Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 16.036
Filtrar
1.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr ; 60(16): 2676-2690, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876477

RESUMO

In recent years, applications of cold plasma treatments have shown high efficiency in sterilization of fresh fruit and vegetables. With encouraging results, development of this technique focuses on influences of cold plasma on the quality attributes of these fresh produce. More studies found that the quality attributes are maintained in an acceptable range or can even be improved under certain plasma treatment conditions. This review provides an overview of the multiple effects of cold plasma on the fresh produce, in terms of physical, chemical and physiological aspects. Besides, the possible mechanisms of how plasma influences these quality attributes is elaborated, which is useful for further modification and improvement of the plasma technology, so that quality enhancement and shelf life extension can be achieved. Future trends in the development of cold plasma technology are also presented. Cold plasma treatment is a potential technology for treating fresh fruit and vegetables to enhance their quality and extend their shelf life. However, knowledge of the effects of cold plasma on the quality changes of fresh fruit and vegetables is still limited. Therefore, there is a need for future studies to understand the mechanisms of plasma effects on controlling the interactions between plasma and food products in order to realize the early adoption of the technology to the food industry.


Assuntos
Conservação de Alimentos , Frutas , Gases em Plasma , Verduras , Frutas/química , Frutas/fisiologia , Esterilização , Verduras/química , Verduras/fisiologia
2.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(16): 3759-3769, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893568

RESUMO

Schisandra is the mature fruit of Schisandra chinensis(known as "north Schisandra") or S. shenanthera(known as "south Schisandra"). S. chinensis contains a variety of lignans, volatile oils, polysaccharides, organic acids and other chemical constituents; among them, lignans are recognized as the characteristic active components. Clinical studies have found that Schisandra and Schisandra-related products have a better effect in the prevention and treatment of viral hepatitis, drug-induced liver injury, liver cirrhosis, liver failure and other liver diseases. Modern pharmacological studies have demonstrated that Schisandra has a variety of pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammation, antioxidation, anticancer, regulation of nuclear receptor, antivirus, regulation of cytochrome P450 enzyme, inhibition of liver cell apoptosis and promotion of liver regeneration. This paper reviews the studies about the applications and mechanism of Schisandra in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases, in the expectation of providing guidance for the development of hepatoprotective drugs from Schisandra and the clinical applications of Schisandra-related products.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Lignanas/análise , Schisandra , Frutas/química , Humanos , Substâncias Protetoras
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32804977

RESUMO

Region-specific local landraces represent a germplasm diversity adapted and acclimatized to local conditions, and are ideal to breed for targeted market niches while maintaining the variability of heirloom traits. A collection of 180 pepper accessions, collected from 62 diverse locations across six Balkan countries, were characterized and evaluated for phenotypic and biochemical variation during a multi-year environment. An assortment of 32 agro-morphological, fruit quality, and virus resistance traits were evaluated, and the top 10% accessions were identified. A wide range of trait variation concerning plant architecture, inflorescence and fruit traits, yield and fruit quality was observed, and appreciable variation was noticed. According to hierarchical clustering, six distinct clusters were established based on pre-defined varietal groups. Divergence among accessions for phenotypic and fruit compositional variability was analyzed, and eight principal components were identified that contributed ~71% of the variation, with fruit shape, width, wall thickness, weight, and fruit quality traits being the most discriminant. Evaluation of the response to tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) and pepper mild mottle mosaic virus (PMMoV) showed that 24 and 1 accession were resistant, respectively while no tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) resistance was found. Considerable diversity for agro-bio-morphological traits indicates the Balkan pepper collection as good gene sources for pre-breeding and cultivar development that are locally adapted.


Assuntos
Capsicum/genética , Resistência à Doença/genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Península Balcânica , Capsicum/química , Capsicum/virologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Frutas/virologia , Variação Genética , Fenótipo , Tobamovirus/patogenicidade , Tospovirus/patogenicidade
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0224056, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813718

RESUMO

Many recent studies assessing fruit productivity of plants in the boreal forest focus on interannual variability across a forested region, rather than on environmental variability within the forest. Frequency and severity of wildfires in the boreal forest affect soil moisture, canopy, and community structure at the landscape level, all of which may influence overall fruit production at a site directly or indirectly. We evaluated how fruit production in two boreal shrubs, Vaccinium uliginosum (blueberry) and V. vitis-idaea (lingonberry), was explained by factors associated with resource availability (such as canopy cover and soil conditions) and pollen limitation (such as floral resources for pollinators and pollen deposition) across boreal forest sites of Interior Alaska in 2017. We classified our study sites into upland and lowland sites, which differed in elevation, soil moisture, and active layer. We found that resource and pollen limitation differed between the two species and between uplands and lowlands. Lingonberry was more pollen limited than blueberry, and plants in lowland sites were more pollen limited relative to other sites while plants in upland sites were relatively more resource limited. Additionally, canopy cover had a significant negative effect in upland sites on a ramet's investment in reproductive tissues and leaves versus structural growth, but little effect in lowland sites. These results point to importance of including pollinator service as well as resource availability in predictions for changes in berry abundance.


Assuntos
Mirtilos Azuis (Planta)/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Vaccinium vitis-Idaea/metabolismo , Alaska , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Florestas , Frutas/química , Pólen/química , Pólen/metabolismo , Polinização , Reprodução , Taiga
5.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 105(2): 325-331, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647963

RESUMO

The objectives of this study was to diagnose Cd and Pb contamination in soil and to identify the main factors that contribute to the transfer of these elements to tomato plants and fruits and contamination levels of the fruits in tropical mountain conditions. Contamination of the study area soils by Cd and Pb was verified. This contamination stemmed from the intensive use of agricultural inputs, mainly organic fertilizers and soluble mineral fertilizers. The relief of the terrain and inadequate soil management influenced the spatial distribution of these two metals. The Cd concentration in tomato fruits was very low, but the Pb contamination detected in approximately 80% of the fruit samples was considerably higher than the limits that pose a danger to human health. The translocation of Pb to the tomato fruits was associated with the use of organic fertilizer, mainly poultry litter.


Assuntos
Cádmio/análise , Chumbo/análise , Lycopersicon esculentum/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Agricultura , Fertilizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Humanos , Metais Pesados/análise , Minerais , Solo , Fator de Transferência
6.
Food Chem ; 332: 127150, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659696

RESUMO

We report an optical biosensor using imine, 5-((anthrcene-9-ylmethylene) amino)-2,3dihydrophthalazine) 1-4-dione (ADD) for direct detection of ascorbic acid (AA) via FRET quenched. The ADD was successfully prepared by using simple ultra - sonication method, which was characterized by various spectroscopic techniques. The fluorescence intensity of ADD probe was drastically quenched in presence of AA, and shown excellent selectivity towards the detection of AA in presence of possible biological active interferences. A wide linear range from 0.25 to 190 µM was achieved towards the detection of AA with a LOD of 10 nM. The occurrence of FRET mechanism is due to intermolecular hydrogen bonding between ADD and AA, which was confirmed by Density Functional Theory calculations. Moreover, the biosensor was successfully applied for the detection of AA in real samples such as fruits and vegetables to demonstrate the practicability. In addition, the developed biosensor could be a simple and economically cheap platform for the detection of AA in food samples.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Frutas/química , Luminol/análogos & derivados , Fenômenos Ópticos , Sonicação , Verduras/química , Técnicas de Química Sintética , Limite de Detecção , Luminol/síntese química , Luminol/química
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235345, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667930

RESUMO

This study was carried out to investigate the risks of simultaneous exposure to pesticide residues and bacteria contaminants in locally produced fresh vegetables and vegetables in Tanzania. A total of 613 samples were analyzed for pesticide residues, out of which 250 were also analyzed for bacterial contamination. Overall, 47.5% had pesticide residues, 74.2% exceeded Maximum Residue Levels (MRLs). Organophosphorus (95.2%), organochlorines (24.0%), pyrethroids (17.3%), and carbamates (9.2%) residues dominated. MRL values were mostly exceeded in tomatoes, onions, watermelons, cucumbers, Chinese cabbage, and sweet paper. Tetramethrin (0.0329-1.3733 mg/kg), pirimiphos-methyl (0.0003-1.4093 mg/kg), permethrin (0.0009-2.4537 mg/kg), endosulfan (beta) (0.0008-2.3416 mg/kg), carbaryl (0.0215-1.5068 mg/kg), profenofos (0.0176-2.1377 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos (0.0004-1.2549 mg/kg) and dieldrin (0.0011-0.5271 mg/kg) exceeded MRLs. The prevalence of bacteria contamination was high (63.2%). Enterobacter (55.6%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa (32.4%), E. coli (28.2%), Citrobacter (26.8%), Klebsiella oxytoca (14.8%), and Salmonella (7.7%) were isolated. Furthermore, 46.4% tested positive for both pesticide residues and bacterial contaminants. Vegetables from farms (60.7%) contained more dual contaminants than market-based vegetables (41.8%). This may have resulted from excessive pesticide use and unhygienic handling of fresh fruits and vegetables at production level. Binary logistic regression showed that fresh fruits and vegetables with pesticide residues were 2.231 times more likely to have bacteria contaminants (OR: 2.231; 95% CI: 0.501, 8.802). The contamination levels of pesticide residues and bacterial contaminants could be perceived as a serious problem as most fresh fruits and vegetables recorded values of pesticide residues far above the MRLs with pathogenic bacteria isolated in higher proportions. MRLs was higher in most vegetables consumed raw or semi-cooked such as watermelons, carrots, cucumber, tomatoes, onion and sweet paper. There is an urgent need to develop pesticide monitoring and surveillance systems at farmer level, educating farmers and promoting the use of greener pesticides to mitigate the health effects of pesticides and bacterial contaminants.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/efeitos adversos , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Verduras/efeitos adversos , Citrobacter/isolamento & purificação , Citrobacter/patogenicidade , Enterobacter/isolamento & purificação , Enterobacter/patogenicidade , Frutas/química , Frutas/microbiologia , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/efeitos adversos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/química , Klebsiella oxytoca/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella oxytoca/patogenicidade , Resíduos de Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Praguicidas/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/patogenicidade , Piretrinas/efeitos adversos , Piretrinas/química , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella/patogenicidade , Verduras/química , Verduras/microbiologia
8.
Food Chem ; 332: 127382, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619943

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophaë rhamnoides L.) berries have high biological value as a rich source of phenolic compounds, fatty acids and vitamins A, C, E. Due to the high organic acid content and sour taste, the fruits are rarely used in juice production. Therefore, the study aimed to determine the metabolic activity of Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus plantarum subsp. argentoratensis and Oenococcus oeni strains along with the dynamics of changes in organic acids, sugars, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity during 72-h fermentation of 100% sea buckthorn and mixed with apple (1:1) juices. The strongest malolactic conversion was in mixed juices (to 75.0%). The most efficient strains were L. plantarum DSM 10492, 20174 and 6872. L. plantarum strains caused an increase in flavonols and antioxidant activity of sea buckthorn-apple juices. The results can be used to select conditions and strains in industrial-scale fermentation, to produce novel sea buckthorn products and increase their consumption.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Açúcares/metabolismo , Fermentação , Flavonóis/química , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Hippophae/química , Hippophae/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Malus/química , Malus/metabolismo , Oenococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oenococcus/metabolismo , Fenóis/química
9.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 55(9): 835-843, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657210

RESUMO

Aflatoxins produced by Aspergillus parasiticus are toxic and carcinogenic metabolites. The biosynthesis of this mycotoxins is a complex process and involves at least 30 genes clustered within an approximately 82 kB gene cluster. In the present study, the effect of Capsicum chinense and Piper nigrum fruits on Aspergillus parasiticus growth and aflatoxin production were studied in relation to the expression of aflD, aflM, aflR, and aflS four; key genes of aflatoxins biosynthesis pathway. GC-EIMS analysis identified capsaicin (66,107 µg g-1) and piperine (1,138 µg g-1) as the most abundant compounds in C. chinense and P. nigrum fruits, respectively. The antifungal and anti-aflatoxigenic assays showed that C. chinense, P. nigrum, capsaicin, and piperine inhibited A. parasiticus growth and aflatoxins production in a dose-dependent manner. The piperine at 300 µg mL-1 produced higher radial growth inhibition (89%) and aflatoxin production inhibition (69%). The expression of aflatoxin biosynthetic genes was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and revealed that aflatoxin inhibition occurring via downregulating the aflS and aflR, and subsequently aflD and aflM genes. These results will improve our understanding of the mechanism of aflatoxin regulation by C. chinense, P. nigrum, capsaicin, and piperine, and provides a reference for further study.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Capsicum/química , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Piper nigrum/química , Aflatoxinas/genética , Alcaloides/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Benzodioxóis/farmacologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Capsaicina/farmacocinética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Frutas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Genes Fúngicos , Piperidinas/farmacologia , Alcamidas Poli-Insaturadas/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
10.
Food Chem ; 332: 127392, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32623126

RESUMO

The present work describes a novel and rapid approach for evaluating total phenolic compounds (TPCs) in tea and fruits using colorimetric spots and the digital image-based (DIB) method. Colorimetric spots were formed by reacting diazotized aminobenzenes namely sulfanilic acid, sulfanilamide, or aniline with TPCs in the extract to form an azo dye. The limit of detection (LOD) was 6.5, 5.5, or 5.1 mg GAE (gallic acid equivalent) L-1 and the analytical range was 25-500, 20-500, or 18-200 mg GAE L-1, respectively. Correlation with the Folin-Ciocalteu assay was significant (Pearson coefficient, R = 0.970-0.991) while the antioxidant activity assay was moderate to high (R = 0.737-0.977). The method developed was successfully applied to the analysis of tea and fruits and showed RSD (n = 3) not exceeding 9.6, 8.5, and 9.7%, respectively. Ecologically, the DIB method developed could determine the variation of TPCs within cultivars and was found to be strongly dependent on the growing environment.


Assuntos
Benzeno/química , Colorimetria/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Fenóis/análise , Chá/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Limite de Detecção
11.
Food Chem ; 332: 127426, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32619948

RESUMO

A selected Pichia fermentans strain was simultaneously and sequentially inoculated in synthetic and real juice with S. cerevisiae strains of different antagonistic activities in a ratio 1:1 to observe the correlation between varietal odorants and glycosidase activities. Fermentations using pure S. cerevisiae strains were used for comparison. Yeast biomass and glycosidase activities were monitored, varietal odorants were detected using HS-SPME-GC/MS during fermentation. The final wine aroma attributes were analyzed by trained panelists. Results showed that co-inoculation with high antagonistic S. cerevisiae resulted in higher glycosidase activities than others. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that yeast biomass was positively related to glycosidase activities during fermentation. The increase in glycosidase activities was the main reason for the higher production of terpenes and C13-norisoprenoids, and for the lower C6 compound content, which lead to superior fruity and floral aromas in the final wine samples of the high antagonistic S. cerevisiae group.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Vinho/análise , Fermentação , Frutas/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Norisoprenoides/análise , Norisoprenoides/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Pichia/enzimologia , Pichia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Terpenos/análise , Terpenos/metabolismo
12.
Food Chem ; 332: 127437, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645670

RESUMO

In 'Crimson Seedless' grapes, the appearance of senescence caused by abnormal dark red color, the loss of crisp taste caused by the decrease in firmness, and the fading of sweetness caused by the decrease in total soluble sugar (TSS) are the main problems affecting its edible qualities after storage. In the mesocarp, burdock fructooligosaccharide (BFO) restricted sucrose export; therefore, more carbohydrates were retained directly leading to higher TSS and sweetness, and cell osmotic pressure and firmness were retained indirectly. In the exocarp, BFO restricted sucrose import; therefore, the signal molecule sucrose was reduced and the senescence-related processes were inhibited. The downregulation of SUC12 and SUC27 by BFO may play an important role in restricting sucrose transportation. The opposing effects exhibited by exogenous sucrose treatments compared to those of BFO further verified these mechanisms. Based on the above mechanisms, sucrose transportation mediates the fresh-keeping effects of BFO in 'Crimson Seedless' grapes.


Assuntos
Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo , Sacarose/metabolismo , Vitis/metabolismo , Transporte Biológico , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Oligossacarídeos/análise , Sacarose/análise , Vitis/química
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108786, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32659617

RESUMO

Sweet orange essential oil is obtained from the peels of Citrus sinensis (CSEO) by cold pressing, and used as a valuable product by the food industry. Nanoencapsulation is known as a valid strategy to improve chemical stability, organoleptic properties, and delivery of EO-based products. In the present study we encapsulated CSEO using chitosan nanoemulsions (cn) as nanocarrier, and evaluated its antimicrobial activity in combination with mild heat, as well as its sensorial acceptability in orange and apple juices. CSEO composition was analyzed by GC-MS, and 19 components were identified, with limonene as the predominant constituent (95.1%). cn-CSEO was prepared under low shear conditions and characterized according to droplet size (<60 nm) and polydispersity index (<0.260 nm). Nanoemulsions were stable for at least 3 months at 4 ± 2 °C. cn-CSEO were compared with suspensions of CSEO (s-CSEO) (0.2 µL of CSEO/mL) in terms of antibacterial activity in combination with mild heat (52 °C) against Escherichia coli O157:H7 Sakai. cn-CSEO displayed a greater bactericidal activity than s-CSEO at pH 7.0 and pH 4.0. The validation in fruit juices showed an improved bactericidal effect of cn-CSEO in comparison with s-CSEO when combined with mild heat in apple juice, but not in orange juice. In both juices, the combination of CSEO and mild heat exerted synergistic lethal effects, reducing the treatment time to cause the inactivation of up to 5 Log10 cycles of E. coli O157:H7 Sakai cells. Finally, the sensory characteristics of both juices were acceptable either when using s-CSEO or CSEO nanoemulsified with chitosan. Therefore, as a promising carrier for lipophilic substances, the encapsulation of EOs with chitosan nanoemulsions might represent an advantageous alternative when combined with mild heat to preserve fruit juices.


Assuntos
Quitosana/química , Emulsões/farmacologia , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bebidas/microbiologia , Quitosana/farmacologia , Citrus sinensis/química , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Emulsões/química , Escherichia coli O157/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutas/química , Temperatura Alta , Malus/microbiologia
14.
J Chromatogr A ; 1623: 461153, 2020 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32505272

RESUMO

In this study, a clean-up approach using a two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) consisting of a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography column and a reversed phase column was investigated. A fully automated 2D-LC system was used and compared with a traditional quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) liquid chromatography (QuE-LC) method. The comparison was based on the results of a validation of selected analytes. It was investigated whether the detectability of analytes could be improved by the use of the 2D-LC. On the basis of these results, the relative detection rates were determined for every matrix. By means of those detection rates, the matrices were categorized regarding their complexity. Furthermore, the applicability of the 2D-LC was tested by participation in the European Proficiency Test in Fruits and Vegetables Screening Methods. In order to evaluate the separation and the elution profile of matrix components, multivariate data analysis was applied. For this purpose, ten matrices were processed in accordance to a QuEChERS protocol and the protocol for 2D-LC analysis. Moreover, the reagent blanks of the corresponding matrix were processed and analyzed by QuE-LC and 2D-LC. The results allowed evaluating the number of detected compounds for both methods. Additionally, the influence of compounds originating from reagent blanks can be estimated. In general, less compounds could be detected when 2D-LC was used. Especially, these were very polar compounds and compounds with m/z values >1500. These compounds seem to originate primarily from the used reagents especially from the citrate salts. However, the most of these compounds could be separated and were not detectable any more when 2D-LC was used. The results of the comparison based on validation and participation in the European Proficiency Test also show a better detectability for the most analytes with 2D-LC.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/economia , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Praguicidas/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Frutas/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Verduras/química
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(26): 32820-32828, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519101

RESUMO

Azoxystrobin, buprofezin, dinocap and hexaconazole are widely used in crop protection of mango from flowering to harvest. Residue assessment of these chemicals on mango fruits was done following treatments at the recommended and double doses as per good agricultural practices (GAP). Mango fruit and soil sample preparation was done by QuEChERS, and analysis was done using LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography mass spectrometry). Using these techniques, the limit of detection (LOD) determined was 1.5 µg kg-1 and limit of quantification (LOQ) was 0.005 mg kg-1 for all analytes. The residue levels on mango initially were 0.265 and 0.55 mg kg-1 for azoxystrobin, 0.63 and 0.974 mg kg-1 for buprofezin, 0.635 and 0.98 mg kg-1 for dinocap and 0.203 and 0.35 mg kg-1 for hexaconazole from standard and double dose treatments, respectively. The dissipation rate of the pesticides on mango fruits was about the same except for azoxystrobin, which dissipated slowly compared with others. The half-life of degradation (DT50) of azoxystrobin was 10.4-12.1 days; buprofezin, 5.8-8.5 days; dinocap, 5.4-6.2 days; and hexaconazole, 4.4-6.1 days. The pre-harvest interval (PHI) based on European Union (EU) MRL (maximum residue limit) requirements were 1 day for azoxystrobin, 15 and 26 days for buprofezin, 27 and 34 days for dinocap, and 19 and 30 days for hexaconazole. The results of this study can be used to produce mango fruits safe for consumption and to meet the regulatory requirements for export of mango fruits from India.


Assuntos
Mangifera , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Dinitrobenzenos , Monitoramento Ambiental , Frutas/química , Índia , Pirimidinas , Estrobilurinas , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tiadiazinas , Triazóis
16.
J Chromatogr A ; 1624: 461228, 2020 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540070

RESUMO

Processing of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) can enhance the efficacy and/or reduce the toxicity. Currently available approaches regarding TCM processing generally focus on a few markers, rendering a one-sided strategy that fail to unveil the involved global chemical transformation. We herein present a strategy, by integrating enhanced multicomponent characterization, untargeted metabolomics, and mass spectrometry imaging (MSI), to visualize the chemical transformation and identify the markers associated with the wine steaming of Ligustri Lucidi Fructus (LLF), as a case. An ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometry-based polarity-switching (between the negative and positive modes), precursor ions list-including data-dependent acquisition approach was developed, which enabled the simultaneous targeted/untargeted characterization of 158 components from LLF via one injection analysis. Holistic, continuous, and time-dependent chemical variation trajectory, among different processing time (0-12 h) for LLF, was depicted by principle component analysis. Pattern recognition chemometrics could unveil 20 markers, among which the peak area ratios of eight components to oleuropein aglycone, used as an internal standard, were diagnostic to identify the processed (both the commercial and in-house prepared) from the raw LLF. Four markers (10-hydroxyoleoside dimethylester, 8-demethyl-7-ketoliganin, elenolic acid, and salidroside) showed an increasing trend, while another four (neonuezhenide/isomer, verbascoside/isomer, luteoline, and nuzhenal A) decreased in LLF after processing. MSI visualized the spatial distribution in the fruit and indicated consistent variation trends for four major markers deduced by the untargeted metabolomics approach. This integral strategy, in contrast to the conventional approaches, gives more convincing data supporting the processing mechanism investigations of TCM from a macroscopic perspective.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Ligustrum/química , Metabolômica/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise Discriminante , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/metabolismo , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Ligustrum/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas , Análise de Componente Principal , Vapor , Vinho
17.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234157, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516332

RESUMO

Brazilian native fruits are a rich source of polyphenolic compounds that can act as anti-inflammatory and antioxidant agents. Here, we determined the polyphenolic composition, anti-inflammatory mechanism of action, antioxidant activity and systemic toxicity in Galleria mellonella larvae of Eugenia selloi B.D.Jacks. (synonym Eugenia neonitida Sobral) extract (Ese) and its polyphenol-rich fraction (F3) obtained through bioassay-guided fractionation. Phenolic compounds present in Ese and F3 were identified by LC-ESI-QTOF-MS. The anti-inflammatory activity of Ese and F3 was tested in vitro and in vivo through NF-κB activation, cytokine release and neutrophil migration assays. The samples were tested for their effects against reactive species (ROO•, O2•-, HOCl and NO•) and for their toxicity in Galleria mellonella larvae model. The presence of hydroxybenzoic acid, ellagitannins and flavonoids was identified. Ese and F3 reduced NF-κB activation, cytokine release and neutrophil migration, with F3 being three-fold more potent. Overall, F3 exhibited strong antioxidant effects against biologically relevant radicals, and neither Ese nor F3 were toxic to G. mellonella larvae. In conclusion, Ese and F3 revealed the presence of phenolic compounds that decreased the inflammatory parameters evaluated and inhibited reactive oxygen/nitrogen species. E. selloi is a novel source of bioactive compounds that may provide benefits for human health.


Assuntos
Eugenia/química , Frutas/química , Polifenóis/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/toxicidade , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Quimiocina CXCL2/metabolismo , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/farmacologia , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/toxicidade , Lepidópteros/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polifenóis/toxicidade , Células RAW 264.7 , Espécies Reativas de Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
18.
Food Chem ; 330: 127166, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32535312

RESUMO

Knowing the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in foodstuffs produced for infants and young children is necessary to determine their daily vitamin C intake. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in fruit-, vegetable-, and cereal-based baby foodstuffs by an in vitro digestion model at varying gastric pHs. The concentrations of measured vitamin C were higher than the declared amounts on their label. The bioaccessibility of vitamin C ranged from 10.4 to 43.4%, and from 0.4 to 19.2% in fruit- and vegetable-based baby foodstuffs (declared vitamin C fortified) at gastric pH 1.5 and 4, respectively. For cereal-based baby foodstuffs, the bioaccessibility ranged from 1.3 to 53.8%, and from 0.3 to 26.3% at gastric pH 1.5 and 4, respectively. As revealed in this research, the bioaccessibility of vitamin C in baby foodstuffs is very low in both gastric pH conditions.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/química , Grão Comestível/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Verduras/metabolismo , Vitaminas/química , Animais , Grão Comestível/química , Frutas/química , Verduras/química
19.
Chemosphere ; 258: 127381, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569958

RESUMO

Citrus is highly consumed in China and considered a major source of pesticide carrier in human diet. In this paper, pesticide residues in mandarins, tangerines and oranges from China were evaluated, as well as the quality and long-term dietary risks for the Chinese consumers. Temporal variations for eight MRL non-compliant pesticides were also investigated. 106 pesticides were analyzed using QuEChERS procedure and UPLC-MS/MS, GC-MS and GC methods. Forty different pesticides were detected in 86% of the 2922 samples from 2013 to 2018. Chlorpyrifos was the most frequently detected pesticide with a detection rate of 40%. Residues of eight pesticides in 3.8% of the total samples exceeded their MRLs. The most severely excessive pesticide was bifenthrin with 283% MRL. The occurrences and exceeding rates of eight pesticides presented clear temporal variations during the six harvesting years. Isocarbophos, carbofuran and triazophos were the main risk factors threatening the citrus safety pre-2015, whereas profenofos and bifenthrin gradually became dominant after 2016, coinciding with government control measures. The index of quality for residues (IqR) levels of 88% of the samples were below 1.0, which indicated a satisfactory quality of citrus fruits in China, although 70% of the samples contained two or more residues. The cumulative chronic dietary risks were acceptable for both the Chinese general population and children and would not pose health risks. However, more strictly enforced control measures for methidathion and isocarbophos, and reduced usage of triazophos, quinalphos, profenofos and bifenthrin should be pursued to further improve the safety of citrus fruits.


Assuntos
Citrus/química , Exposição Dietética , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Criança , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Exposição Dietética/efeitos adversos , Exposição Dietética/análise , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
20.
Food Chem ; 328: 126833, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480265

RESUMO

Raspberries are rich in polyphenols but the impact of organic versus conventional agricultural practices on their phytochemical composition is not well known. This study aimed to analyse and compare the polyphenol accumulation in raspberries grown under both agricultural practices in the same edaphoclimatic conditions. Two raspberry cultivars 'Kweli' and 'Tulameen' were used. Under organic agricultural practices, the polyphenols levels increased for the 'Kweli' cultivar but decreased for the 'Tulameen' cultivar. 'Tulameen' cultivar grown under conventional agricultural practices contained higher anthocyanins levels than grown under organic agricultural practices while for the 'Kweli' cultivar no significant differences were observed between the two agricultural practices. 'Kweli' cultivar presented a significantly higher amount of ellagitannins and ellagic acid derivatives when compared to the 'Tulameen' cultivar under both agricultural practices. The effect of the agricultural practices on the raspberries' chemical profile was dependent on the cultivar and cannot be generalised.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Rubus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Ácido Elágico/análise , Frutas/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Taninos Hidrolisáveis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/química , Rubus/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA