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1.
Talanta ; 225: 122038, 2021 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592762

RESUMO

Demand for high quality Basmati rice has increased significantly in the last decade. This commodity is highly vulnerable to fraud, especially in the post COVID-19 era. A unique two-tiered analytical system comprised of rapid on-site screening of samples using handheld portable Near-infrared NIR and laboratory confirmatory technique using a Head space gas chromatography mass spectrometry (HS-GC-MS) strategy for untargeted analysis was developed. Chemometric models built using NIR data correctly predicted nearly 100% of Pusa 1121 and Taraori, two high value types of Basmati, from potential adulterants. Furthermore, rice VOC profile fingerprints showed very good classification (R2 >0.9, Q2 > 0.9, Accuracy > 0.99) for these high quality Basmati varieties from potential adulterant varieties with aldehydes identified as key VOC marker compounds. Using a two-tiered system of a rapid method for on-site screening of many samples alongside a laboratory-based confirmatory method can classify Basmati rice varieties, protecting the supply chain from fraud.


Assuntos
/prevenção & controle , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Oryza/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , /epidemiologia , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Índia , Oryza/classificação , Pandemias , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , /fisiologia
2.
Food Chem ; 338: 127936, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32932081

RESUMO

The trace and rare earth elements content of 93 honeys of different botanical type and origin have been studied through ICP-MS. Discriminant Analysis (DA) was successful for botanical type and geographical origin classification while Cluster Analysis (CA) was successful only for botanical type. Through Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) analysis, 85.3% were correctly classified by the network according to their geographical origin and 73.3% according to their organic characterization. A Partial Least Squares (PLS) model was constructed, giving a prediction accuracy of more than 95%. Information obtained using Rare Earths (Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu) and trace elements (Li, Mg, Mn, Ni, Co, Cu, Sr, Ba, Pb) via chemometric evaluation facilitated classification of honey samples.


Assuntos
Quimioinformática , Geografia , Mel/análise , Metabolômica , Análise por Conglomerados , Análise Discriminante , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Metais Terras Raras/análise , Redes Neurais de Computação , Análise Espectral , Oligoelementos/análise
4.
Global Health ; 16(1): 101, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33081805

RESUMO

Corruption is recognized by the global community as a threat to development generally and to achieving health goals, such as the United Nations Sustainable Development Goal # 3: ensuring healthy lives and promoting well-being for all. As such, international organizations such as the World Health Organizations and the United Nations Development Program are creating an evidence base on how best to address corruption in health systems. At present, the risk of corruption is even more apparent, given the need for quick and nimble responses to the COVID-19 pandemic, which may include a relaxation of standards and the rapid mobilization of large funds. As international organizations and governments attempt to respond to the ever-changing demands of this pandemic, there is a need to acknowledge and address the increased opportunity for corruption.In order to explore how such risks of corruption are addressed in international organizations, this paper focuses on the question: How are international organizations implementing measures to promote accountability and transparency, and anti-corruption, in their own operations? The following international organizations were selected as the focus of this paper given their current involvement in anti-corruption, transparency, and accountability in the health sector: the World Health Organization, the United Nations Development Program, the World Bank Group, and the Global Fund to Fight Aids, Tuberculosis and Malaria. Our findings demonstrate that there has been a clear increase in the volume and scope of anti-corruption, accountability, and transparency measures implemented by these international organizations in recent years. However, the efficacy of these measures remains unclear. Further research is needed to determine how these measures are achieving their transparency, accountability, and anti-corruption goals.


Assuntos
Revelação , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/economia , Responsabilidade Social , Nações Unidas , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência Adquirida/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Malária/prevenção & controle , Tuberculose/prevenção & controle
5.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 72: 101611, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911444

RESUMO

Fear, anxiety and even paranoia can proliferate during a pandemic. Such conditions, even when subclinical, tend to be a product of personal and predispositional factors, as well as shared cultural influences, including religious, literary, film, and gaming, all of which can lead to emotional and less than rational responses. They can render people vulnerable to engage in implausible conspiracy theories about the causes of illness and governmental responses to it. They can also lead people to give credence to simplistic and unscientific misrepresentations about medications and devices which are claimed to prevent, treat or cure disease. In turn such vulnerability creates predatory opportunities for the unscrupulous. This article notes the eruption of quackery during the 1889-1892 Russian Flu and the 1918-1920 Spanish Flu and the emergence during 2020 of spurious claims during the COVID-19 pandemic. It identifies consumer protection strategies and interventions formulated during the 2020 pandemic. Using examples from the United States, Japan, Australia and the United Kingdom, it argues that during a pandemic there is a need for three responses by government to the risks posed by conspiracy theories and false representations: calm, scientifically-based messaging from public health authorities; cease and desist warnings directed toward those making extravagant or inappropriate claims; and the taking of assertive and well publicised legal action against individuals and entities that make false representations in order to protect consumers rendered vulnerable by their emotional responses to the phenomenology of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prática de Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Charlatanismo/prevenção & controle , Revelação da Verdade , Austrália , Betacoronavirus , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Japão , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , Charlatanismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
7.
Food Chem ; 332: 127344, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619937

RESUMO

There is a contentious need for robust and rapid methodologies for maintaining the authenticity of foods and food additives. The current paper presented a new Raman spectroscopy-based methodology for detection and quantification of lard in butter. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were successfully performed for the classification and discrimination of butter and lard-adulterated samples. Strong discrimination pattern was observed in the HCA analysis. Also, partial least squares regression and principal component regression (R2 = 0.99) were applied for quantification of lard in butter samples. Quite favorable prediction capabilities were observed in the cross-validation of PLS and PCR analysis for the adulteration levels between 0% and 100% lard fat (w/w). Raman spectroscopy coupled chemometrics was employed effectively for quantification of lard fat in butter fat samples with easy, robust, effective, low-cost and reliable application in the quality control of butter.


Assuntos
Manteiga/análise , Gorduras na Dieta/análise , Informática , Análise Espectral Raman , Análise por Conglomerados , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise de Componente Principal
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(5): e19458, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352383

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of December 2019, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has spread rapidly around the world, which has led to increased discussions across online platforms. These conversations have also included various conspiracies shared by social media users. Amongst them, a popular theory has linked 5G to the spread of COVID-19, leading to misinformation and the burning of 5G towers in the United Kingdom. The understanding of the drivers of fake news and quick policies oriented to isolate and rebate misinformation are keys to combating it. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to develop an understanding of the drivers of the 5G COVID-19 conspiracy theory and strategies to deal with such misinformation. METHODS: This paper performs a social network analysis and content analysis of Twitter data from a 7-day period (Friday, March 27, 2020, to Saturday, April 4, 2020) in which the #5GCoronavirus hashtag was trending on Twitter in the United Kingdom. Influential users were analyzed through social network graph clusters. The size of the nodes were ranked by their betweenness centrality score, and the graph's vertices were grouped by cluster using the Clauset-Newman-Moore algorithm. The topics and web sources used were also examined. RESULTS: Social network analysis identified that the two largest network structures consisted of an isolates group and a broadcast group. The analysis also revealed that there was a lack of an authority figure who was actively combating such misinformation. Content analysis revealed that, of 233 sample tweets, 34.8% (n=81) contained views that 5G and COVID-19 were linked, 32.2% (n=75) denounced the conspiracy theory, and 33.0% (n=77) were general tweets not expressing any personal views or opinions. Thus, 65.2% (n=152) of tweets derived from nonconspiracy theory supporters, which suggests that, although the topic attracted high volume, only a handful of users genuinely believed the conspiracy. This paper also shows that fake news websites were the most popular web source shared by users; although, YouTube videos were also shared. The study also identified an account whose sole aim was to spread the conspiracy theory on Twitter. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of quick and targeted interventions oriented to delegitimize the sources of fake information is key to reducing their impact. Those users voicing their views against the conspiracy theory, link baiting, or sharing humorous tweets inadvertently raised the profile of the topic, suggesting that policymakers should insist in the efforts of isolating opinions that are based on fake news. Many social media platforms provide users with the ability to report inappropriate content, which should be used. This study is the first to analyze the 5G conspiracy theory in the context of COVID-19 on Twitter offering practical guidance to health authorities in how, in the context of a pandemic, rumors may be combated in the future.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Opinião Pública , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Saúde Pública/métodos , Rede Social , Revelação da Verdade , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
9.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229394, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155170

RESUMO

This paper provides empirical evidence that individuals substantially revise their stated wealth redistribution preferences after fiscal scandals. The 2016 Panama Papers scandal revealed top-income tax evasion behaviour simultaneously worldwide. The empirical investigation exploits this event as a quasi-natural experiment. I rely on two original datasets, a UK household longitudinal dataset and a survey conducted in 22 European countries. I use a difference-in-differences strategy and find that pro-redistribution statements increased between 2% and 3.3% after the scandal. Responses are heterogeneous and larger for right-wing individuals and low-income individuals. This change in wealth redistribution preferences is likely to have been translated into a slight change in votes. The results suggest an increase in stated voting intentions for the left and a decrease for the right. Complementary estimations reveal that more media coverage and more individuals involved by country increase the magnitude of the response.


Assuntos
Crime/economia , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Política , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Impostos/economia , Crime/legislação & jurisprudência , Europa (Continente) , Características da Família , Humanos , Panamá , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência
10.
Glob Health Action ; 13(sup1): 1694744, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194010

RESUMO

Background: As called for by the Sustainable Development Goals, governments, development partners and civil society are working on anti-corruption, transparency and accountability approaches to control corruption and advance Universal Health Coverage.Objectives: The objective of this review is to summarize concepts, frameworks, and approaches used to identify corruption risks and consequences of corruption on health systems and outcomes. We also inventory interventions to fight corruption and increase transparency and accountability.Methods: We performed a critical review based on a systematic search of literature in PubMed and Web of Science and reviewed background papers and presentations from two international technical meetings on the topic of anti-corruption and health. We identified concepts, frameworks and approaches and summarized updated evidence of types and causes corruption in the health sector.Results: Corruption, or the abuse of power for private gain, in health systems includes bribes and kickbacks, embezzlement, fraud, political influence/nepotism and informal payments, among other behaviors. Drivers of corruption include individual and systems level factors such as financial pressures, poorly managed conflicts of interest, and weak regulatory and enforcement systems. We identify six typologies and frameworks that model relationships influencing the scope and seriousness of corruption, and show how anti-corruption strategies such as transparency, accountability, and civic participation can affect corruption risk. Little research exists on the effectiveness of anti-corruption measures; however, interventions such as community monitoring and insurance fraud control programs show promise.Conclusions: Corruption undermines the capacity of health systems to contribute to better health, economic growth and development. Interventions and resources on prevention and control of corruption are essential components of health system strengthening for Universal Health Coverage.


Assuntos
Fraude/ética , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/ética , Programas Governamentais/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/ética , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Governamentais/organização & administração , Programas Governamentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
Glob Health Action ; 13(sup1): 1694745, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194011

RESUMO

Background: The goal of the public procurement of pharmaceuticals is to purchase sufficient quantities of high-quality pharmaceuticals at cost-effective prices for a given population. This goal can be undercut if corruption infiltrates the procurement process. Good procurement practices can help mitigate the risks of corruption and support equitable access to affordable and high-quality medicines.Objectives: This paper aims to 1) examine manifestations of corruption in the pharmaceutical procurement process and key factors behind them, and 2) identify how to design and implement effective anti-corruption, transparency and accountability mechanisms within this process.Methods: This paper was informed by a narrative literature review from 1996 to the present. The search focused on publications that addressed the issue of pharmaceutical procurement and governance and corruption issues. Our search included peer-reviewed literature, books, grey literature such as working papers, reports published by international organizations and donor agencies, and some media articles. Some documents used in this paper were already known to the authors.Results: Procurement is highly vulnerable to corruption particularly in the health sector. What is more, corruption in the procurement process does not appear to be limited to any one level of government or type of health system. The better integration of accountability, transparency and anti-corruption mechanisms in the procurement process is needed to reduce the risk of corruption.Conclusions: Lessons learned suggest that anti-corruption, transparency and accountability mechanisms in the pharmaceutical procurement process, such as open contracting and integrity pacts are helpful towards reducing the risk of corruption.


Assuntos
Fraude/ética , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Programas Governamentais/ética , Programas Governamentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Responsabilidade Social , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos
12.
Glob Health Action ; 13(sup1): 1701326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194012

RESUMO

Background: Human Resources for Health are a core building block of a health system, playing a crucial role in improving health outcomes. While the existing literature has examined various forms of corruption that affect the health sector, few articles have examined the role and impact of corruption in the recruitment and promotion of health-workers.Objectives: This study reviews the role of corrupt practices such as nepotism, bribery and sextortion in health-worker recruitment and promotion and their implications for health systems.Methods: The study is based on an interdisciplinary non-systematic review of peer-reviewed journal articles in the public health/medicine and political science literature, complemented with the 'grey' literature such as technical reports and working papers.Results: Political and personal ties, rather than merit are often factors in the recruitment and promotion of health-workers in many countries. This results in the employment or promotion of poorly qualified or unsuitable workers, with negative implications for health outcomes.Conclusion: Corrupt practices in health-worker recruitment and promotion 'set the tone' for other forms of corruption such as absenteeism, embezzlement, theft and bid-rigging to flourish, as those recruited corruptly can collude for nefarious purposes. On the other hand, merit-based recruitment is important for curbing corruption. Corrupt recruitment practices have deleterious effects on health-worker motivation and retention, quality and competency, citizens' trust in health services and health outcomes. Whereas international law and policy such as the United Nations Convention Against Corruption and the WHO Handbook on Monitoring and Evaluation of Human Resources for Health state that recruitment of public officers and health workers respectively should be done in a transparent and accountable manner, more research is needed to inform policies on merit-based recruitment.


Assuntos
Fraude/ética , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Mão de Obra em Saúde/ética , Seleção de Pessoal/ética , Seleção de Pessoal/organização & administração , Responsabilidade Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
13.
Glob Health Action ; 13(sup1): 1701327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194013

RESUMO

Policy-makers, implementing organizations, and funders of global health programs aim to improve health care services and health outcomes through specific projects or systemic change. To mitigate the risk of corruption and its harmful effects on those initiatives, health programs often use multiple anti-corruption mechanisms, including codes of conduct, documentation and reporting requirements, and trainings. Unfortunately, the introduction of anti-corruption mechanisms tends to occur without an explicit consideration of how each mechanism will affect health services and health outcomes. This may overlook potentially more effective approaches. In addition, it may result in the introduction of too many controls (thereby stymying service delivery) and a focus on financial or procurement-related issues (at the expense of service delivery objectives). We argue that anti-corruption efforts in health programs can be more effective if they prioritize addressing issues according to their likelihood and level of harm to key program objectives. Recalibrating the anti-corruption formula in this way will require: (i) extending responsibility and ownership over anti-corruption from subject experts to public health and health system specialists, and (ii) enabling those specialists to apply the Fraud Risk Assessment methodology to develop tailored anti-corruption mechanisms. We fill a documented gap in guidance on how to develop anti-corruption mechanisms by walking through the seven analytical steps of the Fraud Risk Assessment methodology as applicable to health programs. We then outline best practices for any anti-corruption mechanism, including a focus on quality health delivery; the alignment of actors' incentives around the advancement of health objectives; and being minimally corruptible by design.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/ética , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Fraude/ética , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/ética , Saúde Pública/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Humanos
14.
Glob Health Action ; 13(sup1): 1695241, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194014

RESUMO

Background: Pharmaceutical corruption is a serious challenge in global health. Digital technologies that can detect and prevent fraud and corruption are particularly important to address barriers to access to medicines, such as medicines availability and affordability, stockouts, shortages, diversion, and infiltration of substandard and falsified medicines.Objectives: To better understand how digital technologies are used to combat corruption, increase transparency, and detect fraud in pharmaceutical procurement systems to improve population health outcomes.Methods: We conducted a multidisciplinary review of the health/medicine, engineering, and computer science literature. Our search queries included keywords associated with medicines procurement and digital technology in combination with terms associated with transparency and anti-corruption initiatives. Our definition of 'digital technology' focused on Internet-based communications, including online portals and management systems, supply chain tools, and electronic databases.Results: We extracted 37 articles for in-depth review based on our inclusion criteria focused on the utilization of digital technology to improve medicines procurement. The vast majority of articles focused on electronic data transfer and/or e-procurement systems with fewer articles discussing emerging technologies such as machine learning and blockchain distributed ledger solutions. In the context of e-procurement, slow adoption, justifying cost-savings, and need for technical standards setting were identified as key challenges for current and future utilization.Conclusions: Though there is a significant promise for digital technologies, particularly e-procurement, overall adoption of solutions that can enhance transparency, accountability and concomitantly combat corruption, is still underdeveloped. Future efforts should focus on tying cost-saving measurements with anti-corruption indicators, prioritizing centralization of e-procurement systems, establishing regulatory harmonization with standards setting, and incorporating additional anti-corruption technologies into procurement processes for improving access to medicines and to reach the overall goal of Universal Health Coverage.


Assuntos
Fraude/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global/ética , Invenções , Preparações Farmacêuticas/economia , Preparações Farmacêuticas/provisão & distribução , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/ética , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Estudos Interdisciplinares , Responsabilidade Social
15.
Glob Health Action ; 13(sup1): 1704529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32194015

RESUMO

Background: The Arab states suffer from high levels of corruption. The UNDP's team there developed an approach to tackle corruption and enhance transparency and accountability in healthcare as part of its broader efforts to support the Sustainable Development Goals. This work evolved into a proper tool, the Conceptual Framework for Corruption Risk Assessment at Sectoral Level (hereafter 'Framework'), with implementation guides that enable tailoring to sector and country context.Objectives: This article documents the development of the Framework, its methodology and observed added value.Methods: Qualitative methods were utilized comprising desk research, field experience, stakeholder outreach, and focus group observation and documentation. It was most appropriate because the objective was to develop a methodology with specific characteristics.Results: The new approach uses anti-corruption as an explicit entry point to governance reforms. It articulates a structured evidence-based method to apply risk management methodology - tailored to the specificities of corruption as a risk - in healthcare whereby assessment and mitigation are (a) within institutions (b) focused on decision points and (c) around transactions while bringing together health and anti-corruption communities towards designing measurable results-oriented reforms.Conclusions: The Framework may be effective in driving concrete governance reform efforts that demonstrably reduce corruption by means of creating a common language and agenda among different stakeholders, changing the mindset towards reform, and developing targeted solutions with higher return on investment. As such, it may be capable of generating observable and sustainable progress towards healthcare reform.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/ética , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Fraude/ética , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Reforma dos Serviços de Saúde/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Humanos , Emirados Árabes Unidos
16.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229181, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32053689

RESUMO

Fritillariae cirrhosae bulbus is a famous type of traditional Chinese medicine used for cough relief and eliminating phlegm. The medicine originates from dried bulbs of five species and one variety of Fritillaria. Recently, immature bulbs from other congeneric species, such as F. ussuriensis, have been sold as adulterants of Fritillariae cirrhosae bulbus in medicine markets owing to the high price and limited availability of the genuine medicine. However, it is difficult to accurately identify the bulbs from different original species of Fritillariae cirrhosae bulbus and its adulterants based on traditional methods, although such medicines have different prices and treatment efficacies. The present study adopted DNA barcoding to identify these different species and compared the discriminatory power of super, universal, and specific barcodes in Fritillaria. The results revealed that the super-barcode had strong discriminatory power (87.5%). Among universal barcodes, matK provided the best species resolution (87.5%), followed by ITS (62.5%), rbcL (62.5%), and trnH-psbA (25%). The combination of these four universal barcodes provided the highest discriminatory power (87.5%), which was equivalent to that of the super-barcode. Two plastid genes, ycf1 and psbM-psbD, had much better discriminatory power (both 87.5%) than did other plastid barcodes, and were suggested as potential specific barcodes for identifying Fritillaria species. Phylogenetic analyses indicated that F. cirrhosa was not a "good" species that was composed of multiple lineages, which might have affected the evaluation of the discriminatory ability. This study revealed that the complete plastid genome, as super barcode, was an efficient and reliable tool for identifying the original species of Fritillariae cirrhosae bulbus and its adulterants.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Fritillaria/classificação , Fritillaria/genética , Variação Genética , Genomas de Plastídeos/genética , Filogenia
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 2974, 2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32076084

RESUMO

The Chinese cordyceps, a complex of the fungus Ophiocordyceps sinensis and its species-specific host insects, is also called "DongChongXiaCao" in Chinese. Habitat degradation in recent decades and excessive harvesting by humans has intensified its scarcity and increased the prices of natural populations. Some counterfeits are traded as natural Chinese cordyceps for profit, causing confusion in the marketplace. To promote the safe use of Chinese cordyceps and related products, a duplex PCR method for specifically identifying raw Chinese cordyceps and its primary products was successfully established. Chinese cordyceps could be precisely identified by detecting an internal transcribed spacer amplicon from O. sinensis and a cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 amplicon from the host species, at a limit of detection as low as 32 pg. Eleven commercial samples were purchased and successfully tested to further verify that the developed duplex PCR method could be reliably used to identify Chinese cordyceps. It provides a new simple way to discern true commercial Chinese cordyceps from counterfeits in the marketplace. This is an important step toward achieving an authentication method for this Chinese medicine. The methodology and the developmental strategy can be used to authenticate other traditional Chinese medicinal materials.


Assuntos
Cordyceps/genética , Medicamentos Falsificados/análise , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/análise , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Animais , Cordyceps/química , Medicamentos Falsificados/química , Medicamentos Falsificados/economia , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/economia , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/normas , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Fraude/economia , Genes Fúngicos/genética , Genes de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Insetos/genética , Insetos/microbiologia
19.
Malawi Med J ; 32(3): 146-152, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33488986

RESUMO

Background: Misuse of government resources is a challenge within the health sector that can be addressed by increasing public demand for accountability, reporting suspected misuse of resources, and other client-driven changes. This study was led by the USAID/Health Communication for Life Project to inform the design of social accountability communication messages and interventions. The study also established baseline data on Malawians' knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to efficient use of government resources in the health sector. Methods: This baseline, formative research study used a non-experimental, cross sectional survey design. Sampling for the mobile survey was conducted using the random digit dialing technique. Data were collected via mobile phone using interactive voice response technology. Our sample included 1,425 respondents, 67% of whom were male and 33% were female. Respondents were mostly 35 years old or younger, with more than half of female respondents reporting their age as 18-24 years. Results: Our findings indicate that Malawians believe misuse of government resources is pervasive in Malawi. Seventy percent of men and nearly 60% of women reported having noticed, found, or seen drugs believed to be from a government health facility being sold elsewhere. Few respondents who had observed or experienced misuse of government health sector resources reported the incident. When asked the likelihood that they would report a request for a bribe, gift, or favor in exchange for health services in the future, 68% of respondents said they would report it. Conclusions: Social and behavior change communication could serve a key role in motivating those who are aware of misuse of public sector health resources to report the issues they observe and providing them with the information needed to follow through. Further research is needed to understand the best approaches to mitigate underlying factors that drive misuse of resources and underreporting.


Assuntos
Fraude/prevenção & controle , Setor de Assistência à Saúde/ética , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Recursos em Saúde/ética , Responsabilidade Social , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Governo , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
20.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0224216, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851688

RESUMO

Cybersecurity cannot be ensured with mere technical solutions. Hackers often use fraudulent emails to simply ask people for their password to breach into organizations. This technique, called phishing, is a major threat for many organizations. A typical prevention measure is to inform employees but is there a better way to reduce phishing risks? Experience and feedback have often been claimed to be effective in helping people make better decisions. In a large field experiment involving more than 10,000 employees of a Dutch ministry, we tested the effect of information provision, simulated experience, and their combination to reduce the risks of falling into a phishing attack. Both approaches substantially reduced the proportion of employees giving away their password. Combining both interventions did not have a larger impact.


Assuntos
Segurança Computacional/normas , Simulação por Computador , Decepção , Correio Eletrônico/normas , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Modelos Psicológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
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