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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255605, 2024. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355882

RESUMO

Abstract Combining ability analysis provides useful information for the selection of parents, also information regarding the nature and magnitude of involved gene actions. Crops improvement involves strategies for enhancing yield potentiality and quality components. Targeting the improvement of respective characters in bitter gourd, combining ability and genetic parameters for 19 characters were estimated from a 6×6 full diallel analysis technique. The results revealed that the variances due to general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) were highly significant for most of the important characters. It indicated the importance of both additive and non-additive gene actions. GCA variances were higher in magnitude than SCA variances for all the characters studied indicating the predominance of the additive gene effects in their inheritance. The parent P2 (BG 009) appeared as the best general combiner for earliness; P1 (BG 006) for number of fruits, average single fruit weight and fruit yield; P4 (BG 027) for node number of first female flower and days to seed fruit maturity; P3 (BG 011) for fruit length and thickness of the fruit flesh; P5 (BG 033) for 100-seed weight; and P6 for number of nodes per main vine. The SCA effect as well as reciprocal effect was also significant for most of the important characters in different crosses.


Resumo A análise da capacidade de combinação fornece informações úteis para a seleção dos pais, também informações sobre a natureza e a magnitude das ações dos genes envolvidos. A melhoria das safras envolve estratégias para aumentar a potencialidade da produção e os componentes de qualidade. Visando ao aprimoramento dos respectivos caracteres em cabaça-amarga, capacidade de combinação e parâmetros genéticos para 19 caracteres, foram estimados a partir de uma técnica de análise dialélica completa 6 × 6. Os resultados revelaram que as variâncias, devido à capacidade geral de combinação (GCA) e capacidade específica de combinação (SCA), foram altamente significativas para a maioria dos caracteres importantes. Indicou a importância das ações gênicas aditivas e não aditivas. As variâncias GCA foram maiores em magnitude do que as variâncias SCA para todos os caracteres estudados, indicando a predominância dos efeitos do gene aditivo em sua herança. O pai P2 (BG 009) apareceu como o melhor combinador geral para o início; P1 (BG 006) para número de frutos, peso médio de um único fruto e produção de frutos; P4 (BG 027) para número de nó da primeira flor fêmea e dias para a maturidade do fruto da semente; P3 (BG 011) para comprimento do fruto e espessura da polpa do fruto; P5 (BG 033) para peso de 100 sementes; e P6 para o número de nós por videira principal. O efeito SCA, bem como o efeito recíproco, também foi significativo para a maioria dos personagens importantes em cruzamentos diferentes.


Assuntos
Momordica charantia , Produtos Agrícolas , Flores , Melhoria de Qualidade , Frutas/genética
3.
Food Chem ; 398: 133909, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35964568

RESUMO

Carotenoids are important secondary metabolites that may participate in response to extreme environments. Fruit color changes were observed in peaches growing at altitude on the Tibetan Plateau. Here, we qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed 43 kinds of carotenoids in 96 Tibetan peach and 12 cultivated peach fruit samples. Comparative analysis revealed that 25 kinds of carotenoids accumulated at significantly different levels between Tibetan peaches and cultivated peaches. Based on a population structure analysis, the carotenoid levels of Tibetan peaches were divided into two groups, which are mainly affected by the environmental factors light and temperature. The correlation analysis implied that the levels of 9 carotenoids were significantly correlated with altitude. qRT-PCR results showed that PSY, CCD4 and BCH were significantly differently expressed between the low and high altitude Tibetan peaches. In summary, this study showed that the abundant variation in carotenoids was highly associated with high-altitude adaptations in Tibetan peach fruit.


Assuntos
Prunus persica , Altitude , Carotenoides/análise , Frutas/química , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Tibet
4.
Food Chem ; 398: 133885, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35973299

RESUMO

This work studied the difference in pulp breakdown between two cultivars of longan cv. 'Dongbi' and 'Fuyan' from the aspect of metabolisms of lipid and energy. The results reflected that, compared to 'Fuyan' longan, 'Dongbi' longan had higher levels of energy charge, U/S and IUFA, and higher amounts of USFA, PC, PI, ATP and ADP. Moreover, 'Dongbi' longan exhibited lower levels of SFA, PA, AMP and cell membrane permeability. Also, lower PLD, LOX and lipase activities, but higher ATPase activity, lower pulp breakdown index, and better pulp appearance were exhibited in 'Dongbi' longan. These data revealed that the mitigated pulp breakdown in 'Dongbi' longan was due to the comprehensive coordination of metabolisms in lipid and energy through maintaining a higher level of energy, a higher unsaturation degree of fatty acids, delaying the degradation of phospholipids, and better retaining the membrane structural integrity of microsome and entire cell.


Assuntos
Frutas , Sapindaceae , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Sapindaceae/metabolismo
5.
Food Chem ; 398: 133940, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988416

RESUMO

Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) application impacts on endogenous H2S, reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in cold-stored peach fruit were investigated. 20 µL L-1 H2S (NaHS as the donor) efficiently retarded the quality deterioration arising from chilling injury (CI), triggering endogenous H2S production, while enhancing antioxidant systems and ROS generation (NADPH oxidative enzyme). H2S promoted nitric oxide (NO) correlated with the S-nitrosoglutathione reductase (GSNOR)-mediated GSNO reduction, while suppressing the peroxynitrite anion content. As the pivotal coenzyme of ROS and RNS, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) levels were elevated by H2S during late-stage storage via the tricarboxylic acid cycle, where reduced NADP-isocitrate dehydrogenase (NADP-ICDH) activity and gene expression. Structural analysis of peach NADP-ICDH (UniProtKB M5WXP5) deduced that Cys79 and Tyr396 are the likeliest targets for S-nitrosylation and nitration, respectively. These results indicate that H2S counteracts the disorders of ROS and RNS to ameliorate CI of peach fruit.


Assuntos
Sulfeto de Hidrogênio , Prunus persica , Frutas/química , Homeostase , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/análise , NADP/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Prunus persica/genética , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
6.
Food Chem ; 398: 133920, 2023 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988418

RESUMO

The overuse of swelling agents in fruits and vegetables has rapidly increased, resulting in food safety problems. Hence, a new method for the selective extraction and detection of thidiazuron (TDZ) and forchlorfenuron (KT30) was developed using deep eutectic solvent-molecularly imprinted hydrophilic resin (DES-MIHR) as a pipette tip solid-phase extraction (PT-SPE) adsorbent with excellent molecular recognition in aqueous matrixes. DES-MIHR interacted with TDZ and KT30 via π-π interactions and hydrogen bonding. The miniaturized PT-SPE can be performed with just 5.0 mg adsorbent, 0.3 mL water, and 0.2 mL eluent, thus having the advantage of the low consumption of adsorbent and organic reagents. The performance of the DES-MIHR-PT-SPE-high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was demonstrated with the recoveries from various fruits and vegetables being 81.1-102.9 % (RSD ≤ 7.1 %). Thereby indicating the general applicability of the developed method for the accurate determination of trace swelling agents in fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Verduras , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Solventes Eutéticos Profundos , Frutas , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
7.
Food Chem ; 399: 133979, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35998494

RESUMO

The changes of capsaicinoids in the pericarp and placenta of Jeromin pepper fruits, collected at two different stages of plant's maturity (young and adult), has been studied throughout the ripening process. This variety is used in the production of "Pimentón de La Vera" and recognized under a Protected Designation of Origin, so it is of great importance to determine their optimum harvesting time to get the most of its beneficial health effects. Capsaicinoids reached the maximum concentration on the 30th days post-anthesis (dpa) for the young plant, while in the adult plant it was later, specifically on 40th and 60th dpa for the placenta and pericarp, respectively. From this moment on, a sharp decrease in their content is observed. In addition, higher amounts of total capsaicinoids have been found in the second stage of plant maturity with respect to the first one, both in the placenta and in the pericarp.


Assuntos
Capsicum , Piper nigrum , Capsaicina/análise , Frutas/química
8.
Food Chem ; 399: 133972, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36027810

RESUMO

Pomegranate (Punica grantum L.) fruit juice was concentrated by forward osmosis or thermal evaporation and the samples were stored at ambient (25 °C) and accelerated (37 °C) storage conditions. The anthocyanin content of raw, reconstituted forward osmosis as well as reconstituted thermally evaporated pomegranate juice were 421.1, 414.4 and 357.2 mg/kg respectively. The physicochemical attributes of pomegranate juice concentrate such as anthocyanin content, antioxidant activity, browning index, and hydroxymethyl furfural showed that the quality of the concentrate was markedly affected by storage conditions. Based on the hydroxymethyl furfural content (≤25 mg/kg), it was concluded that the forward osmosis concentrated juices could be stored at ambient and accelerated conditions for ∼101 and ∼66 days, respectively. While, thermally concentrated juice could only be stored for less ∼31 and ∼3 days, respectively. Forward osmosis could be a method to concentrate pomegranate juice with minimum effect on quality attributes with extended shelf life.


Assuntos
Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Romã (Fruta) , Antocianinas/análise , Frutas/química , Furaldeído/análise , Cinética , Osmose
9.
Food Chem ; 399: 133927, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029674

RESUMO

Copigmentation effect of flavonoids on black mulberry juice and its main anthocyanin, cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G), was evaluated. Results showed that the hyperchromic effect of flavonols, such as kaempferol (KAE), hyperoside (HYP), rutin (RUT), quercetin (QTI) and isoquercitrin (IQT), was better than that of quercitrin (QTR) and catechin (CAT). The degradation rate constant (k) of C3G decreased by 8.6 %∼50.0 % when KAE, HYP, RUT, QTI and IQT were added, whilst half-life (t1/2), activation energy (Ea) and hydration reaction equilibrium constant (pKh) increased by 7.4 %∼99.0 %, 60.0 %∼95.7 % and 8.3 %∼37.8 % respectively. Meanwhile, the maximum absorption wavelength of the mixture displayed bathochromic shift. Molecular simulation indicated that the interaction energy with C3G was KAE > HYP > RUT > QTI > IQT > QTR > CAT. The main driving force forming C3G-flavonol complex were hydrogen bond and Van der Waals interaction. These results will provide theoretical reference to enhance color stability of food rich in anthocyanins.


Assuntos
Catequina , Morus , Antocianinas/análise , Catequina/química , Flavonoides/análise , Flavonóis/análise , Frutas/química
10.
Food Chem ; 399: 133942, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037685

RESUMO

An objective sensory evaluation of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), involving the chemical characterization of positive attributes, is of interest. These attributes are objectively divided, according to fruitiness, into "green" and "ripe" fruity. This work studied the differentiation in the volatile profile of EVOOs into these two classes, obtained by three analytical methods, including different extraction techniques and detectors and two data processing strategies, and their relation with sensory results. According to the results, each method allowed the characterization of the two classes, providing information on different volatile compounds, which increased in number through PARADISe software (14 more than the conventional processing). Moreover, some volatile compounds showed significant differences between the two classes, 16 highlighted by the variables with importance in projection (VIP) for green fruity (e.g. (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, methyl ether) and 23 for ripe fruity EVOOs (e.g. (Z)-2-hexen-1-ol), which could be considered as useful markers to complement quality assessment.


Assuntos
Frutas , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Biomarcadores/análise , Frutas/química , Azeite de Oliva/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 399: 133997, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037687

RESUMO

The effect of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) treatment on softening, cell wall components and cell wall metabolic genes in okras after harvest was studied. The results showed that HRW treatment could maintain fruit firmness and delay softening, thereby prolonging shelf life in okras during storage. The treated okras displayed significantly lower levels water- and chelate-soluble pectins while higher contents of Na2CO3-soluble pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose. The cell wall biosynthesis was maintained by HRW treatment via up-regulating genes involved in biosynthesis of pectin, hemicellulose and cellulose at the beginning of storage. On the contrary, the treatment could inhibit the cell wall disassembly due to the down-regulation of numerous cell wall degradative genes including AePME, AeGAL and AeCX at the end of storage. Taken together, our results suggested that HRW treatment delayed softening and extended shelf life in postharvest okras through modifying cell wall biosynthesis and disassembly at different times of storage.


Assuntos
Abelmoschus , Frutas , Abelmoschus/metabolismo , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Celulose/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Pectinas/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 399: 133999, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037688

RESUMO

Melastoma dodecandrum Lour. (MDL) extracts have shown potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, suggesting MDL might be a good source of α-glucosidase inhibitors. The aim of the study was to identify compounds in MDL extracts with α-glucosidase inhibitory activities and evaluate their effect on postprandial blood glucose as well as elucidating the underlying mechanisms of inhibition. A total of 34 polyphenols were identified in MDL fruits, among which 10 anthocyanins and three proanthocyanidin derivatives were discovered for the first time. Dosing mice with MDL extracts (100 mg/kg body weight, by gavage) was associated with a significantly decrease in postprandial blood glucose concentrations after oral administration of maltose. The most potent α-glucosidase inhibitor was identified as casuarictin (IC50 of 0.21 µg/mL). Casuarictin bound competitively to α-glucosidase, occupying not only the catalytic site but also forming strong hydrogen bonds with α-glucosidase residues. Therefore, casuarictin derived from MDL fruits might be used as novel α-glucosidase inhibitor in functional foods or other dietary products.


Assuntos
Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases , Melastomataceae , Animais , Antocianinas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Melastomataceae/metabolismo , Camundongos , Extratos Vegetais/química , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo
13.
Food Chem ; 399: 133955, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36041336

RESUMO

Herbicides atrazine and acetochlor are used in crop production. Because of environmental and health hazards with respective maximum contamination levels of 3 and 20 ng/mL, quantifying these herbicides is important when considering presence in foods and vegetables. We utilized two Pd@Pt nanoparticle-amplified immunoassays, a colorimetric Pd@Pt nanoparticle-linked immunosorbent assay (NLISA) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) dependent on catalytic activity of Pd@Pt in a dual-lateral flow immunoassay (dual-LFIA-DPV). We achieved overall recoveries of 88.5-114 % in juice, fruit, and vegetable samples for both immunoassays. The NLISA yielded limits of detection (LODs) of 0.59 and 0.31 µg/kg and the dual-LFIA-DPV 0.27 and 0.51 µg/kg for the two respective species. Results for both immunoassays were validated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), for all food and drink samples though LODs are compromised when configuring the HPLC for both species with the same chromatogram. We expect Pd@Pt-based immunoassays to prove useful in various fields.


Assuntos
Herbicidas , Nanopartículas , Frutas/química , Herbicidas/análise , Imunoensaio/métodos , Imunoadsorventes/análise , Limite de Detecção , Verduras/química
14.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248931, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345525

RESUMO

Abstract Among several fruits, mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), it aroused the interest of producers and consumers due to its attractive sensory characteristics and health beneficial properties (high nutritional value and presence of bioactive substances), thus, this work evaluates the nutritional factors of the flour residue of mangaba processing that is despised by the food industry, and the influence of temperature on its production. The mangaba processing residue was splited in two main groups: in natura sample (control), and other for preparation of flour that was dried at 50 °C and divided into two other groups: treatment A (flour with roasts at 110 °C and 130 °C) and treatment B (flour from drying at 50 °C). The nutritional characteristics of flours were analyzed considering the chemical parameters: pH, titratable total acidity and soluble solids, in addition to the determination of moisture content, total lipids, total dietary fiber and ash, total energy value, antioxidant activity, phytochemical screening, quantification of phenolic compounds and flavonoids, as well as technological functional properties (water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), milk absorption index (MAI) and milk solubility index (MSI) and oil absorption index (OAI). The results showed that the bioactive compounds present in the extracts do not have significant properties of acting as free radical kidnappers. The heat treatment, performed in the flour of mangaba processing residues, influenced the nutritional factors and properties of absorption and solubility, which showed statistical differences. These results show that the flour is a viable alternative for the energy enrichment of diets, contributing to the development of new products, the reduction of the disposal of these residues and consequently to the minimization of the environmental impact.


Resumo Dentre as diversas frutas a mangaba (Hancornia speciosa Gomes), despertou interesse de produtores e consumidores devido às suas características sensoriais atrativas e propriedades benéficas à saúde (elevado valor nutricional e presença de substâncias bioativas), assim, o trabalho avaliar os fatores nutricionais do resíduo da farinha de processamento de mangaba que é desprezado pela indústria alimentícia e, a influência da temperatura na sua produção. O resíduo de processamento da mangaba foi dividido em dois lotes, sendo um deles utilizado para as análises in natura (amostra controle) e o outro para a confecção da farinha que foi seca a 50 °C, e dividida em dois lotes: tratamento A (farinha com torras a 110 °C e 130 °C) e no tratamento B (farinha oriunda da secagem a 50 °C). Analisou-se as características nutricionais de farinhas considerando os parâmetros químicos: pH, acidez total titulável e sólidos solúveis, além da determinação do teor de umidade, lipídios totais, fibra alimentar total e cinzas, valor energético total, atividade antioxidante, triagem fitoquímica, quantificação de compostos fenólicos e flavonoides, bem como as propriedades funcionais tecnológicas (índice de absorção de água (IAA), índice de solubilidade em água (ISA), índice de absorção de leite (IAL) e índice de solubilidade em leite (ISL) e índice de absorção de óleo (IAO). Na análise foi inferido que os compostos bioativos presentes nos extratos não possuem propriedades significativas de agir como sequestradores de radicais livres. O tratamento térmico, realizado na farinha de resíduos de processamento de mangaba, influenciou nos dados dos fatores nutricionais e das propriedades de absorção e solubilidade, os quais apresentaram diferenças estatísticas. Estes resultados credenciam a farinha como uma alternativa viável para o enriquecimento energético de dietas, contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos, a redução do descarte desses resíduos e consequentemente para a minimização do impacto ambiental.


Assuntos
Fibras na Dieta/análise , Farinha/análise , Frutas/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Valor Nutritivo
15.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248063, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339340

RESUMO

Abstract Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Resumo Persea lingue Ness é uma árvore que vive principalmente na floresta temperada do centro-sul do Chile. As folhas são usadas na etnomedicina. O fruto é uma drupa similar ao abacate e que nunca foi pesquisada anteriormente. O objetivo deste estudo foi o de avaliar a citotoxicidade em células leucêmicas e as atividades antibacterianas, assim como algumas características químicas do extrato de fruto e da folha do P. lingue. As atividades antibacterianas foram determinadas pelo método da inibição do crescimento bacteriano em meio líquido empregando-se bactérias Gram-positivas e Gram-negativas. As linhagens celulares leucêmicas, Kasumi-1 e Jurkat foram usadas para avaliar a atividade citotóxica em ensaios empregando-se iodeto de propídio e AlamarBlue. Foram avaliados os teores totais de fenóis, flavonóides, taninos condensados, alcalóides e lipídeos presentes nos extratos das folhas e dos frutos. As atividades antioxidantes de ambos os extratos também foram avaliadas. O extrato das folhas foi o que apresentou o maior conteúdo de fenóis, taninos condensados e flavonóides totais e a maior atividade antioxidante. Já o extrato de fruto apresentou a maior quantidade de lipídios e alcaloides e a melhor atividade antibacteriana contra Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium e Micrococcus luteus. Já o extrato das folhas apresentou apenas atividade contra M. luteus. Em relação à atividade citotóxica, apenas o extrato do fruto apresentou citotoxicidade contra as linhagens celulares Jurkat e Kasumi-1. Em resumo, o extrato do fruto de P. lingue é uma potencial fonte de moléculas com atividade biológica para o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos a serem utilizados em alguns tipos de leucemia, bem como agente antibacteriano.


Assuntos
Lauraceae , Persea , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Frutas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
16.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247071, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285609

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was conducted to evaluate the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hypoglycemic effects of whole kumquat (Ku) powder in diabetic rats fed a high-fat-high-cholesterol (HFHC) diet. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using stable 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging method, 2,2´-azinobis (3-ethyl benzo thiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS) and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP). Total phenolic content was (51.85 mg GAE/g) and total flavonoid content was (0.24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE/g). DPPH and ABTS values were 3.32 and 3.98 mg Trolox equivalent (TE)/g where FRAP value was 3.00 mM Fe2+/kg dry material. A total of 90 albino rats were used in the present study. Rats group were as follows: normal diet; normal treated (2, 4, and 6% Ku.), diabetic rats (non-treated), diabetic + HFHC diet (non-treated), HFHC (non-treated), Diabetic (treated), HFHC (treated) and Diabetic + HFHC (treated). The diets were followed for 8 weeks. Blood samples were collected at the end of the experiment. Serum glucose was recorded and thyroid hormones (T4, Thyroxine and T3, Triiodothyronine) were conducted. Diet supplemented with Kumquat at different concentrations have a hypoglycemic effect and improve the thyroid hormones of both diabetic rats and HFHC diabetic rats.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido para avaliar a composição química, a atividade antioxidante e os efeitos hipoglicêmicos do pó de kumquat (Ku) em ratos diabéticos alimentados com uma dieta rica em gordura e colesterol (HFHC). As atividades antioxidantes foram avaliadas usando o método de eliminação de radicais livres de 1,1-difenil 2-picrilhidrazil (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis (ácido 3-etilbenzotiazolina-6-sulfônico) radical cátion (ABTS) e antioxidante redutor férrico potência (FRAP). O conteúdo fenólico total foi (51,85 mg GAE / g) e o conteúdo total de flavonoides foi (0,24 mg Cateachin Equivalent, CE / g). Os valores de DPPH e ABTS foram 3,32 e 3,98 mg equivalente de Trolox (TE) / g, em que o valor de FRAP foi de 3,00 mM Fe2 + / kg de material seco. Um total de 90 ratos albinos foi usado ​​no presente estudo. O grupo dos ratos foi o seguinte: dieta normal: tratados normais (2, 4 e 6% Ku.), ratos diabéticos (não tratados), diabéticos + dieta HFHC (não tratados), HFHC (não tratados), diabéticos (tratados), HFHC (tratados) e diabéticos + HFHC (tratados). As dietas foram seguidas por 8 semanas. Amostras de sangue foram coletadas ao final do experimento. A glicose sérica foi registrada e os hormônios tireoidianos (T4, Tiroxina e T3, Triiodotironina) foram conduzidos. A dieta suplementada com kumquat em diferentes concentrações tem um efeito hipoglicêmico e melhora os hormônios tireoidianos tanto de ratos diabéticos quanto de ratos diabéticos com HFHC.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Rutaceae , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Pós , Hormônios Tireóideos , Glicemia , Frutas
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247539, 2023. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278542

RESUMO

Abstract Numerous studies have investigated the chemical composition and biological activities of essential oils from different Citrus species fruit peel, leaves and flowers. This paper aims to investigate the chemical composition, larvicidal and antileishmanial activities of essential oil from Citrus reticulata fruit peel (CR-EO). CR-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type apparatus and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC-MS and GC-FID. Limonene (85.7%), ɣ-terpinene (6.7%) and myrcene (2.1%) were identified as its major components. CR-EO showed high activity against promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis (IC50 = 8.23 µg/mL). CR-EO also exhibited high larvicidal activity against third instar Aedes aegypti larvae at a lethal concentration (LC50 = 58.35 µg/mL) and 100% mortality at 150 µg/mL. This study suggests, for the first time, the potential use of CR-EO against this important mosquito-borne viral disease caused by the genus Aedes.


Resumo Numerosos estudos têm investigado a composição química e as atividades biológicas de óleos essenciais extraídos de cascas dos frutos, folhas e flores de diferentes espécies de Citrus. Este trabalho tem como objetivo investigar a composição química e as atividades larvicida e leishmanicida in vitro do óleo essencial das cascas dos frutos de Citrus reticulata (CR-EO). CR-EO foi obtido pela técnica de extração em aparelho Clevenger e sua composição química foi determinada por CG-EM e CG-DIC. Limoneno (85,7%), ɣ-terpineno (6,7%) and mirceno (2,1%) foram identificados como os constituintes majoritários. CR-EO mostrou alta atividade contra as formas promastigota de Leishmania amazonensis (CI50 = 8,23 µg/mL). CR-EO também exibiu alta atividade larvicida contra as larvas do terceiro estágio do Aedes aegypti com concentração letal (CL50 = 58,35 µg/mL) e mortalidade de 100% em 150 µg/mL. Este estudo sugere, pela primeira vez, o uso potencial de CR-EO contra esta importante doença viral transmitida por mosquitos do gênero Aedes.


Assuntos
Animais , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Citrus , Aedes , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Frutas , Larva
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246455, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278524

RESUMO

Abstract The inheritance of the seedless fruit characteristic of Annona squamosa has not yet been explained. Molecular techniques may aid breeding programs, mainly in the assisted selection of the target gene. The INO gene may be related to seed development in these fruits. The objective of the present paper was to investigate the inheritance of seedlessness in the 'Brazilian seedless' sugar apple and INO gene conservation in Annona squamosa and Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa genotypes by assessing their homology with the INO database genes. The F1 generation was obtained by crossing the mutant 'Brazilian seedless' (male genitor) (P1) with the wild-type A. squamosa with seeds (M1 and M2, female genitors). The INO gene was studied in mutant and wild-type A. squamosa (P1, M1, M2 and M3) and in the Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4) cultivar. The DNA was extracted from young leaves, and four sets of specific primers flanking the INO gene were amplified. The seedless characteristic was identified as stenospermatic in the fruits of parental P1, suggesting monogenic inheritance with complete dominance. High sequence similarity of the INO gene amplifications in the sugar apple accessions (M1, M2, M3) and the atemoya cultivar Gefner (M4) reinforces the hypothesis of their conservation.


Resumo A herança da característica de fruto sem sementes de Annona squamosa ainda não foi esclarecida. Técnicas moleculares podem auxiliar em programas de melhoramento, principalmente na seleção assistida do gene de interesse. O gene INO pode estar relacionado ao desenvolvimento da semente dessas frutas. O objetivo foi investigar a herança da ausência de sementes em Annona squamosa e a conservação do gene INO nos genótipos Annona squamosa e Annona cherimola x Annona squamosa avaliando sua homologia com banco de dados de genes INO. A geração F1 foi obtida pelo cruzamento do mutante 'Brazilian seedless' (genitor masculino) (P1) com o tipo selvagem com sementes (A. squamosa) (M1 e M2, genitores femininos). O gene INO foi estudado em A. squamosa, mutante e selvagem (P1, M1, M2 e M3) e na cultivar Gefner atemoya (A. cherimola x A. squamosa) (M4). O DNA foi extraído de folhas jovens, e quatro conjuntos de primers específicos flanqueando o gene INO foram amplificados. A característica sem sementes foi identificada como estenospermática nos frutos do parental P1, sugerindo herança monogênica com dominância completa. A alta similaridade de sequência das amplificações do gene INO nos acessos de pinha (M1, M2, M3) e na cultivar de atemóia Gefner (M4) reforça a hipótese de sua conservação.


Assuntos
Annonaceae , Annona/genética , Sementes/genética , Brasil , Melhoramento Vegetal , Frutas/genética
19.
ScientificWorldJournal ; 2022: 2299725, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35320948

RESUMO

Our previous study verified that the waste skin of cocoa (Theobroma cacao L) fruit or waste cocoa pod husks had the efficacy to overcome hair loss or alopecia. This study aims to determine the formula and activity of hair cream of cocoa pod peel water fraction, which is effective in stimulating hair growth. Activity testing uses the modified Tanaka method. The results showed that the cocoa husk wastewater fraction could be formulated into hair cream, but there were changes in viscosity and pH after the freeze-thaw test, but still within the allowed limit. The hair cream water fraction gel stimulated hair growth activity based on the hair length data with a significant difference in concentration of the preparation. The best activity in hair cream preparation was at 12.5% concentration. In addition, there were no signs of irritation to the rabbit's skin where hair cream preparation was applied. The results of this study indicated that cocoa fruit peel cream can be used for antialopecia treatments.


Assuntos
Cacau , Animais , Frutas , Cabelo , Coelhos
20.
J Bras Nefrol ; 44(1): 9-18, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289007

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Aminoglycoside-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a pathology closely linked to oxidative and inflammatory reactions. Taking into account the previous reported antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of D-005, a lipid extract obtained from Cuban palm Acrocomia crispa (Arecaceae) fruits, this work aimed to evaluate the effects of D-005 on kanamycin-induced AKI. METHODS: Male Wistar rats were divided into 7 groups: negative control (vehicle, Tween 65/H2O) and six groups treated with kanamycin to induce AKI: positive control (vehicle), D-005 (25, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) and grape seed extract (GSE, 200 mg/kg). D-005, vehicle, and GSE oral treatments were administered once daily for seven days, 1 h before kanamycin (500 mg/kg, i.p.). Serum uric acid and urea concentrations, renal histopathology, and oxidative markers (malondialdehyde (MDA), sulfhydryl (SH) groups, and catalase (CAT) activity) were assessed. RESULTS: D-005 significantly reduced uric acid and urea levels, starting from D-005 100 mg/kg. Histopathologically, D-005, at all the tested doses, protected renal parenchyma structures (glomeruli, proximal tubules, and interstitium). These findings were accompanied by a significant reduction of MDA and SH group concentrations as well as restoration of CAT activity. The highest percentages of inhibition were obtained with the dose of 400 mg/kg. GSE, the reference substance, also prevented kanamycin-induced biochemical and histopathological changes, as well as reduced MDA and SH groups and restored CAT activity. CONCLUSION: The administration of repeated oral doses of D-005 significantly protected against kanamycin-induced AKI, which could be associated with the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of this extract.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Arecaceae , Injúria Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Injúria Renal Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Injúria Renal Aguda/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Frutas , Humanos , Rim/patologia , Lipídeos/farmacologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Ácido Úrico
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