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2.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 34(3): 268-275, mayo-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-196618

RESUMO

Los fraudes financieros asociados a la crisis económica se han manifestado en los países desarrollados con efectos en la salud física, psíquica y social de las personas afectadas. A partir de los estudios cuantitativos y las revisiones de la literatura, este trabajo pretende obtener evidencias sobre los efectos en la salud a través de la narrativa de las personas entrevistadas. Se ha obtenido una muestra intencional de 32 personas afectadas por fraudes financieros (hipotecas abusivas y multidivisa, participaciones preferentes y swap) en Madrid, para realizar un análisis del contenido. Las personas afectadas tienen, en general, unas condiciones de edad, sexo, nivel educativo y profesión que les pueden haber permitido, en su curso de vida, acumular recursos económicos para suscribir productos financieros devenidos fraudulentos, basados en la confianza en las instituciones financieras. El fraude ha propiciado la aparición de procesos de anomia, agrandados con el tiempo, que se manifiestan con dolencias físicas (diversas enfermedades) y síntomas y patologías mentales (ansiedad, depresión, ideas de suicidio), que afectan al modo de vida, los hábitos y las relaciones personales y sociales, y que llegan a afectar a otros miembros de la familia. El aumento del consumo de fármacos y del uso de servicios de salud sirve de corolario al desajuste producido en su salud. Las personas afectadas y la sociedad española en su conjunto demandan medidas de política pública sanitaria para su atenuación y la recuperación de su confianza en el sistema bancario y político


During the economic crisis, developed countries have experienced financial fraud, with effects on the physical and mental health of the people affected, and on social domains. Based on the theoretical framework in literature reviews and in quantitative studies, this paper aims to obtain evidence on the effects of financial fraud on health and on the family and social environments of those affected. An intentional sample of 32 people affected by abusive and multi-currency mortgages, preferred and swap stock in Madrid was approached. In-depth interviews were conducted, and the resulting data was analysed using content analysis. Fraud-affected individuals had conditions of age, sex, educational level and occupations that possibly allowed them to accumulate economic resources throughout the course of their lives and, predictably in many cases, to take out fraudulent financial products, based on trust in the financial institutions. Financial fraud has led to the emergence of various processes of anomia and adverse health effects. The consequences on health were physical ailments (symptoms and diseases in various systems and parts of the body) and mental disorders (anxiety, depression, suicidal ideation), all affecting lifestyles, behaviour and personal and social relationships, both in affected individuals and their families. The increase in the use of medical drugs and health services serves as a final corollary to the imbalances on the affected people's health. Individuals and the Spanish society demand public health policy measures to mitigate the effects on health and the recovery of their confidence in the banking and political system


Assuntos
Humanos , Fraude/psicologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Falência , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Risco Financeiro/psicologia , Recessão Econômica/tendências
5.
J Med Libr Assoc ; 107(3): 323-332, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31258438

RESUMO

Objective: Impostor phenomenon, also known as impostor syndrome, is the inability to internalize accomplishments while experiencing the fear of being exposed as a fraud. Previous work has examined impostor phenomenon among academic college and research librarians, but health sciences librarians, who are often asked to be experts in medical subject areas with minimal training or education in these areas, have not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to measure impostor phenomenon among health sciences librarians. Methods: A survey of 2,125 eligible Medical Library Association (MLA) members was taken from October to December 2017. The online survey featuring the Harvey Impostor Phenomenon scale, a validated measure of impostor phenomenon, was administered, and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to examine relationships between impostor phenomenon scores and demographic variables. Results: A total of 703 participants completed the survey (33% response rate), and 14.5% of participants scored ≥42 on the Harvey scale, indicating possible impostor feelings. Gender, race, and library setting showed no associations, but having an educational background in the health sciences was associated with lower impostor scores. Age and years of experience were inversely correlated with impostor phenomenon, with younger and newer librarians demonstrating higher scores. Conclusions: One out of seven health sciences librarians in this study experienced impostor phenomenon, similar to previous findings for academic librarians. Librarians, managers, and MLA can work to recognize and address this issue by raising awareness, using early prevention methods, and supporting librarians who are younger and/or new to the profession.


Assuntos
Fraude/psicologia , Bibliotecários/psicologia , Bibliotecários/estatística & dados numéricos , Bibliotecas Médicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Competência Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Int J Law Psychiatry ; 64: 88-98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122645

RESUMO

Demand for legal capacity assessments is increasing, especially assessments of financial capacity for estate planning purposes such as wills and enduring powers of attorney. This article proposes that such assessments will be improved by taking greater account of the client experience, including individual and relational factors and processes, and considering the practice framework. A literature review was undertaken with a two-fold aim: firstly, to understand the fundamentally important perspective (inclusive of these experiences) of the evaluee; and, secondly, to identify potential improvements in the capacity assessment process with a view to informing best practice. No studies were identified that directly addressed the individual perspective in capacity assessments. Case studies and commentaries that indirectly discuss the individual perspective were therefore analysed to identify any potential issues and recommendations. This analysis showed that individual factors, such as the evaluee's functional and disease status, and relational factors, such as trust, should be considered by examiners. This review demonstrates that there is a significant gap in the literature examining the individual's perspective and experiences in capacity assessments, as well as, any impact this may have on the assessment process and outcomes. Further research into this vital perspective is needed so that the experiences of those undergoing assessments can help inform best practice and ensure that optimal processes are adopted when assessing the capacity necessary to make legally recognised decisions. This article examines the importance of the participant perspective and experiences in capacity assessments through the novel lens of therapeutic jurisprudence. It includes practice suggestions and provides the direction for this future research.


Assuntos
Administração Financeira , Competência Mental , Psiquiatria Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Psiquiatria Legal/métodos , Fraude/prevenção & controle , Fraude/psicologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/diagnóstico , Deficiência Intelectual/psicologia , Competência Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Competência Mental/psicologia , Testamentos
7.
Ergonomics ; 62(8): 983-994, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31056018

RESUMO

This study explored distinct perceptual and decisional contributions to spam email mental construal. Participants classified spam emails according to pairings of three stimulus features - presence or absence of awkward prose, abnormal message structure, and implausible premise. We examined dimensional interactions within general recognition theory (GRT; a multidimensional extension of signal detection theory). Classification accuracy was highest for categories containing either two non-normal dimension levels (e.g. awkward prose and implausible premise) or two normal dimension levels (e.g. normal prose and plausible premise). Modelling indicated both perceptual and decisional contributions to classification responding. In most cases, perceptual discriminability was higher along one dimension when stimuli contained a non-normal level of the paired dimension (e.g. prose discriminability was higher with abnormal structure). Similarly, decision criteria along one dimension were biased in favour of the non-normal response when stimuli contained a non-normal level of the paired dimension. Potential applications for training are discussed. Practitioner summary: We applied general recognition theory (i.e. multivariate signal detection theory) to spam email classification at low or high levels of three stimulus dimensions: premise plausibility, prose quality, and email structure. Relevant to training, this approach helped identify perceptual and decisional biases that could be leveraged to individualise training.


Assuntos
Correio Eletrônico , Fraude/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 13(5): e0195817, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29791434

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Persistent incidents of food fraud in China have resulted in low levels of consumer trust in the authenticity and safety of food that is domestically produced. We examined the relationship between the concerns of Chinese consumers regarding food fraud, and the role that demonstrating authenticity may play in relieving those concerns. METHODS: A two-stage mixed method design research design was adopted. First, qualitative research (focus groups n = 7) was conducted in three Chinese cities, Beijing, Guangzhou and Chengdu to explore concerns held by Chinese consumers in relation to food fraud. A subsequent quantitative survey (n = 850) tested hypotheses derived from the qualitative research and theoretical literature regarding the relationship between attitudinal measures (including risk perceptions, social trust, and perceptions of benefit associated with demonstrating authenticity), and behavioral intention to purchase "authentic" European products using structural equation modelling. RESULTS: Chinese consumers perceive food fraud to be a hazard that represents a food safety risk. Food hazard concern was identified to be geographically influenced. Consumers in Chengdu (tier 2 city) possessed higher levels of hazard concern compared to consumers in Beijing and Guangzhou (tier 1). Structural trust (i.e. trust in actors and the governance of the food supply chain) was not a significant predictor of attitude and intention to purchase authenticated food products. Consumers were shown to have developed 'risk-relieving' strategies to compensate for the lack of trust in Chinese food and the dissonance experienced as a consequence of food fraud. Indexical and iconic authenticity cues provided by food manufacturers and regulators were important elements of product evaluations, although geographical differences in their perceived importance were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Targeted communication of authenticity assurance measures, including; regulations; enforcement; product testing; and actions taken by industry may improve Chinese consumer trust in the domestic food supply chain and reduce consumer concerns regarding the food safety risks associated with food fraud. To support product differentiation and retain prestige, European food manufactures operating within the Chinese market should recognise regional disparities in consumer risk perceptions regarding food fraud and the importance of personal risk mitigation strategies adopted by Chinese consumers to support the identification of authentic products.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor/estatística & dados numéricos , Abastecimento de Alimentos/economia , Fraude/psicologia , Percepção , Adulto , China , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Risco , Confiança , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychol Aging ; 33(2): 325-337, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29658750

RESUMO

Financial fraud is a societal problem for adults of all ages, but financial losses are especially damaging to older adults who typically live on fixed incomes and have less time to recoup losses. Persuasion tactics used by fraud perpetrators often elicit high levels of emotional arousal; thus, studying emotional arousal may help to identify the conditions under which individuals are particularly susceptible to fraud. We examined whether inducing high-arousal positive (HAP) and high-arousal negative (HAN) emotions increased susceptibility to fraud. Older (ages 65 to 85) and younger (ages 30 to 40) adults were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 emotional arousal conditions in a laboratory task: HAP, HAN, or low arousal (LA). Fraud susceptibility was assessed through participants' responses to misleading advertisements. Both HAP and HAN emotions were successfully induced in older and younger participants. For participants who exhibited the intended induced emotional arousal, both the HAP and HAN conditions, relative to the LA condition, significantly increased participants' reported intention to purchase falsely advertised items. These effects did not differ significantly between older and younger adults and were mitigated in participants who did not exhibit the intended emotional arousal. However, irrespective of the emotional arousal condition to which older adults were assigned (HAP, HAN, or LA), they reported greater purchase intention than did younger adults. These results inform the literature on fraud susceptibility and aging. Educating consumers to postpone financial decisions until they are in calm emotional states may protect against this common persuasion tactic. (PsycINFO Database Record


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Fraude/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
10.
Fundam Clin Pharmacol ; 32(3): 306-322, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29436015

RESUMO

Diversion of prescription drugs is difficult to assess in quality and quantity. This study aimed to characterize diversion of prescription drugs in France through a comparative analysis of falsified prescriptions collected during three periods from 2001 to 2012. The data recorded in a national program which records all falsified prescriptions presented to community pharmacies were studied. Included data regarded: subjects, prescription forms, and drugs. Description of the dataset in three periods (2001-2004, 2005-2008, and 2009-2012) was completed with clustering analyses to characterize profiles of prescriptions and subjects associated with the most reported drugs. The 4469 falsified prescriptions concerned most often females (51.6%). Average age was 46.5 years. Zolpidem, bromazepam, and buprenorphine were the most frequent drugs. Alone, 13 drugs (1.7%, 13/772) represented more than 40% of the total reports (3055/7272). They were associated with three diversion profiles: (i) buprenorphine, flunitrazepam, and morphine were mentioned on overlapping secure prescription forms presented by young men; (ii) alprazolam, bromazepam, zolpidem, codeine/acetaminophen were mentioned on simple prescription forms presented by experienced women; and (iii) acetaminophen and lorazepam were mentioned on modified prescription forms presented by elderly subjects. Clonazepam, clorazepate, dextropropoxyphene, zopiclone moved between those profiles. The patterns of falsified prescriptions provided in this study contribute to enhance the scientific knowledge on the most diverted prescription drugs. The latter follow distinct trajectories across time depending on their pharmacology (including their abuse/addiction potential) and on their regulation's history. The close and continuous analysis of falsified prescriptions is an excellent way to monitor prescription drug diversion.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia/tendências , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Fraude/tendências , Pacientes/psicologia , Desvio de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/tendências , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/tendências , Programas de Monitoramento de Prescrição de Medicamentos/tendências , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , França , Fraude/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Desvio de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
11.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0192025, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29381757

RESUMO

Two experiments were conducted to determine the relative impact of direct and indirect (ad hominem) attacks on science claims. Four hundred and thirty-nine college students (Experiment 1) and 199 adults (Experiment 2) read a series of science claims and indicated their attitudes towards those claims. Each claim was paired with one of the following: A) a direct attack upon the empirical basis of the science claim B) an ad hominem attack on the scientist who made the claim or C) both. Results indicate that ad hominem attacks may have the same degree of impact as attacks on the empirical basis of the science claims, and that allegations of conflict of interest may be just as influential as allegations of outright fraud.


Assuntos
Atitude , Ciência , Percepção Social , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto , Análise de Variância , Conflito de Interesses , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Fraude/psicologia , Humanos , Julgamento , Lógica , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw ; 21(2): 105-109, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28657792

RESUMO

The online dating romance scam is an Advance Fee Fraud, typically conducted by international criminal groups via online dating sites and social networking sites. This type of mass-marketing fraud (MMF) is the most frequently reported type of MMF in most Western countries. This study examined the psychological characteristics of romance scam victims by comparing romance scam victims with those who had never been scammed by MMFs. Romance scam victims tend to be middle-aged, well-educated women. Moreover, they tend to be more impulsive (scoring high on urgency and sensation seeking), less kind, more trustworthy, and have an addictive disposition. It is argued here that these findings might be useful for those developing prevention programs and awareness campaigns.


Assuntos
Fraude/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Amor , Rede Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
14.
Gac. sanit. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 31(4): 313-319, jul.-ago. 2017. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-164373

RESUMO

Objective: To examine whether financial fraud is associated with poor health sleeping problems and poor quality of life. Methods: Pilot study (n=188) conducted in 2015-2016 in Madrid and León (Spain) by recruiting subjects affected by two types of fraud (preferred shares and foreign currency mortgages) using venue-based sampling. Information on the monetary value of each case of fraud; the dates when subjects became aware of being swindled, lodged legal claim and received financial compensation were collected. Inter-group comparisons of the prevalence of poor physical and mental health, sleep and quality of life were carried according to type of fraud and the 2011-2012 National Health Survey. Results: In this conventional sample, victims of financial fraud had poorer health, more mental health and sleeping problems, and poorer quality of life than comparable populations of a similar age. Those who had received financial compensation for preferred share losses had better health and quality of life than those who had not been compensated and those who had taken out foreign currency mortgages. Conclusion: The results suggest that financial fraud is detrimental to health. Further research should examine the mechanisms through which financial fraud impacts health. If our results are confirmed psychological and medical care should be provided, in addition to financial compensation (AU)


Objetivo: Explorar si los fraudes financieros se asocian a la mala salud, problemas de sueño y mala calidad de vida. Métodos: Estudio piloto (n=188) realizado en 2015-2016 en Madrid y León reclutando personas afectadas por dos tipos de fraudes (preferentes e hipotecas multidivisas), por el método venue-sampling. Se recogió información sobre el valor monetario del fraude, las fechas en que la persona conocía que había sido estafada, había iniciado una demanda y había recibido una compensación económica. Se compararon las prevalencias de mala salud física y mental, sueño y calidad de vida entre grupos según tipo de fraude y con la Encuesta Nacional de Salud de 2011-2012. Resultados: En esta muestra convencional, las víctimas de fraude financiero presentaron peor salud, más problemas de salud mental y de sueño, y peor calidad de vida que las poblaciones comparables de la misma edad. Aquellos que habían recibido una compensación económica por las pérdidas en preferentes tuvieron mejor salud y calidad de vida que los que no habían recibido compensación y que aquellos que habían contratado hipotecas multidivisas. Conclusión: Los resultados sugieren que los fraudes financieros causan daños a la salud. Deberían investigarse los mecanismos por los que los fraudes financieros causan daños de salud. Si los resultados se confirman, debe proveerse asistencia psicológica y médica, además de las compensaciones económicas (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Fraude/psicologia , Impactos na Saúde/análise , Sintomas Afetivos/epidemiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Nível de Saúde , Recessão Econômica , Autorrelato
16.
Gac Sanit ; 31(4): 313-319, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28259392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether financial fraud is associated with poor health sleeping problems and poor quality of life. METHODS: Pilot study (n=188) conducted in 2015-2016 in Madrid and León (Spain) by recruiting subjects affected by two types of fraud (preferred shares and foreign currency mortgages) using venue-based sampling. Information on the monetary value of each case of fraud; the dates when subjects became aware of being swindled, lodged legal claim and received financial compensation were collected. Inter-group comparisons of the prevalence of poor physical and mental health, sleep and quality of life were carried according to type of fraud and the 2011-2012 National Health Survey. RESULTS: In this conventional sample, victims of financial fraud had poorer health, more mental health and sleeping problems, and poorer quality of life than comparable populations of a similar age. Those who had received financial compensation for preferred share losses had better health and quality of life than those who had not been compensated and those who had taken out foreign currency mortgages. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that financial fraud is detrimental to health. Further research should examine the mechanisms through which financial fraud impacts health. If our results are confirmed psychological and medical care should be provided, in addition to financial compensation.


Assuntos
Fraude/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Espanha
17.
Appetite ; 113: 200-214, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28259535

RESUMO

In the aftermath of food scandals, household perceptions about the health risks posed by failures in food safety play a central role in determining their mitigating behavior. A stream of literature has shown that factors including media coverage of a scandal, risk perceptions, trust in food safety information, and consumption habits matter. This paper deviates from the standard assumption of a homogeneous response to media information across all households exposed to a food scandal. Instead, we present an innovative multi-method approach to investigate the impacts of household heterogeneity in underlying psychological and behavioral, media usage patterns and consumption habits on poultry demand in the aftermath of the 2011 German dioxin scandal. The analysis employs weekly retail purchase and matching survey data for 6133 households covering pre and post scandal periods. The supplementary survey data elicits household respondent's risk perceptions and risk attitudes, product label and media information behavior. Initial factor and cluster analysis identify household segments based on psychographic and behavioral indicators. We then estimate a correlated random effect Tobit model to account for clustered household responses to quantify the influence of media effects distinguishing between short-term risk mitigation behavior and longer-term habit persistence. Our results confirm significant heterogeneity in household's media-induced risk-mitigation responses to the dioxin scandal across three clusters. However, we find that habit persistence in the form of consumption preferences for the affected products were able to largely compensate for demand-reducing media effects across household clusters. Considering heterogeneity in household's risk mitigation behaviors to food scandals holds implications for policy makers and food industry alike.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Consumidor , Características da Família , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Fraude/psicologia , Adulto , Análise por Conglomerados , Dioxinas , Ingestão de Alimentos/psicologia , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Carne
18.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 41(4): 810-819, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28222488

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol is a common target of counterfeiting in Russia. Counterfeit alcohol is defined here as the manufacture, distribution, unauthorized placement (forgery) of protected commodity trademarks, and infringement of the exclusive rights of the registered trademark holders of alcoholic beverages. It is often argued that the expansion of the counterfeit product market is due to the steady demand of economically disadvantaged people for low-priced goods. The situation becomes more complicated once deceptive and nondeceptive forms of counterfeiting are taken into account. This study aimed to identify markers of risky behavior associated with the purchase of counterfeit alcohol in Russia. METHODS: The analysis relied on consumer self-reports of alcohol use and purchase collected nationwide by the Russia Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (RLMS-HSE) in 2012 to 2014. I used a generalized linear mixed-model logistic regression to identify predictors of risky behavior by consumers who purchased counterfeit alcohol, either knowingly or unknowingly, during the 30 days preceding the survey. RESULTS: Purchases of counterfeit alcohol declined slightly from 2012 to 2014, mainly due to a decrease in consumers mistakenly purchasing counterfeit products. Predictors of counterfeit alcohol purchases differed between consumers who knowingly and unknowingly purchased counterfeit products. Nondeceptive purchase of counterfeit alcohol was related primarily to an indifference to alcohol brands. Consumers with social networks that include drinkers of nonbeverage alcohol and producers of homemade alcohol were highly likely to consume counterfeit alcohol deliberately. Problem drinking was significantly associated with a higher risk of both deceptive and nondeceptive purchases of counterfeit alcohol. Poverty largely contributed to nondeceptive counterfeiting. CONCLUSIONS: The literature has overestimated the impact of low prices on counterfeit alcohol consumption. Problem drinking and membership in social networks of consumers of surrogate alcohol (i.e., nonbeverage) are more influential in explaining why people purchase counterfeit alcohol. Further research on these 2 factors is needed to more fully understand the purchase and consumption of counterfeit alcoholic beverages.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Comércio/economia , Fraude/economia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Alcoólicas/normas , Comércio/normas , Feminino , Fraude/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Autorrelato
19.
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-159344

RESUMO

False allegations constitute a problem since they may cause harm. To study the difference between true and false allegations we used a quasi-experimental approach. In the control condition likely true allegations were retrieved from criminal files. The victims, all female, were between the ages of 17 and 53 (M=28.0, SD=10.6). In the experimental condition women were invited to file a false allegation. Participants, all female, in the experimental conditions were between the ages of 18 and 52 (M=28.0, SD=10.6). We constructed a list of 187 variables based on our theory of fabricated rape. All items in the list were coded dichotomously. All variables that were coded as ‘present’ within cases were summed to obtain a total score; an independent t-test was used. The results of the control condition (N=30) were compared with the experimental condition (N=35) by use of chi-square tests. A Holm-Bonferoni method with Šidák correction was used to correct for the increased family-wise error rate. The independent t-test showed a significant difference between the mean number of present-coding of likely true allegations, (M=59.13, SD=11.00) and of false allegations (M=35.74, SD=9.33), t(63)=9.28, p<.0001, d=2.34. Thus, significantly more variables were coded ‘present’ in likely true allegations. Fabricated stories of rape lack pseudo-intimate behavior and a wide variety of sexual acts. Also, in almost all fabricated stories of rape the attack was completed in less than 15minutes while in likely true allegations the attack sometimes took over 60minutes before it was completed. In conclusion, true and false allegations diverge from each other in essentials of the story told by the complainant. The differences could be used to predict the true nature of a rape allegation (AU)


Las falsas alegaciones constituyen un problema dado que pueden causar daño. Para estudiar la diferencia entre alegaciones verdaderas y falsas utilizamos un enfoque cuasi-experimental. En la condición de control las alegaciones verdaderas se obtuvieron de los archivos policiales. Las víctimas, todas mujeres, tenían una edad entre 17 y 53 años (M=28.0 y DT=10.6). En la condición experimental se invitó a mujeres a presentar una falsa alegación. Los participantes de esta condición, todas mujeres, tenían una edad entre 18 y 52 años (M=28.0 y DT=10.6). Elaboramos una lista de 187 variables partiendo de nuestra teoría de la violación inventada. Todos los elementos de la lista se codificaron dicotómicamente. Se sumaron todas las variables codificadas como "presentes" en los casos para obtener una puntuación total; se utilizó una prueba t independiente. Los resultados de la condición control (N=30) se compararon con los de la condición experimental (N=35) mediante la prueba de chi-cuadrado. El método de Holm-Bonferroni con la corrección de Šidák se utilizó para corregir el error relativo a la familia. La prueba independiente t mostró una diferencia entre el número medio de alegaciones probablemente verdaderas codificadas como "presentes" (M=59.13, DT=11.00) y de falsas alegaciones (M=35.74, SD=9.33), t(63)=9.28, p<.0001, d=2.34. Así, había más variables significativamente codificadas como 'presentes' en las alegaciones probablemente verdaderas. Los relatos inventados de violación carecen de comportamiento seudoíntimo y de una gran variedad de actos sexuales. Además, en casi todas las historias de violación inventadas el ataque se completaba en menos de 15 minutos, mientras que en las verdaderas alegaciones a veces tardaba en completarse más de 60 minutos. Como conclusión, las alegaciones verdaderas y falsas difieren en elementos fundamentales de la historia contada por el demandante. Las diferencias podrían utilizarse para predecir la verdadera índole de la alegación de violación (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Decepção , Estupro/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Psicologia Experimental/métodos , Vítimas de Crime/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Fraude/psicologia , Projetos de Pesquisa/tendências , Simulação de Doença/psicologia , Análise de Dados , Razão de Chances , Intervalos de Confiança
20.
J Community Health ; 42(2): 287-294, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27628563

RESUMO

The misuse of prescription stimulant medications (MPS) and academic dishonesty (AD) are both problematic behaviors among college students. Although both behaviors are linked to a student's desire to succeed academically, little research has been conducted to examine the relationship between these behaviors. The purpose of this study was to determine if students who engaged in past-year MPS committed acts of AD more frequently than those who do not engage in MPS. We collected our data from a sample of undergraduates (n = 974) between the ages of 18 and 25 enrolled at one of three universities in the US who completed an online questionnaire to assess AD and MPS. Results indicated that 18.2 % of the sample engaged in MPS in the past year and 65 % committed one or more acts of AD during the past year. An increased frequency of AD increased the odds of reporting MPS when controlling for known covariates (e.g., gender, stimulant prescription status, and energy drink consumption). In addition, higher rates of MPS were identified in students affiliated with a Greek organization, those with a current stimulant prescription, those who consume energy drinks, and those who misuse other prescriptions. Concerning specific AD-types, misusers reported copying off someone else's homework, having someone copy of their homework, and using the internet to commit acts of dishonesty more frequently than those who do not engage in MPS. This study adds to the MPS college student literature by highlighting the relationship between MPS and AD.


Assuntos
Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos adversos , Fraude/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Bebidas Energéticas/efeitos adversos , Bebidas Energéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Fraude/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
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