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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(suppl 2): 4151-4156, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027351

RESUMO

Our aim was to analyze the association between previously diagnosed lifetime depression and changes in physical activity (PA), TV-viewing, consumption of fruits and vegetables as well as frequency of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption. Data of 41,923 Brazilian adults (6,881 with depression and 35,042 without depression) were used. Participants reported PA (≥ 150 min/week), TV-viewing (≥ 4 h/day), frequency of eating fruits or vegetables (≤ 4 days/week) and UPF (≥ 5 days/week). For incidence indicators, we only considered participants without the risk behavior before the quarantine. People without and with depression presented, respectively, incidence of physical inactivity [70.1% (95%CI: 67.4-72.8) vs 76.3 (70.3-81.5)], high TV-viewing [31.2 (29.6-32.8) vs 33.9 (30.5-37.4)], low frequency of fruit or vegetable consumption [28.3 (25.8-31.0) vs 31.5 (26.1-37.5)] and elevated frequency of UPF consumption [9.7 (8.9-10.7) vs 15.2 (13.0-17.7)]. Participants with depression were more likely to present elevated frequency of UPF consumption incidence [OR:1.49 (95%CI:1.21-1.83)]. Thus, participants with previous diagnosis of depression were at risk for incidence of unhealthy diet behaviors.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Fast Foods/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Frutas , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Comportamento Sedentário , Televisão , Verduras , Adulto Jovem
2.
Plant Physiol ; 184(2): 568-569, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020325

Assuntos
Musa , Etilenos , Frutas
3.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 263-272, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118857

RESUMO

Frugivores and zoocoric trees represent an important proportion of tropical rainforest biodiversity. As niche differences favor species coexistence, we aimed to evaluate morphological and temporal niche segregation mechanisms among zoochoric trees and canopy frugivores in a tropical rainforest in the northeastern extreme of the Brazilian Amazon. We tested the effects of fruit morphology, tree size, frugivore body size and time of day on fruit consumption. We recorded the frugivore species that fed on 72 trees (44 species, 22 genera) and whether these frugivores swallowed the seeds. We monitored trees only once from 07:00 to 17:00 h between January and September 2017. We observed fruit consumption in 20 of the 72 trees. Seventy-three frugivore individuals from 22 species visited the trees. Heavier fruits were consumed by larger frugivores, while seed size was inversely correlated with frugivore size. Narrower fruits and fruits with smaller seeds had greater probability of having their seeds ingested, and larger frugivores were more prone to ingest seeds. Trees bearing fruits with smaller seeds were visited by a greater number of frugivores. Taxonomic groups differed in the time of arrival at fruiting trees. None of the evaluated variables (fruit weight and size, and seed size) affected the richness of frugivores that visited the trees. We concluded that, in the studied forest, fruit morphology (weight, size and seed size) is a niche segregation mechanism among zoochoric trees, while body size and time of day are niche segregation mechanisms among frugivores. (AU)


Assuntos
Dispersão de Sementes , Floresta Úmida , Frutas
4.
Med Lav ; 111(4): 296-305, 2020 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32869766

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Occupational pesticide poisoning is an important public health concern worldwide, especially in developing countries. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at determining the prevalence and risk factors of acute pesticide poisoning (APP) among the vegetable and fruit farmers in Karacabey District in northwest Turkey. METHODS: The study group consisted of 565 farmers. The dependent variable of the study is APP defined according to the World Health Organization's APP case definition matrix. The study's independent variables are the farmers' sociodemographic characteristics and the preventive measures they use when they are applying pesticides. The chi-square and logistic regression analysis analyzed the relationship between the dependent and independent variables. RESULTS: A total of 64 (11.3%) farmers reported APP and 75% of them presented to a health institution due to symptoms. The factors associated with increased risk of APP were: illiteracy (odds ratio (OR)=2.5), 14 years and less farming experience (OR=3.3), not reading the pesticide labels (OR=6.4), and contact with liquid pesticides (OR=2.3). -Conclusions: The study shows that approximately one out of ten farmers experience APP. Training programs should be planned and monitored to improve farmers' awareness of the dangers of pesticides, and they should be encouraged to adopt and implement protective measures.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Exposição Ocupacional , Praguicidas , Estudos Transversais , Fazendeiros , Frutas , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Praguicidas/envenenamento , Autorrelato , Turquia , Verduras
5.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 28(3): 208-218, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Fruit and vegetable intake has been reported as one of the significant protective factors against the development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). This study aimed to assess the possible preventive effect of fruit and vegetable consumption on developing CVD. METHODS: A total of 398 participants (205 cases and 193 controls) referred for elective coronary angiography with clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease to Prince Hamza Hospital in Amman were enrolled in this case-control study. Dietary data were collected separately from each patient using interview-based food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: The findings of the present study revealed that a total consumption of 3 servings of vegetable per day decreased significantly the risk of CVD to about 54% (OR = 0.46, 95% CI: 0.22-0.97, p = 0.033). Consumption of banana was found to reduce the risk of CVD to about 44% and 62% when consuming 1-2 and 3-6 servings/week, respectively, with p-value for trend 0.004. For the vegetables, the consumption of grape leaves and stuffed vegetables in general was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD. Increasing cauliflower consumption of 1-2 servings per week decreased CVD risk to about 37% (OR = 0.63, 95% CI: 0.38-0.98). Consuming up to 3-6 servings per week of mixed vegetables (OR = 0.10, 95% CI: 0.01-0.83) and onion (OR = 0.42, 95% CI: 0.22-0.80) revealed an inverse association with CVD development. CONCLUSIONS: Adding to the present evidence, consumption of some fruits and vegetables could be considered as preventive factor against developing CVD. However, the association of consuming vegetables with preventing CVD was higher than the fruit consumption.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas , Verduras , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Proteção
6.
S Afr Med J ; 110(8): 796-801, 2020 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880309

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Smoking cessation is a complex process influenced by factors such as smokers' nicotine dependence levels, socioeconomic status (SES) and other lifestyle behaviours. Little is known about these relationships in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To explore the relationship between nicotine dependence, SES, lifestyle behaviours and lifetime quit attempts among adult smokers in SA. METHODS: This study used data from 2 651 participants aged ≥16 years in the 2011 South African Social Attitudes Survey. Information on SES (measured by asset ownership), binge drinking, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, intention to quit smoking and lifetime quit attempts was extracted. Nicotine dependence was measured using the Heaviness of Smoking Index (HSI). All data were weighted to account for the complex survey design and to yield nationally representative estimates. Data analysis included binary logistic regression with high nicotine dependence (HND) defined as HSI ≥4 and lifetime quit attempts as separate outcomes. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking was 20.1% (31.6% for males and 9.5% for females), and was highest in the mixed-ancestry group (37.0%). Overall, 14.5% of smokers had HND, with a higher proportion in the high-SES group. The odds of HND increased with every 10  years of smoking history (odds ratio (OR) 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.40 - 3.00) but decreased among participants who reported frequent physical activity (OR 0.4; 95% CI 0.18 - 0.86) and those who planned to quit (OR 0.37; 95% CI 0.19 - 0.75). Quit attempts were more likely among participants who reported frequent fruit and vegetable intake (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.07 - 2.98) and less likely among those reporting binge drinking (OR 0.31; 95% CI 0.16 - 0.59) or assessed as having HND (OR 0.32; 95% CI 0.17 - 0.58). CONCLUSIONS: Most adult smokers in SA have low nicotine dependence. However, the association of HND with high SES in this study suggests that although cessation treatment based on an integrated lifestyle behavioural intervention package may suffice for most smokers, a more intense cessation treatment package is needed for smokers of higher SES.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Dieta , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Frutas , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Classe Social , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Verduras
7.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(16): 2676-2690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876477

RESUMO

In recent years, applications of cold plasma treatments have shown high efficiency in sterilization of fresh fruit and vegetables. With encouraging results, development of this technique focuses on influences of cold plasma on the quality attributes of these fresh produce. More studies found that the quality attributes are maintained in an acceptable range or can even be improved under certain plasma treatment conditions. This review provides an overview of the multiple effects of cold plasma on the fresh produce, in terms of physical, chemical and physiological aspects. Besides, the possible mechanisms of how plasma influences these quality attributes is elaborated, which is useful for further modification and improvement of the plasma technology, so that quality enhancement and shelf life extension can be achieved. Future trends in the development of cold plasma technology are also presented. Cold plasma treatment is a potential technology for treating fresh fruit and vegetables to enhance their quality and extend their shelf life. However, knowledge of the effects of cold plasma on the quality changes of fresh fruit and vegetables is still limited. Therefore, there is a need for future studies to understand the mechanisms of plasma effects on controlling the interactions between plasma and food products in order to realize the early adoption of the technology to the food industry.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos , Frutas , Gases em Plasma , Verduras , Frutas/química , Frutas/fisiologia , Esterilização , Verduras/química , Verduras/fisiologia
8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3759-3769, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893568

RESUMO

Schisandra is the mature fruit of Schisandra chinensis(known as "north Schisandra") or S. shenanthera(known as "south Schisandra"). S. chinensis contains a variety of lignans, volatile oils, polysaccharides, organic acids and other chemical constituents; among them, lignans are recognized as the characteristic active components. Clinical studies have found that Schisandra and Schisandra-related products have a better effect in the prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, liver cirrhosis, liver failure and other liver diseases. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Schisandra has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anticancer, regulation of nuclear receptor, antivirus, regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme, inhibition of liver cell apoptosis and promotion of liver regeneration. This paper reviews the studies about the applications and mechanism of Schisandra in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases, in the expectation of providing guidance for the development of hepatoprotective drugs from Schisandra and the clinical applications of Schisandra-related products.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Lignanas/análise , Schisandra , Frutas/química , Humanos , Substâncias Protetoras
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3871-3876, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893583

RESUMO

To establish high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC) fingerprints for crude and processed Ligustri Lucidi Fructus,and to evaluate their quality through the similarity calculation and chemical pattern recognition. The separation was performed with Syncronis C_(18) column(4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 µm), with acetonitrile(A) and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution(B) as the mobile phase for gradient elution, and a detection wavelength of 280 nm. HPLC was used to detect 22 batches of crude and processed Ligustri Lucidi Fructus,and the Similarity Evaluation System for Chromatographic Fingerprint of Traditional Chinese Medicine(2012 Edition) was used to evaluate the similarity among 22 batches. The research on pattern recognition was conducted with cluster analysis(CA), principal component analysis(PCA), and partial least squares discriminate analysis(PLS-DA). HPLC fingerprints of crude and processed Ligustri Lucidi Fructus were established, with similarity ranging from 0.9 to 1.0. The crude and processed Ligustri Lucidi Fructus can be obviously distinguished by using CA, PCA and PLS-DA. According to the results of PLS-DA,11 constituents including hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, specnuezhenide and oleuropein were the main marker components leading to the difference. The established fingerprint method is stable and reliable, and can provide method basis for quality control of crude and processed Ligustri Lucidi Fructus. Chemical pattern recognition is proved to be helpful in comprehensive quality control and evaluation of Ligustri Lucidi Fructus before and after the process.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ligustrum , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Frutas , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3997-4003, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893600

RESUMO

Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus is a both medicinal and edible species specified by the China Ministry of Health, with a long history in China. According to the ancient monographs about materia medica, it was found that the records of the Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus on the original plants were confused. This paper reviewed the ancient monographs about materia medica, and made a summarization and textual research on the name, origin, habitat, processing methods, medicinal properties and clinicacy efficacy of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus based the comprehensive analysis on modern literatures and authoritative books of Chinese herbal medicine. The results indicated that there were many bynames of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Before the Yuan Dynasty, there was a mixed use of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus and Citri Fructus, which were not distinguished from each other in terms of nature and taste until the Yuan dynasty. Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was a varietas of Citri Fructus. The main shape of the original plant of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus is "like a human hand with fingers" as recorded in ancient monographs about materia medica. The main places of origin of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus were Guangdong, Zhejiang, Fujian, Sichuan, which were relatively stable. There were fewer records about medicinal proces-sing methods of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. Only steaming and baking methods were found in ancient monographs about materia medica, and the steaming method could reduce the irritability of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. The processing of therapeutic dietary of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus was widely used in folk, which was represented by Chaozhou Laoxianghuang, a traditional succade made of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus. According to the 2015 edition of Chinese Pharmacopoeia, Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus had effects in soothing liver and regulating gas, relieving pain in the stomach, eliminating dampness and resolving phlegm, which was basically consistent with the descriptions in ancient monographs about materia medica. This paper defined the original plant of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, and sorted out and summarized the processing methods, nature and taste of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus, so as to provide data support for the standardization of the processing technology and the development and utilization of Citri Sarcodactylis Fructus.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Materia Medica , China , Frutas , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
11.
Am J Bot ; 107(9): 1260-1273, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32984956

RESUMO

PREMISE: Defense investment in plant reproductive structures is relatively understudied compared to the defense of vegetative organs. Here the evolution of chemical defenses in reproductive structures is examined in light of the optimal defense, apparency, and resource availability hypotheses within the genus Cornus using a phylogenetic comparative approach in relation to phenology and native habitat environmental data. METHODS: Individuals representing 25 Cornus species were tracked for reproductive phenology over a full growing season at the Arnold Arboretum of Harvard University. Floral, fruit, and leaf tissue was sampled to quantify defensive chemistry as well as fruit nutritional traits relevant to bird dispersal. Native habitat environmental characteristics were estimated using locality data from digitized herbarium records coupled with global soil and climate data sets. RESULTS: The evolution of later flowering was correlated with increased floral tannins, and the evolution of later fruiting was correlated with increased total phenolics. Leaves were found to contain the highest tannin activity, while inflorescences contained the highest total flavonoids. Multiple aspects of fruit defensive chemistry were correlated with fruit nutritional traits. Floral and fruit defensive chemistry were evolutionarily correlated with aspects of native habitat temperature, precipitation, and soil characteristics. CONCLUSIONS: Results provide tentative support for the apparency hypothesis with respect to both flower and fruit phenology, while relative concentrations of secondary metabolites across organs provide mixed support for the optimal defense hypothesis. The evolution of reproductive defense with native habitat provides, at best, mixed support for the resource availability hypothesis.


Assuntos
Cornus , Animais , Flores , Frutas , Inflorescência , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta
12.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 170: 104698, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980053

RESUMO

Essential oils and their main compounds, monoterpenoids, are considered as alternative control systems for phytopathogenic fungi, particularly those related to late diseases of fruits and vegetables, like anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum species. In this context, we studied the effect of twenty monoterpenoids on Colletotrichum fructicola and C. acutatum to elucidate their effectiveness and mechanisms of action. Thus, we analyzed mycelial growth and conidial inhibitory concentration, as well as the effect of selected monoterpenoids on membrane integrity and cell vitality, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, and mitochondrial membrane potential by flow cytometry. The results showed that oxygenated monoterpenoids (alcohols and aldehydes) exhibited higher antifungal activity than their corresponding hydrocarbons, esters, and cyclic counterparts. Indicating that OH- and O- radicals react with cellular components affecting fungal homeostasis. In this sense, selected monoterpenoids (citral, citronellol, geraniol, carvacrol, and thymol) inhibited conidial germination of C. acutatum in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of conidial germination is associated with a loss of membrane integrity, a decrease of cell metabolism, and a dose-dependent accumulation of ROS, which was non-directly associated with modifications on mitochondrial membrane potential. Membrane dysfunction and ROS accumulation may be responsible for the necrotic behavior induced by high monoterpenoids concentrations, and possible apoptotic response in sub dosages of these compounds.


Assuntos
Colletotrichum , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Frutas , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos
13.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236535, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32976483

RESUMO

Passion fruit (Passiflora edulia Sims), an important tropical and subtropical species, is classified as a respiration climacteric fruit, and its quality deteriorates rapidly after harvest. To elucidate the mechanisms involved in ripening and rapid fruit senescence, phytochemical characteristic analysis and RNA sequencing were performed in purple passion fruit with different treatments, that is, 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) and preservative film (PF). Comprehensive functional annotation and KEGG enrichment analysis showed that starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, flavonoid biosynthesis, and carotenoid biosynthesis were involved in fruit ripening. Treatment with PF and 1-MCP significantly affected the transcription levels of passion fruit during postharvest storage. A large number of differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) were identified as significantly enriched in starch and sucrose metabolism, plant hormone signal transduction and phenylpropanoid biosynthesis at the postharvest stage. The PF and 1-MCP treatments increased superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) gene expression levels and enzyme activities, accelerated lignin accumulation, and decreased ß-galactosidase (ß-Gal), polygalacturonase (PG) and cellulose activities and gene expression levels to delay cell wall degradation during fruit senescence. The RNA sequencing data for cell wall metabolism and hormone signal transduction pathway-related unigenes were verified by RT-qPCR. The results of this study indicate that the cell wall metabolism and hormone signaling pathways are closely related to passion fruit ripening. PF and 1-MCP treatment might inhibit ethylene signaling and regulate cell wall metabolism pathways to inhibit cell wall degradation. Our results demonstrate the involvement of ripening- and senescence-related networks in passion fruit ripening and may establish a foundation for future research investigating the effects of PF and 1-MCP treatment on fruit ripening.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Passiflora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Passiflora/genética , Transcriptoma , Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Passiflora/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4904, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994391

RESUMO

Mammalian frugivores are critical seed dispersers, but many are under threat of extinction. Futhermore, the impact of past and future defaunation on plant assemblages has yet to be quantified at the global scale. Here, we integrate palm and mammalian frugivore trait and occurrence data and reveal a global positive relationship between fruit size and frugivore body size. Global variation in fruit size is better explained by present-day frugivore assemblages than by Late Pleistocene assemblages, suggesting ecological and evolutionary reorganization after end-Pleistocene extinctions, except in the Neotropics, where some large-fruited palm species may have outlived their main seed dispersers by thousands of years. Our simulations of frugivore extinction over the next 100 years suggest that the impact of defaunation will be highest in the Old World tropics, and an up to 4% assemblage-level decrease in fruit size would be required to maintain the global body size-fruit size relationship. Overall, our results suggest that while some palm species may be able to keep pace with future defaunation through evolutionary changes in fruit size, large-fruited species may be especially vulnerable to continued defaunation.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/fisiologia , Coevolução Biológica , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Animais , Arecaceae/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho Corporal/genética , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Extinção Biológica , Frutas/genética , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Mamíferos/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho do Órgão/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Dispersão de Sementes/fisiologia
15.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(8): 1620-1628, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924360

RESUMO

Little is known about the molecular mechanism of currant anthocyanin synthesis. We investigated the effect of dfr, a key gene for anthocyanin synthesis in currant, on anthocyanins of different color currant. Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.), red currant (Ribes rubrum L.) and white currant (Ribes albrum L.) were used as test materials to determine the anthocyanin content at different stages of fruit development. Three full-length cDNA sequences of dfr gene were cloned by RACE (Rapid amplification of cDNA ends), and named as Rndfr, Rrdfr and Radfr. Phylogenetic analysis shows that Rndfr, Rrdfr and Radfr had high homology in evolution. The determination of anthocyanin content in different stages of fruit development shows that the content of anthocyanin in black currant and red currant was higher and gradually increased with the ripening of the fruit. While the content of anthocyanin in white currant was extremely low, and almost no anthocyanin was detected. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis shows that the expression level of dfr in black currant was higher than red currant and white currant in each period of fruit development. As the diameter of the fruit increased and the color of the peel deepened, the expression level of dfr in the black currant showed an increasing trend. In the red currant, the expression level gradually increased until the period of 75% fruit color, then the Rrdfr decreased rapidly. In white currant, the overall trend showed a downward trend, and its expression level was the lowest. All the results suggest that dfr gene plays a role in the process of fruit color.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Ribes , Antocianinas/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Frutas/genética , Filogenia , Ribes/genética , Ribes/metabolismo
16.
Acta Cir Bras ; 35(7): e202000705, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785417

RESUMO

Purpose Studies have demonstrated that star fruit consumption by nephropathic patients triggers severe neurotoxic effects that can lead to convulsions or even death. Brain areas likely susceptible to star fruit poisoning have not been investigated. The objective of the present study was to map possible epileptogenic areas susceptible to star fruit intoxication in nephropathic rats. Methods The study analyzed 25 rats (5 groups). Rats in the experimental group underwent bilateral ureteral obstruction surgery and orogastric gavages with star fruit juice. An electroencephalogram was used to confirm convulsive seizures. Urea and creatinine levels were used to confirm the uremia model. Immunohistochemical analysis was used to map cells with c-Fos protein (c-Fos+ cells) to identify brain areas with increased neuronal activity. Control groups included non-nephropathic and nephropathic rats that did not receive star fruit. Results A statistically significant increase (p<0.01) in c-Fos+ cells was noted in nephropathic animals receiving star fruit juice compared to control groups, in brain areas commonly related to epileptogenic neural circuits including the hippocampus, amygdala, rhinal cortex, anterior cingulate area, piriform area, and medial dorsal thalamus. Conclusion These data corroborate the neurotoxic capacity of star fruit in nephropathic patients.


Assuntos
Frutas , Nefropatias , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos , Animais , Encéfalo , Córtex Cerebral , Frutas/envenenamento , Hipocampo , Humanos , Nefropatias/complicações , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-fos/metabolismo , Ratos
17.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(8): 551, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32737594

RESUMO

Changes in consumer demand due to preferences for a healthier lifestyle have led to a new market offering fruit and salad products ready to eat. This affects the agro-industrial sector and the characteristic of waste streams generated having the organic fraction higher quality and representing a new opportunity of valorisation. This study experimentally evaluated the digestion of wastes derived from the fourth range product sector. It was also proposed the use of this digestate as a fermentation medium for producing plant growth-promoting cultures. Three digestion scenarios were studied: Scenario 1 considered biogas valorisation using a combined heat and power (CHP) unit. Scenario 2 featured biogas upgrading to be used as vehicle fuel. Finally, scenario 3 evaluated the transport of waste materials to the digestion plant by a network of pipes and pumps directly from the production chain. All three scenarios included the land application of a biostimulator based on the production of a plant growth-promoting culture derived from digestate. Life cycle analysis and life cycle costing were used to determine potential environmental impacts and costs over a lifetime of 25 years. The study showed that scenario 1 was the most favourable option for valorising this type of waste, although the economic assessment resulted in negative values for all three alternatives.


Assuntos
Frutas , Produtos Vegetais , Anaerobiose , Biocombustíveis , Monitoramento Ambiental
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0224056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813718

RESUMO

Many recent studies assessing fruit productivity of plants in the boreal forest focus on interannual variability across a forested region, rather than on environmental variability within the forest. Frequency and severity of wildfires in the boreal forest affect soil moisture, canopy, and community structure at the landscape level, all of which may influence overall fruit production at a site directly or indirectly. We evaluated how fruit production in two boreal shrubs, Vaccinium uliginosum (blueberry) and V. vitis-idaea (lingonberry), was explained by factors associated with resource availability (such as canopy cover and soil conditions) and pollen limitation (such as floral resources for pollinators and pollen deposition) across boreal forest sites of Interior Alaska in 2017. We classified our study sites into upland and lowland sites, which differed in elevation, soil moisture, and active layer. We found that resource and pollen limitation differed between the two species and between uplands and lowlands. Lingonberry was more pollen limited than blueberry, and plants in lowland sites were more pollen limited relative to other sites while plants in upland sites were relatively more resource limited. Additionally, canopy cover had a significant negative effect in upland sites on a ramet's investment in reproductive tissues and leaves versus structural growth, but little effect in lowland sites. These results point to importance of including pollinator service as well as resource availability in predictions for changes in berry abundance.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea/metabolismo , Alaska , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Frutas/química , Pólen/química , Pólen/metabolismo , Polinização , Reprodução , Taiga
19.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0227528, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841235

RESUMO

The morphology and physiology of diaspores play crucial roles in determining the fate of seeds in unpredictable habitats. In some genera of the Brassicaceae different types of diaspores can be found. Lepidium appelianum produces non-dormant seeds within indehiscent fruits while in L. campestre dormant seeds are released from dehiscent fruits. We investigated whether the allocation of relevant defence compounds into different tissues in different Lepidium species may be related to the diverse dispersal strategy (indehiscent and dehiscent) and seed physiology (non-dormant and dormant). Total glucosinolate concentration and composition were analysed in immature and mature seeds and pericarps of L. appelianum and L. campestre using high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, for comparison, transgenic RNAi L. campestre lines were used that produce indehiscent fruits due to silencing of LcINDEHISCENCE, the INDEHISCENCE ortholog of L. campestre. Total glucosinolate concentrations were lower in immature compared to mature seeds in all studied Lepidium species and transgenic lines. In contrast, indehiscent fruits of L. appelianum maintained their total glucosinolate concentration in mature pericarps compared to immature ones, while in dehiscent L. campestre and in indehiscent RNAi-LcIND L. campestre a significant decrease in total glucosinolate concentrations from immature to mature pericarps could be detected. Indole glucosinolates were detected in lower abundance than the other glucosinolate classes (aliphatic and aromatic). Relatively high concentrations of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate were found in mature seeds of L. appelianum compared to other tissues, while no indole glucosinolates were detected in mature diaspores of L. campestre. The diaspores of the latter species may rather depend on aliphatic and aromatic glucosinolates for long-term protection. The allocation patterns of glucosinolates correlate with the morpho-physiologically distinct fruits of L. appelianum and L. campestre and may be explained by the distinct dispersal strategies and the dormancy status of both species.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Lepidium/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ecossistema , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Lepidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes/fisiologia , Água
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236509, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785243

RESUMO

Knowledge about population genetic structure and dispersal capabilities is important for the development of targeted management strategies for agricultural pest species. The apple fruit moth, Argyresthia conjugella (Lepidoptera, Yponomeutidae), is a pre-dispersal seed predator. Larvae feed on rowanberries (Sorbus aucuparia), and when rowanberry seed production is low (i.e., inter-masting), the moth switches from laying eggs in rowanberries to apples (Malus domestica), resulting in devastating losses in apple crops. Using genetic methods, we investigated if this small moth expresses any local genetic structure, or alternatively if gene flow may be high within the Scandinavian Peninsula (~850.000 km2, 55o - 69o N). Genetic diversity was found to be high (n = 669, mean He = 0.71). For three out of ten tetranucleotide STRs, we detected heterozygote deficiency caused by null alleles, but tests showed little impact on the overall results. Genetic differentiation between the 28 sampling locations was very low (average FST = 0.016, P < 0.000). Surprisingly, we found that all individuals could be assigned to one of two non-geographic genetic clusters, and that a third, geographic cluster was found to be associated with 30% of the sampling locations, with weak but significant signals of isolation-by-distance. Conclusively, our findings suggest wind-aided dispersal and spatial synchrony of both sexes of the apple fruit moth over large areas and across very different climatic zones. We speculate that the species may recently have had two separate genetic origins caused by a genetic bottleneck after inter-masting, followed by rapid dispersal and homogenization of the gene pool across the landscape. We suggest further investigations of spatial genetic similarities and differences of the apple fruit moth at larger geographical scales, through life-stages, across inter-masting, and during attacks by the parasitoid wasp (Microgaster politus).


Assuntos
Genética Populacional , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Mariposas/genética , Oviposição/fisiologia , Animais , Frutas/genética , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/parasitologia , Mariposas/patogenicidade , Mariposas/fisiologia , Oviposição/genética , Dispersão de Sementes/genética , Sorbus/genética , Sorbus/parasitologia
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