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1.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201056

RESUMO

The present investigation aimed to provide novel information on the chemical composition and in vitro bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds from raw citrus pomaces (mandarin varieties Clemenule and Ortanique and orange varieties Navel and Valencia). The effects of the baking process on their bioaccessibility was also assessed. Samples of pomaces and biscuits containing them as an ingredient were digested, mimicking the human enzymatic oral gastrointestinal digestion process, and the composition of the digests were analyzed. UHPLC-MS/MS results of the citrus pomaces flavonoid composition showed nobiletin, hesperidin/neohesperidin, tangeretin, heptamethoxyflavone, tetramethylscutellarein, and naringin/narirutin. The analysis of the digests indicated the bioaccessibility of compounds possessing antioxidant [6.6-11.0 mg GAE/g digest, 65.5-97.1 µmol Trolox Equivalents (TE)/g digest, and 135.5-214.8 µmol TE/g digest for total phenol content (TPC), ABTS, and ORAC-FL methods, respectively; significant reduction (p < 0.05) in Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) formation under tert-butyl hydroperoxide (1 mM)-induced conditions in IEC-6 and CCD-18Co cells when pre-treated with concentrations 5-25 µg/mL of the digests], anti-inflammatory [significant reduction (p < 0.05) in nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophages], and antidiabetic (IC50 3.97-11.42 mg/mL and 58.04-105.68 mg/mL for α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition capacities) properties in the citrus pomaces under study. In addition, orange pomace biscuits with the nutrition claims "no-added sugars" and "source of fiber", as well as those with good sensory quality (6.9-6.7, scale 1-9) and potential health promoting properties, were obtained. In conclusion, the results supported the feasibility of citrus pomace as a natural sustainable source of health-promoting compounds such as flavonoids. Unfractionated orange pomace may be employed as a functional food ingredient for reducing the risk of pathophysiological processes linked to oxidative stress, inflammation, and carbohydrate metabolism, such as diabetes, among others.


Assuntos
Citrus sinensis/química , Citrus/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Digestão/fisiologia , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Humanos , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
2.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201400

RESUMO

Mango peels are usually discarded as waste; however, they contain phytochemicals and could provide functional properties to food and promote human health. This study aimed to determine the optimal lactic acid bacteria for fermentation of mango peel and evaluate the effect of mango peel on neuronal protection in Neuron-2A cells against amyloid beta (Aß) treatment (50 µM). Mango peel can be fermented by different lactic acid bacteria species. Lactobacillus acidophilus (BCRC14079)-fermented mango peel produced the highest concentration of lactic acid bacteria (exceeding 108 CFU/mL). Mango peel and fermented mango peel extracts upregulated brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression for 1.74-fold in Neuron-2A cells. Furthermore, mango peel fermented products attenuated oxidative stress in Aß-treated neural cells by 27%. Extracts of L. acidophilus (BCRC14079)-fermented mango peel treatment decreased Aß accumulation and attenuated the increase of subG1 caused by Aß induction in Neuron-2A cells. In conclusion, L. acidophilus (BCRC14079)-fermented mango peel acts as a novel neuronal protective product by inhibiting oxidative stress and increasing BDNF expression in neural cells.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Fermentação/fisiologia , Frutas/química , Mangifera/química , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Lactobacillales , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
3.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203808

RESUMO

This work represents a comparative metabolomic study of extracts of wild grapes obtained from six different places in the Primorsky and Khabarovsk territories (Far East Russia) and extracts of grapes obtained from the collection of N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources (St. Petersburg). The metabolome analysis was performed by liquid chromatography in combination with ion trap mass spectrometry. The results showed the presence of 118 compounds in ethanolic extracts of V. amurensis grapes. In addition, several metabolites were newly annotated in V. amurensis. The highest diversity of phenolic compounds was identified in the samples of the V. amurensis grape collected in the vicinity of Vyazemsky (Khabarovsk Territory) and the floodplain of the Arsenyevka River (Primorsky Territory), compared to the other wild samples and cultural grapes obtained in the collection of N.I. Vavilov All-Russian Institute of Plant Genetic Resources.


Assuntos
Fenóis/análise , Vitis/química , Vitis/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Frutas/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Fenóis/química , Federação Russa , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
4.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203867

RESUMO

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in studying and exploring the potential health benefits of foods, mainly from vegetables and fruits from regular intake. The presence of secondary metabolites, namely polyphenols, carotenoids and terpenes, in certain food matrices seems to contribute to their functional properties, expressed through an increased prevention in the development of certain chronic diseases, namely coronary heart diseases, neurodegenerative diseases, cancer and diabetes. However, some foods' volatile secondary metabolites also present important bioactive properties, although this is a poorly scientifically explored field. In this context, and in order to explore the potential bioactivity of volatile metabolites in different vegetables and fruits from regular consumption, the volatile composition was established using a green extraction technique, solid phase microextraction in headspace mode (HS-SPME), combined with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 320 volatile metabolites, comprising 51 terpenic compounds, 45 organosulfur compounds, 31 aldehydes, 37 esters, 29 ketones, 28 alcohols, 23 furanic compounds, 22 hydrocarbons, 19 benzene compounds, 13 nitrogenous compounds, 9 carboxylic acids, 7 ethers, 4 halogenated compounds and 3 naphthalene derivatives, were positively identified. Each investigated fruit and vegetable showed a specific volatile metabolomic profile. The obtained results revealed that terpenic compounds, to which are associated antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities, are the most predominant chemical family in beetroot (61%), orange carrot (58%) and white carrot (61%), while organosulfur compounds (antiviral activity) are dominant in onion, garlic and watercress. Broccoli and spinach are essentially constituted by alcohols and aldehydes (enzyme-inhibition and antimicrobial properties), while fruits from the Solanaceae family are characterized by esters in tamarillo and aldehydes in tomato.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Verduras/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Ésteres/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Cetonas/análise , Metabolômica/métodos , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Terpenos/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
5.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204744

RESUMO

The cambuci is a native Brazilian fruit from the Atlantic Forest biome. A soft and astringent pulp, a green color, and a sweet aroma are its main characteristics. Classical food quality attributes (fresh fruit mass, fruit height, diameters, total soluble solid, titratable acidity, and ratio) and the metabolic profile from ten accessions from three different locations were analyzed herein by analytical methods (refractometry and neutralization titration) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Concerning sugar content, sucrose was the predominant compound, with glucose and fructose alternating in second, depending on the accession. Citric acid was the most relevant acid, followed by shikimic and quinic acids in quite variable amounts. These three main acids vary in amounts for each accession. Ascorbic acid content emerges as an important quality attribute and makes this fruit nutritionally attractive, due to values comparable to those contained in citric fruits. The main amino acids identified in cambuci were glutamic acid individually or in comprising the tripeptide glutathione (glutamic acid, cysteine, glycine). The quality diversity of the evaluated accessions suggests the potentiality of cambuci use in future breeding programs.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Brasil , Carboidratos/análise , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Floresta Úmida
6.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206313

RESUMO

Recent trends in the food industry combined with novel methods in agriculture could transform rowan into a valuable raw material with potential technological applications. Thus, the aim of this research was to investigate the content of bioactive compounds in its fruits and to assess the color and antioxidant stability of the extracts prepared from such fruits during various thermal treatments and at different pH and ionic strength values. Various spectrophotometric methods, HPLC, and capillary electrophoresis were used to quantify the concentrations of bioactive compounds-polyphenols, carotenoids, organic acids, and to assess antioxidant activity and color. The results show that rowan berries contain circa 1.34-1.47 g/100 g of polyphenols among which include catechin, epicatechin, ferulic acid methyl ester, procyanidin B1, etc.; ca 21.65 mg/100 g of carotenoids including zeaxanthin, ß-cryptoxanthin, all-trans-ß-carotene, and various organic acids such as malic, citric, and succinic, which result in a high antioxidant activity of 5.8 mmol TE/100 g. Results also showed that antioxidant activity exhibited high stability when the extract was subjected to various thermal treatments, pHs, and ionic strengths, while color was mainly impacted negatively when a temperature of 100 °C was employed. This data confirms the technological potential of this traditional, yet often overlooked species.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sorbus/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Concentração Osmolar , Polifenóis/química
7.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206325

RESUMO

In the present work, the optimization of the extraction of antioxidant compounds from apple pomace using ultrasound technology as an environmentally friendly and intensification process was developed. Different sonication powers, extraction temperatures and extraction times were studied and their influence on extraction yield and characteristics of the extracted samples (total phenolic compounds, flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity) are presented. The elaborated experimental design and the analysis of Pareto and response surface diagrams allowed us to determine the optimal extraction conditions. The conditions that allow the maximum extraction of phenolic compounds were found at 20 min, 90 °C and 50% ultrasound amplitude. Nevertheless, at these conditions, the antioxidant capacity measured by DPPH decreased in the extracted samples.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Frutas/química , Malus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sonicação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação
8.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205651

RESUMO

High-pressure processing (HPP) has emerged over the last 2 decades as a good alternative to traditional thermal treatment for food safety and shelf-life extension, supplying foods with similar characteristics to those of fresh products. Currently, HPP has also been proposed as a useful tool to reduce food contaminants, such as pesticides and mycotoxins. The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of HPP technology at 600 MPa during 5 min at room temperature on alternariol (AOH) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) mycotoxins reduction in different juice models. The effect of HPP has also been compared with a thermal treatment performed at 90 °C during 21 s. For this, different juice models, orange juice/milk beverage, strawberry juice/milk beverage and grape juice, were prepared and spiked individually with AOH and AFB1 at a concentration of 100 µg/L. After HPP and thermal treatments, mycotoxins were extracted from treated samples and controls by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and determined by HPLC-MS/MS-IT. The results obtained revealed reduction percentages up to 24% for AFB1 and 37% for AOH. Comparing between different juice models, significant differences were observed for AFB1 residues in orange juice/milk versus strawberry juice/milk beverages after HPP treatment. Moreover, HPP resulted as more effective than thermal treatment, being an effective tool to incorporate to food industry in order to reach mycotoxins reductions.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/química , Bebidas/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Frutas/química , Leite/química , Vitis/química , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Lactonas/química , Microextração em Fase Líquida/métodos , Micotoxinas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
9.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205060

RESUMO

The medicinal potential and volatile composition of different parts of three cultivars of grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) were evaluated for their toxicity and anti-inflammatory activities. Fresh leaf and fruit peel were separately isolated by hydrodistillation for 4 h. The essential oils were subjected to GC/GC-MS analysis for chemical profile. Toxicity of the essential oils in mice were evaluated using Lorke's method, while an anti-inflammatory assay was performed in a rat model using egg albumin-induced oedema. The oils obtained were light yellow in colour, and odour varied from strong citrus smell to mild. Percentage yield of fresh peel oil (0.34-0.57%) was greater than the fresh leaf oil yield (0.21-0.34%). D-limonene (86.70-89.90%) was the major compound identified in the leaf oil, while ß-phellandrene (90.00-91.01%) dominated the peel oil. At a dosage level of 5000 mg/kg, none of the oils showed mortality in mice. An anti-inflammatory bioassay revealed that all the oils caused a significant (p < 0.05-0.01) reduction in oedema size when compared to the negative control group throughout the 5 h post induction assessment period. The study reveals that the oils are non-toxic and demonstrate significant anti-inflammatory activity. Our findings suggest that the leaf and peel oils obtained from waste parts of grapefruit plants can be useful as flavouring agents, as well as anti-inflammatory agents.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Citrus paradisi/química , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Ovalbumina/efeitos adversos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Monoterpenos Cicloexânicos/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Limoneno/análise , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/análise , Óleos Vegetais/química , Ratos , África do Sul
10.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200718

RESUMO

Euterpe oleracea Mart. (açai) is a native palm from the Amazon region. There are various chemical constituents of açai with bioactive properties. This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and cytotoxic effects of açai seed extract on breast cancer cell line (MCF-7). Global Natural Products Social Molecular Networking (GNPS) was applied to identify chemical compounds present in açai seed extract. LC-MS/MS and molecular networking were employed to detect the phenolic compounds of açai. The antioxidant activity of açai seed extract was measured by DPPH assay. MCF-7 breast cancer cell line viability was evaluated by MTT assay. Cell death was evaluated by flow cytometry and time-lapse microscopy. Autophagy was evaluated by orange acridin immunofluorescence assay. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was evaluated by DAF assay. From the molecular networking, fifteen compounds were identified, mainly phenolic compounds. The açai seed extract showed cytotoxic effects against MCF-7, induced morphologic changes in the cell line by autophagy and increased the ROS production pathway. The present study suggests that açai seed extract has a high cytotoxic capacity and may induce autophagy by increasing ROS production in breast cancer. Apart from its antioxidant activity, flavonoids with high radical scavenging activity present in açai also generated NO (nitric oxide), contributing to its cytotoxic effect and autophagy induction.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Euterpe/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sementes/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
11.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200974

RESUMO

In this study, we investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and paramagnetic species in dragon fruit using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). HPLC analysis demonstrated that dragon fruit is enriched with bioactive phytochemicals, with significant variations between each part of the fruit. Anthocyanins namely, cyanidin 3-glucoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, and pelargonidin 3-glucoside were detected in the dragon fruit peel and fresh red pulp. Epicatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, caffeine, and gallic acid were found in the dragon fruit seed. Additionally, 25-100 mg × L-1 of dragon fruit pulp and peel extracts containing enrichment of cyanidin 3-glucoside were found to inhibit the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in cell-based studies without exerted cytotoxicity. EPR primarily detected two paramagnetic species in the red samples. These two different radical species were assigned as stable radicals and Mn2+ (paramagnetic species) based on the g-values and hyperfine components. In addition, the broad EPR line width of the white peel can be correlated to a unique moiety in dragon fruit. Our EPR and HPLC results provide new insight regarding the phytochemicals and related stable intermediates found in various parts of dragon fruit. Thus, we suggest here that there is the potential to use dragon fruit peel, which contains anthocyanins, as a natural active pharmaceutical ingredient.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cactaceae/química , Frutas/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antocianinas/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância de Spin Eletrônica/métodos , Camundongos , Células RAW 264.7 , Sementes/química
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207143

RESUMO

Epidemiological studies have emphasized the association between a diet rich in fruits and vegetables and a lower frequency of occurrence of inflammatory-related disorders. Black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) is a valuable source of biologically active compounds that have been widely investigated for their role in health promotion and cardiovascular disease prevention. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that consumption of these fruits is associated with significant improvements in hypertension, LDL oxidation, lipid peroxidation, total plasma antioxidant capacity and dyslipidemia. The mechanisms for these beneficial effects include upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, decreased oxidative stress, and inhibition of inflammatory gene expression. Collected findings support the recommendation of such berries as an essential fruit group in a heart-healthy diet. The aim of this review was to summarize the reports on the impact of black chokeberry fruits and extracts against several cardiovascular diseases, e.g., hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, as well as to provide an analysis of the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect of these fruits in the abovementioned disorders.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Photinia/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/diagnóstico , Doenças Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204250

RESUMO

Supplementation with anthocyanins, which are a type of flavonoids mainly found in various berries, is hypothesized to be a promising approach to lower the risk of developing cognitive decline. The aim of this systematic review was to provide a comprehensive overview of dietary intervention trials describing effects of berry anthocyanins on cognitive performance in humans, while also addressing potential underlying mechanisms. A total of 1197 articles were identified through a systematic search, and 49 studies reporting effects on cognitive performance (n = 18), vascular function (n = 22), or cardiometabolic risk markers (n = 32) were included. Significant improvements were observed on memory, while some of the studies also reported effects on attention and psychomotor speed or executive function. Vascular function markers such as brachial artery flow-mediated vasodilation were also affected and consistent evidence was provided for the beneficial effects of berry anthocyanins on endothelial function. Finally, studies reported improvements in blood pressure, but effects on metabolic risk markers (e.g. carbohydrate and lipid metabolism) were less consistent. In conclusion, this review provides evidence for the beneficial effects of berry anthocyanins on cognitive performance as memory improved. Whether observed anthocyanin-induced improvements in vascular function and blood pressure underlie beneficial effects on cognitive performance warrants further study.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/farmacologia , Biomarcadores , Vasos Sanguíneos/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutas/química , Antocianinas/administração & dosagem , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
14.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34073741

RESUMO

The study assesses the antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, total flavonoids content and lipophilic pigments (ß-carotene, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b) content in homemade and marketed fruit and vegetable whey beverages and fruit and vegetable mousses. All of the tests were performed using spectrophotometric methods. The highest polyphenol content was found in the homemade green whey beverage W1G (541.95 mg/100 g) and the lowest in the market green whey beverage W2G (46.18 mg/100 g). In the fruit and vegetable mousses under study, the highest content of polyphenolic compounds was determined in the red mousse R3 (76.41 mg/100 g). The highest content of flavonoids was observed in the homemade orange whey beverage W1O (63.06 mg/100 g) and in the green mousse G2 (69.80 mg/100 g). The values of the antioxidant activity of whey beverages and mousses varied depending on the composition. The highest content of ß-carotene was identified in homemade orange whey beverage (4.36 mg/100 g) and in orange mousses (in range 1.10-2.24 mg/100 g), while chlorophylls a and b-in homemade green whey beverage W1G (3.00 mg/100 g and 1.31 mg/100 g respectively) and in green mousses (chlorophyll a in range 0.54 to 1.42 mg/100 g and chlorophyll b in range 0.13 to 0.32 mg/100 g).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Bebidas/análise , Frutas/química , Verduras/química , Soro do Leite/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Pigmentos Biológicos/análise
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066601

RESUMO

Natural pigments, including carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanidins, determine the attractive color of fruits. These natural pigments are essential secondary metabolites, which play multiple roles in the whole life cycle of plants and are characterized by powerful antioxidant activity. After decades of research and development, multiple benefits of these natural pigments to human health have been explored and recognized and have shown bright application prospects in food, medicine, cosmetics and other industries. In this paper, the research progress of natural fruit pigments in recent years was reviewed, including the structural characteristics and classification, distribution in fruits and analysis methods, biosynthetic process, antioxidant capacity and mechanism, bioaccessibility and bioavailability, and health benefits. Overall, this paper summarizes the recent advances in antioxidant activity and other biological functions of natural fruit pigments, which aims to provide guidance for future research.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Saúde , Pigmentos Biológicos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Humanos , Pigmentos Biológicos/química
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071242

RESUMO

Organic acids are key components that determine the taste and flavor of fruits and play a vital role in maintaining fruit quality and nutritive value. In this study, the fruits of two cultivars of passion fruit Yellow (Passiflora edulis f. flavicarpa) and purple (Passiflora edulis f. edulis) were harvested at five different developmental stages (i.e., fruitlet, green, veraison, near-mature and mature stage) from an orchard located in subtropical region of Fujian Province, China. The contents of six organic acids were quantified using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), activities of citric acid related enzymes were determined, and expression levels of genes involved in citric acid metabolism were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results revealed that citric acid was the predominant organic acid in both cultivars during fruit development. The highest citric acid contents were observed in both cultivars at green stage, which were reduced with fruit maturity. Correlation analysis showed that citrate synthase (CS), cytosolic aconitase (Cyt-ACO) and cytosolic isocitrate dehydrogenase (Cyt-IDH) may be involved in regulating citric acid biosynthesis. Meanwhile, the PeCS2, PeACO4, PeACO5 and PeIDH1 genes may play an important role in regulating the accumulation of citric acid. This study provides new insights for future elucidation of key mechanisms regulating organic acid biosynthesis in passion fruit.


Assuntos
Ácido Cítrico/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Compostos Orgânicos/análise , Passiflora/química , Passiflora/genética , China , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase , Valor Nutritivo , Passiflora/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Extratos Vegetais
17.
Food Chem ; 362: 130168, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090045

RESUMO

Multielement analysis and chemometric methods were proposed to discriminate the Sorrento lemon (PGI) juices according to geographical origin. In 2018 and 2019, 169 fruits from three farms in PGI area and two in not-PGI area were collected and analysed for essential and not-essential elements by ICP-MS. The PCA of multielement fingerprinting grouped lemon juices from PGI farms revealing a strong differentiation at small geographical scale. The S-LDA discriminated lemon juices for Mo, Ba, Rb, Mg, Co, Ca, Fe, Sr on the two production years, giving 97.7% correct classification, 98.5% accuracy and 93.8% external validation. The good correlation lemon juice vs cultivation soil and the soil discrimination by not-essential elements suggested the use of these elements as reliable indicators of lemon juice provenances. Despite lowering the number of variables, constituted by not-essential elements Ba, Rb, Ti, Co, the use of S-QDA discriminated the lemons juices with 87.5% accuracy and 83.9% validation.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Metais/análise , Solo/química , Quimioinformática/métodos , Análise Discriminante , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Itália
18.
Food Chem ; 362: 130159, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167065

RESUMO

The sequential fractionation by supercritical-CO2 (SC-CO2) was applied to obtain fractions enriched in bioactive compounds of pomegranate peel, and we investigated if pomegranate peel extract and fractions would be effective to inhibit lipid and protein oxidation, and discolouration of bluefish patties stored at 4 °C for 9 days, after UV-C irradiation. The non-fractionated SC-CO2 extract from pomegranate peel was rich in phenolic compounds, mainly ellagitannins, besides, it possessed lipophilic compounds such as tocopherols and ß-carotene. These compounds were successfully separated by the fractionation protocols, in a lipid fraction concentrated in lipophilic compounds, and one or two fractions enriched with phenolic compounds, especially ellagitannins. The lipid fraction and the high phenolics fraction from pomegranate peel were then as effective as the synthetic antioxidant BHT in avoiding bluefish patties oxidation during refrigerated storage. Our data indicates that pomegranate peel fractions could be used to replace a synthetic antioxidant in fish meat.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Produtos Pesqueiros , Perciformes , Romã (Fruta)/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/química , Cor , Proteínas de Peixes da Dieta/química , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Lipídeos/química , Oxirredução , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Tocoferóis/análise , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066480

RESUMO

This paper investigates the potential of the enzymatic management of high pH in white juice and wine using a combination of enzymes-glucose oxidase coupled with catalase. Catazyme® 25 L, a commercially available blend of the two enzymes, was added at different doses (0.2 g/L, 0.6 g/L, and 1g/L) to white grape juice and various parameters (glucose, gluconic acid, pH) were monitored over 24 h of treatment. Treated wines were fermented to dryness without any difficulty and the wines were chemically and sensorially evaluated. At the highest dose (1 g/L), pH was reduced from 3.9 to 3.2, with 20.5 g of gluconic acid produced, while at the lowest dose (0.2 g/L), pH decreased from 4.0 to 3.5 and 8.8 g of gluconic acid was produced. Flash profiling indicated that treated wines were lighter in color than the control and were described using terms such as floral, fruit, citrus, and sour while the control wine was described as being fermented, medicinal, pungent, and oxidized. In conclusion, glucose oxidase coupled with catalase was shown to be effective at significantly reducing juice and wine pH in a short amount of time and with a positive impact on the organoleptic profiles of the treated wines.


Assuntos
Enzimas/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Tecnologia de Alimentos/métodos , Vitis/química , Vinho/análise , Catalase/química , Clima , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Gluconatos/química , Glucose/química , Glucose Oxidase/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio
20.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34067307

RESUMO

Green pepper fruit is often consumed before it is completely ripe. However, the influence of the phenological stage in which the green pepper is consumed as a potential influencing factor in its bioactive compounds content and antioxidant capacity remains unknown. In addition, no literature is available concerning the bioactive compounds changes in 'Lamuyo' green peppers along its developmental and growth cycle. For this, two different approaches have been carried out, one using twelve different phenological stages (S1 to S12), and in the other, seven different harvest dates (from 27 February to 20 April). Moreover, bioactive compounds changes during 21 days of postharvest storage at 8 °C were investigated. In this study, bioactive compounds (ascorbic acid, dehydroascorbic acid, and total phenolic content) and the total hydrophilic and lipophilic (TAA-H and TAA-L) antioxidant activity were analysed. In addition, total soluble solids, total acidity, individual sugars, and organic acids were determined. Vitamin C levels increased along the phenological stages and harvest dates due to significant increases in ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acid levels. Our results show that the total phenol content decreases as vegetables develop and subsequently increases both as ripening begins and by the last harvest date. Furthermore, TAA-H was also greater by the phenological stage S12 and the 20 April harvest date. In conclusion, the phenological stage and harvest date are key factors that significantly influence the bioactive compounds of green peppers, and those that appear by S12 and 20 April could be more beneficial to health.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Ácido Ascórbico/química , Química Orgânica , Ácido Desidroascórbico/química , Análise de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Fenol , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Açúcares/química , Temperatura , Fatores de Tempo
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