Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 47.585
Filtrar
1.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500628

RESUMO

Due to the increasing frequency of wildfires in recent years, there is a strong need for developing mitigation strategies to manage the impact of smoke exposure of vines and occurrence of 'smoke taint' in wine. One plausible approach would be to prevent or inhibit the uptake of volatile phenols from smoke into grape berries in the vineyard. In this study we describe a model system we developed for evaluating under controlled conditions the effectiveness of a range of surface coatings (including existing horticultural sprays) for reducing/preventing the uptake of volatile phenols and their subsequent conversion to phenolic glycosides. Grapes were coated with the materials to be tested and then exposed to gaseous phenols, via evaporation from an aqueous solution, in a semi-closed glass container. Analysis of volatile phenols and their glycosidic grape metabolites demonstrated that the treatments typically did not provide any significant protection; in fact, some resulted in higher concentrations of these compounds in the grapes. The highest concentrations of volatile phenols and their glycosides were observed after application of oily, hydrophobic materials, suggesting that these materials may enhance the adsorption or transfer of volatile phenols into grape berries. Therefore, it is important to consider the types of sprays that are being applied in the vineyard before and during smoke events to prevent the potential of exacerbating the uptake of smoke compounds by grape berries.


Assuntos
Fenóis/farmacologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Fazendas , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosídeos/química , Incêndios Florestais
2.
Molecules ; 26(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500632

RESUMO

In the Valpolicella area (Verona, Italy) Vitis vinifera cv. Corvina is the main grape variety used to produce Amarone wine. Before starting the winemaking process, the Corvina grapes are stored in a withering (i.e., dehydrating) warehouse until about 30% of the berry weight is lost (WL). This practice is performed to concentrate the metabolites in the berry and enrich the Amarone wine in aroma and antioxidant compounds. In compliance with the guidelines and strict Amarone protocol set by the Consorzio of Amarone Valpolicella, withering must be carried out by setting the grapes in a suitable environment, either under controlled relative air humidity (RH) conditions and wind speed (WS)-no temperature modification is to be applied-or, following the traditional methods, in non-controlled environmental conditions. In general, the two processes have different dehydration kinetics due to the different conditions in terms of temperature, RH, and WS, which affect the accumulation of sugars and organic acids and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as stilbenes and glycoside aroma precursors. For this study, the two grape-withering processes were carried out under controlled (C) and non-controlled (NC) conditions, and the final compositions of the Corvina dried grapes were compared also to evaluate the effects on the organoleptic characteristics of Amarone wine. The findings highlighted differences between the two processes mainly in terms of the secondary metabolites of the dried grapes, which affect the organoleptic characteristics of Amarone wine. Indeed, by the sensory evaluation, wines produced by adopting the NC process were found more harmonious, elegant, and balanced. Finally, we can state how using a traditional system, grapes were characterised by higher levels of VOCs (volatile compounds), whilst wines had a higher and appreciable complexity and finesse.


Assuntos
Vitis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Frutas/química , Glicosídeos/química , Itália , Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Odorantes , Sensação/fisiologia , Estilbenos/química , Vinho
3.
Biol Lett ; 17(9): 20210352, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34520684

RESUMO

Fleshy fruits can be divided between climacteric (CL, showing a typical rise in respiration and ethylene production with ripening after harvest) and non-climacteric (NC, showing no rise). However, despite the importance of the CL/NC traits in horticulture and the fruit industry, the evolutionary significance of the distinction remains untested. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that NC fruits, which ripen only on the plant, are adapted to tree dispersers (feeding in the tree), and CL fruits, which ripen after falling from the plant, are adapted to ground dispersers. A literature review of 276 reports of 80 edible fruits found a strong correlation between CL/NC traits and the type of seed disperser: fruits dispersed by tree dispersers are more likely to be NC, and those dispersed by ground dispersers are more likely to be CL. NC fruits are more likely to have red-black skin and smaller seeds (preferred by birds), and CL fruits to have green-brownish skin and larger seeds (preferred by large mammals). These results suggest that the CL/NC traits have an important but overlooked seed dispersal function, and CL fruits may have an adaptive advantage in reducing ineffective frugivory by tree dispersers by falling before ripening.


Assuntos
Climatério , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Aves , Frutas , Sementes
4.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1177: 338771, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482899

RESUMO

Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy models for fresh fruit quality prediction often fail when used on a new batch or scenario having new variability which was absent in the primary calibration. To handle the new variability often model updating is required. In this study, to solve the challenge of updating NIR models related to fresh fruit quality properties, the use of a semi-supervised parameter-free calibration enhancement (PFCE) approach was proposed. Model updating with PFCE was shown in two ways: first where the model on the primary batch was updated individually for each new fruit batch, and second where the model was sequentially updated for the next batches. Furthermore, for the first time, a case of updating an instrument transferred model was also presented. The PFCE approach was shown in two real cases related to moisture and total soluble solids prediction in pear and kiwi fruit. In the case of pear, the model was later updated for 3 new measurement batches, while, for kiwi, a commercial model was updated to incorporate the variability of a new experiment carried out with a new instrument in the laboratory environment. For each modelling demonstration, the performance was benchmarked with the partial least-square (PLS) regression analysis on the primary batch. The results showed that the models updated with a semi-supervised approach kept a high predictive performance on new measurement batches, without any extra parameter optimization. An instrument transferred model was also updated to maintain its performance on different batches. Further, the sequential updating approach was found to be performing better than the update for individual batches, as the models were able to learn from multiple batches. Model updating with a semi-supervised approach can allow the NIR spectroscopy of fresh fruit to be scalable, where models can be shared between scientific or application community.


Assuntos
Frutas , Pyrus , Calibragem , Humanos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
5.
Se Pu ; 39(9): 958-967, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486835

RESUMO

Dried fruit foods, including nuts and preserved fruits, are favored by consumers and are rich in protein, lipids, minerals, vitamins, and other nutrients. However, these food products can be contaminated by pesticide residues, heavy metals, mycotoxins, and additives during growth, processing, storage, and transportation. The presence of such pollutants in excess of a certain limit will lead to food safety problems. Therefore, it is of great economic and social significance to strengthen the quality supervision of dried fruit foods. However, these foods have a complex matrix and low concentrations of various harmful substances, which necessitates efficient and appropriate sample preparation methods as well as rapid, accurate detection methods. In the present article, the sample preparation and analytical methods for harmful substances in dried fruit foods since 2010 are reviewed. The sample preparation methods are classified as field-assisted extraction, phase separation, and derivatization and extraction methods. The field-assisted extraction method is based on the action of an external field (synergistic) such as ultrasonic or microwave fields to increase the dissolution rate of hazardous substances in dried fruits and improve the extraction efficiency. Phase separation methods such as solid-phase extraction, dispersive solid-phase extraction and solid-phase microextraction are commonly used as sample preparation methods for dried fruit samples, because of the advantages of low solvent consumption and wide analysis range. Moreover, this paper discusses the progress of various analytical methods for these hazardous substances in dried fruits, including conventional laboratory methods such as chromatography, atomic spectroscopy, inorganic mass spectrometry, and electrochemical analysis, as well as rapid detection techniques suitable for field analysis. Laboratory testing has the advantages of high accuracy, high sensitivity, and low detection limits. However, it has the disadvantages of complicated preparation, long analysis time, and difficult operation. Rapid detection technology speeds up the analytical speed, has operational simplicity, and saves analysis time. The complexity of the food matrix, which easily interferes with the sample matrix, low selectivity, and difficulty in accurate quantification, it is necessary to minimize cases of incorrect or erroneous detection. Therefore, rapid detection of harmful substances in dried fruit foods is possible by optimizing the sample pretreatment methods and detection technologies, and by seeking new (especially, on-site) detection technologies. Prospects on the development of selective and non-destructive sample preparation methods and automated, high-throughput, rapid detection methods in dried fruit food analysis are presented. The development of new, green rapid sample pretreatment methods and technical products that integrate separation, enrichment, and detection as well as the construction of accurate and sensitive rapid detection methods are expected to become the development trend in the analysis of harmful substances in dried fruit foods.


Assuntos
Frutas , Resíduos de Praguicidas , Análise de Alimentos , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Microextração em Fase Sólida
6.
Biol Res ; 54(1): 28, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496968

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Improving the nutritional condition of grapevine in spring to regulate bloom, fruit set, and yield is among the management goals of vineyards. METHODS: In the present study, the early season spray of calcium sulfate (C; 0.00 and 2.00%), potassium sulfate (K; 0.00 and 3.00%), and agricultural grade mineral oil (V; 0.00 and 1.00%) on flower and fruit phenology, nutrient concentration, and cluster biophysical indices and yield of Sultana grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) were investigated for two consecutive years. RESULTS: Based on the results, the spray of this nutrient combined with mineral oil significantly affected all the treatments except cluster length, berry length, and phosphorus concentration. The highest concentrations of potassium, calcium, and magnesium were obtained in the vines treated with V0K1C1, and the highest concentrations of zinc and iron were obtained only in the vines treated with mineral oil. In treatments containing mineral oil, especially in combination with the second level of calcium and potassium (V1K1C1), bloom time, berries pea-sized time, and harvest time were delayed by 3, 3, and 6 days compared with control vines. While in vines treated with a combination of the second level of potassium and calcium (V0K1C1), bloom time, berries pea-sized time, and harvest time were advanced by 5, 4, and 1.50 days, respectively, compared with control vines. Regarding the biophysical indices of the cluster, it was found that the vines treated with V1K1C1 had higher cluster weight, berry weight, fruit, and raisins yield than other treatments. Also, the highest berry quality, including total soluble solids, titratable acidity, and total phenol content, were obtained in the vines treated with V0K1C1. However, the lowest berry quality was observed in the vines treated with mineral oil. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, the combination of nutrients with mineral oil can alleviate the adverse effect of mineral oil solely on some phenological indices and berry quality-related traits in vineyards.


Assuntos
Vitis , Sulfato de Cálcio , Frutas , Óleo Mineral , Potássio
7.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e248063, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495162

RESUMO

Persea lingue Ness is a tree species that lives mainly in temperate forests of south-central Chile. Its leaves are used in ethnomedicine, the fruit is a drupe similar to that of the avocado and has not been studied. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxicity in leukemia cell and antibacterial activity, along with some chemical content characteristics of P. lingue fruit and leaf extracts. The antibacterial activity was determined by the inhibition of bacterial growth in liquid medium assay against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The leukemia cell lines Kasumi-1 and Jurkat were used to evaluate the cytotoxic activity by using propidium iodide and AlamarBlue assays. Total phenolic, flavonoid, condensed tannin, alkaloid and lipid contents were evaluated in the fruit and in the leaf extracts. The antioxidant activity of both extracts were also elavaluated. Leaf extract presented the highest content of total phenols, condensed tannins and flavonoids, and also the highest antioxidant activity. While the fruit extract has a higher amount of lipids and alkaloids and the high antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus megaterium and Micrococcus luteus. The leaf extract only showed activity against M. luteus. Concerning the cytotoxic activity, only the fruit extract showed cytotoxicity against the cell lines Jurkat and Kasumi-1. P. lingue fruit extract is a potential source of biologically active molecules for the development of new drugs to be used in some types of leukemia, as well as antibacterial agent.


Assuntos
Lauraceae , Persea , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Frutas , Bactérias Gram-Negativas , Bactérias Gram-Positivas , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
8.
BMC Complement Med Ther ; 21(1): 219, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34470625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pears have been world-widely used as a sweet and nutritious food and a folk medicine for more than two millennia. METHODS: We conducted a review from ancient literatures to current reports to extract evidence-based functions of pears. RESULTS: We found that pears have many active compounds, e.g., flavonoids, triterpenoids, and phenolic acids including arbutin, chlorogenic acid, malaxinic acid, etc. Most of researchers agree that the beneficial compounds are concentrated in the peels. From various in vitro, in vivo, and human studies, the medicinal functions of pears can be summarized as anti-diabetic,-obese, -hyperlipidemic, -inflammatory, -mutagenic, and -carcinogenic effects, detoxification of xenobiotics, respiratory and cardio-protective effects, and skin whitening effects. Therefore, pears seem to be even effective for prevention from Covid-19 or PM2.5 among high susceptible people with multiple underlying diseases. CONCLUSION: For the current or post Covid-19 era, pears have potential for functional food or medicine for both of communicable and non-communicable disease.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Alimento Funcional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Pyrus/química , COVID-19 , Flavonoides , Humanos , Fenóis , Triterpenos
9.
J Hazard Mater ; 416: 126167, 2021 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492943

RESUMO

We synthesized NaOH-activated hydrochars via hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of Brazilian pine fruit shells at HTC residence times of 24, 48, and 72 h. The hydrochars were used as adsorbents to remove bisphenol A (BPA) from aqueous solutions. The surface area of the samples can reach up to 2220 m2 g-1, and the maximum adsorption of BPA onto the surfaces was achieved at a pH of 7.0 (708 mg g-1). Adsorption occurred mainly via monolayer formation with a low retention time of the adsorbate (τ) on the surfaces, indicating that the BPA molecules reached the already occupied active sites and returned after undergoing heat exchange (τ > 0). Adsorption is an endothermic spontaneous process that results in a balance between entropic and enthalpic contributions. In such a reaction, ΔG°< 0, even with ΔH°> 0, the process occurs with an important increase in the entropy. The desorption was more efficient with ethanol and methanol than with HCl, NaOH, and NaCl owing to the dipole-dipole forces between the adsorbate and the alcohols. Additionally, the low desorption efficiency using acid, base, and salts can be attributed to competitive effects between the desorption agents and the active sites of the adsorbents.


Assuntos
Frutas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Compostos Benzidrílicos , Frutas/química , Fenóis , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 411, 2021 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34496770

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The phytohormone ethylene controls many processes in plant development and acts as a key signaling molecule in response to biotic and abiotic stresses: it is rapidly induced by flooding, wounding, drought, and pathogen attack as well as during abscission and fruit ripening. In kiwifruit (Actinidia spp.), fruit ripening is characterized by two distinct phases: an early phase of system-1 ethylene biosynthesis characterized by absence of autocatalytic ethylene, followed by a late burst of autocatalytic (system-2) ethylene accompanied by aroma production and further ripening. Progress has been made in understanding the transcriptional regulation of kiwifruit fruit ripening but the regulation of system-1 ethylene biosynthesis remains largely unknown. The aim of this work is to better understand the transcriptional regulation of both systems of ethylene biosynthesis in contrasting kiwifruit organs: fruit and leaves. RESULTS: A detailed molecular study in kiwifruit (A. chinensis) revealed that ethylene biosynthesis was regulated differently between leaf and fruit after mechanical wounding. In fruit, wound ethylene biosynthesis was accompanied by transcriptional increases in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase (ACS), ACC oxidase (ACO) and members of the NAC class of transcription factors (TFs). However, in kiwifruit leaves, wound-specific transcriptional increases were largely absent, despite a more rapid induction of ethylene production compared to fruit, suggesting that post-transcriptional control mechanisms in kiwifruit leaves are more important. One ACS member, AcACS1, appears to fulfil a dominant double role; controlling both fruit wound (system-1) and autocatalytic ripening (system-2) ethylene biosynthesis. In kiwifruit, transcriptional regulation of both system-1 and -2 ethylene in fruit appears to be controlled by temporal up-regulation of four NAC (NAM, ATAF1/2, CUC2) TFs (AcNAC1-4) that induce AcACS1 expression by directly binding to the AcACS1 promoter as shown using gel-shift (EMSA) and by activation of the AcACS1 promoter in planta as shown by gene activation assays combined with promoter deletion analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that in kiwifruit the NAC TFs AcNAC2-4 regulate both system-1 and -2 ethylene biosynthesis in fruit during wounding and ripening through control of AcACS1 expression levels but not in leaves where post-transcriptional/translational regulatory mechanisms may prevail.


Assuntos
Actinidia/genética , Etilenos/biossíntese , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Actinidia/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Liases/genética , Liases/metabolismo , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 413, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In plants, basic leucine zipper transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in multiple biological processes such as anthesis, fruit growth & development and stress responses. However, systematic investigation and characterization of bZIP-TFs remain unclear in Chinese white pear. Chinese white pear is a fruit crop that has important nutritional and medicinal values. RESULTS: In this study, 62 bZIP genes were comprehensively identified from Chinese Pear, and 54 genes were distributed among 17 chromosomes. Frequent whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplication (DSD) were the major driving forces underlying the bZIP gene family in Chinese white pear. bZIP-TFs are classified into 13 subfamilies according to the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, purifying selection plays an important role in the evolution process of PbbZIPs. Synteny analysis of bZIP genes revealed that 196 orthologous gene pairs were identified between Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Prunus persica. Moreover, cis-elements that respond to various stresses and hormones were found on the promoter regions of PbbZIP, which were induced by stimuli. Gene structure (intron/exon) and different compositions of motifs revealed that functional divergence among subfamilies. Expression pattern of PbbZIP genes differential expressed under hormonal treatment abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate  in pear fruits by real-time qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, a systematic analysis of gene structure, motif composition, subcellular localization, synteny analysis, and calculation of synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) was performed in Chinese white pear. Sixty-two bZIP-TFs in Chinese pear were identified, and their expression profiles were comprehensively analyzed under ABA, SA, and MeJa hormones, which respond to multiple abiotic stresses and fruit growth and development. PbbZIP gene occurred through Whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. These results provide a basic framework for further elucidating the biological function characterizations under multiple developmental stages and abiotic stress responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas , Éxons , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sintenia
12.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e242439, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468507

RESUMO

Plinia cauliflora (Mart.) Kausel, popularly known as jabuticaba, is rich in polyphenols. Phenolic compounds exhibit several biological properties, which reflect on biomarkers such as biochemical parameters. In the present study, we evaluated the plasmatic levels of glucose, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid of Chinese hamsters fed for 45 days with a regular diet or cholesterol-enriched diet supplemented with a liquid extract obtained from P. cauliflora fruits residues standardized in ellagic acid and total phenolic compounds. The results showed that the concentrated extract obtained from jabuticaba residues increased the glycemia of animals fed with a regular diet and reduced the plasmatic uric acid levels of animals fed with a cholesterol-enriched diet. Since hyperuricemia is considered to be a significant risk factor of metabolic disorders and the principal pathological basis of gout, the liquid extract from P. cauliflora fruits residues would be a promising candidate as a novel hypouricaemic agent for further investigation.


Assuntos
Frutas , Myrtaceae , Animais , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Fenóis , Extratos Vegetais
13.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e244593, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468512

RESUMO

': Kinnow' mandarin (Citrus nobilis L.× Citrus deliciosa T.) is an important marketable fruit of the world. It is mainstay of citrus industry in Pakistan, having great export potential. But out of total production of the country only 10% of the produce meets the international quality standard for export. Pre-harvest fruit drop and poor fruit quality could be associated with various issues including the plant nutrition. Most of the farmers do not pay attention to the supply of micro nutrients which are already deficient in the soil. Furthermore, their mobility within plants is also a question. Zinc (Zn) is amongst those micronutrients which affect the quality and postharvest life of the fruit and its deficiency in Pakistani soils is already reported by many researchers. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the influence of pre-harvest applications of zinc sulfate (ZnSO4; 0, 0.4%, 0.6% or 0.8%) on pre-harvest fruit drop, yield and fruit quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin at harvest. The treatments were applied during the month of October i.e. 4 months prior to harvest. The applied Zn sprays had significant effect on yield and quality of the "Kinnow" fruit. Amongst different foliar applications of ZnSO4applied four months before harvest, 0.6% ZnSO4 significantly reduced pre-harvest fruit drop (10.08%) as compared to untreated control trees (46.45%). Similarly, the maximum number of fruits harvested per tree (627), fruit weight (192.9 g), juice percentage (42.2%), total soluble solids (9.5 °Brix), ascorbic acid content (35.5 mg 100 g-1) and sugar contents (17.4) were also found significantly higher with 0.6% ZnSO4 treatment as compared to rest of treatments and control. Foliar application of 0.6% ZnSO4 also significantly improved total antioxidants (TAO) and total phenolic contents (TPC) in fruit. In conclusion, foliar spray of ZnSO4 (0.6%) four months prior to harvest reduced pre-harvest fruit drop, increase yield with improved quality of 'Kinnow' mandarin fruit.


Assuntos
Citrus , Frutas , Antioxidantes , Ácido Ascórbico , Sulfato de Zinco/farmacologia
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3875-3883, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468680

RESUMO

The scope of the study was to evaluate the probability of the adequacy of water intake among residents of São Paulo, and to investigate if the quality of diet differs according to the adequacy of water intake. Data were extracted from the Health Survey of São Paulo, a cross-sectional, population-based study. Water intake (drinking water beverages and food) was evaluated using two 24-hours dietary recalls and a supplementary dietary intake questionnaire. Adequacy and classification of water intake was assessed using the corresponding Adequate Intake for sex and age of the individual. Dietary quality was evaluated using the revised Brazilian Healthy Eating Index (BHEI). The associations were tested using the Theil-Sen median test and logistic regression models. A low probability of adequate water intake was observed, and this decreased with advancing age. Except among the elderly, among whom no association was observed, a positive association between water intake and the BHEI was observed, and for the total and integral fruit components, which was maintained after confusion adjustments. Among adults, it was observed that those who ingested less water had even lower scores for saturated fats. The residents of São Paulo have low water intake, and the quality of diet is worse among those who drink less water.


Assuntos
Dieta , Ingestão de Líquidos , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos sobre Dietas , Frutas , Humanos
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(suppl 2): 3895-3906, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468682

RESUMO

This study investigates the extent to which aspects of the social integration of the elderly are linked to higher levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. It involved a cross-sectional study based on data from the National Study of Dependency in the Elderly, with a sample of 3278 elderly individuals. The variables of social integration considered were: frequency of meeting with close relatives, other relatives and neighbors and friends in the last 12 months; participation in recreational activities and in community groups, in addition to housing arrangements and marital status. The number of servings of fruit and vegetables consumed per day was the dependent variable. Logistic regression analysis was then conducted. In the adjusted model, more frequent encounters with siblings, in-laws and nephews, participation in community groups or organizations, are factors that increase the possibility of consuming two or more servings of fruit and vegetables a day, versus 1 serving or none; the opposite was observed when living alone. The variables of social integration that can increase the possibility of attaining the recommendation of consumption of fruit and vegetables daily (5 or more) in the adjusted model are frequency of encounters with siblings, in-laws and nephews and living alone.


Assuntos
Frutas , Verduras , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Humanos , Integração Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
16.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2737-2752, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472292

RESUMO

Fruit cracking is a common physiological disease. Many fruits such as tomato, sweet cherry, apple, jujube, pomegranate, and litchi are liable to crack, causing considerable economic loss and agricultural resources waste. The mechanisms of fruit cracking are comprehensive. Some correlations have been observed between susceptibility of fruit cracking and some fruit traits (genetic, fruit size, fruit shape, fruit growth rate, water content, fruit skin characteristics, related gene expression, etc). Also, environmental condition (temperature, light, rainfall, etc) and orchard management (irrigation, sun-shade, mineral, growth regulator, etc) can influence fruit cracking. Here, progress in studies on fruit cracking is reviewed to provide a reference for prevention and control of fruit cracking.


Assuntos
Litchi , Lycopersicon esculentum , Frutas
17.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 37(8): 2856-2869, 2021 Aug 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472303

RESUMO

The environmental gas concentration affects the storage period and quality of fruits and vegetables. High concentration CO2 treating for a long time will cause damage to fruits, However, the specific molecular mechanism is unclear. To analyze the mechanism of CO2 injury in apple, high-throughput sequencing technology of Illumina Hiseq 4000 and non-targeted metabolism technology were used to analyze the transcriptome sequencing and metabolomics analysis of browning flesh tissue of damage fruit and normal pulp tissue of the control group. A total of 6 332 differentially expressed genes were obtained, including 4 187 up-regulated genes and 2 145 down regulated genes. Functional analysis of the differentially expressed genes confirmed that the occurrence of CO2 injury in apple was related to redox process, lipid metabolism, hormone signal transduction process and energy metabolism process. Twenty candidate browning genes were successfully screened, among which grxcr1 (md14g1137800) and gpx (md06g1081300) participated in the reactive oxygen species scavenging process, and pld1_ 2 (md15g1125000) and plcd (md07g1221900) participated in phospholipid acid synthesis and affected membrane metabolism. mdh1 (md05g1238800) participated in TCA cycle and affected energy metabolism. A total of 77 differential metabolites were obtained by metabolomic analysis, mainly organic acids, lipids, sugars and polyketones, including 35 metabolites related to browning. The metabolism of flavonoids was involved in the browning process of apple. Compared with the control tissue, the content of flavonoids such as catechin and quercetin decreased significantly in the damaged apple tissue, the antioxidant capacity of cells decreased, the redox state was unbalanced, and the cell structure was destroyed, resulting in browning. The results of this study further enrich the theoretical basis of CO2 damage, and provide reference for the practical application of high concentration CO2 preservation technology.


Assuntos
Malus , Dióxido de Carbono , Frutas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/genética , Metaboloma , Transcriptoma
18.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(15): 3824-3831, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34472255

RESUMO

The present study aimed to provide the protection strategies for wild germplasm resources of original plants of Viticis Fructus and a theoretical basis for the sustainable use of Viticis Fructus. The genetic diversity and genetic structures of the 232 indivi-duals in 19 populations of Vitex rotundifolia and V. trifolia were analyzed by eight SSR markers with tools such as Popgene32, GenAlex 6.502, and STRUCTURE. Bottleneck effect was detected for the population with more than 10 individuals. The results indicated that 42 and 26 alleles were detected from the populations of V. rotundifolia and V. trifolia, respectively, with average expected heterozygo-sities of 0.448 6 and 0.583 9, which are indicative of low genetic diversity. AMOVA revealed the obvious genetic variation of V. rotundifolia and V. trifolia within population(84.43%, P<0.01; 60.37%, P<0.01). Furthermore, in eight SSR loci, six from V. rotundifolia populations and two from V. trifolia populations failed to meet Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations(P<0.05), which confirmed that the populations experienced bottleneck effect. As assessed by Mantel test, geographical distance posed slight impacts on the genetic variation between the populations of V. rotundifolia and V. trifolia. Principal component analysis(PCA) and STRUCTURE analysis demonstrated evident introgression of genes among various populations. The original plants of Viticis Fructus were confirmed low in genetic diversity and genetic differentiation level. Therefore, the protection of wild resources of original plants of Viticis Fructus should be strengthened to ensure its sustainable use.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Vitex , Alelos , Frutas/genética , Geografia , Repetições de Microssatélites , Vitex/genética
19.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 108: 152-163, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465429

RESUMO

Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are widely involved in a variety of atmospheric chemical processes due to their high reactivity and species diversity. To date, however, research on BVOCs in agroecosystems, particularly fruit trees, remains scarce despite their large cultivation area and economic interest. BVOC emissions from different organs (leaf or fruit) of apple and peach trees were investigated throughout the stages of fruit development (FS, fruit swelling; FC, fruit coloration; FM, fruit maturity; and FP, fruit postharvest) using a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer. Results indicated that methanol was the most abundant compound emitted by the leaf (apple tree leaf 492.5 ± 47.9 ng/(g·hr), peach tree leaf 938.8 ±  154.5 ng/(g·hr)), followed by acetic acid and green leaf volatiles. Beside the above three compounds, acetaldehyde had an important contribution to the emissions from the fruit. Overall, the total BVOCs (sum of eight compounds studied in this paper) emitted by both leaf and fruit gradually decreased along the fruit development, although the effect was significant only for the leaf. The leaf (2020.8 ±  258.8 ng/(g·hr)) was a stronger BVOC emitter than the fruit (146.0 ± 45.7 ng/(g·hr)) (P = 0.006), and there were no significant differences in total BVOC emission rates between apple and peach trees. These findings contribute to our understanding on BVOC emissions from different plant organs and provide important insights into the variation of BVOC emissions across different fruit developmental stages.


Assuntos
Malus , Prunus persica , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis , Frutas , Folhas de Planta , Árvores
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501763

RESUMO

The purpose of this communication is to describe the Brighter Bites produce voucher program, and its implementation and utilization across Brighter Bites families in four cities in the U.S., during the COVID-19 pandemic. The voucher program was implemented over nine weeks starting April 2020, with up to four USD 25 store-specific produce coupons sent bi-weekly to the homes of each participating Brighter Bites family (USD 100 total/family). Measures included type of produce purchased, amount of voucher that was used, number of vouchers distributed and redeemed by families, and a post-program participant satisfaction survey. Descriptive statistics, including count, frequency, and percent, were computed, both overall and stratified by city. During this time, Brighter Bites distributed a total of over 43,982 vouchers to 12,482 low-income families, with a redemption rate of 60% (at least one voucher redeemed) across all cities. During times of crisis, non-profit-for-profit partnerships, such as the one between Brighter Bites and the grocery retail industry, are feasible, and successful in providing produce to families in need.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Insegurança Alimentar , Frutas , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Verduras
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...