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.71-0.76; and hip fracture: aHR, 0.87; 95% CI, 0.80-0.95). Parous women had a lower risk of any fracture than nulliparous women (aHR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.92-0.99). Although breastfeeding for 12 months or longer was associated with a higher risk of any fractures (aHR, 1.05; 95% CI, 1.03-1.08) and vertebral fractures (aHR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.17-1.27), it was associated with a lower risk of hip fracture (aHR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.76-0.93). Hormone therapy for 5 years or longer was associated with lower risk of any factures (aHR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.83-0.88), while use of oral contraceptives for 1 year or longer was associated with a higher risk of any fractures (aHR, 1.03; 95% CI, 1.01-1.05). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest that female reproductive factors are independent risk factors for fracture, with a higher risk associated with shorter lifetime endogenous estrogen exposure. Interventions to reduce fracture risk may be needed for women at high risk, including those without osteoporosis.


Assuntos
Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Pós-Menopausa/fisiologia , Idoso , Aleitamento Materno/estatística & dados numéricos , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Menarca/fisiologia , Menopausa/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , República da Coreia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
13.
Arch Osteoporos ; 16(1): 6, 2021 01 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403479

RESUMO

Text-search software can be used to identify people at risk of re-fracture. The software studied identified a threefold higher number of people with fractures compared with conventional case finding. Automated software could assist fracture liaison services to identify more people at risk than traditional case finding. PURPOSE: Fracture liaison services address the post-fracture treatment gap in osteoporosis (OP). Natural language processing (NLP) is able to identify previously unrecognized patients by screening large volumes of radiology reports. The aim of this study was to compare an NLP software tool, XRAIT (X-Ray Artificial Intelligence Tool), with a traditional fracture liaison service at its development site (Prince of Wales Hospital [POWH], Sydney) and externally validate it in an adjudicated cohort from the Dubbo Osteoporosis Epidemiology Study (DOES). METHODS: XRAIT searches radiology reports for fracture-related terms. At the development site (POWH), XRAIT and a blinded fracture liaison clinician (FLC) reviewed 5,089 reports and 224 presentations, respectively, of people 50 years or over during a simultaneous 3-month period. In the external cohort of DOES, XRAIT was used without modification to analyse digitally readable radiology reports (n = 327) to calculate its sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: XRAIT flagged 433 fractures after searching 5,089 reports (421 true fractures, positive predictive value of 97%). It identified more than a threefold higher number of fractures (421 fractures/339 individuals) compared with manual case finding (98 individuals). Unadjusted for the local reporting style in an external cohort (DOES), XRAIT had a sensitivity of 70% and specificity of 92%. CONCLUSION: XRAIT identifies significantly more clinically significant fractures than manual case finding. High specificity in an untrained cohort suggests that it could be used at other sites. Automated methods of fracture identification may assist fracture liaison services so that limited resources can be spent on treatment rather than case finding.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Osteoporose , Fraturas por Osteoporose , Radiologia , Inteligência Artificial , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Processamento de Linguagem Natural , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia
14.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196566

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha supuesto el confinamiento de aproximadamente un tercio de la población mundial, provocando un cambio drástico en las actividades de la vida diaria con enorme impacto sanitario, económico y social. OBJETIVOS: El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar las variaciones epidemiológicas en la producción de fracturas en el período de confinamiento obligatorio en nuestra población de referencia. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Estudio analítico retrospectivo comparativo de dos grupos de pacientes: Grupo A: personas ingresadas antes del estado de alarma que obligó al confinamiento en el período del 13 enero al 13 de marzo vs. Grupo B: individuos atendidos durante los dos meses de confinamiento, hasta que comenzó la desescalada, período del 13 marzo al 13 mayo. Se registraron variables epidemiológicas, incluyendo edad, antecedentes personales, tipo de fractura, mecanismo de lesión, porcentaje de ambulatorización y estancia hospitalaria. RESULTADOS: Se incluyeron un total de 190 pacientes. En el período de pre-confinamiento 112 y en el confinamiento 78 (disminución del 30%). La edad media (p = 0,007) y las caídas en domicilio (p < 0,001) fueron mayores en este último grupo. La estancia hospitalaria postoperatoria (p = 0,006) y global (p < 0,001) resultaron significativamente menores en el mismo grupo. No se encontraron diferencias en la localización anatómica de la lesión, el sexo, las comorbilidades, el mecanismo de lesión, la tasa de ambulatorización ni el éxitus. CONCLUSIONES: Con base en los resultados de nuestro estudio, el período de confinamiento forzoso por la pandemia de COVID-19 ha producido una drástica disminución del número total de fracturas ingresadas en el servicio de traumatología de un hospital de tercer nivel. Por otro lado, las fracturas osteoporóticas de cadera que requirieron tratamiento quirúrgico no variaron en número y se ha constatado un decremento de la estancia media postoperatoria y global


INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to the confinement of approximately one third of the world population, causing a drastic change in the activities of daily life with many repercussions at the health, economic and social levels. OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present work is to present the epidemiological variations in the production of fractures in the period of mandatory confinement in our reference population. METHODS: Analytical retrospective comparative study of two groups of patients: Group A: patients admitted before the state of alarm that forced confinement in the period from January 13 to March 13 compared to Group B: patients admitted in the two months of confinement, until the de-escalation period began, March 13-May 13. Epidemiological variables including age, personal history, type of fracture, mechanism of injury, outpatient rate, and hospital stay were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 190 patients were included. 112 in the pre-confinement period and 78 in the confinement (30% decrease). The mean age (p = 0.007) and falls at home (p < 0.001) were higher in the confinement group. The postoperative (p = 0.006) and overall (p < 0.001) hospital stay were significantly less in the confinement group. No differences were found in the anatomical location of the lesion, sex, comorbidities, mechanism of injury, outpatient rate, or death. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the results of our study, the period of forced confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic has produced a drastic decrease in the total number of fractures admitted to the traumatology service of a third level hospital. On the other hand, osteoporotic hip fractures have not varied in their incidence and a decrease in the average postoperative and overall stay has been observed


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pandemias , Isolamento Social , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Maturitas ; 144: 68-73, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358211

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a common pregnancy complication. This study aims to investigate the association between a history of GDM and bone mineral density (BMD), fractures, and falls in later life. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from the Norfolk cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC-Norfolk) where BMD at calcaneum was measured at second health check (1997-2000) using broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA) and velocity of sound (VOS) in 7,515 women. Fractures and falls were documented from hospital admissions data via linkage with ENCORE (East Norfolk Commission Record) and history of GDM from health questionnaires at baseline. We examined the relationship between GDM and BUA/VOS using linear regression. Cox regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for incident fractures and falls, controlling for age, BMI, smoking status, physical activity, area deprivation, self-reported stroke, use of diuretics, calcium and vitamin D supplements, social class and education, statin and total blood cholesterol, prevalent diabetes, hormone therapy and menopausal status. RESULTS: History of GDM (n = 183) was not statistically significantly associated with BUA/VOS in fully adjusted linear regression models with unstandardised beta coefficients (standard error): -0.37 (1.40) and -5.41 (3.48). GDM was significantly (p < 0.05) associated with risk of hip and all fractures, fully adjusted HRs(95 %CI) 2.46(1.54-3.92) and 1.60(1.09-2.35), respectively. Median follow-up from first live birth to date of admission was 53 and 52 years, respectively. CONCLUSION: There was an association between history of GDM and risk of any fracture as well as hip fracture specifically. Further research is required to confirm this.


Assuntos
Densidade Óssea , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Acidentes por Quedas , Adulto , Idoso , Calcâneo/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Ultrassonografia
16.
J Surg Res ; 257: 593-596, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The importance of bicycle helmets in reducing injuries is unclear. Our center receives a disproportionate number of bicycle crash victims. We sought to evaluate the types of injuries observed and the role of helmets in reducing head injuries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We evaluated demographic data and compared injuries between bicycle riders that crashed with and without helmets over a 9-year period. Categorical variables were compared using linear regression methods and nominal variables using ANOVA. Differences were considered significant for P ≤ 0.05. RESULTS: There were 906 patients evaluated, 701 with helmets (77%) and 205 (23%) without helmets. The mean Injury Severity Score was 9.3 ± 6.4. The most common injuries were concussion (n = 385), rib fractures (n = 154), clavicle fractures (n = 139), facial fractures (n = 102), and cervical spine fractures (n = 89). There was no significant difference in the number of patients with a concussion in riders with or without helmets, [299/701, 42.6% versus 86/205, 42.0%, respectively, (P = NS)]. In helmet versus no helmet riders, there were significantly fewer patients with facial fractures, [67/701, 9.5%, versus 35/205, 17.0%, respectively, (P = 0.003)], skull fractures [8/701, 1.1% versus 9/205, 4.4%, respectively, (P = 0.003)], and serious head injuries [6/701, 0.85% versus 8/205, 3.9%, respectively, (P = 0.002)]. CONCLUSIONS: Helmeted patients involved in bicycle crashes are less likely to sustain a serious head injury, a skull fracture, or facial fractures compared to riders without helmets. The most common injury in patients with a bicycle crash is a concussion. Helmets did not prevent concussion after bicycle rider's crash in our patient population.


Assuntos
Ciclismo/lesões , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Craniocerebrais/prevenção & controle , Dispositivos de Proteção da Cabeça , Sistema de Registros , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Ossos Faciais/lesões , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
17.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244291, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347485

RESUMO

Studies on fracture incidence have mostly been based on retrospectively registered data from local hospital databases. The Swedish Fracture Register (SFR) is a national quality register collecting data prospectively on fractures, at the time of care-seeking. In the present study the incidence of all different fractures, regardless of location, in adults' ≥ 16 years treated at the only care provider for patients with fractures within a catchment area of approximately 550,000 inhabitants, during 2015‒2018 are described. Age, gender, and fracture location (according to AO/OTA classification) was used for the analyses and presentation of fracture incidences. During the 4-year study period, 23,917 individuals sustained 27,169 fractures. The mean age at fracture was 57.9 years (range 16‒105 years) and 64.5% of the fractures occurred in women. The five most common fractures accounted for more than 50% of all fractures: distal radius, proximal femur, ankle, proximal humerus, and metacarpal fractures. Seven fracture incidence distribution groups were created based on age- and gender-specific incidence curves, providing visual and easily accessible information on fracture distribution. This paper reports on incidence of all fracture locations based on prospectively collected data in a quality register. The knowledge on fracture incidence related to age and gender may be of importance for the planning of orthopaedic care, involving both in- and out-patients as well as allocating surgical resources. Further, this might be useful for organizing preventive measures, especially in countries with similar socioeconomic structure and fracture burden.


Assuntos
Fatores Etários , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Área Programática de Saúde , Gerenciamento de Dados , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Suécia/epidemiologia
18.
Pain Res Manag ; 2020: 1391026, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33312316

RESUMO

Background: Considering the enormous risk of fractures in the course of osteoporosis in the area of the feet, an important aspect of prophylaxis is periodic and, in special cases, ongoing monitoring of defects and deformations as well as pressure distribution. The purpose of this article is to indicate the role of the examination of posture and pressure distribution during standing, postural balance, and gait, in the prevention of fatigue fractures in the course of osteoporosis, based on the literature review and examples of patients. Methods: The manuscript consists of two parts; it has a review-analytical character. The first part reviews the literature. The data were obtained using the MEDLINE (PubMed), as well as Cochrane and Embase databases. The database review was carried out focusing mainly on English-language publications, while taking into account the topicality of scientific and research works in the area of osteoporosis. The problem of multiaspects in the area of bone density was pointed out. Considering the above, in the second part, the authors analyzed 11 exemplary patients with osteoporosis, referring to the assessment of foot and lower limb defects using traditional posturological methods and including pedobarography to diagnostic procedures that are used in the assessment of pressure distribution, standing and moving, and an attempt to balance. Results: Analysis of the research and scientific literature proved the lack of unambiguous diagnostic procedures of the locomotor system recommended for the prevention of fatigue fractures in the course of osteoporosis. The main diagnostic recommendations are imaging tests (most often X-ray), which are recommended in the case of specific clinical symptoms. The analysis of exemplary patients with osteoporosis showed numerous disorders in the distribution of pressure in the plantar part of the feet, which are related, among other things, with their individual defects and lower limbs. Conclusions: Detailed posture diagnostics and gait estimation, along with the analysis of pressure distribution within the feet are a very important aspect of the prevention of structural degradation and fatigue fractures within the feet. An important postulate for further research and scientific work is the elaboration of the procedures that will serve the preventive diagnostics of the locomotor system, aimed at early detection of threats of fatigue fractures.


Assuntos
Pé/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/diagnóstico por imagem , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Densidade Óssea/fisiologia , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/terapia , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Osteoporose/terapia , Dor/epidemiologia
19.
Acta Chir Orthop Traumatol Cech ; 87(5): 329-332, 2020.
Artigo em Tcheco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146600

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY Continuous epidemiologic data on changes in the spectrum of acetabular fractures is rare. The purpose of this study is to evaluate changes in the types of acetabular fractures over the last two decades. MATERIAL AND METHODS In the period between 2007 and 2016, a total of 522 patients were treated at the authors department (Traumacentre Level I) for acetabular fractures. 15 patients sustained bilateral fractures. The group consisted of 361 men and 161 women, with the mean age of 49 years (the range of 10-96 years). Standard procedure was applied to diagnose the fractures (X-ray and CT scan). Non-operative treatment was opted for in fractures without displacement, fractures with minimum displacement of acetabular weight bearing area less than 2 mm, confirmed by the CT scan (e.g. low fractures of anterior column, low transverse fractures), fractures with secondary congruence in patients over the age of 70, and fractures in patients contraindicated for surgery due to their serious overall medical condition or severe osteoporosis. A surgery was indicated in case of instability or incongruent acetabular joint space due to the displacement of weight bearing area fragments, or a bone fragment or soft tissue interposition. A surgery was indicated also in a non-displaced acetabular injury with concurrent femoral head injury. AO/ASIF classification was used to classify the fractures. The following data was monitored in the referred to group of patients: gender, age, mechanism of injury, associated injuries, type of fracture, and treatment method. RESULTS Type A fracture was reported in 293 patients (56%), type B fracture in 150 patients (29%) and type C fracture in 79 patients (15%). A high-energy trauma occurred in 334 patients (64%), namely 254 men and 50 women, with the mean age of 41 years. A low-energy trauma was sustained by 188 patients (36%), namely 77 men and 111 women, with the mean age of 69 years (56-91). This difference in the share of men and women with respect to the seriousness of the mechanism of injury was statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Non-operative treatment was used in 248 patients (48%), of whom 167 were men and 81 were women. The mean age in this sub-group was 60 years, namely 58 years in men and 62 years in women. Operative treatment was opted for in 272 patients (52%), of whom 206 were men and 50 were women, with the mean age of 45 years in women as well as in men. The statistical processing of differences between the non-operative and operative treatment in dependence on the type of fractures revealed a significantly higher percentage of operative treatment in type C fractures compared to type A and B fractures (p < 0.0001, or p = 0.0009). In the group of patients treated by the authors in the 1996-2002 period, type A fractures constituted 45% of all fractures, where A1 fractures prevailed with 29%, A2 fractures represented 9% and A3 fractures only 6 %. In the recent group of patients, type A fractures constituted 56%, but A3 fracture were seen in 29% of patients, which was a significant increase (p < 0.0001). A3 fractures (anterior wall or anterior column fractures) were associated with a low-energy mechanism of injury and occurred in 48% of patients (73, mostly elderly women). DISCUSSION When compared to the published groups of other authors, the monitored group showed no difference in the mean age and gender ratio. There was an obvious increase in the number of patients with a low-energy mechanism of injury. The authors believe that this is the result of population ageing. It is also related to the growing share of patients treated non-operatively. The number of patients with a high-energy mechanism injury increased to a lesser degree. The spectrum of fractures significantly changed over the last 20 years. It was caused by an increase in low-energy injuries and partly also by improved diagnostics. CONCLUSIONS In the last 20 years, the authors noticed a rise in some types of acetabular fractures. It was caused by a statistically significantly higher number of fractures with a low-energy mechanism of injury, especially in elderly patients, the so-called "fragility fractures". Therefore, the share of non-operatively treated acetabular fractures increased as well. The number of acetabular fractures in young patients as a result of a high-energy injury grew more slowly, and it was only the share of posterior-wall acetabular fractures that was significantly higher. Key words: epidemiology of acetabular fractures, mechanism of injury, types of acetabular fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas Ósseas , Fraturas do Quadril , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral , Acetábulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Acetábulo/lesões , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Fraturas Ósseas/cirurgia , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adulto Jovem
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