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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457784

RESUMO

Among marine biotoxins, palytoxins (PlTXs) and cyclic imines (CIs), including spirolides, pinnatoxins, pteriatoxins, and gymnodimines, are not managed in many countries, such as the USA, European nations, and South Korea, because there are not enough poisoning cases or data for the limits on these biotoxins. In this article, we review unregulated marine biotoxins (e.g., PlTXs and CIs), their toxicity, causative phytoplankton species, and toxin extraction and detection protocols. Due to global warming, the habitat of the causative phytoplankton has expanded to the Asia-Pacific region. When ingested by humans, shellfish that accumulated toxins can cause various symptoms (muscle pain or diarrhea) and even death. There are no systematic reports on the occurrence of these toxins; however, it is important to continuously monitor causative phytoplankton and poisoning of accumulating shellfish by PlTXs and CI toxins because of the high risk of toxicity in human consumers.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Humanos , Iminas , Toxinas Marinhas , Fitoplâncton , Alimentos Marinhos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/epidemiologia
2.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 178: 113651, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35447439

RESUMO

The purposes of this study were to measure the concentrations of arsenic speciation in shellfish from South China Sea and evaluate the health risk by local residents through shellfish consumption. The median concentrations (in wet weight) of arsenic speciation in shellfish samples were in the following order: AsB (16.0 mg·kg-1) > DMA (1.30 mg·kg-1) > AsV (0.23 mg·kg-1) > AsC (0.08 mg·kg-1) > AsIII (0.05 mg·kg-1) > MMA (0.01 mg·kg-1). Among shellfish species, Mactra mera and Babylonia areolata were found to accumulate iAs and AsB, respectively. The target hazard quotient values of iAs (THQiAs) in all shellfish samples were lower than 1. However, the carcinogenic risk values of iAs (CRiAs) in the Mactra mera, Mytilus galloprovincialis and Pinctada margaritifera were beyond the acceptable range, implying that continuous exposure to iAs pollution via the consumption of these shellfish would pose a potential cancer risk to local consumers.


Assuntos
Arsênio , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos , Frutos do Mar
3.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458492

RESUMO

Contamination of Pacific oysters, Crassostrea gigas, by human norovirus (HuNoV) is a major constraint to sustainable shellfish farming in coastal waters of the Northeast Pacific. HuNoV is not a marine virus and must originate from a human source. A barrier to effective management is a paucity of data regarding HuNoV dispersal in the marine environment. The main objective of this study was to identify the spatial distribution and persistence of HuNoV in an active shellfish farming region in the Northeast Pacific. Market-size C. gigas were sequentially deployed for two-week intervals at 12 sites during the 2020 winter risk period from January to April. Detection of HuNoV quantification was performed by reverse transcription real-time PCR (RTqPCR) according to method ISO 15216-1:2017, with modifications. RTqPCR did not detect GI HuNoV. The estimated prevalence of GII HuNoV in oyster digestive tissue was 0.8 ± 0.2%. Spatiotemporal analysis revealed that contamination of oysters with GII HuNoV changed through time and space during the surveillance period. A single cluster of oysters contaminated with GII.2 HuNoV was detected in a small craft harbor on 23 April. There was no significant increase in the proportion of positive pools in the next nearest sampling station, indicating that HuNoV is likely to disperse less than 7 km from this non-point source of contamination. Results from this study indicate that HuNoV contamination of coastal waters from non-point sources, such as small craft harbors and urban settings, can pose a significant localised risk to shellfish farming operations in the region.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Norovirus , Animais , Humanos , Norovirus/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Frutos do Mar
4.
Mar Drugs ; 20(3)2022 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35323472

RESUMO

Under the name of lipophilic marine toxins, there are included more than 1000 toxic secondary metabolites, produced by phytoplankton, with the common chemical property of lipophilicity. Due to toxicological effects and geographical distribution, in European legislation relevant compounds are regulated, and their determination is accomplished with the reference liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. In this study a modified ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the identification and quantification of EU-regulated lipophilic toxins. The method optimization included a refinement of SPE-C18 clean-up, in order to reduce matrix interferences. Improved LC conditions and upgraded chromatographic ammonia-based gradient ensured the best separation of all analytes and, in particular, of the two structural isomers (OA and DTX2). Also, different MS parameters were tested, and confirmation criteria finally established. The validation studies confirmed that all parameters were satisfactory. The requirements for precision (RSD% < 11.8% for each compound), trueness (recoveries from 73 to 101%) and sensitivity (limits of quantification in the range 3-8 µg kg-1) were fulfilled. The matrix effect, ranging from -9 to 19%, allowed the use of a calibration curve in solvent (3-320 µg kg-1 in matrix) for quantification of real samples. Method relative uncertainty ranged from 12 to 20.3%. Additionally, a total of 1000 shellfish samples was analysed, providing a first preliminary surveillance study that may contribute to the knowledge of lipophilic marine toxins contamination. Increase in algae proliferation events and intoxication cases, EFSA suggestions for modification of maximum permitted levels and toxicity equivalency factors, and new studies of important toxic effects underline that implementation of reference methods still represents an important task for health and food safety laboratories.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala/métodos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Monitoramento Ambiental , União Europeia , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Manipulação de Alimentos , Regulamentação Governamental , Moluscos/química , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
5.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35336992

RESUMO

Shrimp is one of the most valuable aquaculture species globally, and the most internationally traded seafood product. Consequently, shrimp aquaculture practices have received increasing attention due to their high value and levels of demand, and this has contributed to economic growth in many developing countries. The global production of shrimp reached approximately 6.5 million t in 2019 and the shrimp aquaculture industry has consequently become a large-scale operation. However, the expansion of shrimp aquaculture has also been accompanied by various disease outbreaks, leading to large losses in shrimp production. Among the diseases, there are various viral diseases which can cause serious damage when compared to bacterial and fungi-based illness. In addition, new viral diseases occur rapidly, and existing diseases can evolve into new types. To address this, the review presented here will provide information on the DNA and RNA of shrimp viral diseases that have been designated by the World Organization for Animal Health and identify the latest shrimp disease trends.


Assuntos
Penaeidae , Viroses , Animais , Aquicultura , Alimentos Marinhos , Frutos do Mar , Viroses/veterinária
6.
Mar Environ Res ; 176: 105593, 2022 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303644

RESUMO

Metal contamination in estuary was monitored globally using shellfish while estuarine metal loadings were influenced by socioeconomic development in watershed, i.e., a watershed-estuary chain effect. Socioeconomic pattern of metal loadings in estuarine shellfish has scarcely been studied. Eight metals and metalloids (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn) highly associated with anthropogenic activities were quantified in tissue and shell of bivalves and gastropods (two feeding-habits) among 7 estuaries along the Southeastern China coast in the period 2016-2019. Results indicated that Cu and Zn in shellfish had the greatest loadings at 1,663 and 6,828 mg kg-1 dry mass in tissue and 387 and 151 mg kg-1 dry mass in shell, respectively, in the most developed Estuary Yong. Metal loadings in tissue and shell of bivalves (6 common species) and gastropods (3 common species) in the estuaries were highly associated with urbanization and socioeconomic indicators in their watersheds. The socioeconomic patterns had evident shellfish class-specification and metal-dependency due to the feeding-habit. The class-specification was confirmed by the fractionation of stable isotope compositions for the socioeconomic pattern of Pb loadings in both tissue and shell. In short, both shellfish class-specification and metal-dependency hinted that multi-bioindicators might be required for a comprehensive understanding of the estuarine environment quality, in particular at two dimensions of water and sediment.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Gastrópodes , Metais Pesados , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Chumbo , Metais Pesados/análise , Frutos do Mar , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
7.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(3)2022 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35324676

RESUMO

Paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) are a large group of biotoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning. Their appearance in natural waters and their ingestion by aquatic species have a huge socio-economic impact, whereby their monitoring is of the upmost relevance to minimize the consequences. For earlier detection and faster response/action by stakeholders, validation of adjusted analytical methods, particularly for lower concentration levels, is important. This work proposes a derived High-Performance Liquid Chromatography method, with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The main differences from the official method are the size of the HPLC column and the gradient elution conditions. It covers the current eleven certified reference materials (CRM) available on the market, including the most recent-C3,4. This first calibration report for C3,4 suggests limits of detection (LOD) and limits of quantification (LOQ) of 6 nM and 19 nM (~5 µg STX.2HCl eqv./kg and 17 µg STX.2HCl eqv./kg), respectively. For the remaining CRM, LODs ranged between 3 and 28 nM (~0.9 and 127 µg STX.2HCl eqv./kg), while LOQs varied between 11 and 94 nM (~3 and 409 µg STX.2HCl eqv./kg, considering toxicity equivalency factors (TEFs) reported by EFSA).


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Frutos do Mar , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Humanos , Limite de Detecção , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Saxitoxina/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar/etiologia
8.
Toxicon ; 211: 61-69, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35314198

RESUMO

A paralytic shellfish toxin binding protein (PST-BP) was extracted and purified from the viscera of oyster (Crassostrea hongkongensis) that accumulates paralytic shellfish toxin (PST), and the amino acid sequence of the protein was detected via HPLC-MS-MS. The structure of the PST-BP was built by homology modeling, and the interaction between PST and PST-BP was studied using molecular docking. The results showed that the purity of PST-BP was more than 99.8% after the purification. The PST-BP carried a molecular weight of 33.5 kDa and sequence alignment revealed its high sequence similarities with glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH). It has been shown that 99.9% of the amino acid residues in the PST-BP homology model are within a reasonable range, which exceeds the 90% threshold requirement for residuals in high-quality model structures. The molecular docking results revealed that Arg, Asp, Lys, Ala, Ser, Gln, Gly, Trp, Asn, Met, and Pro were identified as the major interacting amino acids residues between PST-BP and PST.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte , Proteínas , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Fragmentos de Peptídeos , Frutos do Mar
9.
Anal Methods ; 14(12): 1261-1267, 2022 03 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35266934

RESUMO

Based on the catalysis enhancement strategy of Au@Pt nanoparticles (Au@Pt NPs) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) related to the TMB-H2O2 indicator, a sensitive colorimetric immunoassay was established for trace okadaic acid (OA) detection. The anti-OA monoclonal antibody (McAb) with a high Kaff constant was prepared and modified on Au@Pt NPs. Through grafting the HRP conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG antibody (IgG) on Au@Pt/McAb, bifunctional composites with Au@Pt-Ab and HRP were prepared and adopted. Characteristics including morphology, specificity and catalytic performance were evaluated. Under the optimal conditions, the sensitivity of the resultant enzyme immunoassay was significantly improved, and a low limit of detection (LOD) of OA was achieved at 0.04 ng mL-1 (equivalent to 0.6 µg kg-1 in mussel tissue), which was better than that of most HRP or Au/HRP enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. When applied to fortified shellfish samples (e.g. oysters, mussels and clams), the recoveries ranging from 98.3 ± 2.3% to 106.0 ± 9.0% were acceptable and comparable with those of the LC-MS method. Acceptable precision was achieved with a variation coefficient (CV) of 2.3-8.4%. The method provides a promising alternative for the highly sensitive detection of the OA marine toxin at trace levels.


Assuntos
Ouro , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Animais , Catálise , Peroxidase do Rábano Silvestre , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Imunoensaio/métodos , Camundongos , Ácido Okadáico , Frutos do Mar
10.
Environ Monit Assess ; 194(4): 286, 2022 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35303750

RESUMO

This paper reviews recent literature on the abundance and distribution of faecal indicator bacteria and pathogens in shellfish production areas in the state of Santa Catarina, on the subtropical coast of Brazil. This state supplies > 95% of the national production of shellfish. Microbiological monitoring data were mapped using GIS and the results compared with those from other countries. Coastal human population is the main predictive parameter for faecal bacteria in the production areas. Temporal variations of the bacteria can also be predicted by solar radiation and rainfall. The prevalence of pathogens such as hepatitis A virus, human norovirus, Salmonella spp. and Vibrio spp. does not differ substantially from that in developed countries. The information reported here can be used to inform development of microbiological risk profiles for shellfish production areas.


Assuntos
Aquicultura , Monitoramento Ambiental , Frutos do Mar , Brasil , Países em Desenvolvimento , Meio Ambiente , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Frutos do Mar/virologia
11.
Microb Pathog ; 164: 105436, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35121070

RESUMO

Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a zoonotic bacterium that causes infections in shellfish, fish and higher vertebrates as well as in humans. The Tdh and Trh positive strains of V. parahaemolyticus are generally considered as major virulent strains. The pathogenic mechanisms of Trh positive strain of V. parahaemolyticus are poorly understood. Therefore, in the present study Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita was intraperitoneally challenged with a Trh positive strain of V. parahaemolyticus below lethal dose 50 (LD50) to understand the innate immune response. A significant upregulation in the respiratory burst activity, myeloperoxidase activity and lysozyme activity of serum was observed in the challenged fishes. However, the serum alpha (α) 2-macro globulin activity and antiprotease activity remained unaltered in the infected fish. The relative expression study of some immune-related genes showed that after the experimental challenge the expression of immune-related genes viz., Toll-like receptor (TLR), Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD), Interleukin-1ß (IL-ß), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Complement factor 3a (C3a) and Heat shock proteins 70 (Hsp70) was upregulated during infection. Furthermore, overexpression of nuclear factor kappa light chain enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κß), Myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88), Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) and cysteine-aspartic proteases (Casp 1) was also observed after post-infection which clearly indicated that Trh positive V. parahaemolyticus activates MAPK pathway. The present study strengthens the understanding of molecular pathogenesis and provides insights on gene regulation during infection with Trh positive V. parahaemolyticus.


Assuntos
Vibrioses , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrioses/microbiologia , Vibrioses/veterinária , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/genética
12.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35215924

RESUMO

The production of the aquaculture industry has increased to be equal to that of the world fisheries in recent years. However, aquaculture production faces threats such as infectious diseases. Betanodaviruses induce a neurological disease that affects fish species worldwide and is caused by nervous necrosis virus (NNV). NNV has a nude capsid protecting a bipartite RNA genome that consists of molecules RNA1 and RNA2. Four NNV strains distributed worldwide are discriminated according to sequence homology of the capsid protein encoded by RNA2. Since its first description over 30 years ago, the virus has expanded and reassortant strains have appeared. Preventive treatments prioritize the RGNNV (red-spotted grouper nervous necrosis virus) strain that has the highest optimum temperature for replication and the broadest range of susceptible species. There is strong concern about the spreading of NNV in the mariculture industry through contaminated diet. To surveil natural reservoirs of NNV in the western Mediterranean Sea, we collected invertebrate species in 2015 in the Alboran Sea. We report the detection of the RGNNV strain in two species of cephalopod mollusks (Alloteuthis media and Abralia veranyi), and in one decapod crustacean (Plesionika heterocarpus). According to RNA2 sequences obtained from invertebrate species and reported to date in the Mediterranean Sea, the strain RGNNV is predominant in this semienclosed sea. Neither an ecosystem- nor host-driven distribution of RGNNV were observed in the Mediterranean basin.


Assuntos
Decapodiformes/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Nodaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Pandalidae/virologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Peixes/classificação , Peixes/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Mar Mediterrâneo , Nodaviridae/classificação , Nodaviridae/genética , Filogenia , RNA Viral/genética , Frutos do Mar/classificação , Frutos do Mar/virologia
13.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1197: 339515, 2022 Mar 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35168730

RESUMO

Excessive levels of domoic acid (DA) in edible shellfish and water can seriously threaten human health and even cause death. Herein, we have developed a fluorescence sensor and test paper based on molecularly imprinted carbon quantum dots (B-CDs@MIPs) for DA analysis. In this research, the prepared carbon quantum dots (B-CDs) with good optical properties were used as the sensitive fluorescent signal probes, and the molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) instead of biological antibodies were employed as the specific recognition components because of their high stability and low cost. Due to the shielding effect of imprinted silicon layer and the influence of modified groups introduced in the MIPs preparation process, the fluorescence signal of B-CDs in MIPs is inhibited. Interestingly, the DA can cause the partial recovery of the fluorescence intensity of B-CDs@MIPs by passivating the modified groups on the surface of B-CDs in MIPs. According to this principle, the designed fluorescence sensor reveals outstanding stability, super anti-interference ability, and excellent sensitivity, with the detection limit down to 10 nM. The sensor has been successfully applied to the rapid and accurate spiked analysis of DA in edible shellfish and lake water, providing excellent recoveries. More importantly, the designed inexpensive and easy-to-operate fluorescent test paper can realize preliminary qualitative analysis of DA on site by naked eye, indicating its promising application potential in food and environmental analysis.


Assuntos
Impressão Molecular , Pontos Quânticos , Carbono , Humanos , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Lagos , Limite de Detecção , Frutos do Mar , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Água
14.
Environ Res ; 207: 112638, 2022 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34990611

RESUMO

The circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in the environment has been confirmed numerous times, whilst research on the bioaccumulation in bivalve molluscan shellfish (BMS) has been rather scarce. The present study aimed to fulfil the knowledge gap on SARS-CoV-2 circulation in wastewaters and surface waters in this region and to extend the current knowledge on potential presence of SARS-CoV-2 contamination in BMS. The study included 13 archive wastewater and surface water samples from the start of epidemic and 17 influents and effluents from nine wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) of different capacity and treatment stage, sampled during the second epidemic wave. From that period are the most of 77 collected BMS samples, represented by mussels, oysters and warty venus clams harvested along the Dalmatian coast. All samples were processed according to EN ISO 15216-1 2017 using Mengovirus as a whole process control. SARS-CoV-2 detection was performed by real-time and conventional RT-PCR assays targeting E, N and nsp14 protein genes complemented with nsp14 partial sequencing. Rotavirus A (RVA) real-time RT-PCR assay was implemented as an additional evaluation criterion of virus concentration techniques. The results revealed the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in nine influents and two secondary treatment effluents from eight WWTPs, while all samples from the start of epidemic (wastewaters, surface waters) were negative which was influenced by sampling strategy. All tertiary effluents and BMS were SARS-CoV-2 negative. The results of RVA amplification were beneficial in evaluating virus concentration techniques and provided insights into RVA dynamics within the environment and community. In conclusion, the results of the present study confirm SARS-CoV-2 circulation in Croatian wastewaters during the second epidemic wave while extending the knowledge on wastewater treatment potential in SARS-CoV-2 removal. Our findings represent a significant contribution to the current state of knowledge that considers BMS of a very low food safety risk regarding SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Bivalves , COVID-19 , Animais , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Frutos do Mar , Águas Residuárias
15.
Food Chem ; 374: 131778, 2022 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35021580

RESUMO

Core-shell structured magnetic covalent-organic frameworks (Fe3O4@TaTp) were facilely synthesized based on one-step functionalization at room temperature and applied for magnetic solid-phase extraction of okadaic acid from seawater and shellfish prior to LC-MS/MS detection. Parameters, including adsorbent amount, extraction time, desorption solution, and desorption time which could affect the extraction efficiency, were respectively investigated. The developed methods demonstrated good linearity (R2 > 0.99), acceptable accuracy and good precision (<15%), and low limit of detection (0.5 pg·mL-1 for seawater and 0.04 µg·kg-1 for shellfish). The amount of the material used (1 mg for seawater and 5 mg for shellfish) and the time required (4 min for seawater and 15 min for shellfish) for extracting analyte from 5 mL of seawater and 2 g of shellfish are both greatly shortened compared with the previous reports. In addition, we successfully applied this method to real sample analysis.


Assuntos
Estruturas Metalorgânicas , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida , Limite de Detecção , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Água do Mar , Frutos do Mar/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
16.
Toxins (Basel) ; 14(1)2022 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35051010

RESUMO

As filter feeders, bivalves and ascidians can accumulate contaminants present in the environment and pass them on to higher food chain levels as vectors. The consumption of bivalves contaminated with the potent neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) can cause amnesic shellfish poisoning in humans. The aim of this study was to determine seasonal differences in occurrence and accumulation of this phycotoxin in European oysters (Ostrea edulis Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 46), Queen scallops (Aequipecten opercularis Linnaeus, 1758) (n = 53), and edible ascidians of the Microcosmus spp. (n = 107), originating from the same harvesting area in the Northern Adriatic Sea. The quantification was performed using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) preceded by derivatization with dansyl chloride. DA was found in very low concentrations throughout the year, with a maximum value of 810 µg/kg in Queen scallops. This study reveals differences in the occurrence and accumulation of DA between Queen scallops and the other two investigated species (oysters and ascidians) and the highest concentrations during the colder part of the year. Even though DA was detected in all of them, Queen scallops showed higher DA accumulation compared to the other two (p < 0.001), hence representing a sentinel species suitable for the monitoring of DA level in seafood.


Assuntos
Ácido Caínico/análise , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Neurotoxinas/análise , Ostrea/química , Pectinidae/química , Estações do Ano , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Croácia , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados
17.
Environ Toxicol Pharmacol ; 90: 103810, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35033685

RESUMO

Metals accumulating in mud crab from Indonesia's East Java estuaries have been assessed for potential health effects. Mud crabs from the Solo River estuary (JS) had the highest levels of all metals tested when compared to mud crabs from the Brantas River estuary (MS) and the Banyuwangi coastal area (BS). Metal accumulation in mud crabs occurred in the following order: Zn > Cu > Cr > Pb > Cd > Hg. The estimated weekly intake values for all metals from all stations were less than the provisional tolerable weekly intake requirement. Similarly, all metal target hazard quotient values from all stations were less than one, suggesting that all metals were within the allowable intake limit. The target cancer risk values for Cd and Cr, on the other hand, were somewhat higher than 10-4, indicating that they were dangerous for human ingestion and possibly linked to a risk associated with carcinogenic agent exposure over a lifetime.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Carcinógenos/análise , Cromo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Estuários , Indonésia , Medição de Risco , Frutos do Mar/análise
18.
Water Res ; 211: 117942, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35042073

RESUMO

Warming sea-surface temperature has led to an increase in the prevalence of Vibrio species in marine environments. This can be observed particularly in temperate regions where conditions for their growth has become more favourable. The increased prevalence of pathogenic Vibrio species has resulted in a worldwide surge of Vibriosis infections in human and aquatic animals. This study uses sea-surface temperature data around the English and Welsh coastlines to identify locations where conditions for the presence and growth of Vibrio species is favourable. Shellfish samples collected from three locations that were experiencing an increase in sea-surface temperature were found to be positive for the presence of Vibrio species. We identified important aquaculture pathogens Vibrio rotiferianus and Vibrio jasicida from these sites that have not been reported in UK waters. We also isolated human pathogenic Vibrio species including V. parahaemolyticus from these sites. This paper reports the first isolation of V. rotiferianus and V. jasicida from UK shellfish and highlights a growing diversity of Vibrio species inhabiting British waters.


Assuntos
Vibrio , Animais , Humanos , Prevalência , Frutos do Mar , Reino Unido
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 815: 152867, 2022 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995581

RESUMO

Mariculture ponds are widely distributed along the coastal regions and have been increasingly recognized as biogeochemical hotspots of air-water greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes, but their source/sink dynamics and climate benefits have not been well understood. Due to strong temporal variations of GHG fluxes over mariculture ponds, previous studies based on short-term or discrete flux measurements have large uncertainty in assessing GHG budgets and their radiative effects. In this study, we examined the temporal variations of air-water GHG fluxes, net CO2 exchange (NEE) and net CH4 exchange (NME), and their environmental controls, based on one-year (2020) continuous eddy covariance (EC) measurements over algae-shellfish mariculture ponds (razor clam) in a subtropical estuary of Southeast China. The results showed that (a) annually the ponds acted as a strong CO2 sink of -227.7 g CO2-C m-2 and a weak CH4 source of 1.44 g CH4-C m-2, and thus the NME-induced warming effect offset 25.9% (12.1%) of the NEE-induced cooling effect at a 20-year (100-year) time horizon using the metric of sustained-flux global warming potential; (b) two GHG fluxes showed different diurnal and seasonal variations but both had stronger source/sink capacity in summer and more fluctuating fluxes in winter; (c) temporal variations of NEE and NME tended to be more regulated by photosynthetically active radiation and tidal salinity, respectively, but both of them were affected by water temperature and area proportion of algae ponds within the EC footprint. This is the first study to disentangle temporal variations of air-water GHG fluxes over mariculture ponds based on simultaneous EC measurements of CO2 and CH4 fluxes. This study highlights the climate benefits of algae-shellfish mariculture ponds as biogeochemical hotspots by exerting a net radiative cooling effect dominated by the CO2 sink.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Metano , Óxido Nitroso , Lagoas , Frutos do Mar , Água , Áreas Alagadas
20.
Bioresour Technol ; 347: 126687, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35007740

RESUMO

Thermal co-processing of lignocellulosic and aquatic biomass, such as algae and shellfish waste, has shown synergistic effects in producing value-added energy products with higher process efficiency than the traditional method, highlighting the importance of scaling up to pilot-scale operations. This article discusses the design and operation of pilot-scale reactors for torrefaction, pyrolysis, and gasification, as well as the key parameters of co-processing biomass into targeted and improved quality products for use as fuel, agricultural application, and environmental remediation. Techno-economic analysis reveals that end product selling price, market dynamics, government policies, and biomass cost are crucial factors influencing the sustainability of thermal co-processing as a feasible approach to utilize the biomass. Because of its simplicity, pyrolysis allows greater energy recovery, while gasification has the highest net present value (profitability). Integration of liquefaction, hydrothermal, and fermentation pre-treatment technology has the potential to increase energy efficiency while reducing process residues.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Lignina , Biomassa , Frutos do Mar
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