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1.
J Surg Res ; 245: 492-499, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446191

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Older adults with isolated rib fractures are often admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) because of presumedly increased morbidity and mortality. However, evidence-based guidelines are limited. We sought to identify characteristics of these patients that predict the need for ICU care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed patients ≥50 y old at our center during 2013-2017 whose only indication for ICU admission, if any, was isolated rib fractures. The primary outcome was any critical care intervention (e.g., intubation) or adverse event (e.g., hypoxemia) (CCIE) based on accepted critical care guidelines. We used stepwise logistic regression to identify characteristics that predict CCIEs. RESULTS: Among 401 patients, 251 (63%) were admitted to an ICU. Eighty-three patients (33%) admitted to an ICU and 7 (5%) admitted to the ward experienced a CCIE. The most common CCIEs were hypotension (10%), frequent respiratory therapy (9%), and oxygen desaturation (8%). Predictors of CCIEs included incentive spirometry <1 L (OR 4.72, 95% CI 2.14-10.45); use of a walker (OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.29-6.34); increased chest Abbreviated Injury Scale score (AIS 3 OR 5.83, 95% CI 2.34-14.50); age ≥72 y (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.48-4.86); and active smoking (OR 2.11, 95% CI 1.06-4.20). CONCLUSIONS: Routine ICU admission is not necessary for most older adults with isolated rib fractures. The predictors we identified warrant prospective evaluation for development of a clinical decision rule to preclude unnecessary ICU admissions.


Assuntos
Hipotensão/epidemiologia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/normas , Admissão do Paciente/normas , Fraturas das Costelas/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Cuidados Críticos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão/etiologia , Hipotensão/terapia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Medição de Risco , Centros de Traumatologia/normas , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos
2.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 1051-1055, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638523

RESUMO

This retrospective chart review demonstrates the relationship between bedside incentive spirometry (ICS) volumes and risk of pulmonary complications. Two hundred patients admitted for rib fractures between April and October 2016 were reviewed. The inclusion criteria were age 18-98 years, diagnosis of rib or sternal fractures, and no procedures requiring postoperative intubation within 48 hours of admission. The exclusion criteria were intubation before arrival, unable to participate in ICS, or previous tracheostomy. ICS volumes recorded in daily progress notes were collected. Of 200 charts reviewed, 154 met the inclusion criteria. In all, 25 endured at least one pulmonary complication. The average ICS on admission was 1355 cc. Patients who did not experience a complication had significantly higher admission ICS volumes than those who did (1441 ± 660 cc vs 920 ± 451 cc, P = 0.0003). They also achieved higher volumes at discharge (1705 ± 662 cc vs 1211 ± 453 cc, P = 0.006). The groups had similar demographics. An admission ICS volume <1 L was associated with 3.3× relative risk of pulmonary complication. Lower volumes were also associated with discharge to nonhome locations. Bedside ICS is a useful tool to identify patients at risk of pulmonary complications from rib fractures. Patients with admission ICS volume <1 L carry a higher risk of complication.


Assuntos
Pneumopatias/diagnóstico , Pneumopatias/etiologia , Testes Imediatos , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Espirometria , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
3.
Am Surg ; 85(10): 1134-1138, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657309

RESUMO

Traumatic esophageal injury is a highly lethal but rare injury with minimal data in the trauma population. We sought to provide a descriptive analysis of esophageal trauma (ET) to identify the incidence, associated injuries, interventions, and outcomes. We hypothesized that blunt trauma is associated with higher risk of death than penetrating trauma. The Trauma Quality Improvement Program (2010-2016) was queried for patients with ET. Patients with blunt and penetrating trauma were compared using chi-square and Mann-Whitney U tests. A multivariable logistic regression model was used to determine risk of mortality. Of 1,403,466 adult patients, 651 (<0.01%) presented with ET. The most common associated thoracic injuries were rib fractures (38.7%) and pneumothorax (26.7%). More patients with a penetrating mechanism underwent open repair of the esophagus than those with blunt mechanism (46.2% vs 11.7%, P < 0.001). After controlling for covariates, there was no difference in risk of mortality between blunt and penetrating trauma (P = 0.65). The mortality rate for patients with esophageal injury surviving greater than 24 hours was 7.5 per cent. In this large national database analysis, ET was rare and most commonly associated with rib fractures and pneumothorax. Contrary to our hypothesis, the risk of mortality was equivalent between blunt and penetrating ET.


Assuntos
Esôfago/lesões , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/mortalidade , Ferimentos Penetrantes/mortalidade , Adulto , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Esôfago/cirurgia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Incidência , Tempo de Internação , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Morbidade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Pneumonia/etiologia , Pneumotórax/complicações , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Melhoria de Qualidade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Stents/estatística & dados numéricos , Taxa de Sobrevida , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/cirurgia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos Penetrantes/epidemiologia , Ferimentos Penetrantes/cirurgia
4.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(5): 327-334, oct. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184122

RESUMO

Objetivo. Determinar la incidencia de lesiones torácicas óseas graves (LTOG) y de lesiones viscerales graves (LVG) secundarias a reanimación cardiopulmonar (RCP) y estudiar las variables asociadas a ellas. Método. Se analizaron los datos del proyecto ReCaPTa, estudio prospectivo de la muerte súbita, con varias fuentes de información. Se incluyeron los pacientes no supervivientes a un intento de RCP manual, entre abril de 2014 y mayo de 2016, en los que se aplicó un protocolo autópsico específico para el estudio de las lesiones secundarias a la RCP. Resultados. Se analizaron 109 sujetos, con una mediana de edad de 63 años y un 32,1% de mujeres. El 63,3% presentaron LTOG y el 14,7%, LVG. El grupo con LTOG fue de mayor edad (63 vs 59 años, p = 0,031) y se asoció a una mayor proporción de pacientes con un perímetro torácico > 101 cm (56,5 vs 30%, p = 0,016) y con un perímetro abdominal > 100 cm (62,3 vs 37,5%, p = 0,017). En un análisis multivariado el perímetro torácico > 101 cm fue el único factor de riesgo para LTOG (OR 2,45; IC 95% 1,03-5,84) y el sexo femenino fue el único factor de riesgo para LVG (OR 5,02; IC 95% 1,18-21,25). Conclusión. Los pacientes con un perímetro torácico mayor de 101 cm y las mujeres presentan un riesgo superior de lesiones graves debidas a la RCP


Objective. To determine the incidence of serious rib cage damage (SRD) and serious visceral damage (SVD) secondary to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and to explore associated factors. Methods. We analyzed data from the prospective registry of cases of sudden death in Tarragona, Spain (the ReCaPTa study). Cases were collected from multiple surveillance sources. In this study we included the cases of autopsied nonsurvivors after attempted manual CPR between April 2014 and May 2016. A specific protocol to detect injuries secondary to CPR was used during the autopsies. Results. We analyzed 109 cases. The mean age at death was 63 years and 32.1% were women. SRD were found in 63.3% and SVD in 14.7%. The group with SRD were significantly older (63 vs 59 years, P=.031) and included higher percentages of persons with a chest circumference over 101 cm (56.5 vs 30%, P=.016) and a waist circumference over 100 cm (62.3 vs 37.5%, P=.017). A multivariable analysis confirmed chest circumference over 101 cm as the only risk factor for SRD (odds ratio [OR], 2.45; 95% CI, 1.03-5.84) and female sex as the only risk factor for SVD (OR, 5.02; 95% CI, 1.18-21.25). Conclusion. Women and any patient with a chest circumference greater than 101 cm are at greater risk for serious injuries related to CPR


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reanimação Cardiopulmonar/métodos , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações , Ferimentos e Lesões/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Caixa Torácica/lesões , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/epidemiologia , Curva ROC
5.
Am Surg ; 85(8): 871-876, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560306

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of prehospital antiplatelet and/or anticoagulant (APAC) use on treatment and outcomes in patients with severe blunt chest injury. Patients with three or more rib fractures and a hospital length of stay (LOS) > three days admitted from 2014 to 2015 were included. Demographics, mortality, complications, injuries, hospital and ICU LOS, use of blood products, and thoracostomy were studied. Of 383 patients, 27.4 per cent were on APAC medication. Patients on APAC were older (P < 0.0001), had higher Glasgow Coma Score (P < 0.0001), and had lower Injury Severity Score (P < 0.0001) and total number of fractures (P = 0.0013) than the non-APAC group. APAC was not a predictor of mortality with or without age adjustment. In multiple linear regressions, APAC did not predict an increased LOS. APAC patients did not demonstrate an increase in admission diagnosis or complication of hemothorax, blood transfusions, tube thoracostomy, tracheostomy, LOS, or mortality rates. Similar findings are present in the subgroup of patients studied with high kinetic energy mechanism of injury. Our study does not support the perceived morbidity of APAC therapy in patients with severe blunt chest injury.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia/etiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Transfusão de Componentes Sanguíneos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Escala de Coma de Glasgow , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/sangue , Fraturas das Costelas/terapia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/sangue , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia
6.
BMC Surg ; 19(1): 123, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462238

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There are few reports regarding a lung or diaphragm trapped by a fractured rib. This study aimed to describe the clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management of these intrathoracic pathologies. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the database at our institute for patients with rib fractures who underwent thoracoscope-assisted surgical stabilization of rib fracture (SSRF). We analyzed the demographic data, mechanism of trauma, presentations, operative findings, and subsequent management strategies. RESULTS: A total of 38 consecutive patients who underwent SSRF were analyzed. Three patients had a trapped lung and one had a trapped diaphragm. Abnormal radiographic findings were observed in 50% of cases. The median waiting time for surgery was 25 days. Surgery was indicated for intractable dynamic pain following conservative treatment. A definitive diagnosis was made during thoracoscopic exploration. Thoracoscopic repair and resection were used for trapped lungs and thoracoscopic release for a trapped diaphragm. We subsequently performed SSRF for unhealed rib fractures. CONCLUSION: As per our analysis, the incidence of a trapped lung or diaphragm was 10.5%. If a patient presents with persistent intractable dynamic pain, thoracoscopic exploration with concurrent SSRF may be a feasible and effective treatment option.


Assuntos
Diafragma/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Med Case Rep ; 13(1): 172, 2019 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164170

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aspergillus terreus, a saprophytic fungus, is recognized as an emerging pathogen in various infections in humans. However, bone and joint involvement is uncommon. To the best of our knowledge, only seven cases of spondylodiscitis caused by Aspergillus terreus have been reported previously in humans. We report a case of a patient with Aspergillus terreus spondylodiscitis following an abdominal stab wound. CASE PRESENTATION: A 74-year-old Japanese man with no particular medical history fell from a ladder and sustained a left abdominal stab wound from an L-shaped metal peg. Computed tomography showed the trace of the L-shaped metal peg from the left abdomen to the left rib and left kidney. The scan also showed an anterolateral bone avulsion of the left side of the T12 vertebral body, as well as fractures of the L1 left transverse process and the left 10th-12th ribs. He was hospitalized and treated with conservative therapy for 6 weeks. He was readmitted to the hospital with complaints of sudden back pain, numbness of both legs, and inability to walk 13 weeks after the fall. Magnetic resonance imaging findings were typical of spondylodiscitis. Gadolinium-enhanced T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging indicated increased signal intensity at T11-T12 vertebral bodies and severe cord compression and epidural abscess at T11-T12 associated with infiltration of soft paravertebral tissues. On the seventh day after admission, he underwent partial laminectomy at T11 and posterior fusion at T9 to L2. The result of his blood culture was negative, but Aspergillus terreus was isolated from the material of T11-T12 intervertebral disc and vertebral bodies. His Aspergillus antigen was positive in a blood examination. Histological examination showed chronic suppurative osteomyelitis. On the 35th day after admission, he underwent anterior fusion at T11 and T12 with a rib bone graft. For 5 months, voriconazole was administered, and he wore a rigid corset. Posterior partial laminectomy at T11 and anterior fusion at T11 and T12 resulted in a good clinical course. The patient's neurological dysfunction was completely recovered, and his back pain disappeared. Two years after the operation, computed tomography was performed and showed bone fusion at T11 and T12. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed no evidence of increased signal intensity at T11-T12 vertebral bodies and severe cord compression and epidural abscess at T11-T12. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first report of spondylodiscitis caused by Aspergillus terreus after an abdominal penetrating injury. The histological finding of chronic suppurative osteomyelitis and the radiological findings strongly suggested direct inoculation of Aspergillus terreus.


Assuntos
Traumatismos Abdominais/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspergilose/diagnóstico por imagem , Discite/diagnóstico por imagem , Abscesso Epidural/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteomielite/diagnóstico por imagem , Ferimentos Perfurantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Abdominais/complicações , Acidentes por Quedas , Idoso , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/etiologia , Aspergilose/terapia , Discite/etiologia , Discite/terapia , Abscesso Epidural/etiologia , Abscesso Epidural/terapia , Fratura Avulsão/complicações , Fratura Avulsão/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Laminectomia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/lesões , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Osteomielite/etiologia , Osteomielite/terapia , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem , Compressão da Medula Espinal/diagnóstico por imagem , Compressão da Medula Espinal/etiologia , Compressão da Medula Espinal/terapia , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/complicações , Fraturas da Coluna Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/lesões , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico , Ferimentos Perfurantes/complicações
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(14): e14993, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946326

RESUMO

Thoracic trauma in China was scarcely reported. This study aimed to summarize the clinical profiles and to analyze the management approaches of patients with traumatic thoracic injury.Data for consecutive patients with thoracic trauma from January 2003 to January 2018 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. Patients' profiles and clinical outcomes were compared between those patients treated with a dedicated thoracic trauma team and those without.The study included 4168 patients with mean age of 49.0 years, of whom 82.1% were male. Traffic accident accounted for 42.7% of the injuries. Most of the patients (66.8%) had rib fractures. Associated injuries were present in 48.3% of the patients; of them 86.0% were extremity fractures. Majority of the patients were managed without surgical procedures other than tube thoracostomy (33.2%). ICU service was needed in 12.0% of the patients. Patients treated with thoracic trauma team were older (53.59 ±â€Š16.8 year vs 45.1 ±â€Š18.0 year, P < .001), less male (78.3% vs 85.2%, P < .001), with higher injury severity scores (17.5 ±â€Š10.1 vs 13.7 ±â€Š8.2, P < .001), required more ventilator support (48.3% vs 25.3%, P < .001) and underwent more tube thoracostomy and other surgeries (43.8% vs 24.2%, and 34.4% vs 14.1%, respectively, all P < .001), yet with a shorter hospital stay (11.7 ±â€Š9.0 days vs 12.7 ±â€Š8.8 days, P < .001), and numerically lower ICU usage and mortality when compared to those without.Thoracic trauma in China usually affects mid-age males. Traffic accident is the top one etiology. The most common type of thoracic injuries is rib fracture. Associated injuries occur frequently. Nonoperative treatment and tube thoracostomy are effective for majority of the patients. A multidisciplinary approach with a dedicated thoracic trauma team could improve the treatment for these patients.


Assuntos
Tubos Torácicos/normas , Traumatismos Torácicos/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/terapia , Toracostomia/instrumentação , Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemotórax/complicações , Hemotórax/diagnóstico , Hemotórax/epidemiologia , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/tendências , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumotórax/complicações , Pneumotórax/diagnóstico , Pneumotórax/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos Torácicos/etiologia
10.
Am Surg ; 85(3): 288-291, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30947776

RESUMO

Rib fractures are among the most common injuries identified in blunt trauma patients. Morbidity increases with increasing age and increasing number of rib fractures. The use of noninvasive ventilation has been shown to be helpful as a rescue technique avoiding intubation in patients who have become hypoxemic but little data with regard to its use to prophylactically prevent worsening respiratory status are available. We developed a chest trauma protocol for our "elderly" (>45 years) trauma patients and sought to determine whether this would improve pulmonary outcomes. We retrospectively reviewed our elderly chest trauma patients one year before (CTRL) and nine months after implementation (STU) of the chest trauma protocol. The protocol consisted of intravenous narcotics, oral nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, prophylactic noninvasive ventilation, and measurements of incentive spirometry. In the control year, there were 176 patients meeting study criteria, whereas 140 met the criteria in the STU group. The CTRL group had 11 unplanned ICU admissions (rate 0.063), six unplanned intubations (rate 0.034), and eight patients diagnosed with pneumonia (rate 0.045). These rates decreased in the STU group to two unplanned ICU admissions (0.014, P = 0.044), one unplanned intubation (rate 0.007, P = 0.138), and no patients with pneumonia (0.0, P = 0.010). Our chest trauma protocol has significantly decreased adverse pulmonary events in our older blunt chest trauma population with multiple rib fractures. This protocol has become our standard procedure for patients older than 45 years admitted with rib fractures.


Assuntos
Fraturas das Costelas/terapia , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/terapia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Manuseio das Vias Aéreas , Protocolos Clínicos , Cuidados Críticos , Feminino , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico , Resultado do Tratamento , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/diagnóstico
11.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0216170, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31022284

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The timing of surgical stabilization of rib fractures remains controversial. We hypothesized that early surgical stabilization (within 3 days of injury) can improve clinical outcome in patients with severe rib fractures and respiratory failure. The aim of this study was to analyze the impact of early surgical stabilization of rib fractures on the perioperative results, clinical outcomes, and medical costs of patients with severe rib fractures and respiratory failure. METHODS: This was a retrospective comparative study based on a prospectively collected database at a single institute. Patients with severe rib fractures and respiratory failure who underwent surgical stabilization were classified into early (within 3 days of injury) and late (more than 3 days after injury) groups. Outcome measures included operation time, duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, complication rate, mortality rate, and medical cost. RESULTS: A total of 33 patients were enrolled (16 and 17 in the early and late groups, respectively). The demographics, trauma mechanism, associated injuries, and severity of trauma were comparable in both groups. The early group had significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation (median 36 vs. 90 hours, p = 0.03), intensive care unit stay (median 123 vs. 230 hours, p = 0.004), and hospital stay (median 12 vs. 18 days, p = 0.005); and lower National Health Insurance costs (median 6,617 vs. 10,017 US dollars, p = 0.031). The early group tended to have lower rates of morbidity and mortality, but the difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSION: Early surgical stabilization of rib fractures in selected patients may significantly shorten their duration of mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit and hospital stays, while incurring less medical costs.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Respiratória/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Duração da Cirurgia , Insuficiência Respiratória/economia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/economia , Adulto Jovem
12.
Anaesthesia ; 74(5): 585-593, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30740657

RESUMO

Regional anaesthesia is often helpful in improving respiratory function and analgesia following multiple rib fractures. The erector spinae plane block has become the technique of choice in our institution due to its relative simplicity and purported safety. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine its effectiveness in improving respiratory and analgesic outcomes. We reviewed electronic medical records of patients with traumatic rib fractures admitted to a level-one trauma centre between January 2016 and July 2017, who also received erector spinae plane blocks. We analysed the following outcomes before and up to 72 h after erector spinae plane blockade: incentive spirometry volume; maximum numerical rating scale static pain scores; and 12-h opioid consumption. Pre- and post-block data were compared. We included 79 patients, 77% of whom received continuous erector spinae plane block for a mean (SD) of 3.7 (1.9) days. The majority (85%) had other associated injuries. Incentive spirometry volumes improved from 784 (694) to 1375 (667) ml (p < 0.01) during the first 24 h following erector spinae plane blockade. Pain scores were reduced from 7.7 (2.5) to 4.7 (3.2) in the first three hours (p < 0.01). Reductions in opioid consumption were observed but did not achieve statistical significance. These improvements were largely sustained for up to 72 h. Mean arterial blood pressure remained unchanged from baseline. In conclusion, erector spinae plane blocks were associated with improved inspiratory capacity and analgesic outcomes following rib fracture, without haemodynamic instability. We propose that it should be considered to be a viable alternative to other regional analgesic techniques when these are not feasible.


Assuntos
Inalação/efeitos dos fármacos , Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Dor/etiologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Idoso , Analgésicos Opioides/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Anestésicos Locais/farmacologia , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Músculos Paraespinais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ropivacaina/administração & dosagem , Ropivacaina/farmacologia , Espirometria/métodos
13.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(2)2019 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739088

RESUMO

An elderly female with multiple comorbidities was involved in a pedestrian vehicle accident and sustained blunt chest trauma, arriving at a resource-poor hospital in rural South Africa. She had multiple bilateral rib fractures with a unilateral flail segment that caused her to develop respiratory failure. She was intubated and sent to the intensive care unit (ICU) for ventilation. She developed hospital and ventilator acquired pneumonia. She subsequently had hypoxic arrests on two separate occasions and two failed extubations. Despite inadequate access to provisions, this patient was taken to theatre for rib fracture fixation as an attempt to improve her lung function and get her off the ventilator. She was extubated two days after the procedure and discharged from ICU 4 days thereafter. On her follow-up, she reported that she had returned to normal daily living and tasks.


Assuntos
Tórax Fundido/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Respiração Artificial/métodos , Insuficiência Respiratória/terapia , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Acidentes de Trânsito , Extubação , Feminino , Tórax Fundido/complicações , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Intubação Intratraqueal , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pedestres , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , África do Sul
15.
Anaesthesia ; 74(5): 594-601, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687939

RESUMO

Rib fractures are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral catheter insertion has been described for the management of pain secondary to rib fractures. We conducted a retrospective observational study of all patients with rib fractures who had a paravertebral catheter inserted for analgesia provision over a 4-year period. Data from the Trauma Audit and Research Network were used to compare patients with rib fractures who were managed with paravertebral catheters to those managed with systemic analgesia. A total of 314 consecutive paravertebral catheters were inserted in 290 patients. Five (1.9%) catheters were removed due to ineffective analgesia. Other minor complications occurred in three cases (0.96%). The proportion of rib fracture patients managed with paravertebral catheters increased from 31/200 (15.5%) in the first year of study to 81/168 (48.2%) in the fourth; over this time-period the observed:predicted mortality ratio fell from 1.04 to 0.66. Proportional hazard regression with and without propensity score matching demonstrated a reduction in mortality associated with paravertebral catheter use, but this became statistically non-significant when time-dependent analysis was used. Paravertebral catheters are a safe and effective technique for rib fracture analgesia; however, our data were insufficient to demonstrate any improvement in mortality.


Assuntos
Bloqueio Nervoso/métodos , Manejo da Dor/métodos , Dor/etiologia , Dor/prevenção & controle , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestésicos Locais/administração & dosagem , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Bloqueio Nervoso/efeitos adversos , Medição da Dor/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/mortalidade , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos
16.
Forensic Sci Med Pathol ; 15(2): 272-275, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30649692

RESUMO

Cardiac injury following blunt chest trauma is common in motor vehicle accidents due to a crush or blast injury. Severe cardiac trauma is associated with a very high mortality. If a cardiac injury develops several weeks after non-penetrating chest trauma, establishing a causal link between the traumatic event and the cardiac injury becomes complicated. This article reports a case of fatal delayed hemopericardium and hemothorax following a motor vehicle accident including blunt chest trauma 34 days prior to death. The cardiac injury was caused by displacement of a sharp irregular fragment of one of the decedents fractured ribs and the primary defect was sealed by blood clots. Subsequent bleeding occurred when the thrombus was displaced. Since the incidence of blunt high-energy chest injuries is relatively high, heart and large vessel injuries must be taken into account and a comprehensive examination needs to be done in order to prevent the delayed development of fatal complications.


Assuntos
Hemotórax/etiologia , Derrame Pericárdico/etiologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Ferimentos não Penetrantes/complicações , Acidentes de Trânsito , Feminino , Ventrículos do Coração/lesões , Ventrículos do Coração/patologia , Hemotórax/patologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pedestres , Derrame Pericárdico/patologia , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/patologia , Choque Hemorrágico/etiologia , Trombose/patologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Injury ; 50(1): 119-124, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442372

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Multiple rib fractures have been shown to reduce quality of life both in the short and long term. Treatment of rib fractures with operative fixation reduces ventilator requirements, intensive care unit stay, and pulmonary complications in flail chest patients but has not been shown to improve quality of life in comparative studies to date. We therefore wanted to analyse a large cohort of multiple fractured rib trauma patients to see if rib fixation improved their quality of life. METHODS: Retrospective review (January 2012 - April 2015) of prospectively collected data on 1482 consecutive major trauma patients admitted to The Alfred Hospital with rib fractures. The main outcome measures were Quality of Life over 24 months post injury assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale Extended (GOSErate) and Short Form (SF12) health assessment forms and a pain questionnaire. RESULTS: 67 (4.5%) patients underwent rib fixation and were older, with a higher incidence of flail chest injury, and higher AIS and ISS scores than the remainder of the cohort. Rib fixation provided no benefit in pain, SF-12 or GOSErate scores over 24 months post injury. CONCLUSIONS: This study has not been able to demonstrate any quality of life benefit of rib fixation over 24 months post injury in patients with major trauma.


Assuntos
Tórax Fundido/psicologia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Dor/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Fraturas das Costelas/psicologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Analgesia/estatística & dados numéricos , Austrália , Feminino , Tórax Fundido/fisiopatologia , Tórax Fundido/cirurgia , Fixação Interna de Fraturas , Consolidação da Fratura/fisiologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/fisiopatologia , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Traumatismos Torácicos/fisiopatologia , Traumatismos Torácicos/cirurgia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
18.
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 67(9): 811-813, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30415397

RESUMO

A delayed hemothorax requiring surgical treatment is considered a rare minor thoracic injury. We experienced four cases of delayed massive hemothorax due to a diaphragmatic laceration caused by lower rib fractures. A computed tomography scan on admission revealed multiple rib fractures in all patients, and at least one fractured lower rib was severely displaced, which injured the diaphragm. The duration between the injury and the diagnosis were 14 h-30 days. Emergency surgical treatment was performed, and intraoperative findings revealed a diaphragmatic laceration with oozing due to injury caused by the edge of a fractured rib. After the operation, all patients were successfully discharged.


Assuntos
Diafragma/lesões , Hemotórax/etiologia , Lacerações/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diafragma/cirurgia , Feminino , Hemotórax/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Lacerações/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Fraturas das Costelas/diagnóstico por imagem , Traumatismos Torácicos/complicações , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Clin Orthop Relat Res ; 477(1): 193-205, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247228

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple rib fractures are common in trauma patients, who are prone to trauma-associated complications. Surgical or nonsurgical interventions for the aforementioned conditions remain controversial. QUESTIONS/PURPOSES: The purpose of our study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the clinical prognosis of surgical fixation of multiple rib fractures in terms of (1) hospital-related endpoints (including duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU length of stay [LOS] and hospital LOS), (2) complications, (3) pulmonary function, and (4) pain scores. METHODS: We screened PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases for randomized and prospective studies published before January 2018. Individual effect sizes were standardized; the pooled effect size was calculated using a random-effects model. Primary outcomes were duration of mechanical ventilation, intensive care unit length of stay (ICU LOS), and hospital LOS. Moreover, complications, pulmonary function, and pain were assessed. RESULTS: The surgical group had a reduced duration of mechanical ventilation (weighted mean difference [WMD], -4.95 days; 95% confidence interval [CI], -7.97 to -1.94; p = 0.001), ICU LOS (WMD, -4.81 days; 95% CI, -6.22 to -3.39; p < 0.001), and hospital LOS (WMD, -8.26 days; 95% CI, -11.73 to -4.79; p < 0.001) compared with the nonsurgical group. Complications likewise were less common in the surgical group, including pneumonia (odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.64; p < 0.001), mortality (OR, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.07-0.87; p = 0.030), chest wall deformity (OR, 0.02; 95% CI. 0.00-0.12; p < 0.001), dyspnea (OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.09-0.54; p < 0.001), chest wall tightness (OR, 0.11; 95% CI, 0.05-0.22; p < 0.001) and incidence of tracheostomy (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.20-0.57; p < 0.001). There were no differences between the surgical and nonsurgical groups in terms of pulmonary function, such as forced vital capacity (WMD, 6.81%; 95% CI: -8.86 to 22.48; p = 0.390) and pain scores (WMD, -11.41; 95% CI: -42.09 to 19.26; p = 0.470). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis lends stronger support to surgical fixation, rather than conservative treatment, for multiple rib fractures. Nevertheless, additional trials should be conducted to investigate surgical indications, timing, and followup for quality of life. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level I, therapeutic study.


Assuntos
Fixação de Fratura/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Múltiplas/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Fraturas das Costelas/cirurgia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Fixação de Fratura/mortalidade , Consolidação da Fratura , Fraturas Múltiplas/complicações , Fraturas Múltiplas/mortalidade , Humanos , Tempo de Internação , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/terapia , Respiração Artificial , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/mortalidade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Am J Surg ; 217(1): 29-33, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29929907

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents (ACAP) have been shown to negatively affect trauma patients. METHODS: Outcomes in adults with rib fractures were reviewed. Pearson chi-square test was used for analysis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to adjust for potential confounders. RESULTS: Of the 1448 included patients, 149 (10.3%) took preinjury ACAP; these patients were significantly older than non-anticoagulated patients (72 vs. 54 years, P ≤ 0.05). There was no difference in pulmonary complications, ICU admissions or ICU LOS. The preinjury ACAP group had a significantly longer LOS (12.03 vs. 9.33 days, P = 0.004), fewer pulmonary contusions (15.43% vs. 22.94%, P = 0.037), and fewer thoracic drainage procedures (10.74% vs. 18.17%, P = 0.023). Multivariate adjustment for possible confounders revealed that patients taking warfarin had a significantly longer LOS (+7.38 days). After adjustment there was no difference in mortality. CONCLUSION: Preinjury ACAP use does not increase mortality or morbidity in patients with rib fractures. SUMMARY: We demonstrated that preinjury anticoagulation and antiplatelet agents do not increase mortality or morbidity in patients with rib fractures. However, they lead to a longer hospital length of stay, particularly in patients on warfarin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Tempo de Internação , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Fraturas das Costelas/complicações , Fraturas das Costelas/mortalidade , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Escala de Gravidade do Ferimento , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Varfarina/uso terapêutico
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