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1.
Food Chem ; 339: 128151, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33152896

RESUMO

The effects of aloe vera (Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.) gel treatment on the incidence of superficial scald in 'Starking' apples (Malus domestica Borkh. Var. Starking) during cold storage were studied. Apples were harvested at the pre-climacteric stage and treated with aloe vera gel. The treatment increased malondialdehyde content and membrane lipid damage. Furthermore, it inhibited the release of ethylene at the early stage but increased it in the later stage. The expression level of ACC synthase 1 (MdACS1) also increased, and the antioxidant capacity in apples, particularly, catalase, peroxidase, and superoxide dismutase activities, all decreased, while concomitantly, the content of α-farnesene and its oxidation product, conjugated triene increased, thereby aggravating superficial scald incidence during storage at low temperature.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Malus/fisiologia , Preparações de Plantas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Enzimas/metabolismo , Etilenos/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/fisiologia , Malus/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxirredução , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo
2.
Food Chem ; 338: 127916, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32942087

RESUMO

Spondias tuberosa is a highly perishable fruit that is difficult to transport, which limits its consumption in local areas. Thus, for economic reasons, there is a need for technologies to extend post-harvest shelf life of these fruits. The aim of this study was to evaluate the life of Spondias tuberosa fruit using edible coatings composed of Chlorella sp. and pomegranate seed oil (PSO) during cold storage. Coated and uncoated S. tuberosa fruits were stored for 12 days at 14 ± 2 °C and 85 ± 5% RH and evaluated every 3 days. Chlorella sp. + PSO coatings retarded ripening, maintained firmness, mass, and a greener color when compared to control treatment - since by default controls are not treated. Coatings in association with the best quality fruit presented 2.0% of Chlorella sp.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Chlorella/química , Filmes Comestíveis , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Romã (Fruta)/metabolismo , Anacardiaceae/química , Anacardiaceae/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Temperatura Baixa , Cor , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/fisiologia , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Óleos Vegetais/química , Romã (Fruta)/química , Espectrofotometria , Vitaminas/análise
3.
Food Chem ; 335: 127665, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738530

RESUMO

'Nanguo' pear is particularly renowned for its fragrance. Esters are the main components of its aroma, which are synthesized primarily by the LOX pathway. We identified the main volatile esters and critical gene family members involved in the LOX pathway by monitoring their variation accompanying post-harvest ripening and examining their roles through principal component analysis (PCA), partial least-square regression (PLSR), and correlation analysis. In pears ripening to the optimum taste period (OTP), components and contents of volatile esters reached a peak, of which ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, and hexyl acetate were most prominent. Linoleic acid and linolenic acid contents rose greatly until OTP and then declined; the activities of LOX, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and alcohol acyltransferase (AAT) increased progressively until the OTP. Among the genes involved in LOX-pathway, the expressions of PuLOX3, PuADH3, and PuAAT contributed most to changes of total ester and main esters in 'Nanguo' pears.


Assuntos
Frutas/fisiologia , Lipoxigenase/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Pyrus/fisiologia , Aciltransferases , Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Álcool Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Caproatos/análise , Caproatos/metabolismo , Ésteres/análise , Ésteres/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/genética , Frutas/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Ácido Linoleico/análise , Ácido Linoleico/genética , Ácido Linoleico/metabolismo , Lipoxigenase/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Pyrus/genética , Pyrus/metabolismo , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Ácido alfa-Linoleico/metabolismo
4.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(16): 2676-2690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876477

RESUMO

In recent years, applications of cold plasma treatments have shown high efficiency in sterilization of fresh fruit and vegetables. With encouraging results, development of this technique focuses on influences of cold plasma on the quality attributes of these fresh produce. More studies found that the quality attributes are maintained in an acceptable range or can even be improved under certain plasma treatment conditions. This review provides an overview of the multiple effects of cold plasma on the fresh produce, in terms of physical, chemical and physiological aspects. Besides, the possible mechanisms of how plasma influences these quality attributes is elaborated, which is useful for further modification and improvement of the plasma technology, so that quality enhancement and shelf life extension can be achieved. Future trends in the development of cold plasma technology are also presented. Cold plasma treatment is a potential technology for treating fresh fruit and vegetables to enhance their quality and extend their shelf life. However, knowledge of the effects of cold plasma on the quality changes of fresh fruit and vegetables is still limited. Therefore, there is a need for future studies to understand the mechanisms of plasma effects on controlling the interactions between plasma and food products in order to realize the early adoption of the technology to the food industry.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos , Frutas , Gases em Plasma , Verduras , Frutas/química , Frutas/fisiologia , Esterilização , Verduras/química , Verduras/fisiologia
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0227528, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841235

RESUMO

The morphology and physiology of diaspores play crucial roles in determining the fate of seeds in unpredictable habitats. In some genera of the Brassicaceae different types of diaspores can be found. Lepidium appelianum produces non-dormant seeds within indehiscent fruits while in L. campestre dormant seeds are released from dehiscent fruits. We investigated whether the allocation of relevant defence compounds into different tissues in different Lepidium species may be related to the diverse dispersal strategy (indehiscent and dehiscent) and seed physiology (non-dormant and dormant). Total glucosinolate concentration and composition were analysed in immature and mature seeds and pericarps of L. appelianum and L. campestre using high-performance liquid chromatography. Moreover, for comparison, transgenic RNAi L. campestre lines were used that produce indehiscent fruits due to silencing of LcINDEHISCENCE, the INDEHISCENCE ortholog of L. campestre. Total glucosinolate concentrations were lower in immature compared to mature seeds in all studied Lepidium species and transgenic lines. In contrast, indehiscent fruits of L. appelianum maintained their total glucosinolate concentration in mature pericarps compared to immature ones, while in dehiscent L. campestre and in indehiscent RNAi-LcIND L. campestre a significant decrease in total glucosinolate concentrations from immature to mature pericarps could be detected. Indole glucosinolates were detected in lower abundance than the other glucosinolate classes (aliphatic and aromatic). Relatively high concentrations of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate were found in mature seeds of L. appelianum compared to other tissues, while no indole glucosinolates were detected in mature diaspores of L. campestre. The diaspores of the latter species may rather depend on aliphatic and aromatic glucosinolates for long-term protection. The allocation patterns of glucosinolates correlate with the morpho-physiologically distinct fruits of L. appelianum and L. campestre and may be explained by the distinct dispersal strategies and the dormancy status of both species.


Assuntos
Glucosinolatos/metabolismo , Lepidium/fisiologia , Sementes/metabolismo , Brassicaceae/fisiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ecossistema , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/fisiologia , Germinação/fisiologia , Lepidium/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dormência de Plantas , Sementes/fisiologia , Água
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235347, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645033

RESUMO

In most temperate fruit trees, fruits are located on one-year old shoots. In Prunus species, flowers and fruits are born in axillary position along those shoots. The axillary bud fate and branching patterns are thus key components of the cultivar potential fruit production. The objective of this study was to analyze the branching and bearing behaviors of 1-year-old shoots of apricot cultivars and clones genetically closely related. Shoot structures were analyzed in terms of axillary bud fates using hidden semi-Markov chains and compared depending on the genotype, year and shoot length. The shoots were composed of three successive zones containing latent buds (basal zone), central flower buds (median zone) and vegetative buds (distal zone), respectively. The last two zones contained few associated flower buds. The zones length (in number of metamers) and occurrence strongly depended on shoot development in the two successive years. With decrease in the number of metamers per shoot, the last two zones become shorter or may not develop. While the number of metamers of the basal and distal zones and the number of associated flower buds correlated to the number of metamers of the shoot, the number of metamers of the median zone and the transition probability from the median to the distal zone were cultivar specific.


Assuntos
Modelos Biológicos , Brotos de Planta/fisiologia , Prunus armeniaca/genética , Prunus armeniaca/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Genótipo , Cadeias de Markov , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8855, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32483323

RESUMO

With millions of years' evolution, plants and fungi have developed a variety of ballistic dispersal structures for seeds or spores. One typical example is the catapult of an Oxalis sp., which can realize a consecutive seed ejection by triggering only one seed. If the protrusion on an aril, a specialized outgrowth covering a seed, is disturbed, cracks would occur and cause the opening of the aril. Subsequently, the whole aril snaps and transforms its stored strain energy to eject the inside seed with an optimal launching angle. Once the first seed is triggered, its curly aril will contact the next seed's protrusion and induce its firing. This chain effect will further trigger the remaining seeds in turns, within 0.1 s. Inspired by this phenomenon, we invented a bionic ejection device to launch projectiles with high efficiency. This exploration is promising for a number of applications, such as drug delivery and oil displacement.


Assuntos
Oxalidaceae/fisiologia , Dispersão de Sementes/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Oxalidaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Sementes/química , Sementes/fisiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234040, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484826

RESUMO

During the past decade, Drosophila suzukii has established itself as a global invasive fruit pest, enabled by its ability to lay eggs into fresh, ripening fruit. In a previous study, we investigated the impact of different strawberry accessions on the development of D. suzukii eggs, in the search of natural resistance. We identified several accessions that significantly reduced adult fly emergence from infested fruit. In the present study, we aimed at understanding the chemical basis of this effect. We first noted that one of the more resistant accessions showed an unusual enrichment of methyl anthranilate within its fruit, prompting us to investigate this fruit compound as a possible cause limiting fly development. We found that methyl anthranilate alone triggers embryo lethality in a concentration-dependent manner, unlike another comparable organic fruit compound. We also showed that a chemical fraction of the resistant strawberry accession that contains methyl anthranilate carries some activity toward the egg hatching rate. Surprisingly, in spite of the lethal effect of this compound to their eggs, adult females are not only attracted to methyl anthranilate at certain concentrations, but they also display a concentration-dependent preference to lay on substrates enriched in methyl anthranilate. This study demonstrates that methyl anthranilate is a potent agonist molecule against D. suzukii egg development. Its elevated concentration in a specific strawberry accession proven to reduce the fly development may explain, at least in part the fruit resistance. It further illustrates how a single, natural compound, non-toxic to humans could be exploited for biological control of a pest species.


Assuntos
Drosophila/fisiologia , Fragaria/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , ortoaminobenzoatos/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Fragaria/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Reprodução , Volatilização , ortoaminobenzoatos/química
9.
J Food Sci ; 85(7): 2080-2089, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562279

RESUMO

Hot water treatment (HT) has proved to alleviate chilling injury (CI) in bell pepper and other Solanaceae species, this has been associated with the presence of metabolites such as sugars and polyamines, which protect the plasmatic membrane. However, it is unknown if the phenolic compounds in bell pepper play a role in the CI tolerance induced by the application of a HT. The aim of this study was to identify the specific phenolics associated with induced CI tolerance in bell pepper by HT (53 °C, 1 to 3 min). Fruit treated for 1 min (HT-1 min) exhibited CI tolerance (the lowest symptom development, electrolyte leakage, and vitamin C loss) and was the chosen treatment for further experiments. The phenolic composition was affected by HT-1 min and CI. Phenolics presented a strong correlation with the antioxidant activity. In fruit with CI tolerance, the concentration of seven compounds was increased, being quercetin-O-rhamnoside-O-hexoside and chlorogenic acid the most remarkable. Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside was accumulated only in fruit with induced tolerance, meanwhile orientin was particularly sensitive to heat and cold exposure. Thus, HT-1 min (53 °C, 1 min) is a useful technology to induce CI tolerance in bell pepper and such tolerance is associated with the phenolic composition that may reduce the prevalence of oxidative stress during the storage under CI conditions. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Phenolics induced by CI and HT may be useful to detect early stages of heat and chilling injuries in bell pepper and prevent the negative effect of such stresses even before its harvest and during commercial storage. Additionally, the phenolics associated with CI tolerance may be used as markers in breeding programs to create new chilling resistant cultivars.


Assuntos
Capsicum/fisiologia , Frutas/química , Fenóis/química , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Capsicum/química , Temperatura Baixa , Resposta ao Choque Frio , Frutas/fisiologia , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232875, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407357

RESUMO

Water uptake into seeds is a fundamental prerequisite of germination and commonly influenced by commercial seed enhancement technologies. The effect of fruit orientation and contrasting pelleting materials on germination and biological performance of sugar beet was assessed. The results indicated there was orientation dependent fruit shrinkage of 37% for the operculum side supplied by moisture compared to 4% for the basal pore side. The expansion rate of 5% compared to the original size, which was also observed for non-shrinking seeds, indicated this was a temporary effect. This behaviour has importance for the application pelleting materials to seeds. Pellets composed of materials exhibiting low levels of swelling act as a water distribution layer which increased germination rates. Careful selection of pelleting material is crucial as it has direct implications on germination speed and subsequent establishment rates.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Beta vulgaris/fisiologia , Frutas/química , Germinação , Sementes/fisiologia , Açúcares/metabolismo , Água/metabolismo , Beta vulgaris/química , Beta vulgaris/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial , Sementes/química , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
Phytother Res ; 34(10): 2518-2533, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307775

RESUMO

Fruits of Terminalia chebula Retz. (Combretaceae) are widely used as crude drugs in various traditional medicine systems. The aim of this article is to review the available scientific information regarding the traditional uses, bioactive chemical constituents and the pharmacological activities of T. chebula. Numerous researches conducted on T. chebula have confirmed the presence of wide range of the phytochemicals such as flavonoids, tannins, phenolic acids and other bioactive compounds. T. chebula is also widely studied regarding its pharmacological activities such as antioxidant, hepatoprotective, neuroprotective, cytotoxic, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory activities among others. However, more in vivo and clinical studies for mechanism-based pharmacological evaluation should be conducted in future to provide stronger scientific evidences for their traditional uses.


Assuntos
Frutas/fisiologia , Medicina Tradicional/métodos , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Terminalia/fisiologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Flavonoides/uso terapêutico , Frutas/química , Humanos , Hidroxibenzoatos/isolamento & purificação , Hidroxibenzoatos/uso terapêutico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia/métodos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Taninos/isolamento & purificação , Taninos/uso terapêutico , Terminalia/química
12.
J Insect Sci ; 20(2)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252064

RESUMO

Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus Jagoueix, Bové, and Garnier (Rhizobiales: Rhizobiaceae) is transmitted by the psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama and putatively causes Huanglongbing disease in citrus. Huanglongbing has reduced yields by 68% relative to pre-disease yields in Florida. Disease management is partly through vector control. Understanding vector biology is essential in this endeavor. Our goal was to document differences in probing behavior linked to sex. Based on both a literature review and our results, we conclude that there is either no effect of sex or that identifying such an effect requires a sample size at least four times larger than standard methodologies. Including both color and sex in statistical models did not improve model performance. Both sex and color are correlated with body size, and body size has not been considered in previous studies on sex in D. citri in terms of probing behavior. An effect of body size was found wherein larger psyllids took longer to reach ingestion behaviors and larger individuals spent more time-ingesting phloem, but these relationships explained little of the variability in these data. We suggest that the effects of sex can be ignored when running EPG experiments on healthy psyllids.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/fisiologia , Hemípteros/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Pigmentação , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Cor , Comportamento Alimentar , Florida , Frutas/fisiologia , Hemípteros/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Rhizobiaceae/fisiologia , Fatores Sexuais
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 6106, 2020 04 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32269241

RESUMO

Many plant species bear fruits that suggest adaptation to seed dispersal by extinct megafauna. Present-day seed dispersal of these megafaunal plants is carried out by rodents, which can act as predators or dispersers; whether this interaction is primarily positive or negative can depend on the context. Here, we parameterized a stochastic model using data from the field and experimental arenas to estimate the effect of rodents on the recruitment of Myrcianthes coquimbensis -an Atacama Desert shrub with megafaunal fruits- and examine whether environmental conditions can alter the sign and strength of these rodent-plant interactions. We show that the outcome of these interactions is context-dependent: in wet conditions seed removal by rodents negatively impacts the recruitment probability of M. coquimbensis; in contrast, in dry conditions, the interaction with rodents increases recruitment success. In all cases, the strength of the effect of rodents on the recruitment success was determined mainly by their role as dispersers, which could be positive or negative. This study demonstrates that by caching seeds, rodents can be effective dispersers of a megafaunal fruit plant, but that the sign and magnitude of their effect on recruitment changes as a function of the environmental context in which the interaction occurs.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Myrtaceae/fisiologia , Roedores/fisiologia , Dispersão de Sementes , Animais , Ecossistema , Frutas/fisiologia , Tempo (Meteorologia)
14.
Science ; 367(6485): 1482-1485, 2020 03 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217727

RESUMO

The premature abscission of flowers and fruits limits crop yield under environmental stress. Drought-induced flower drop in tomato plants was found to be regulated by phytosulfokine (PSK), a peptide hormone previously known for its growth-promoting and immune-modulating activities. PSK formation in response to drought stress depends on phytaspase 2, a subtilisin-like protease of the phytaspase subtype that generates the peptide hormone by aspartate-specific processing of the PSK precursor in the tomato flower pedicel. The mature peptide acts in the abscission zone where it induces expression of cell wall hydrolases that execute the abscission process. Our results provide insight into the molecular control of abscission as regulated by proteolytic processing to generate a small plant peptide hormone.


Assuntos
Secas , Flores/fisiologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/fisiologia , Hormônios Peptídicos/fisiologia , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Estresse Fisiológico , Parede Celular/enzimologia , Etilenos , Frutas/fisiologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Hidrolases/fisiologia , Ácidos Indolacéticos , Peptídeos , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Molecules ; 25(3)2020 Feb 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32050507

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the environmental quality of polluted areas near the Baia Mare Mining and Smelting Complex for future improvements the quality of the environment in polluted areas, such as the city of Baia Mare and its surroundings. Samples of soil and organs of grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) were collected from Baia Mare, Baia Sprie and surrounding areas (Simleul Silvaniei) and their content of Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Co, As, Cr, Hg were analyzed. Most soil and plant samples showed higher metal concentrations in Baia Mare and Baia Sprie areas compared to Simleul Silvaniei, exceeding the normal values. The results obtained from the translocation factors, mobility ratio, as well as from Pearson correlation study confirmed that very useful information is recorded in plant organs: root, canes, leaves and fruit. Results also indicated that Vitis vinifera L. has some highly effective strategies to tolerate heavy metal-induced stress, may also be useful as a vegetation protection barrier from considerable atmospheric pollution. At the same time, berries are safe for consumption to a large degree, which is a great advantage of this species.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica , Poluição Ambiental/análise , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Vitis/fisiologia , Biodegradação Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Poluição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Frutas/química , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/fisiologia , Humanos , Metais Pesados/química , Metais Pesados/toxicidade , Mineração , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/efeitos dos fármacos , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/fisiologia , Romênia , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Vitis/química , Vitis/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Food Chem ; 317: 126407, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078996

RESUMO

In this study, we compared the chemical composition of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) fruits that were ripened in vivo (attached to plant) to those ripened during postharvest storage. The effects of the application of abscisic acid (ABA) and sucrose on the postharvest ripening were also evaluated. The results suggested that the postharvest ripening process was dependent on the signal triggered by ABA and differed from in vivo ripening, resulting in fruits with altered chemical composition and firmness. The application of sucrose in unripe strawberries resulted in the induction of ripening, which is dependent on ABA and its derivatives. This induction was more pronounced during the first days of storage and associated with the application of mannitol rather than water, suggesting that mannitol negatively regulated the postharvest strawberry ripening. These results provide further insights into the role of ABA and sucrose in the regulation of postharvest ripening of strawberry.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/farmacologia , Fragaria/fisiologia , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Sacarose/farmacologia , Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Antocianinas/metabolismo , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Fragaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/metabolismo , Frutas/fisiologia , Manitol/farmacologia , Fenóis/análise
17.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3177, 2020 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081891

RESUMO

Wild pollinators are declining and the number of managed honey bee colonies is growing slower than agricultural demands for pollination. Because of these contrasting trends in pollinator demand and availability, breeding programs for many pollinator-dependent crops have focused on reducing the need for pollinators. Although numerous crop varieties are now available in the market with the label of pollinator-independent, the real dependence of these varieties on pollinators is mostly unknown. We evaluated the hypothesis of pollinator independence in the Independence almond variety, the fastest growing variety in California that is the main almond production region in the world. In this presumed pollinator-independent variety, we measured the effect of honey bees on fruit set, yield, and kernel nutritional quality at tree level. Fruit set was 60% higher in bee-pollinated than bee-isolated trees, which translated into a 20% increase in kernel yield. Despite its effect on almond production, there was no evidence that bee visitation affected almond nutritional quality. Based on these results, we recommend the use of bees, whether they are wild or managed, to maximize yield even in self-fertile almond varieties.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Polinização/fisiologia , Prunus dulcis/fisiologia , Animais , Flores/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia
18.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 3543, 2020 02 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32103143

RESUMO

MBW protein complexes containing MYB, bHLH and WD40 repeat factors are known transcriptional regulators of secondary metabolites production such as proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins, and developmental processes such as trichome formation in many plant species. DkMYB2 and DkMYB4 (MYB-type), DkMYC1 (bHLH-type) and DkWDR1 (WD40-type) factors have been proposed by different authors to take part of persimmon MBW complexes for proanthocyanidin accumulation in immature fruit, leading to its characteristic astringent flavour with important agronomical and ecological effects. We have confirmed the nuclear localization of these proteins and their mutual physical interaction by bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis. In addition, transient expression of DkMYB2, DkMYB4 and DkMYC1 cooperatively increase the expression of a persimmon anthocyanidin reductase gene (ANR), involved in the biosynthesis of cis-flavan-3-ols, the structural units of proanthocyanidin compounds. Collectively, these data support the presence of MBW complexes in persimmon fruit and suggest their coordinated participation in ANR regulation for proanthocyanidin production.


Assuntos
Diospyros/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , NADH NADPH Oxirredutases/genética , Proantocianidinas/biossíntese , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica , Fenótipo , Transporte Proteico
19.
Diabetes Care ; 43(2): 265-271, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31959642

RESUMO

Prevailing dietary guidelines have widely recommended diets relatively low in red and processed meats and high in minimally processed plant foods for the prevention of chronic diseases. However, an ad hoc research group called the Nutritional Recommendations (NutriRECS) consortium recently issued "new dietary guidelines" encouraging individuals to continue their current meat consumption habits due to "low certainty" of the evidence, difficulty of altering meat eaters' habits and preferences, and the lack of need to consider environmental impacts of red meat consumption. These recommendations are not justified, in large part because of the flawed methodologies used to review and grade nutritional evidence. The evidence evaluation was largely based on the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria, which are primarily designed to grade the strength of evidence for clinical interventions especially pharmacotherapy. However, the infeasibility for conducting large, long-term randomized clinical trials on most dietary, lifestyle, and environmental exposures makes the criteria inappropriate in these areas. A separate research group proposed a modified and validated system for rating the meta-evidence on nutritional studies (NutriGRADE) to address several limitations of the GRADE criteria. Applying NutriGRADE, the evidence on the positive association between red and processed meats and type 2 diabetes was rated to be of "high quality," while the evidence on the association between red and processed meats and mortality was rated to be of "moderate quality." Another important limitation is that inadequate attention was paid to what might be replacing red meat, be it plant-based proteins, refined carbohydrates, or other foods. In summary, the red/processed meat recommendations by NutriRECS suffer from important methodological limitations and involve misinterpretations of nutritional evidence. To improve human and planetary health, dietary guidelines should continue to emphasize dietary patterns low in red and processed meats and high in minimally processed plant foods such as fruits and vegetables, whole grains, nuts, and legumes.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Carne/efeitos adversos , Carne Vermelha/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Dieta/estatística & dados numéricos , Projetos de Pesquisa Epidemiológica , Manipulação de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Preferências Alimentares/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Humanos , Nozes/fisiologia , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/normas , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Verduras/fisiologia , Grãos Integrais/fisiologia
20.
BMC Evol Biol ; 20(1): 7, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31931711

RESUMO

PREMISE: A key question in plant dispersal via animal vectors is where and why fruit colors vary between species and how color relates to other fruit traits. To better understand the factors shaping the evolution of fruit color diversity, we tested for the existence of syndromes of traits (color, morphology, and nutrition) in the fruits of Viburnum. We placed these results in a larger phylogenetic context and reconstructed ancestral states to assess how Viburnum fruit traits have evolved across the clade. RESULTS: We find that blue Viburnum fruits are not very juicy, and have high lipid content and large, round endocarps surrounded by a small quantity of pulp. Red fruits display the opposite suite of traits: they are very juicy with low lipid content and smaller, flatter endocarps. The ancestral Viburnum fruit may have gone through a sequence of color changes before maturation (green to yellow to red to black), though our reconstructions are equivocal. In one major clade of Viburnum (Nectarotinus), fruits mature synchronously with reduced intermediate color stages. Most transitions between fruit colors occurred in this synchronously fruiting clade. CONCLUSIONS: It is widely accepted that fruit trait diversity has primarily been driven by the differing perceptual abilities of bird versus mammal frugivores. Yet within a clade of largely bird-dispersed fruits, we find clear correlations between color, morphology, and nutrition. These correlations are likely driven by a shift from sequential to synchronous development, followed by diversification in color, nutrition, and morphology. A deeper understanding of fruit evolution within clades will elucidate the degree to which such syndromes structure extant fruit diversity.


Assuntos
Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Viburnum/anatomia & histologia , Viburnum/genética , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Aves , Frutas/química , Frutas/fisiologia , Herbivoria , Mamíferos , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Viburnum/classificação , Viburnum/fisiologia
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