Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.520
Filtrar
1.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 295(6): 1443-1457, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700103

RESUMO

The apple is a highly perishable fruit after harvesting and, therefore, several storage technologies have been studied to provide the consumer market with a quality product with a longer shelf life. However, little is known about the apple genome that is submitted to the storage, and even less with the application of ripening inhibitors. Due to these factors, this study sought to elucidate the transcriptional profile of apple cultivate Gala stored in a controlled atmosphere (AC) treated and not treated with 1-methyl cyclopropene (1-MCP). Through the genetic mapping of the apple, applying the microarray technique, it was possible to verify the action of treatments on transcripts related to photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolism, response to hormonal stimuli, nucleic acid metabolism, reduction of oxidation, regulation of transcription and metabolism of cell wall and lipids. The results showed that the transcriptional profile in the entire genome of the fruit showed significant differences in the relative expression of the gene, this in response to CA in the presence and absence of 1-MCP. It should be noted that the transcription genes involved in the anabolic pathway were only maintained after six months in fruits treated with 1-MCP. The data in this work suggests that the apple in the absence of 1-MCP begins to prepare its metabolism to mature, even during the storage period in AC. Meanwhile, in the presence of the inhibitor, the transcriptional profile of the fruit is similar to that at the time of harvest. It was also found that a set of genes that code for ethylene receptors, auxin homeostasis, MADS Box, and NAC transcription factors may be involved in the regulation of post-harvest ripening after storage and in the absence of 1-MCP.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233631, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32589636

RESUMO

Loquat (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.) is divided into yellow- and white-fleshed based on the difference in fruit color, and the variations in carotenoids accumulation are considered as the main reasons for this difference. Using RNA-seq technology, a transcriptome analysis was carried out on the flesh and peel of 'Baiyu' fruit during four different fruit development stages. A total of 172.53 Gb clean reads with an average of 6.33 Gb reads were detected for each library, and the percentage of Q30 was higher than 90.84%. We identified 16 carotenogenic and 13 plastid-lipid-associated protein (PAP) genes through RNA-seq. Of these, five carotenogenic and four PAP related genes exhibited remarkable differences in the expression patterns. Carotenoids biosynthetic genes, including DXS, PSY1 and VDE displayed higher expression levels in peel than that in the flesh. However, carotenoids decomposition gene, such as NCDE1, exhibited higher expression in flesh than that in the peel. Notably, all differentially expressed PAP genes showed higher expression levels in peel than flesh. We inferred that the differential accumulation of carotenoids in flesh and peel of 'Baiyu' is caused by the up- or down-regulation of the carotenogenic and PAP related genes. The functional analysis of these important genes will provide valuable information about underlying molecular mechanism of carotenoids accumulation in loquat.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Eriobotrya/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Regulação para Baixo , Eriobotrya/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , RNA-Seq , Regulação para Cima
3.
Food Chem ; 326: 127034, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438233

RESUMO

Coriander contains petroselinic acid, an isomer fatty acid of oleic acid. Coriander seed oil has been proposed as novel food ingredient in the European Union. Field experiments were performed at Auch (France) during two seasons (2010 and 2011). From flowering to maturity, fruits were harvested weekly and oil content and fatty acid (FA) compositions were determined. Fruits presented 2% more oil in 2010 than in 2011. Petroselinic acid (PA) contents was higher in 2011 than in 2010. Oil accumulation began earlier after flowering (2 DAF) in 2011. A first step in accumulation was identified between two and 21 DAF characterized by high SFA and PUFA, which decreased 21 DAF. Subsequently, PA increased to its highest concentration (30-55 DAF) and SFA and PUFA reached their lowest. These results suggest that higher concentrations of PA can be achieved by collecting fruits before full maturity.


Assuntos
Coriandrum/química , Ácidos Graxos/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Coriandrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Isomerismo , Ácido Oleico/química , Sementes/química
4.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232818, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407352

RESUMO

Breeding for yield and fruit quality traits in passion fruits is complex due to the polygenic nature of these traits and the existence of genetic correlations among them. Therefore, studies focused on crop management practices and breeding using modern quantitative genetic approaches are still needed, especially for Passiflora alata, an understudied crop, popularly known as the sweet passion fruit. It is highly appreciated for its typical aroma and flavor characteristics. In this study, we aimed to reevaluate 30 genotypes previously selected for fruit quality from a 100 full-sib sweet passion fruit progeny in three environments, with a view to estimating the heritability and genetic correlations, and investigating the GEI and response to selection for nine fruit traits (weight, diameter and length of the fruit; thickness and weight of skin; weight and yield of fruit pulp; soluble solids, and yield). Pairwise genetic correlations among the fruit traits showed mostly intermediate to high values, especially those associated with fruit size and shape. Different genotype rankings were obtained regarding the predicted genetic values of weight of skin, thickness of skin and weight of pulp in each environment. Finally, we used a multiplicative selection index to select simultaneously for weight of pulp and against fruit skin thickness and weight. The response to selection was positive for all traits except soluble solids, and the 20% superior (six) genotypes were ranked. Based on the assumption that incompatibility mechanisms exist in P. alata, the selected genotypes were intercrossed in a complete diallel mating scheme. It is worth noting that all genotypes produced fruits, which is essential to guarantee yields in commercial orchards.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Passiflora/genética , Cruzamento , Capsicum/genética , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Passiflora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Seleção Genética/genética
5.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231956, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324774

RESUMO

Global warming is predicted to have a negative effect on plant growth due to the damaging effect of high temperatures. In order to address the effect of high temperature environments on olive oil yield and quality, we compared its effect on the fruit development of five olive cultivars placed in a region noted for its high summer temperatures, with trees of the same cultivars placed in a region of relatively mild summers. We found that the effects of a high temperature environment are genotype dependent and in general, high temperatures during fruit development affected three important traits: fruit weight, oil concentration and oil quality. None of the tested cultivars exhibited complete heat stress tolerance. Final dry fruit weight at harvest of the 'Barnea' cultivar was not affected by the high temperature environment, whereas the 'Koroneiki', 'Coratina', 'Souri' and 'Picholine' cultivars exhibited decreased dry fruit weight at harvest in response to higher temperatures by 0.2, 1, 0.4 and 0.2 g respectively. The pattern of final oil concentration was also cultivar dependent, 'Barnea', 'Coratina' and 'Picholine' not being affected by the high temperature environment, whereas the 'Koroneiki' and 'Souri' cultivars showed a decreased dry fruit oil concentration at harvest under the same conditions by 15 and 8% respectively. Regarding the quality of oil produced, the 'Souri' cultivar proved more tolerant to a high temperature environment than any other of the cultivars analyzed in this study. These results suggest that different olive cultivars have developed a variety of mechanisms in dealing with high temperatures. Elucidation of the mechanism of each of these responses may open the way to development of a variety of olives broadly adapted to conditions of high temperatures.


Assuntos
Qualidade dos Alimentos , Azeite de Oliva/metabolismo , Temperatura , Clima , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Genótipo , Olea/genética , Olea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Olea/metabolismo
6.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0224588, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32236110

RESUMO

Nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), potassium (K), and water are four crucial factors that have significant effects on strawberry yield and fruit quality. We used a 11 that involved 36 treatments with five levels of each of the four variables (N, P, and K fertilizers and water) to optimize fertilization and water combination for high yield and quality. Moreover, we used the SSC/TA ratio (the ratio of soluble solid content to titratable acid) as index of quality. Results showed that N fertilizer was the most important factor, followed by water and P fertilizer, and the N fertilizer had significant effect on yield and SSC/TA ratio. By contrast, the K fertilizer had significant effect only on yield. N×K fertilizer interacted significantly on yield, whereas the other interactions among the four factors had no significant effects on yield or SSC/TA ratio. The effects of the four factors on yield and SSC/TA ratio were ranked as N fertilizer > water > K fertilizer > P fertilizer and N fertilizer > P fertilizer > water > K fertilizer, respectively. The yield and SSC/TA ratio increased when NPK fertilizer and water increased, but then decreased when excessive NPK fertilizer and water were applied. The optimal fertilizer and water combination were 22.28-24.61 g plant-1 Ca (NO3)2·4H2O, 1.75-2.03 g plant-1 NaH2PO4, 12.41-13.91 g plant-1 K2SO4, and 12.00-13.05 L water plant-1 for yields of more than 110 g plant-1 and optimal SSC/TA ratio of 8.5-14.


Assuntos
Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Produção Agrícola/métodos , Fertilizantes/normas , Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Irrigação Agrícola/normas , Biomassa , Produção Agrícola/normas , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/normas , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fósforo/farmacologia , Potássio/farmacologia
7.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0230920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32302301

RESUMO

An RNAseq study of early fruit development and stone development in plum, Prunus domestica, was mined to identify sets of genes that could be used to normalize expression studies in early fruit development. The expression values of genes previously identified from Prunus as reference genes were first extracted and found to vary considerably in endocarp tissue relative to whole fruit tissue. Nine other genes were chosen that varied less than 2-fold amongst the 20 RNAseq libraries of early fruit development and endocarp tissues. These gene were tested on a series of developmental plum fruit samples to determine if any could be used as a reference gene in the analyses of fruit-based tissues in plum. The three most stable genes as determined using RefFinder were IPGD (imidazole glycerol-phosphate dehydratase), HAM1 (histone acetyltransferase) and SNX1 (sorting nexin 1). These were further tested to analyze genes expressed differentially in endocarp tissue between normal and minimal endocarp cultivars. To determine the universality of those nine genes as fruit development reference genes, three other data sets of RNAseq from peach and apple were analyzed to determine the reference gene expression. Multiple genes exhibited tissue specific patterns of expression while one gene, the SNX1, emerged as possessing a universal pattern between the Rosaceae species, at all developmental stages, and tissue types tested. The results suggest that the use of existing RNAseq data to identify standard genes can provide stable reference genes for a specific tissues or experimental conditions under exploration.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas/genética , Prunus domestica/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Prunus domestica/genética , RNA-Seq/normas , Biblioteca Gênica , Padrões de Referência
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335385

RESUMO

3-Isobutyl-2-methoxypyrazine (IBMP) is an important odor compound that revives unripe grapes or poor-quality wine. The biosynthesis of IBMP in grape berries is under the catalysis of Vitis vinifera O-methyltranferase 3 (VvOMT3). The homologous verification in this paper was carried out with the transient overexpression technique. The results showed that both the expression levels of the VvOMT3 gene and the IBMP concentration in 'Red globe' grapes increased significantly, which suggested that VvOMT3 could function in the biosynthesis of IBMP. Based on ß-glucuronidase (GUS) staining results, blue color was only observed in grape pulp, not in grape skin, which indicated that VvOMT3 was expressed in grape pulp. The outcomes of the subcellular location examination performed on the protoplasts of Arabidopsis thaliana showed that the VvOMT3 protein was located on the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane. In summary, the VvOMT3 enzyme may function at the inner surface of the cytoplasmic membrane of pulp cells during grape development. These results will provide a background for future research on the catalytic mechanisms of VvOMT3.


Assuntos
Frutas , Metiltransferases , Vitis , Biologia Computacional , Frutas/enzimologia , Frutas/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metiltransferases/genética , Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Vitis/enzimologia , Vitis/genética , Vinho
9.
J Food Sci ; 85(5): 1548-1564, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32249935

RESUMO

Mandarins (or tangerines) are mainly consumed as fresh fruits due to the ease of peeling and desirable flavor. Sweetness, acidity, and flavor of mandarin are the most important criteria for consumer preference. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of harvest date on sensory and chemical components of four mandarin cultivars (Murcott, 411, Temple, and 'LB8-9' Sugar Belle®). Volatiles were extracted from the headspace of juice samples with solid phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The optimum harvest window for eating quality of 411 was late January to mid-February (soluble solids content [SSC]/titratable acidity [TA]: 11.3 to 14.0), Sugar Belle® fruits were best tasted when harvested from mid- to end of January (SSC/TA: 14.1 to 16.1), and February was the best month for harvesting Murcott (SSC/TA: 13.10 to 18.0) and Temple (SSC/TA:10.3 to 12.50). Sensory perception of sweetness, ripeness, and juiciness increased as SSC/TA increased while sourness and bitterness decreased. Pumpkin flavor, an indicator of overripe fruit, was mainly noticed late in the season. Tangerine flavor tended to decrease, whereas fruity-noncitrus flavor tended to increase with fruit maturity. Monoterpenes were the most abundant volatiles and tended to decrease with fruit maturity, whereas alcohols, esters, and aldehydes increase. Aldehydes, esters, and alcohols were positively correlated with sweetness, ripeness, juiciness, and fruity characteristics, and negatively with sourness and bitterness. On the other hand, monoterpenes were positively correlated with bitterness and tangerine flavor, and negatively correlated with sweetness and fruity-noncitrus flavor. The highest number of esters was found in Temple, whereas Murcott and 411 were high in aldehydes.


Assuntos
Citrus/genética , Aromatizantes/química , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aldeídos/química , Aldeídos/isolamento & purificação , Cruzamento , Citrus/química , Citrus/classificação , Citrus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Comportamento do Consumidor , Ésteres/química , Ésteres/isolamento & purificação , Aromatizantes/isolamento & purificação , Frutas/química , Frutas/classificação , Frutas/genética , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Microextração em Fase Sólida , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(3): 485-490, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237504

RESUMO

The study is aimed to create seed materials and dissect the molecular mechanism of sexual propagation of Gastrodia elata. In this research, thirteen characteristics of flowers, flower stem, fruits, seeds and embryo of G.elata f. glauca and G.elata f. elata after bolting at room temperature(RT) and constant temperature(CT, 22 ℃) were determined. It was found that the constant temperature condition could prolong the bolting duration of G.elata and increased the number of flowers, while the variety of G.elata only affected the bolting duration, but had no effect on the number of flowers, and the G.elata f. elata was more likely to bolting than the G.elata f. glauca. The variety of G.elata was the main factor affecting the time of dehiscent fruit of G.elata, the temperature was the main factor affecting the fruits number and fruits diameter, and the constant temperature was more conducive to the fruits shape of G.elata than the room temperature. There was no significant difference in seed phenotype of G.elata varieties, but the seed embryo of G.elata seeds cultivated at constant temperature was fuller than that of G.elata cultivated at room temperature, and temperature had less influence on the seed phenotype of G.elata. But it was interesting to find that temperature and varieties had greater influence on the seed embryo of G.elata, constant temperature cultivation was more conducive to the formation of seed embryo of G.elata, and more the seed embryo of G.elata f. elata was easier to form than the seed embryo of G.elata f. glauca. However, the development of seeds and embryos of G.elata was significantly affected, and the development of seeds and embryos of G.elata f. glauca was more sensitive to temperature than G.elata f. elata. The research suggested that it is advisable for G.elata to produce seed materials by bolting at constant temperature(22 ℃).


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gastrodia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Temperatura , Fenótipo , Reprodução
11.
Gene ; 742: 144584, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32173541

RESUMO

Sugars are considered as an essential signaling molecule for fruit growth and development, which plays a key role in fruit quality. Up to now, the mechanism controlling sugar metabolism and transport in apricot is unclear. Therefore, in the present study, we measured sugar contents at six different stages of fruit development and ripening, and significant variations were observed throughout these stages. The concentration of glucose and fructose first decreased then increased, sucrose concentration first increased then decreased, while the concentration of sorbitol gradually decreased from growth to maturity. Furthermore, thirty sugar transporter genes related to sucrose synthesis and transport were identified and categorized into different subfamilies based on the phylogenetic analysis. The result of cis-regulatory components showed that under different plant hormones, biotic and abiotic stresses, few elements could be regulated. The correlation analysis showed a higher relationship between ParSuSy5, ParSuSy6, ParSuSy7, and ParFK1 genes and sugar contents, indicating that these genes might have a key role in sugar accumulation and fruit quality. In general, these findings will provide a deep understanding of genomic information and expression profiles of sugar transporter genes, which will contribute toward improvement in fruit quality of apricot.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Horticultura/organização & administração , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Melhoria de Qualidade
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135480

RESUMO

The increasing salinity in soils and irrigation water is a major concern for growers of strawberry, a salt-sensitive horticultural crop. The hormone melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) is involved in many biological processes and affects plant responses to environmental stresses. The effects of weekly 100 and 200 µM melatonin sprays on leaf composition parameters (photosynthetic pigment and macronutrient concentrations, oxidative stress markers, antioxidant defense systems and abscisic acid concentrations), fruit yield and quality parameters (soluble solids, total acidity, ascorbic acid, total antioxidants and phenolics and sugars), and leaf and fruit melatonin have been studied in strawberry grown under non-saline, moderate and intense salinity conditions (0, 40 and 80 mM NaCl, respectively). Salinity led to decreases in yield, fruit quality parameters and leaf photosynthetic pigments and macronutrient concentrations, as well as to increases in oxidative stress, with melatonin foliar application alleviating all these changes. On the other hand, salinity led to increases in the leaf levels of antioxidant enzymes, abscisic acid and melatonin, with foliar applications of melatonin boosting those increases. In the absence of salinity stress, melatonin led to smaller changes in all parameters in the same direction to that observed in the presence of salinity. Furthermore, melatonin resulted in increases in strawberry fruit yield and quality, especially in plants grown under salinity. Results indicate that the effects of melatonin application are associated with a boost in leaf antioxidant enzymes and abscisic acid, and support that the application of melatonin is a promising tool for mitigating salt stress in strawberry.


Assuntos
Fragaria , Melatonina , Tolerância ao Sal , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Melatonina/farmacologia , Tolerância ao Sal/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(14): 8187-8195, 2020 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179669

RESUMO

A dramatic evolution of fruit size has accompanied the domestication and improvement of fruit-bearing crop species. In tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), naturally occurring cis-regulatory mutations in the genes of the CLAVATA-WUSCHEL signaling pathway have led to a significant increase in fruit size generating enlarged meristems that lead to flowers with extra organs and bigger fruits. In this work, by combining mapping-by-sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing methods, we isolated EXCESSIVE NUMBER OF FLORAL ORGANS (ENO), an AP2/ERF transcription factor which regulates floral meristem activity. Thus, the ENO gene mutation gives rise to plants that yield larger multilocular fruits due to an increased size of the floral meristem. Genetic analyses indicate that eno exhibits synergistic effects with mutations at the LOCULE NUMBER (encoding SlWUS) and FASCIATED (encoding SlCLV3) loci, two central players in the evolution of fruit size in the domestication of cultivated tomatoes. Our findings reveal that an eno mutation causes a substantial expansion of SlWUS expression domains in a flower-specific manner. In vitro binding results show that ENO is able to interact with the GGC-box cis-regulatory element within the SlWUS promoter region, suggesting that ENO directly regulates SlWUS expression domains to maintain floral stem-cell homeostasis. Furthermore, the study of natural allelic variation of the ENO locus proved that a cis-regulatory mutation in the promoter of ENO had been targeted by positive selection during the domestication process, setting up the background for significant increases in fruit locule number and fruit size in modern tomatoes.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Meristema/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/genética , Produção Agrícola , Domesticação , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Meristema/citologia , Mutação , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
14.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 66, 2020 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041534

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gibberellins (GA3) are the most sprayed growth regulator for table grape production worldwide, increasing berry size of seedless varieties through pericarp cell expansion. However, these treatments also exacerbate berry drop, which has a detrimental effect on the postharvest quality of commercialized clusters. Several studies have suggested that pedicel stiffening caused by GA3 would have a role in this disorder. Nevertheless, transcriptional and phenotypic information regarding pedicel responses to GA3 is minimal. RESULTS: Characterization of responses to GA3 treatments using the lines L23 and Thompson Seedless showed that the former was up to six times more susceptible to berry drop than the latter. GA3 also increased the diameter and dry matter percentage of the pedicel on both genotypes. Induction of lignin biosynthesis-related genes by GA3 has been reported, so the quantity of this polymer was measured. The acetyl bromide method detected a decreased concentration of lignin 7 days after GA3 treatment, due to a higher cell wall yield of the isolated fractions of GA3-treated pedicel samples which caused a dilution effect. Thus, an initial enrichment of primary cell wall components in response to GA3 was suggested, particularly in the L23 background. A transcriptomic profiling was performed to identify which genes were associated with these phenotypic changes. This analysis identified 1281 and 1787 genes differentially upregulated by GA3 in L23 and cv. Thompson Seedless, respectively. Concomitantly, 1202 and 1317 downregulated genes were detected in L23 and cv. Thompson Seedless (FDR < 0.05). Gene ontology analysis of upregulated genes showed enrichment in pathways including phenylpropanoids, cell wall metabolism, xylem development, photosynthesis and the cell cycle at 7 days post GA3 application. Twelve genes were characterized by qPCR and striking differences were observed between genotypes, mainly in genes related to cell wall synthesis. CONCLUSIONS: High levels of berry drop are related to an early strong response of primary cell wall synthesis in the pedicel promoted by GA3 treatment. Genetic backgrounds can produce similar phenotypic responses to GA3, although there is considerable variation in the regulation of genes in terms of which are expressed, and the extent of transcript levels achieved within the same time frame.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genótipo , Giberelinas/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Vitis/fisiologia , Agricultura/métodos , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Frutas/genética , Metabolismo Secundário , Vitis/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
15.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(1-2): 91-111, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043226

RESUMO

KEY MESSAGE: Auxin treatment of grape (Vitis vinifera L.) berries delays ripening by inducing changes in gene expression and cell wall metabolism and could combat some deleterious climate change effects. Auxins are inhibitors of grape berry ripening and their application may be useful to delay harvest to counter effects of climate change. However, little is known about how this delay occurs. The expression of 1892 genes was significantly changed compared to the control during a 48 h time-course where the auxin 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) was applied to pre-veraison grape berries. Principal component analysis showed that the control and auxin-treated samples were most different at 3 h post-treatment when approximately three times more genes were induced than repressed by NAA. There was considerable cross-talk between hormone pathways, particularly between those of auxin and ethylene. Decreased expression of genes encoding putative cell wall catabolic enzymes (including those involved with pectin) and increased expression of putative cellulose synthases indicated that auxins may preserve cell wall structure. This was confirmed by immunochemical labelling of berry sections using antibodies that detect homogalacturonan (LM19) and methyl-esterified homogalacturonan (LM20) and by labelling with the CMB3a cellulose-binding module. Comparison of the auxin-induced changes in gene expression with the pattern of these genes during berry ripening showed that the effect on transcription is a mix of changes that may specifically alter the progress of berry development in a targeted manner and others that could be considered as non-specific changes. Several lines of evidence suggest that cell wall changes and associated berry softening are the first steps in ripening and that delaying cell expansion can delay ripening providing a possible mechanism for the observed auxin effects.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Indolacéticos/farmacologia , Células Vegetais/efeitos dos fármacos , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/farmacologia , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos , Crescimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Parede Celular/genética , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Naftalenoacéticos/farmacologia , Células Vegetais/fisiologia , Tempo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
16.
Plant Mol Biol ; 103(1-2): 141-157, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072393

RESUMO

The process of grape berry ripening follows three phases with distinct metabolic processes and complex regulations via phytohormones. The physiological ripening disorder berry shrivel (BS) is characterized by reduced sugar accumulation, low anthocyanin contents, and high acidity in affected berries. The processes leading to BS induction are unknown, but recent transcriptional data on reduced expression of switch genes hint towards a disturbed ripening onset. Herein we investigated the phytohormone composition throughout grape berry ripening in healthy and BS berries in Vitis vinifera L. cultivar Blauer Zweigelt. Thereby we hypothesize that phytohormones are key players for BS induction and suppress the expression of switch genes at veraison. The presented metabolomics and RNAseq data describe two distinct phytohormone profiles in BS berries, differing between pre- and post-veraison with a clear ethylene precursor (aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid, ACC) peak before veraison. Exogenous application of ACC led to BS symptoms, while ethephone application led to berry abscission. During post-veraison, we observed high ABA-glucose ester (ABA-GE) and low indole-3-acetate aspartate (IAA-Asp) and isopentenyladenine (iP) contents in BS berries and the transcriptional induction of several phytohormone pathways. The presented descriptive data provide valuable knowledge to further decipher the role of phytohormones in BS induction and BS symptom development.


Assuntos
Frutas/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Vitis/genética , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
17.
J Plant Res ; 133(2): 217-229, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32016652

RESUMO

Stone oaks, or Lithocarpus species of Fagaceae are ecologically important canopy trees in the tropical and subtropical forests over East Asia, and the fruits of which are important food sources for insects and vertebrates there. The great fruit morphological variation of this genus represents two fruit types, acorn and enclosed receptacle fruit types. However, the evolutionary mechanisms of differentiation into these two fruit types with contrasting morphology remain a puzzle. To reveal the morphogenetic properties of two fruit types, we observed tissue differentiation and development among 20 Lithocarpus species from fruit set to maturity. Unlike in fruits of Quercus, the endocarp differentiation in Lithocarpus fruits occurred later than exocarp and mesocarp. Cupules provided further protection of developing seeds, particularly of acorn-type fruits. Fruits of Lithocarpus and Quercus acorns share similar insect predators. At fruit set, both acorn and enclosed receptacle types were largely identical, with similar tissue morphology and the sequence of differentiation. The distinct difference between two fruit types at maturity came from varied rates and degrees of development between the pericarp and receptacle tissues. We found that heterochrony between two tissues could create substantially divergent ecological strategies for protection and dispersal of their seeds, which is essential for the evolution of two fruit types.


Assuntos
Fagaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Extremo Oriente , Florestas , Quercus
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 75, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major fleshy tissues of the apple fruit are spatially separable into cortex and pith. These tissues display differential growth during development. Key features of such differential growth, and sink metabolic programs supporting it have not been investigated previously. We hypothesized that differential growth between these fruit tissues is supported by differential sink metabolic programs, particularly during early development. Growth, metabolite concentrations, and transcript abundance of metabolism-related genes were measured to determine characteristics of differential growth and their underlying metabolic programs. RESULTS: The cortex displayed > 5-fold higher growth than the pith during early fruit development, indicating that differential growth was established during this period. Further, when resource availability was increased through sink-removal, cortex growth was preferentially enhanced. Greatest diversity in metabolic programs between these tissues was evident during early fruit development. Higher cortex growth during early development was facilitated by increased catabolism of imported carbon (C) resources, sorbitol and sucrose, and the nitrogen (N) resource, asparagine. It was also associated with enhanced primary C metabolism, and C storage as malate and quinate. The pith metabolic program during this period involved limited allocation of C and N to growth, but greater allocation to storage, and enhanced sucrose-sucrose cycling. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these data indicate that the fruit cortex tissue displays a resource intensive metabolic program during early fruit development. This provides the C backbones, proteins, energy and osmolytes to support its higher growth.


Assuntos
Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Genes de Plantas , Malus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Malus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo
19.
BMC Plant Biol ; 20(1): 72, 2020 Feb 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054455

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The B-BOX (BBX) proteins are the class of zinc-finger transcription factors and can regulate plant growth, development, and endure stress response. In plants, the BBX gene family has been identified in Arabidopsis, rice, and tomato. However, no systematic analysis of BBX genes has been undertaken in grapevine. RESULTS: In this study, 24 grapevine BBX (VvBBX) genes were identified by comprehensive bioinformatics analysis. Subsequently, the chromosomal localizations, gene structure, conserved domains, phylogenetic relationship, gene duplication, and cis-acting elements were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis divided VvBBX genes into five subgroups. Numerous cis-acting elements related to plant development, hormone and/or stress responses were identified in the promoter of the VvBBX genes. The tissue-specific expressional dynamics of VvBBX genes demonstrated that VvBBXs might play important role in plant growth and development. The transcript analysis from transcriptome data and qRT-PCR inferred that 11 VvBBX genes were down-regulated in different fruit developmental stages, while three VvBBX genes were up-regulated. It is also speculated that VvBBX genes might be involved in multiple hormone signaling (ABA, ethylene, GA3, and CPPU) as transcriptional regulators to modulate berry development and ripening. VvBBX22 seems to be responsive to multiple hormone signaling, including ABA, ethylene GA3, and CPPU. Some VvBBX genes were strongly induced by Cu, salt, waterlogging, and drought stress treatment. Furthermore, the expression of VvBBX22 proposed its involvement in multiple functions, including leaf senescence, abiotic stress responses, fruit development, and hormone response. CONCLUSIONS: Our results will provide the reference for functional studies of BBX gene family, and highlight its functions in grapevine berry development and ripening. The results will help us to better understand the complexity of the BBX gene family in abiotic stress tolerance and provide valuable information for future functional characterization of specific genes in grapevine.


Assuntos
Frutas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genoma de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Vitis/genética , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Família Multigênica , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005386

RESUMO

With the forecasted fast increase in world population and global climate change, providing sufficient amounts of quality food becomes a major challenge for human society. Seed and fruit crop yield is determined by developmental processes including flower initiation, pollen fertility and fruit set. Fruit set is defined as the transition from flower to young fruit, a key step in the development of sexually reproducing higher plants. Plant hormones have important roles during flower pollination and fertilization, leading to fruit set. Moreover, it is well established that fruit set can be triggered by phytohormones like auxin and gibberellins (GAs), in the absence of fertilization, both hormones being commonly used to produce parthenocarpic fruits and to increase fruit yield. Additionally, a number of studies highlighted the role of ethylene in plant reproductive organ development. The present review integrates current knowledge on the roles of auxin and ethylene in different steps of the fruit set process with a specific emphasis on the interactions between the two hormones. A deeper understanding of the interplay between auxin and ethylene may provide new leads towards designing strategies for a better control of fruit initiation and ultimately yield.


Assuntos
Etilenos/metabolismo , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Vegetal , Reguladores de Crescimento de Planta/metabolismo , Plantas/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA