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1.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 413, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In plants, basic leucine zipper transcription factors (TFs) play important roles in multiple biological processes such as anthesis, fruit growth & development and stress responses. However, systematic investigation and characterization of bZIP-TFs remain unclear in Chinese white pear. Chinese white pear is a fruit crop that has important nutritional and medicinal values. RESULTS: In this study, 62 bZIP genes were comprehensively identified from Chinese Pear, and 54 genes were distributed among 17 chromosomes. Frequent whole-genome duplication (WGD) and dispersed duplication (DSD) were the major driving forces underlying the bZIP gene family in Chinese white pear. bZIP-TFs are classified into 13 subfamilies according to the phylogenetic tree. Subsequently, purifying selection plays an important role in the evolution process of PbbZIPs. Synteny analysis of bZIP genes revealed that 196 orthologous gene pairs were identified between Pyrus bretschneideri, Fragaria vesca, Prunus mume, and Prunus persica. Moreover, cis-elements that respond to various stresses and hormones were found on the promoter regions of PbbZIP, which were induced by stimuli. Gene structure (intron/exon) and different compositions of motifs revealed that functional divergence among subfamilies. Expression pattern of PbbZIP genes differential expressed under hormonal treatment abscisic acid, salicylic acid, and methyl jasmonate  in pear fruits by real-time qRT-PCR. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, a systematic analysis of gene structure, motif composition, subcellular localization, synteny analysis, and calculation of synonymous (Ks) and non-synonymous (Ka) was performed in Chinese white pear. Sixty-two bZIP-TFs in Chinese pear were identified, and their expression profiles were comprehensively analyzed under ABA, SA, and MeJa hormones, which respond to multiple abiotic stresses and fruit growth and development. PbbZIP gene occurred through Whole-genome duplication and dispersed duplication events. These results provide a basic framework for further elucidating the biological function characterizations under multiple developmental stages and abiotic stress responses.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina Básica/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas , Éxons , Fragaria/genética , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Íntrons , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Pyrus/efeitos dos fármacos , Salicilatos/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia , Sintenia
2.
Plant Sci ; 311: 110996, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482908

RESUMO

Rubus chingii, is widely distributed in many Asian countries and well known for its medicinal and dietary properties. Diversity of fruit color in raspberry has been attributed to the presence of either anthocyanins or carotenoids. In this study, we investigated anthocyanins and carotenoids, and their biosynthesis by LC-MS/MS. Six anthocyanins mainly consisted of flavanol-anthocyanins while five carotenoids mainly consisted of ß-citraurin esters. Flavanol-anthocyanins were produced from an offshoot of the anthocyanin biosynthesis, which started with biosynthesis of flavanols and anthocyanidin by leucoanthocyanidin reductase (LAR)/anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and anthocyanidin synthase (ANS/LDOX) respectively. ß-citraurin esters were produced from cleavage of zeaxanthin and esterification by organic acid, which was an offshoot of the carotenoid biosynthesis. The offshoot started with biosynthesis of zeaxanthin and ß-citraurin by carotene ß-hydroxylase (CHYB/LUT5) and carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (CCD) respectively. During fruit ripening, biosynthesis of flavanols and anthocyanins was down-regulated by genes/proteins involved in phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis, while biosynthesis of ß-citraurin esters was up-regulated by imbalanced expression of genes/proteins involved in ß,ß-ring and ß, ε-ring hydroxylation. Thus, ß-citraurin esters, instead of anthocyanins imparted reddish color to the ripe fruit. These pigments and their biosynthesis in R. chingii are totally different from what occurs in other raspberry species.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/metabolismo , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Pigmentação/fisiologia , Rubus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Rubus/metabolismo , Antocianinas/genética , China , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Pigmentação/genética , Rubus/anatomia & histologia
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445535

RESUMO

Apples (Malus domestica Borkh) are prone to preharvest fruit drop, which is more pronounced in 'Honeycrisp'. Hexanal is known to improve fruit retention in several economically important crops. The effects of hexanal on the fruit retention of 'Honeycrisp' apples were assessed using physiological, biochemical, and transcriptomic approaches. Fruit retention and fruit firmness were significantly improved by hexanal, while sugars and fresh weight did not show a significant change in response to hexanal treatment. At commercial maturity, abscisic acid and melatonin levels were significantly lower in the treated fruit abscission zone (FAZ) compared to control. At this stage, a total of 726 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between treated and control FAZ. Functional classification of the DEGs showed that hexanal downregulated ethylene biosynthesis genes, such as S-adenosylmethionine synthase (SAM2) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid oxidases (ACO3, ACO4, and ACO4-like), while it upregulated the receptor genes ETR2 and ERS1. Genes related to ABA biosynthesis (FDPS and CLE25) were also downregulated. On the contrary, key genes involved in gibberellic acid biosynthesis (GA20OX-like and KO) were upregulated. Further, hexanal downregulated the expression of genes related to cell wall degrading enzymes, such as polygalacturonase (PG1), glucanases (endo-ß-1,4-glucanase), and expansins (EXPA1-like, EXPA6, EXPA8, EXPA10-like, EXPA16-like). Our findings reveal that hexanal reduced the sensitivity of FAZ cells to ethylene and ABA. Simultaneously, hexanal maintained the cell wall integrity of FAZ cells by regulating genes involved in cell wall modifications. Thus, delayed fruit abscission by hexanal is most likely achieved by minimizing ABA through an ethylene-dependent mechanism.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melatonina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360556

RESUMO

In grapevines, as in other plants, sucrose and its constituents glucose and fructose are fundamentally important and carry out a multitude of roles. The aims of this review are three-fold. First, to provide a summary of the metabolism and transport of sucrose in grapevines, together with new insights and interpretations. Second, to stress the importance of considering the compartmentation of metabolism. Third, to outline the key role of acid invertase in osmoregulation associated with sucrose metabolism and transport in plants.


Assuntos
Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Frutas/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
5.
J Genet ; 1002021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34282734

RESUMO

Mutants with unique characters have played a key role in discovery of gene, mapping, functional genomics and breeding in many vegetable crops, but information on bitter gourd is lacking. Induction of mutation by gamma rays (Co60 source) at five different doses (50 Gy, 100 Gy, 150 Gy, 200 Gy and 250 Gy) was studied in four widely divergent bitter gourd genotypes BG-1346501, Meghna-2, Special Boulder and Selection-1 in M1 generation. Reduction in seed germination percentage, vine length and pollen fertility occurred in M1 generation with the increasing doses of mutagens. LD50 dose for BG-1346501, Meghna-2, Special Boulder and Selection-1 corresponded to 290.76 Gy, 206.12 Gy, 212.81 Gy and 213.49 Gy ᵞ radiation, respectively suggested low to medium doses (200-250 Gy) of gamma rays would be helpful in producing useful and exploitable mutants for further breeding. No remarkable effect of ᵞ radiation on fruit physicochemical characters in M1 generation were observed. M2 generation, raised from two widely divergent genotypes, BG-1346501 and Meghna-2, were screened critically and observed no significant reduction in seed germination and pollen viability, however little damage occurred particularly in vine length. There is possibility of isolating segregates in M2 generation with enhanced nutrient contents at low radiation dose. Highest mutation frequency resulted by treating Meghna-2 at 200 Gy and BG-1346501 at 100 Gy. Both genotype and mutagenic doses influenced mutagenic effectiveness. Spectrum of mutation was very low; number of putative mutants isolated from M2 generation was five in Meghna-2 and three in BG-1346501. Among six putative macro mutants isolated from M3 generation, we could identify two putative mutants, namely Meghna-2 with gynoecious sex form and BG-1346501 with high charantin, appreciable ß-carotene and high ascorbic acid contents having ample promise for further utilization in bitter gourd breeding after critical testing in subsequent generations for estimation of genetic gain and trait heritability to confirm the mutant stability.


Assuntos
Momordica charantia/genética , Mutagênese/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal/economia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Frutas/economia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Raios gama , Genótipo , Germinação/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Momordica charantia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Momordica charantia/efeitos da radiação , Mutagênese/efeitos da radiação , Mutação/efeitos da radiação , Locos de Características Quantitativas/efeitos da radiação
6.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 334, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34261431

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The skin (exocarp) of fleshy fruit is hugely diverse across species. Most fruit types have a live epidermal skin covered by a layer of cuticle made up of cutin while a few create an outermost layer of dead cells (peridermal layer). RESULTS: In this study we undertook crosses between epidermal and peridermal skinned kiwifruit, and showed that epidermal skin is a semi-dominant trait. Furthermore, backcrossing these epidermal skinned hybrids to a peridermal skinned fruit created a diverse range of phenotypes ranging from epidermal skinned fruit, through fruit with varying degrees of patches of periderm (russeting), to fruit with a complete periderm. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of this population suggested that periderm formation was associated with four loci. These QTLs were aligned either to ones associated with russet formation on chromosome 19 and 24, or cuticle integrity and coverage located on chromosomes 3, 11 and 24. CONCLUSION: From the segregation of skin type and QTL analysis, it appears that skin development in kiwifruit is controlled by two competing factors, cuticle strength and propensity to russet. A strong cuticle will inhibit russeting while a strong propensity to russet can create a continuous dead skinned periderm.


Assuntos
Actinidia/genética , Frutas/genética , Genes de Plantas , Loci Gênicos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/genética , Actinidia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cruzamentos Genéticos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Locos de Características Quantitativas
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201359

RESUMO

Red pepper (Capsicum annuum, L.), is one of the most important spice plants in Korea. Overwintering pepper fruits are a reservoir of various microbial pepper diseases. Here, we conducted metagenomics (DNA sequencing) and metatranscriptomics (RNA sequencing) using samples collected from three different fields. We compared two different library types and three different analytical methods for the identification of microbiomes in overwintering pepper fruits. Our results demonstrated that DNA sequencing might be useful for the identification of bacteria and DNA viruses such as bacteriophages, while mRNA sequencing might be beneficial for the identification of fungi and RNA viruses. Among three analytical methods, KRAKEN2 with raw data reads (KRAKEN2_R) might be superior for the identification of microbial species to other analytical methods. However, some microbial species with a low number of reads were wrongly assigned at the species level by KRAKEN2_R. Moreover, we found that the databases for bacteria and viruses were better established as compared to the fungal database with limited genome data. In summary, we carefully suggest that different library types and analytical methods with proper databases should be applied for the purpose of microbiome study.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Capsicum/genética , Vírus de DNA/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metagenoma , Vírus de RNA/genética , Transcriptoma , Bactérias/classificação , Capsicum/microbiologia , Capsicum/virologia , Vírus de DNA/classificação , Frutas/microbiologia , Frutas/virologia , Vírus de RNA/classificação , Estações do Ano
8.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203117

RESUMO

Three phosphate glass compositions, VF1, VF2, and VF3, containing macro and micronutrients with different [K2O/(CaO+MgO)] ratio, were formulated to be used as controlled release fertilizers for tomato crop, depending on their chemical durability in water and their propriety with respect to the standards of controlled-release fertilizers. This study investigated the influence of [K2O/(CaO+MgO)] ratio variation on glass properties. For this, the elaborated glasses have undergone a chemical characterization using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, a thermal characterization using differential thermal analysis, a physicochemical characterization based on density and molar volume measurements, and a structural characterization using Raman spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. In addition, the chemical durability was determined by measuring the percentage of weight loss and the pH. Results revealed that the glass structure and composition have the mean role in controlling the release of nutrients in water. By increasing [K2O/(CaO+MgO)] ratio, the dissolution rates of the glasses increased due to the shrinking in the rate of crosslinking between phosphate chains, accompanied with a diminution in transition and crystallization temperatures, and an increase in the molar volume. An agronomic valorization of VF1 and VF2 glass fertilizers, which showed dissolution profiles adequate to the criteria of controlled-release fertilizers, was carried out to evaluate their efficiency on tomato crops. These glass fertilizers improved soil mineral content and tomato performances in comparison to the control and NPK treatments with the distinction of VF2. The results highlight the effectiveness of these smart fertilizers toward their potential large-scale application to improve crop production and quality for high nutritional value foods.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fertilizantes , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vidro/química , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fosfatos , Solo , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Fosfatos/química , Fosfatos/farmacologia
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 327, 2021 Jul 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34233614

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Grapevine cultivars of the Pinot family represent clonally propagated mutants with major phenotypic and physiological differences, such as different colour or shifted ripening time, as well as changes in important viticultural traits. Specifically, the cultivars 'Pinot Noir' (PN) and 'Pinot Noir Precoce' (PNP, early ripening) flower at the same time, but vary in the beginning of berry ripening (veraison) and, consequently, harvest time. In addition to genotype, seasonal climatic conditions (i.e. high temperatures) also affect ripening times. To reveal possible regulatory genes that affect the timing of veraison onset, we investigated differences in gene expression profiles between PN and PNP throughout berry development with a closely meshed time series and over two separate years. RESULTS: The difference in the duration of berry formation between PN and PNP was quantified to be approximately two weeks under the growth conditions applied, using plant material with a proven PN and PNP clonal relationship. Clusters of co-expressed genes and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected which reflect the shift in the timing of veraison onset. Functional annotation of these DEGs fit to observed phenotypic and physiological changes during berry development. In total, we observed 3,342 DEGs in 2014 and 2,745 DEGs in 2017 between PN and PNP, with 1,923 DEGs across both years. Among these, 388 DEGs were identified as veraison-specific and 12 were considered as berry ripening time regulatory candidates. The expression profiles revealed two candidate genes for ripening time control which we designated VviRTIC1 and VviRTIC2 (VIT_210s0071g01145 and VIT_200s0366g00020, respectively). These genes likely contribute the phenotypic differences observed between PN and PNP. CONCLUSIONS: Many of the 1,923 DEGs show highly similar expression profiles in both cultivars if the patterns are aligned according to developmental stage. In our work, putative genes differentially expressed between PNP and PN which could control ripening time as well as veraison-specific genes were identified. We point out connections of these genes to molecular events during berry development and discuss potential candidate genes which may control ripening time. Two of these candidates were observed to be differentially expressed in the early berry development phase. Several down-regulated genes during berry ripening are annotated as auxin response factors / ARFs. Conceivably, general changes in auxin signaling may cause the earlier ripening phenotype of PNP.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vitis/genética , Análise por Conglomerados , Flores/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Frutas/genética , Fenótipo , Análise de Componente Principal , Fatores de Tempo
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 348, 2021 Jul 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301189

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The oil-tea tree (Camellia oleifera Abel.) is a woody tree species that produces edible oil in the seed. C. oleifera oil has high nutritional value and is also an important raw material for medicine and cosmetics. In China, due to the uncertainty on maturity period and oil synthesis mechanism of many C. oleifera cultivars, growers may harvest fruits prematurely, which could not maximize fruit and oil yields. In this study, our objective was to explore the mechanism and differences of oil synthesis between two Camellia oleifera cultivars for a precise definition of the fruit ripening period and the selection of appropriate cultivars. RESULTS: The results showed that 'Huashuo' had smaller fruits and seeds, lower dry seed weight and lower expression levels of fatty acid biosynthesis genes in July. We could not detect the presence of oil and oil bodies in 'Huashuo' seeds until August, and oil and oil bodies were detected in 'Huajin' seeds in July. Moreover, 'Huashuo' seeds were not completely blackened in October with up to 60.38% of water and approximately 37.98% of oil in seed kernels whose oil content was much lower than normal mature seed kernels. The oil bodies in seed endosperm cells of 'Huajin' were always higher than those of 'Huashuo' from July to October. CONCLUSION: Our results confirmed that C. oleifera 'Huashuo' fruits matured at a lower rate compared to 'Huajin' fruits and that 'Huajin' seeds entered the oil synthesis period earlier than 'Huashuo' seeds. Moreover, 'Huashuo' fruits did not mature during the Frost's Descent period (October 23-24 each year).


Assuntos
Camellia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Camellia/genética , Camellia/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Óleos Vegetais/metabolismo , China , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Medicinais/genética , Plantas Medicinais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Medicinais/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
11.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 356, 2021 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are important plant secondary metabolites that confer flavor, nutritional value, and resistance to pathogens. Persimmon is one of the PA richest crops. Mature fruits can be inedible because of the astringency caused by high PA levels and need to go through a de-astringency treatment before consumption. The molecular basis for PA accumulation is poorly known, particularly transcriptional regulators. We characterised three genotypes ('Luotiantianshi' (LT), 'Mopanshi' (MP), and 'Youhou' (YH)) with different PA accumulation patterns using an approach that combined PacBio full-length sequencing and Illumina-based RNA sequencing to build high-quality full-length transcriptomes. Additionally, we analysed transcriptome dynamics of the three genotypes (LT, MP, and YH) at four key fruit developmental stages. RESULTS: A total of 96,463 transcripts were obtained. We identified 80,075 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), 71,137 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), and 27,845 long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC), principal component analysis (PCA), and differentially expressed transcripts (DETs) analyses indicated that the four different developmental stages within a genotype exhibited similar transcriptome activities. A total of 2,164 transcripts specific to each fruit developmental stage were detected. The transcripts specific to early stages were attributed to phenylpropanoid and flavonoid biosynthesis. Co-expression network analyses revealed MEbrown and MEblue modules were strongly associated to PA accumulation. From these two modules, 20 hub TFs are potential regulators for PA accumulation. Among them, Cluster_78388 (SBP protein), Cluster_63454 (bZIP protein), and Cluster_66595 (MYB protein) appear to involve in the PA biosynthesis in Chinese genotypes. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first high-quality reference transcriptome for commercial persimmon. Our work provides insights into the molecular pathways underlying PA accumulation and enhances our global understanding of transcriptome dynamics throughout fruit development.


Assuntos
Diospyros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Diospyros/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Proantocianidinas/biossíntese , Proantocianidinas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/genética , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Variação Genética , Genótipo
12.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2949-2961, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146400

RESUMO

Blueberry is a crop grown worldwide due to the excellent quality and high polyphenol content of its fruit and tolerance to cold conditions. We investigated the influence of three production systems, namely an open field, heated greenhouse, and non-heated (plastic) greenhouse, on the phenolic characteristics (total phenolic, flavonoid, and anthocyanin content) and antioxidant capacities of "Spartan" (northern highbush), "Sharpblue" (southern highbush), and "O'Neal" (southern highbush) blueberry cultivars. The non-heated production system showed the highest phenolic characteristics and antioxidant capacity in "Spartan" and "O'Neal," while the open field production system showed the highest phenolic characteristics and antioxidant capacity in "Sharpblue." Derivatives of delphinidin and malvidin were two of the most abundant anthocyanins. The heated greenhouse production system resulted in larger amounts of delphinidin derivatives compared with the other production systems, while the blueberry grown in the non-heated greenhouse produced larger amount of malvidin derivatives. The anthocyanin profiles varied according to production system and blueberry cultivars. The principal component analysis loading plot of blueberries for individual anthocyanins explained over 95% of the total variance. In summary, the results of this study suggest that a strategic approach to blueberry production could elevate the phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of cultivated blueberry. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The highbush blueberry, a rich source of bioactive polyphenols, is a popular fruit. The microclimate of the production system of highbush blueberries affects the concentrations of antioxidative phenolic compounds such as anthocyanins. Therefore, discovering and applying the appropriate method of production for each blueberry cultivar could facilitate production of high-quality blueberries rich in phenolic antioxidants.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Frutas/química , Fenóis/química , Antocianinas/química , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/química , Flavonoides/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química
13.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2872-2885, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146411

RESUMO

Enzyme-based time-temperature integrators (TTIs) were applied to indicate the ripeness of plastic-container-packaged kiwifruit. The hypothesis was that the ethylene gas production, an indication of kiwifruit ripeness, depends on the time-temperature history. The market-purchased, unripe kiwifruit was assumed to be stored in a plastic container to ripen at home, as common practice in Korea. The kinetics of ethylene gas production and TTI color change was found to be suitable for the indication. The Arrhenius activation energy (Ea ) of the ethylene gas production and color changes of lipase-, amylase-, and laccase-based TTIs were 41.60 ± 10.87 kJ/mol, and 42.76 ± 9.57, 100.28 ± 6.84, and 30.49 ± 4.41 kJ/mol, respectively. Kiwifruit firmness was also tested as a practical, major quality factor. The Ea of the firmness changes was 39.66 ± 4.64 kJ/mol. In scenarios tests, the firmness could be most accurately predicted from the lipase-based TTI color. Overall, the lipase-based TTI was found to be the best in terms of the similarity of the Ea and the prediction accuracy. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Currently, there is no commercially available indicator that can determine the ripeness of packaged kiwifruit. Although an ethylene gas indicator is possible, it has been difficult to commercialize because the gas may leak in the package. An indicator on plastic containers with kiwifruit, as is common in Korea, has been developed using a conventional time-temperature integrator (TTI). The hypothesis was that the production of ethylene gas, indicating kiwi ripening, is also dependent on the time-temperature history. It was found that the TTI color change over time was suitable for judging suitable kiwifruit hardness, a major kiwifruit ripeness index.


Assuntos
Actinidia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Etilenos/análise , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plásticos/química , Actinidia/química , Frutas/química , Cinética , República da Coreia , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Plant Cell Rep ; 40(7): 1229-1245, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34081180

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: 9 YTH genes in tomato were identified and cloned, and their expression patterns were comprehensively analyzed, which reveal potential multiple roles in development and fruit ripening. N6-methyladenosine (m6A) is an abundant and pervasive post-transcriptional modification in eukaryotic mRNAs. The YTH domain-containing proteins act as m6A readers to read m6A marks and transduce their downstream regulatory effects by altering m6A-mRNA metabolism processes. Identification of YTH proteins is essential for understanding the regulatory mechanisms of m6A in physiological processes, but little is known about YTH proteins in tomato, a model system for fruit development. Here, we report that tomato genomes contain a total of 9 SlYTH genes. While YTH proteins of both tomato and Arabidopsis can be classified into two subfamilies, the member distributions in subfamilies are very different between the two species. Homology modeling exhibited the similar three-dimensional structures of SlYTH proteins to human YTHDF1 or YTHDC1. Multiple hormone-response elements locating on the promoters of SlYTH genes indicate that they are involved in the physiological processes related to phytohormone. SlYTH genes are ubiquitous and spatiotemporal dynamic expression in tomato. Eight SlTYH genes have the strongest expression in stamens among the parts of flowers. Throughout fruit ontogeny, most of the SlYTH genes display obvious high mRNA levels during the developmental phases (4 dpa to mature green); moreover, SlYTH1 and SlYTH2 have absolute predominant expressions demonstrated by RNA-seq. The results lay a foundation for future characterizations on the functions of YTH proteins and m6A regulatory mechanism in tomato.


Assuntos
Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Lycopersicon esculentum/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Adenosina/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Flores/genética , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Genoma de Planta , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Família Multigênica , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Domínios Proteicos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/química , Homologia Estrutural de Proteína , Sintenia
15.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 289, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167466

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) is characterized by the production of berries that are smaller than most common fruits, and the underlying mechanisms of fruit size in blueberry remain elusive. V. corymbosum 'O'Neal' and 'Bluerain' are commercial southern highbush blueberry cultivars with large- and small-size fruits, respectively, which mature 'O'Neal' fruits are 1 ~ 2-fold heavier than those of 'Bluerain'. In this study, the ontogenetical patterns of 'O'Neal' and 'Bluerain' hypanthia and fruits were compared, and comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed during early fruit development. RESULTS: V. corymbosum 'O'Neal' and 'Bluerain' hypanthia and fruits exhibited intricate temporal and spatial cell proliferation and expansion patterns. Cell division before anthesis and cell expansion after fertilization were the major restricting factors, and outer mesocarp was the key tissue affecting fruit size variation among blueberry genotypes. Comparative transcriptomic and annotation analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed that the plant hormone signal transduction pathway was enriched, and that jasmonate-related TIFYs genes might be the key components orchestrating other phytohormones and influencing fruit size during early blueberry fruit development. CONCLUSIONS: These results provided detailed ontogenetic evidence for determining blueberry fruit size, and revealed the important roles of phytohormone signal transductions involving in early fruit development. The TIFY genes could be useful as markers for large-size fruit selection in the current breeding programs of blueberry.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/anatomia & histologia , Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/metabolismo , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/genética
16.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3956, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172741

RESUMO

Among crop fruit trees, the apricot (Prunus armeniaca) provides an excellent model to study divergence and adaptation processes. Here, we obtain nearly 600 Armeniaca apricot genomes and four high-quality assemblies anchored on genetic maps. Chinese and European apricots form two differentiated gene pools with high genetic diversity, resulting from independent domestication events from distinct wild Central Asian populations, and with subsequent gene flow. A relatively low proportion of the genome is affected by selection. Different genomic regions show footprints of selection in European and Chinese cultivated apricots, despite convergent phenotypic traits, with predicted functions in both groups involved in the perennial life cycle, fruit quality and disease resistance. Selection footprints appear more abundant in European apricots, with a hotspot on chromosome 4, while admixture is more pervasive in Chinese cultivated apricots. Our study provides clues to the biology of selected traits and targets for fruit tree research and breeding.


Assuntos
Domesticação , Genoma de Planta/genética , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fluxo Gênico , Variação Genética , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/genética , Metagenômica , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Prunus armeniaca/classificação , Prunus armeniaca/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Seleção Genética
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071242

RESUMO

Organic acids are key components that determine the taste and flavor of fruits and play a vital role in maintaining fruit quality and nutritive value. In this study, the fruits of two cultivars of passion fruit Yellow (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) and purple (Passiflora edulis f. edulis) were harvested at five different developmental stages (i.e., fruitlet, green, veraison, near-mature and mature stage) from an orchard located in subtropical region of Fujian Province, China. The contents of six organic acids were quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), activities of citric acid related enzymes were determined, and expression levels of genes involved in citric acid metabolism were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results revealed that citric acid was the predominant organic acid in both cultivars during fruit development. The highest citric acid contents were observed in both cultivars at green stage, which were reduced with fruit maturity. Correlation analysis showed that citrate synthase (CS), cytosolic aconitase (Cyt-ACO) and cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (Cyt-IDH) may be involved in regulating citric acid biosynthesis. Meanwhile, the PeCS2, PeACO4, PeACO5 and PeIDH1 genes may play an important role in regulating the accumulation of citric acid. This study provides new insights for future elucidation of key mechanisms regulating organic acid biosynthesis in passion fruit.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Passiflora/química , Passiflora/genética , China , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase , Valor Nutritivo , Passiflora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 279, 2021 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGR) is a key enzyme in the mevalonate (MVA) pathway, which regulates the metabolism of terpenoids in the cytoplasm and determines the type and content of downstream terpenoid metabolites. RESULTS: Results showed that grapevine HMGR family has three members, such as VvHMGR1, VvHMGR2, and VvHMGR3. The expression of VvHMGRs in 'Kyoho' has tissue specificity, for example, VvHMGR1 keeps a higher expression, VvHMGR2 is the lowest, and VvHMGR3 gradually decreases as the fruit development. VvHMGR3 is closely related to CsHMGR1 and GmHMGR9 and has collinearity with CsHMGR2 and GmHMGR4. By the prediction of interaction protein, it can interact with HMG-CoA synthase, MVA kinase, FPP/GGPP synthase, diphosphate mevalonate decarboxylase, and participates in the synthesis and metabolism of terpenoids. VvHMGR3 have similar trends in expression with some of the genes of carotenoid biosynthesis and MEP pathways. VvHMGR3 responds to various environmental and phytohormone stimuli, especially salt stress and ultraviolet (UV) treatment. The expression level of VvHMGRs is diverse in grapes of different colors and aroma. VvHMGRs are significantly higher in yellow varieties than that in red varieties, whereas rose-scented varieties showed significantly higher expression than that of strawberry aroma. The expression level is highest in yellow rose-scented varieties, and the lowest in red strawberry scent varieties, especially 'Summer Black' and 'Fujiminori'. CONCLUSION: This study confirms the important role of VvHMGR3 in the process of grape fruit coloring and aroma formation, and provided a new idea to explain the loss of grape aroma and poor coloring during production. There may be an additive effect between color and aroma in the HMGR expression aspect.


Assuntos
Genes de Plantas , Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/genética , Vitis/enzimologia , Vitis/genética , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Família Multigênica , Pressão Osmótica , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/fisiologia , Terpenos/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 256, 2021 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34088272

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pears and apples are both perennial deciduous trees of the Rosaceae family, and both are important economic fruit trees worldwide. The emergence of many varieties in the market has been mostly domesticated from wild to cultivated and regulated by the differential expression of genes. However, the molecular process and pathways underlying this phenomenon remain unclear. Four typical wild and cultivar pear and apple trees at three developmental stages were used in our study to investigate the molecular process at the transcriptome level. RESULT: Physiological observations indicated the obvious differences of size, weight, sugar acid content and peel color in wild and cultivar fruit among each developmental stage. Using next-generation sequencing based RNA-seq expression profiling technology, we produced a transcriptome in procession of a large fraction of annotated pear and apple genes, and provided a molecular basis underlying the phenomenon of wild and cultivar fruit tree differences. 5921 and 5744 differential expression genes were identified in pear and apple at three developmental stages respectively. We performed temporal and spatial differential gene expression profiling in developing fruits. Several key pathways such as signal transduction, photosynthesis, translation and many metabolisms were identified as involved in the differentiation of wild and cultivar fruits. CONCLUSION: In this study, we reported on the next-generation sequencing study of the temporal and spatial mRNA expression profiling of pear and apple fruit trees. Also, we demonstrated that the integrated analysis of pear and apple transcriptome, which strongly revealed the consistent process of domestication in Rosaceae fruit trees. The results will be great influence to the improvement of cultivar species and the utilization of wild resources.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Malus/genética , Pyrus/genética , RNA-Seq/métodos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA de Plantas , Especificidade da Espécie , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34064462

RESUMO

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are regulators of the post-transcription stage of gene activity documented to play central roles in flower and fruit development in model plant species. However, little is known about their roles and differences in domesticated and wild Capsicum species. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to analyze the miRNA content at three developmental stages (flower, small fruit, and middle fruit) from two cultivated (C. baccatum and C. annuum) and two wild (C. chacoense and C. eximium) pepper species. This analysis revealed 22 known and 27 novel miRNAs differentially expressed across species and tissues. A number of stage- and species-specific miRNAs were identified, and Gene Ontology terms were assigned to 138 genes targeted by the miRNAs. Most Gene Ontology terms were for the categories "genetic information processing", "signaling and cellular processes", "amino acid metabolism", and "carbohydrate metabolism". Enriched KEGG analysis revealed the pathways amino acids, sugar and nucleotide metabolism, starch and sucrose metabolism, and fructose-mannose metabolism among the principal ones regulated by miRNAs during pepper fruit ripening. We predicted miRNA-target gene interactions regulating flowering time and fruit development, including miR156/157 with SPL genes, miR159 with GaMYB proteins, miR160 with ARF genes, miR172 with AP2-like transcription factors, and miR408 with CLAVATA1 gene across the different Capsicum species. In addition, novel miRNAs play an important role in regulating interactions potentially controlling plant pathogen defense and fruit quality via fructokinase, alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, and aromatic and neutral amino acid transporter. Overall, the small RNA-sequencing results from this study represent valuable information that provides a solid foundation for uncovering the miRNA-mediated mechanisms of flower and fruit development between domesticated and wild Capsicum species.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Flores/genética , Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , MicroRNAs/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Sistemas de Transporte de Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Capsicum/classificação , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Capsicum/metabolismo , Domesticação , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/metabolismo , Frutoquinases/genética , Frutoquinases/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Ontologia Genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/genética , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , MicroRNAs/classificação , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/classificação , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , RNA de Plantas/genética , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/classificação , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
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