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1.
Rev Col Bras Cir ; 46(4): e2238, 2019 Sep 09.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508735

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to compare the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract from the peel of Camu-Camu, a fruit plant belonging to the Myrtaceae family, widely distributed in the Amazon basin, with those of sleeve gastrectomy, on the weight and glycemia of Wistar rats. METHODS: twenty-four Wistar rats underwent obesity induction through a hyperlipid diet for eight weeks (fat period), and were randomized into three groups: Control Group (CG), Camu-Camu Group (CCG) and Bariatric Surgery Group (BSG). After this period, all animals returned to a normal diet and the intervention period began: CG did not undergo any intervention beyond diet change; CCG animals underwent gavage procedure for administration of Camu-Camu hydroalcoholic extract, 1g/kg/day, for four weeks; and the BSG was submitted to the surgical procedure of sleeve gastrectomy. We followed all animals for four weeks. RESULTS: there was only one loss in BSG due to a gastric fistula. We observed significant variations in the animals' mean weight: the CG evolved with weight gain even after the withdraw of the hypercaloric diet, while the other two groups presented weight reduction. BSG presented a significant reduction of weight and BMI (p<0.05); CCG achieved a significant reduction only of the BMI (p<0.05). There were no statistically significant changes in the glycemic levels. CONCLUSION: in spite of reducing weight, the crude hydroalcoholic extract of the Camu-Camu peel was not able to be as efficient as sleeve gastrectomy in the control of body weight in Wistar rats.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Myrtaceae/química , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Perda de Peso , Animais , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Masculino , Terapia Nutricional , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(38): 10800-10812, 2019 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31490681

RESUMO

In this work, a highly efficient pesticide residue screening and quantification method was established using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry based on in-source fragmentation. Over 400 pesticides were tested, among which 96 pesticides displayed in-source fragmentation. A novel concept of in-source fragment fraction was proposed to evaluate the extent of in-source fragmentation, which was found to be chemical structure- and source parameter-dependent. A high-resolution MS/MS library containing 403 pesticides and 126 fragments was created and was applied for library searching of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits. The introduction of in-source fragments effectively circumvented misannotation and occurrence of false negatives. The quantification ability for the fragments was validated in terms of recovery, linearity, and limit of quantification and its superiority to the parent pesticides was established. Finally, the proposed method was applied for the analysis of real samples and proficiency test samples, and false negative results were successfully avoided in the analysis.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Frutas/química , Resíduos de Praguicidas/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Verduras/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Limite de Detecção
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10352-10360, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503479

RESUMO

The potential for apple peels to mitigate the deleterious effects of a high-fat diet in mice was investigated here. Mice were fed a high-fat diet supplemented with apple powders from three apple varieties or a commercial apple polyphenol. Polyphenols were characterized using colorimetric assays and high-performance liquid chromatography. Mice were tested for standard metabolic parameters. There was a dose response to dietary apple peels, with the higher intake leading to reduced weight gain and adipose tissue mass relative to the lower intake, but none of the treatments were statistically different from the control. The gene expression of liver enzyme stearoyl-CoA desaturase (Scd-1) was correlated with adipose weight, and liver enzyme cytochrome P51 (Cyp51) was downregulated by the apple diets. The feces from a subset of mice were analyzed for polyphenols and for bacteria taxa by next-generation sequencing. The results revealed that the makeup of the fecal microbiota was related to the metabolism of dietary polyphenols.


Assuntos
Biflavonoides/análise , Catequina/análise , Fezes/química , Frutas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Malus/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Proantocianidinas/análise , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Biflavonoides/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutas/química , Humanos , Masculino , Malus/química , Camundongos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/microbiologia , Polifenóis/análise , Polifenóis/metabolismo , Proantocianidinas/metabolismo , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/genética , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/genética , Esterol 14-Desmetilase/metabolismo
4.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31508662

RESUMO

Ackee (Blighia sapida K. D. Koenig) is an exotic fruit widely consumed in the Caribbean countries. While there is extensive research on the presence of hypoglycin A, other bioactive compounds have not been studied. We identified and quantified the changes in bioactive molecules (total phenol, ascorbic acid, hypoglycin A, squalene, D: A-Friedooleanan-7-ol, (7.alpha.), and oleic acid), antioxidant potential, and volatile compounds during two stages of ripe. A clear reduction in hypoglycin A, ascorbic acid, and total polyphenols during the maturation process were observed. On the contrary, oleic acid, squalene, and D: A-Friedooleanan-7-ol, (7.alpha.) contents increased about 12, 12, and 13 times, respectively with advancing maturity. These bioactive molecules were positively correlated with radical scavenging (DDPH and ABTS). Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography coupled mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis revealed more than 50 compounds with 3-penten-2-one and hexanal as the major compounds in the fully ripe stage. The results suggested that ripe ackee arilli could serve as an appreciable source of natural bioactive micro-constituents.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Blighia/química , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Hipoglicinas/química , Polifenóis/química , Esqualeno/química
5.
Acta Cir Bras ; 34(7): e201900706, 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531540

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To investigate the protective roles of pyracantha fortune fruit extract (PFE) on acute renal toxicity induced by cadmium chloride (CdCl2) in rats. METHODS: Rats were pretreated with PFE and consecutively injected with CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg) for 5 days. RESULTS: The concentration of Cd, kidney weight, malondialdehyde (MDA), and nitric oxide (NO) production were remarkably increased in CdCl2 group as well as the levels of plasma uric acid, urea, and creatinine (P < 0.001). However, the body weight and glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione peroxidase (GR) levels were markedly reduced by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.001). Histological manifestations of renal tissue showed severely adverse changes. Moreover, CdCl2 treatment significantly decreased the B-cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) expression while increased the Bcl-2-Associated X Protein (Bax), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression (P < 0.001). Additionally, the expression of Nrf2/Keap 1 related proteins Keap-1 gained a significant increase (P < 0.001), whereas the Nrf2, HO-1, γ-GCS, GSH-Px and NQO1 expression decreased by CdCl2 treatment (P < 0.05). These rats were pretreated with PFE to improve the changes caused by CdCl2 treatment. CONCLUSION: PFE could protect the kidney against acute renal toxicity induced by CdCl2.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Cloreto de Cádmio/toxicidade , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pyracantha/química , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Frutas/química , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/patologia , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9295-9306, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31365237

RESUMO

As a result of an innovative olive fruit processing method involving stone removal and dehydration, a new kind of olive oil and olive flour are generated. The main objective of this work was to accomplish the comprehensive characterization of the minor compounds of both products and to evaluate the effect of the dehydration temperature on their composition. To this end, olive oil and flour samples obtained through the novel processing method were analyzed and compared with "conventional" virgin olive oils (VOO). The applied LC-MS methodology allowed the determination of 57 metabolites belonging to different chemical classes (phenolic compounds, pentacyclic trirterpenes, and tocopherols). Both the new oils and flours presented considerable amounts of olive fruit metabolites that are usually absent from VOO. Quantitative differences were found among VOOs and the new oils, probably due to the inhibition of some enzymes caused by the temperature increase or the absence of water during the processing.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Olea/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Resíduos/análise , Cromatografia Líquida , Farinha/análise , Frutas/química , Azeite de Oliva/análise , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tocoferóis/química , Tocoferóis/isolamento & purificação
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9362-9370, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368700

RESUMO

This manuscript presents an effective and robust method for simultaneous stereoselective determination of two pyrethroid insecticides, tetramethrin and α-cypermethrin in different food products by high-performance liquid chromatography. Enantioseparation was carried out using reversed-phase chromatography, and the influences of four polysaccharide-based chiral columns, mobile phase composition, and column temperature on retention were fully investigated. Satisfactory separation was obtained on Chiralpak IG column using acetonitrile-water (75:25, v/v) under isocratic conditions. To extract and purify the target analytes from food matrices, matrix solid-phase dispersion was employed with C18 as dispersant and primary secondary amine as well as graphitized carbon black as cleanup sorbents. Response surface method based on Box-Behnken design was implemented to assist optimization of the extraction variables. Then, method validation was done in real samples including specificity, linearity, sensitivity, trueness, precision, as well as stability, and its analytical performance fulfills the criteria recommended by the European Union SANTE/11945/2015, demonstrating its applicability in studying the stereochemistry of chiral tetramethrin and α-cypermethrin in food products.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Grão Comestível/química , Frutas/química , Inseticidas/química , Piretrinas/química , Verduras/química , Cromatografia de Fase Reversa/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Inseticidas/isolamento & purificação , Piretrinas/isolamento & purificação , Extração em Fase Sólida , Estereoisomerismo
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9432-9440, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368703

RESUMO

Potassium fertilization is commonly practiced in oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) plantations to increase yield. However, its effects on fruit oil content and composition are not well documented. Here, we conducted bunch, metabolomics, and oil composition analyses in two contrasting crosses (Deli × La Mé and Deli × Yangambi) grown under different K fertilization conditions. K availability impacted bunch oil content, resulting in lower water content and higher oil proportion in fruit mesocarp, in Deli × La Mé only, thus showing differential responses of crosses to K. Oil composition at maturity did not significantly change under low K conditions despite clear alterations in fruit metabolism associated with lipid production during maturation, demonstrating the resilience of oil biosynthetic metabolism. However, the analysis of variance in oil content (across K treatments and crosses) demonstrates that sugar availability, lipid synthesis rates, and metabolic recycling are all important in determining the oil content.


Assuntos
Arecaceae/metabolismo , Fertilizantes/análise , Frutas/química , Lipídeos/química , Óleo de Palmeira/química , Potássio/metabolismo , Arecaceae/química , Arecaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Frutas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9203-9209, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31369261

RESUMO

With the monitoring of hundreds of pesticides in food and feed, the comminution step is equally crucial as any other to achieve valid results. However, sample processing is often underestimated in its importance and practical difficulty to produce consistent test portions for analysis. The scientific literature is rife with descriptions of microextraction methods, but ironically, sample comminution is often ignored or dismissed as being prosaic, despite it being the foundation upon which the viability of such techniques relies. Cryogenic sample processing using dry ice (-78 °C) is generally accepted in practice, but studies have not shown it to yield representative test portions of <1 g. Remarkably, liquid nitrogen has rarely been used as a cryogenic agent in pesticide residue analysis, presumably as a result of access, cost, and safety concerns. However, real-world implementation of blending unfrozen bulk food portions with liquid nitrogen (-196 °C) using common food processing devices has demonstrated this approach to be safe, simple, fast, and cost-effective and yield high-quality results for various commodities, including increased stability of labile or volatile analytes. For example, analysis of dithiocarbamates as carbon disulfide has shown a significant increase of thiram recoveries (up to 95%) using liquid nitrogen during sample comminution. This perspective is intended to allay concerns among working laboratories about the practical use of liquid nitrogen for improved sample processing in the routine monitoring of pesticide residues in foods and feeds, which also gives promise for feasible test sample size reduction in high-throughput miniaturized methods.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Liofilização/métodos , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Gelo-Seco , Liofilização/instrumentação , Frutas/química , Nitrogênio/química
10.
Anticancer Res ; 39(8): 4043-4053, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31366486

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is the most aggressive subtype, predominant in African American women. In this study, the antioxidant/anticancer activity of muscadine grape extracts and the role of their phenolic and flavonoid contents in exerting these properties were investigated in TNBC cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Berry extracts from muscadine genotypes were investigated for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), antioxidant capacity, and anticancer effects using breast cancer cell lines, representing Caucasians and African Americans. RESULTS: The antioxidant activity was associated with high TPC content. Extracts showed cytotoxicity up to 78.6% in Caucasians and 90.7% in African American cells, with an association with high antioxidant capacity. There was a strong correlation between TPC and anticancer/antioxidant activities. CONCLUSION: The anticancer and antioxidant effects of muscadine grapes are attributed to the TPC of extracts, which showed a stronger positive correlation with growth inhibition of African American breast cancer cells compared to Caucasians.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Vitis/química , Afro-Americanos/genética , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Feminino , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Fenóis/química , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
11.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104287, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386898

RESUMO

Phytochemical investigation of the fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida led to the isolation of four pairs of dihydrobenzofuran neolignan enantiomers (1a/1b-4a/4b) including six new compounds (1a/1b, 2a/2b, 3a and 4a). The enantioseparations of the racemates were achieved successfully by chiral chromatographic column. Their structures were established by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses and the absolute configurations were determined by quantum mechanical calculation of electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra. All compounds were evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxicity using human hepatocellular carcinoma Hep3B and HepG2 cells. Among them, it was found that 2a had a selective cytotoxicity against Hep3B cells with IC50 value of 25.47 µM, while the IC50 value of its enantiomer 2b on Hep3B cells was 59.37 µM. These results implied that the absolute configurations of 2a and 2b possessed remarkable influences on their cytotoxicity. Further flow cytometry analysis indicated that 2a performed more significant effect on cell apoptosis compared with its enantiomer 2b.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Crataegus/química , Frutas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , China , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Estereoisomerismo
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(37): 10401-10411, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441654

RESUMO

This research applied inhibitors to reduce the content of cooked off-flavor components (dimethyl sulfide, dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and 3-(methylthio)propanaldehyde) in heat-treated melon juice. The effects of glucose oxidase (GOD) on the formation and release of these four volatile sulfur compounds were also investigated. Results showed that GOD strongly inhibited the formation of the four compounds. In GOD-treated melon juice, S-methylmethionine was strongly protonated and not easily degraded into dimethyl sulfide. Moreover, the release of the dimethyl sulfide that did form was restrained by the hydrophobic interactions of gluconic acid and oxidation by hydrogen peroxide. In addition, gluconic acid (or glucose) and hydrogen peroxide could form a stable complex with methionine in an acidic matrix and thus prevented the methionine from producing 3-(methylthio)propanaldehyde, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide by the Maillard reaction during heat processing.


Assuntos
Cucurbitaceae/química , Aromatizantes/química , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/análise , Culinária , Cucurbitaceae/enzimologia , Frutas/química , Frutas/enzimologia , Glucose Oxidase/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Reação de Maillard , Odorantes/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Compostos de Enxofre/química , Paladar
13.
Food Chem ; 298: 125020, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31260965

RESUMO

Bioactive amines are found in food and can be relevant for the assessment of fruits shelf life and nutritional quality. The pulp and peel of 20 banana and plantain were analyzed and the bioactive amine content varied according to the genotype, ripening stage, fruit tissue and thermal processing. In most of the analyzed genotypes, tyramine, histamine, dopamine, serotonin, spermidine, and spermine were decreased during the ripening process in the pulps. By contrast, there was an increase in putrescine level. In many genotypes of plantains, the serotonin and dopamine contents in pulp decreased until stage 5 and increased at stage 7. Peels contain higher levels of serotonin, dopamine, histamine and tyramine than pulps. Additionally, thermal processing affects the content of amines present in fruit. Boiling with the peel should be preferred in domestic preparations, regardless of the genotype used.


Assuntos
Aminas/análise , Frutas/metabolismo , Musa/metabolismo , Plantago/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/análise , Dopamina/análise , Frutas/química , Genótipo , Histamina/análise , Musa/química , Musa/genética , Plantago/química , Plantago/genética , Putrescina/análise , Serotonina/análise , Espermidina/análise , Espermina/análise , Temperatura Ambiente , Tiramina/análise
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8938-8949, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361121

RESUMO

Polymeric pigments formed via ethyl linkages between grape tannins and anthocyanins are important to the development of stable red wine color. To determine the effect of tannin structure on the stability and color properties of ethyl-linked polymeric pigments, tannin fractions with average polymerization between 4 and 43 units were prepared from grape skins and seeds and combined with malvidin-3-glucoside (M3G) in model wine containing acetaldehyde. As tannin molecular mass increased, the reaction rate with M3G increased. Compared with skin tannins of comparable molecular mass, seed tannins reacted more rapidly with M3G but were prone to precipitation. This resulted in a loss of polymeric pigments formed from seed tannins, which was greater as tannin molecular mass increased. Aggregation occurred following the reaction of seed tannin with M3G, concomitant with precipitation. The aggregation-precipitation phenomenon was not observed for skin tannin-derived pigments, indicating a greater stability in solution than those formed from seed tannins.


Assuntos
Acetaldeído/química , Antocianinas/química , Pigmentos Biológicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes/química , Taninos/química , Vitis/química , Precipitação Química , Cor , Frutas/química , Cinética , Peso Molecular , Polimerização , Polímeros/química
15.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 436-442, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321622

RESUMO

In this work, the profiles of phenolics, fiber, pectins, sugars, organic acids and carotenoids, vitamin C, ash, protein and fat contents, as well as antioxidant capacity were compared in fruits, flowers, and bark of Viburnum opulus (VO). Antioxidant capacity was evaluated against ABTS, hydroxyl, peroxyl and superoxide free radicals, and as a reducing power by using in vitro test. The results showed great quantitative differences in the composition of the VO morphological parts tested. Fruits contained the highest concentrations of fat, organic acids, sugars, soluble dietary fiber (10.57 ± 0.54; 7.34 ± 0.06; 32.27 ± 1.25; 6.82 ± 0.38 g/100 g DW, respectively) and carotenoids (2.70 ± 0.07 mg/100 g DW). Whereas, the bark exceeded the remaining parts of the VO in terms of antioxidant capacity, ash (9.32 ± 0.17 g/100 g DW), total (59.34 ± 0.75 g/100 g DW) and insoluble dietary fiber (58.20 ± 0.73 g/100 g DW) contents as well as phenolic compounds (3.98 ± 0.04 g/100 g DW). Among the phenolic compounds quantified in this study, chlorogenic acid and (+)-catechin had the highest concentrations (> 1 g/100 g DW) in the flowers and bark, respectively.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Fenóis/análise , Viburnum/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/análise , Catequina/análise , Ácido Clorogênico/análise , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Flores/química , Frutas/química , Especificidade de Órgãos , Pectinas/análise , Casca de Planta/química , Açúcares/análise
16.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 399-404, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273641

RESUMO

A simple and efficient ultrasonic-assisted extraction (UAE) technique was developed in order to find optimal conditions for the extraction of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and anthocyanins in wild raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruits. Several extraction variables, including methanol composition (v/v, %), solid-solvent ratio (g/mL), time (min) and extraction temperature (°C) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). Under optimal conditions for extraction, the total phenolics were found in the concentration of 383 mg GAE/100 g of fresh fruit weight, while HPLC-PDA analysis of the optimized extract showed the presence of cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside, catechin, gallic and ellagic acid. The experimental values of DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities were 29.0 and 39.5 µmol Trolox/g of fresh fruit weight, respectively. In vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion showed great raspberry phenolics stability. Our study assessed the bioaccessible phenolics in wild raspberry fruits and showed optimal conditions for the effective extraction of bioactive compounds for their analysis.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Frutas/química , Fenóis/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Rubus/química , Antocianinas/análise , Antocianinas/isolamento & purificação , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Fenóis/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sonicação
17.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 277-286, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278560

RESUMO

Obesity is a major worldwide health threat. It is characterized by an abnormal adipose tissue overgrowth together with increased monocytes infiltration, causing inflammation and oxidative stress, events associated with several illnesses. Investigations have focused on the benefits of native fruit consumption, claiming these to be natural sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics. It has been widely stated that berries are a source of the most antioxidant compounds, and, thus, seem highly promising to endure research efforts on these vegetal matrices. The present article describes botanical, chemical and biomedical features of the Chilean native berries, Aristotelia chilensis, Ugni molinae, and Berberis microphylla. This work aims to potentiate incoming research focused on the search for novel treatments for first-order diseases with these particular plant sources.


Assuntos
Berberis/química , Elaeocarpaceae/química , Frutas/química , Myrtaceae/química , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/análise , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Chile , Humanos , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Estresse Oxidativo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia
18.
Plant Foods Hum Nutr ; 74(3): 421-429, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280417

RESUMO

Açai (Euterpe oleracea) is a palm plant that is native to South America and produces deep purple berry fruits. Despite açai's popularity as a dietary supplement, little is known about the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of commercially available açai berry products. Therefore, twenty açai supplements in a variety of forms (e.g., capsule, powder, frozen pulp, and liquid) were analyzed for their total phenolic and anthocyanin contents, individual anthocyanin and other flavonoid concentrations, and antioxidant capacities. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then used to group açai supplements into categories based on similarities in their chemical profiles and antioxidant properties. Results showed that over half of the supplements contained little or no açai fruit or had sufficient amounts of water to substantially lower the concentration of açai chemical components. Additionally, two açai supplements contained unlisted ingredients that greatly altered the products' chemical properties. Chromatographic analysis of individual anthocyanins and other flavonoids was useful in identifying the presence of açai fruit within the dietary supplements while complimentary in vitro spectroscopic assays aided in detection of adulterants. This study highlights the complexity of the dietary supplement market while also showing the importance of collectively analyzing data from multiple complimentary techniques when evaluating açai berry products.


Assuntos
Antocianinas/análise , Antioxidantes/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Euterpe/química , Flavonoides/análise , Fenóis/análise , Frutas/química
19.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 8810-8818, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31318199

RESUMO

Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck is a popular fruit cultivated around the world, and its peels are sometimes used for the treatment of cough, abdominal pain, and indigestion in China. However, the peel is discarded after fruit consumption in most cases, and its chemical constituents and biological activities have not been validated before. The present study focused on evaluation of the chemical and pharmacological profile of coumarins from peels of C. grandis against inflammation. The extracts and phytochemicals from peels of C. grandis were prepared, and anti-inflammatory activities were carried out in vivo and in vitro, including inhibiting xylene-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and the production of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1ß, prostaglandin 2, and tumor-necrosis factor α) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Results indicated that methanolic extract, ethyl acetate fraction, and four major coumarins (compounds 7, 8, 13, and 16) inhibited swelling induced by xylene and carrageenan, separately, in vivo. Furthermore, 18 coumarins inhibited inflammatory factor secretion in macrophages primed by LPS, in which compounds 4, 6, 7, 10, 17 showed the most pronounced change, which were comparable to dexamethasone. In summary, peel of C. grandis showed an anti-inflammatory effect and coumarin compounds were responsible for regulating inflammatory mediators and cytokines, which might provide a novel nutritional strategy for inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Citrus/química , Cumarínicos/administração & dosagem , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Cumarínicos/química , Cumarínicos/isolamento & purificação , Dinoprostona/imunologia , Edema/genética , Edema/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Células RAW 264.7 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia , Resíduos/análise
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(30): 8312-8318, 2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287303

RESUMO

The role of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) in nitric oxide (NO)-reduced chilling injury (CI) in peach fruit was investigated. The fruit were immersed in sodium nitroprusside (SNP) (NO donor) and neomycin (IP3 inhibitor). Results showed that chilling tolerance was enhanced upon exogenous SNP in postharvest peach fruit. Further, GABA accumulation was stimulated by SNP. The increase in protein expression and activity for enzymes in GABA biosynthesis, including glutamate decarboxylase (GAD), polyamine oxidase (PAO), and amino aldehyde dehydrogenase (AMADH), upon SNP treatment was also observed. Also, the up-regulation of Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase (P5CS) and ornithine d-aminotransferase (OAT) and the down-regulation of proline dehydrogenase (PDH) were induced by SNP treatment, thereby accelating proline production. Additionally, SNP treatment elevated protein expression and activity of alternative oxidase (AOX). The above effects induced upon SNP were partly weakened by neomycin. Therefore, IP3 mediated NO-activated GABA and proline accumulation as well as AOX, thus inducing chilling tolerance in postharvest peach fruit.


Assuntos
Frutas/química , Inositol 1,4,5-Trifosfato/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Prunus persica/metabolismo , Aldeído Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Temperatura Baixa , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutamato Descarboxilase/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Oxirredutases atuantes sobre Doadores de Grupo CH-NH/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/metabolismo , Prunus persica/química , Prunus persica/enzimologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
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