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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229512, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163430

RESUMO

Seafood mislabeling occurs in a wide range of seafood products worldwide, resulting in public distrust, economic fraud, and health risks for consumers. We quantified the extent of shrimp mislabeling in coastal and inland North Carolina. We used standard DNA barcoding procedures to determine the species identity of 106 shrimp sold as "local" by 60 vendors across North Carolina. Thirty-four percent of the purchased shrimp was mislabeled, and surprisingly the percentage did not differ significantly between coastal and inland counties. One third of product incorrectly marketed as "local" was in fact whiteleg shrimp: an imported and globally farmed species native to the eastern Pacific, not found in North Carolina waters. In addition to the negative ecosystem consequences of shrimp farming (e.g., the loss of mangrove forests and the coastal buffering they provide), North Carolina fishers-as with local fishers elsewhere-are negatively impacted when vendors label farmed, frozen, and imported shrimp as local, fresh, and wild-caught.


Assuntos
Aquicultura/ética , Aquicultura/métodos , Penaeidae/genética , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico/métodos , Ecossistema , North Carolina , Penaeidae/classificação , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/economia , Frutos do Mar/análise , Frutos do Mar/classificação
2.
Food Chem ; 314: 126210, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972409

RESUMO

The unique nanocage structure of ferritin can be used as functional nanomaterials and has wide application prospects. However, thermal treatment may affect the structure of ferritin, further affecting self-assembly property. In this study, the oyster ferritin gene GF1 was obtained, prokaryotically expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). Then the purified ferritin was heated from 60 to 100 °C for 10 min with untreated ferritin as a control sample. The aggregation state of ferritin was investigated and the difference in protein structure was evaluated in terms of particle size and protein structures. The results of electrophoresis indicated that thermal treatment induced denaturation and aggregation of ferritin macromolecules. Moreover, the particle size distribution shifted to larger size trend and aggregates were visible with the heated samples and the secondary structure and tertiary structure were destroyed gradually. The findings are beneficial for understanding the relationship of the structure and function of ferritin.


Assuntos
Crassostrea/metabolismo , Ferritinas/metabolismo , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Crassostrea/química , Ferritinas/química , Temperatura Alta , Estrutura Secundária de Proteína , Estrutura Terciária de Proteína
3.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 78(3): 337-349, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31938850

RESUMO

Occurrence of traditional (PBDEs) and novel (HBB, PBEB, DBDPE) brominated flame retardants, as well as the natural compounds of MeO-PBDEs, were studied in a shellfish species (Hexaplex trunculus) sampled from Bizerte Lagoon. PBDE and MeO-PBDE mean concentrations in murex soft tissues were 187 and 264 ng g-1 lw respectively. The alternative flame retardants were not identified. The sum of PBDE and MeO-PBDE levels recorded in murex from the investigated aquatic ecosystem were comparable or a relatively lower than those reported for other organisms from other regions across the world. The amount of PBDE and MeO-PBDE concentrations from the Bizerte Lagoon recorded in murex were comparable or a relatively lower than those recorded from other areas across the world for other species. There is not a danger to the population health with regard to PBDE intakes associated with the consumption of murex in Bizerte city. We believe that this is the first study of the analysis of these pollutants in marine gastropod mollusks from Tunisian aquatic areas.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Retardadores de Chama/análise , Gastrópodes/química , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Bromados/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Frutos do Mar/análise , Tunísia
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(5): 1427-1435, 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31913622

RESUMO

A number of new C-11 hydroxyl metabolites (so-called M-toxins) of paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) have been discovered in contaminated shellfish, and trace amounts have also been detected in some strains of PST-producing microalgae. To investigate the chemical conversion and stability of M-toxins, mussel extracts were purified with solid-phase extraction cartridges (Oasis HLB) and Biogel P-2 resin columns and four partially purified M-toxin fractions were stored at different temperatures (-20, 4, and 20 °C) and pH values (3, 4, and 5). The concentrations and profiles of M-toxins in these fractions were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry for 27 weeks. Results further confirmed the chemical conversion pathway M1 → M3 → M5 and determined for the first time two new transformation pathways: M2 → M4 → M6 and neosaxitoxin (NEO) → M10. The half-lives of M1, M2, M4, and M10 were calculated using a first-order degradation kinetics model, which indicated that the degradation of all M-toxins was dependent upon the temperature and pH, increasing with rising temperature and pH. In comparison to M4 and M10, M1 was more sensitive to the temperature, followed by M2. Results suggest that M-toxins should be maintained at a low temperature (-20 °C) and low pH (3) for their prolonged storage. M-toxins were less stable than all of the common analogues of PSTs, which may be beneficial for shellfish to achieve rapid detoxification through transformation of PSTs to M-toxins. These new findings are of significance because they enable further understanding of the metabolism of PSTs and their detoxification mechanisms in contaminated shellfish.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Toxinas Marinhas/química , Frutos do Mar/toxicidade , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Estrutura Molecular , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Temperatura
5.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125177, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31677516

RESUMO

Abalones are considered a delicacy and exploited for food worldwide. In many places, overfishing has led to the decimation of wild stocks and many are now reared in aquaculture systems. In the Azores, there is no tradition of eating abalones and Haliotis tuberculata stocks are still virtually untouched. However, as tourism in the islands grows and the stocks of other shellfish diminish, there is an increasing pressure to find alternative edible resources, leading to a rising interest in abalones. According to previous studies performed in the region, other edible species, including the local highly appreciated limpets and the giant barnacle, present high concentration levels of some heavy metals, which has been attributed to the volcanic origin of the islands. Here we analysed the metal content in the edible tissue of Haliotis tuberculata from São Miguel Island, Azores. The potential human health risks due to its consumption was assessed by estimating the average daily intake (EDI) and target hazard quotient (THQ) of metals. Similarly to other organisms in the Azores, abalones have higher than normal levels of some heavy metals, particularly cadmium, reflecting a local natural source that should be closely monitored from a public health point of view.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Açores , Cádmio/análise , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Pesqueiros , Humanos
6.
Chemosphere ; 243: 125352, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759209

RESUMO

Lipophilic phycotoxins (LPs) pose significant threats to the health of marine mammals, birds, and human beings. The distribution and components of lipophilic phycotoxins contamination in subtropical area in the South China Sea are rarely known. This study systematically assessed the composition, concentration, and distribution of typical LPs in a typical subtropical bay, Daya Bay located in the South China Sea. Phytoplankton, seawater, suspended particulate matter, sediments, and shellfish samples were simultaneously collected from Daya Bay, and analyzed using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Okadaic acid, dinophysistoxins-1, pectenotoxins-2, yessotoxin and its derivate homo-yessotoxin, azaspiracid-2, 13-desmethyl spirolide C and gymnodimine were widely spread in multiple media in Daya Bay. Pectenotoxins-2 was the most widely distributed and highly concentrated toxin in the marine environments of Daya Bay. Toxin homo-yessotoxin was only detected in sediments and shellfish samples, and none of yessotoxin group components were found in phytoplankton and seawater, indicating that sediments were the major source of yessotoxin in shellfish. The study strongly demonstrated the lipophilic phycotoxins accumulated in shellfish are multisource, not only derived from toxigenic algae, but also from other marine media containing lipophilic phycotoxins. This study systematically distinguished multi-pathways of bioaccumulation of LPs in the marine shellfish.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Animais , Baías/química , China , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Furanos , Compostos Heterocíclicos com 3 Anéis , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Cíclicos , Iminas , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Oxocinas , Fitoplâncton/química , Piranos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Água do Mar , Frutos do Mar/análise , Compostos de Espiro , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124781, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514006

RESUMO

Variation in arsenolipid concentrations was assessed in 18 seafood samples including fish, shellfish, and crustaceans purchased in Japan. Analyses were performed by high performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Stable isotope ratios for nitrogen and carbon were also measured in the samples for obtaining trophic level information of the species. Arsenic-containing hydrocarbons (AsHCs) and arsenic-containing fatty acids (AsFAs) were detected in the seafood samples; the toxic AsHCs were found in all of the seafood samples with large variation in the concentrations (83 ±â€¯73 ng As/g fw, coefficient of variation = 88%). Our previous point estimate of health risk of AsHCs intake via seafood consumption in Japan, based on average AsHC concentration in seafood, suggested insignificant risk, and the present study supports our previous estimate. AsHC concentrations significantly correlated with lipid content of the seafood samples (r = 0.67, p < 0.01), a result expected because of the fat solubility of the compounds. The AsHCs concentrations, however, were not significantly correlated with nitrogen stable isotope ratios suggesting that AsHCs do not biomagnify. The source of the observed large variation in AsHC concentrations will be the subject of further investigation.


Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais , Arsênico/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Ácidos Graxos/química , Peixes , Japão , Lipídeos/análise , Lipídeos/química , Isótopos de Nitrogênio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 119-128, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441054

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: T-2 toxin (T-2) is a potent mycotoxin and a common contaminant of aquatic animal feed, posing a serious risk to health and aquatic animals. We investigated the effect of T-2 on shrimp muscle proteins using proteomics and conventional biochemical methods. Shrimp were fed a diet containing T-2 at 0-12.2 mg kg-1 for 20 days, and changes to the muscle protein composition, ATPase activities, and the sulfhydryl (SH) content and hydrophobicity of actomyosin (AM) were determined. A proteomics study of the proteins was conducted with sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis, and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization - time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS). RESULTS: Exposure to T-2 markedly affected the muscle protein composition of shrimp in a concentration-responsive manner that displayed a diphasic effect. At a low T-2 concentration (1.2 mg kg-1 ), the levels of three major muscle proteins (myofibrillar, sarcoplasmic, and stroma) increased but at higher concentrations they declined progressively. T-2 exposure also led to a breakdown of muscle proteins as evidenced by increases in alkali-soluble protein and the surface hydrophobicity (SoANS) of AM. Thirty differentially expressed proteins were detected, 12 of which showed a concentration-response relationship with T-2 exposure. Among them, 11 homologous proteins were identified by mass spectrometry (MS), with several being key enzymes in energy metabolism. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrated that T-2 exposure at medium to high concentrations could significantly affect the protein composition and quality of shrimp muscle, and potentially some of its key metabolisms. One of the arginine kinases (spot 27) was particularly responsive to T-2 and could potentially be used as a biomarker protein for T-2 intoxication by shrimp. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas Musculares/química , Penaeidae/efeitos dos fármacos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Toxina T-2/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Proteínas Musculares/genética , Proteínas Musculares/metabolismo , Músculos/química , Músculos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculos/metabolismo , Penaeidae/química , Penaeidae/genética , Penaeidae/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
9.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124767, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518925

RESUMO

The present study analyzed the Peruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus and its food sources for metal and fatty acid concentrations in order to determine spatial and temporal differences. Metals such as copper (Cu), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in gills and iron (Fe) and Zn in sediments were the most significant explaining factors for spatial differentiations (degree of contamination), while for fatty acids, it was C14:0, C15:0, C16:0 and C18:0 in A. purpuratus' muscle and in its food sources, which explained more temporal differences (El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) effect). Gills, digestive gland and intestine were the tissues where metal accumulation was the highest in A. purpuratus. Cd in digestive gland was always high, up to ∼250-fold higher than in other tissues, as previously reported in other bioindicator species for metal pollution. Fatty acids were good biomarkers when annual comparisons were performed, while metals when locations were compared. ENSO 2017 played an important role to disentangle A. purpuratus' biological conditions and food sources. A. purpuratus from Paracas locations mostly showed higher metal concentrations in gills and digestive glands, and lower fatty acid concentrations in muscle than those from Sechura and Illescas Reserved Zone.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Sedimentos Geológicos/análise , Pectinidae/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Aquicultura , Cobre/análise , Cobre/farmacocinética , Biomarcadores Ambientais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Brânquias/química , Ferro/análise , Ferro/farmacocinética , Manganês/análise , Manganês/farmacocinética , Músculos/química , Pectinidae/metabolismo , Peru , Frutos do Mar/análise , Análise Espaço-Temporal , Distribuição Tecidual , Zinco/análise , Zinco/farmacocinética
10.
Food Chem ; 310: 125947, 2020 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841939

RESUMO

An ultra performance liquid chromatography-Triple time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Triple TOF-MS/MS) method were established to characterize the lipid profiles in four shellfish species. More than 600 lipid molecular species belonging to 14 classes were detected. Phospholipids (PLs) were predominant in Chlamys farreri (54.9%) and glycerolipids (GLs) were dominant in Ostrea gigas (51.6%). PLs that contained polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) such as PC (16:0/20:5), PC (16:0/22:6) and PE (18:0/22:6) were the main molecular species. Especially, the percentage of sphingolipids (SLs) in four shellfishes is considerable (18.8-38.6%), the characterization of their special long-chain base (LCB) structure (mainly d19:3) and N-acyl group (mainly 16:0) was realized. Several SL subclasses with low abundance in four shellfish species, such as ceramide 2-aminoethylphosphonate (CAEP) and deoxy-ceramide (DeoxyCer), were also detected. These active lipids identified by this method have potential value in revealing the nutritional value of shellfishes and serving as biomarkers for distinguishing different shellfishes.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Lipídeos/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Ácido Aminoetilfosfônico/análogos & derivados , Animais , Ceramidas , Ácidos Graxos Insaturados/análise , Lipídeos/química , Valor Nutritivo , Pectinidae/química , Fosfolipídeos/análise , Fosfolipídeos/química , Esfingolipídeos/análise
11.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 313: 108378, 2020 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678817

RESUMO

Vibrio bacteria can accumulate in molluscan shellfish and cause human diseases. The United States (U.S.) has implemented Vibrio Control Plans to mitigate risks associated with these bacteria, which include time and temperature requirements for post-harvest processing and maintaining an unbroken cold chain. In this study, we tracked the performance of cold chains for U.S. farmed oysters distributed nationally and internationally using temperature sensors. Boxes and bags of oysters (n = 125) were shipped from farms in Washington State and the Chesapeake Bay to 143 unique businesses in 20 U.S. states, Washington D.C., and Hong Kong, China. Eighty-one percent of the temperature sensors were returned with usable data. The average product temperature among all participants was 4.4 ±â€¯2.7 °C (40 ±â€¯5 °F), which is 5.6 °C (10 °F) cooler than the 10 °C (50 °F) guidance criterium established by the U.S. government. There were spikes in temperature in some shipments: 18% of shipments (16/91) experienced oyster temperatures above 10 °C for one hour or more, and the median time spent out of temperature control was 2.5 h. We modeled V. parahaemolyticus abundance using temperature sensor data and 75% (68/91) of shipments had a net decrease in V. parahaemolyticus abundance in the cold chain. There are opportunities for improvements in cold chain performance in the shellfish industry and related businesses. In the discussion we provide recommendations for oyster producers related to product cooling, for businesses that handle shellfish, and for government and industry groups to develop guidance for shipping by air, among other issues.


Assuntos
Ostreidae/microbiologia , Frutos do Mar/microbiologia , Vibrio parahaemolyticus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , China , Temperatura Baixa , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Fazendas , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Ostreidae/química , Ostreidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Refrigeração , Frutos do Mar/análise , Temperatura , Estados Unidos
12.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(46): 12918-12926, 2019 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668066

RESUMO

The triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), Scy p 8, is a crab allergen and shows cross-reactivity in the shellfish. Here, recombinant Scy p 8 was expressed, and its crystal structure was determined at a resolution of 1.8 Å. The three-dimensional structure of Scy p 8 is primarily composed of a (ß/α)8-barrel motif prototype. Additionally, Scy p 8 showed cross-reactivity with high sequential and secondary structural identity among TIMs from shellfish species. The site-directed mutagenesis of critical amino acids of conformational epitopes was carried out, and the mutants of Trp 168 and Lys 237 to Ala reduced immunoglobulin E (IgE)-binding activity by approximately 30%, compared with wild-type TIM in an inhibition ELISA; however, it still induced basophil activation despite the interpatient variability between patients. These results can help to provide an accurate template for the analysis of the IgE binding and establish meaningful relationships between structure and allergenicity.


Assuntos
Braquiúros/enzimologia , Epitopos/química , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Braquiúros/química , Braquiúros/genética , Braquiúros/imunologia , Reações Cruzadas , Cristalização , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Conformação Molecular , Conformação Proteica , Alinhamento de Sequência , Frutos do Mar/análise , Hipersensibilidade a Frutos do Mar/imunologia , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/química , Triose-Fosfato Isomerase/genética
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31703312

RESUMO

Seafood-borne Vibrio parahaemolyticus illness is a global public health issue facing resource managers and the seafood industry. The recent increase in shellfish-borne illnesses in the Northeast United States has resulted in the application of intensive management practices based on a limited understanding of when and where risks are present. We aim to determine the contribution of factors that affect V. parahaemolyticus concentrations in oysters (Crassostrea virginica) using ten years of surveillance data for environmental and climate conditions in the Great Bay Estuary of New Hampshire from 2007 to 2016. A time series analysis was applied to analyze V. parahaemolyticus concentrations and local environmental predictors and develop predictive models. Whereas many environmental variables correlated with V. parahaemolyticus concentrations, only a few retained significance in capturing trends, seasonality and data variability. The optimal predictive model contained water temperature and pH, photoperiod, and the calendar day of study. The model enabled relatively accurate seasonality-based prediction of V. parahaemolyticus concentrations for 2014-2016 based on the 2007-2013 dataset and captured the increasing trend in extreme values of V. parahaemolyticus concentrations. The developed method enables the informative tracking of V. parahaemolyticus concentrations in coastal ecosystems and presents a useful platform for developing area-specific risk forecasting models.


Assuntos
Crassostrea , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Modelos Teóricos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Previsões , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , New England , Estações do Ano , Temperatura
14.
J Food Sci ; 84(12): 3454-3462, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752050

RESUMO

Sous vide (SV) and high-pressure processing (HPP) are promising techniques in the development of high-quality seafood products. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impacts of HPP on the physicochemical quality and consumer acceptance of subsequently SV-cooked lobster tails. Raw shucked lobster tails were processed at 150 or 350 MPa for 5 or 10 min. Subsequently, half were SV cooked to a core temperature of 65 °C/10 min. Texture profile analysis, shear force, color, salt soluble protein content, water-holding capacity (WHC), moisture content, and weight loss were analyzed. Pressurization at 150 MPa/10 min decreased (P < 0.05) the hardness of raw lobsters compared to non-HPP-treated controls. However, 350 MPa for 5 or 10 min increased (P < 0.05) the shear force in raw and SV-cooked samples. HPP increased (P < 0.05) the L* values but did not affect moisture content, WHC, or weight loss of raw or SV-cooked lobsters. Lobsters were subjected to consumer acceptability testing using a 9-point hedonic scale. Although panelists rated the flavor, texture, and overall liking of the 350 MPa/10 min samples higher than the control and 150 MPa/10 min samples, there were no significant differences among treatment means, indicating that physicochemical changes induced by HPP did not affect consumer acceptance. In addition, approximately 84% of panelists reported that the 350 MPa product met their expectations compared to approximately 75% for the control and 150 MPa treatments. These results suggest that HPP has the potential to be applied in combination with SV cooking to produce consumer-acceptable, value-added lobster products. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Lobsters are an expensive menu item in restaurants. However, they are susceptible to being overcooked using conventional methods, producing a tough and rubbery texture. Sous vide cooking is reported to provide evenly cooked lobsters with a succulent and juicy texture. In this study, lobsters were sous vide cooked to reach a core temperature of 65 °C, and then maintained at that temperature for 10 min. The application of moderate processing pressures to vacuum-packaged raw lobsters prior to SV cooking altered some physicochemical attributes but has the potential to increase the availability of high-quality, minimally processed seafood with good consumer acceptability.


Assuntos
Culinária/métodos , Nephropidae/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Cor , Comportamento do Consumidor , Culinária/instrumentação , Humanos , Nephropidae/metabolismo , Paladar , Temperatura , Vácuo
15.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 2): 113299, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585405

RESUMO

Lipophilic marine algal toxins (LMATs) pose a potential threat to the health of marine shellfish consumers and marine breeding industries. In this study, LMATs in dissolved phases (DP) and particulate phases (PP) in the seawater of Jiaozhou Bay were accurately determined over four seasons to understand their composition, level, phase partitioning, spatiotemporal variation, and potential sources in aquatic environments of a typical semi-closed mariculture bay. Various LMATs, such as okadaic acid (OA), dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1), dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX2), gymnodimine (GYM), 13-desmethyl spirolide C (SPX1), pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2), pectenotoxin-2 seco acid (PTX2 SA), and pectenotoxin-11 (PTX11), were detected in DP and PP; of these, OA and PTX2 were the dominant LMATs in DP and PP, respectively. The average proportion of ΣLMATs in DP (97.5%) was significantly higher than that in PP (2.5%), which indicates that LMATs are predominantly partitioned into DP. The total concentrations of LMATs in DP ranged from 4.16 ng/L to 23.19 ng/L (mean, 13.35 ng/L) over four seasons. The highest levels of LMATs in DP and PP were found in summer (mean, 16.71 ng/L) and spring, respectively, while the maximum variety of LMATs was found in autumn. This result suggests that seasonal changes could influence the composition, concentration, and phase partitioning of LMATs in aquatic environments of a coastal semi-closed mariculture bay. ΣLMAT concentrations were higher in the western region than in the eastern region of the bay, where shellfish may have a greater risk of exposure. Dinophysis acuminata, Dinophysis fortii, and Prorocentrum minimum were the potential sources of LMATs in the aquaculture seawater. Overall, various LMATs occurred in the semi-closed mariculture bay, and the persistence and bioavailability of these toxins in aquaculture seawater should be determined in future research.


Assuntos
Baías/química , Dinoflagelados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Água do Mar/química , Animais , Aquicultura , China , Crustáceos/química , Estações do Ano , Frutos do Mar/análise
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 1-4, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590765

RESUMO

The total mercury (T-Hg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in red snow crabs (Chionoecetes japonicus) caught off the coast of Japan were analyzed. The T-Hg concentration ranged from 0.03 to 0.56 mg/kg (mean: 0.21 mg/kg) in the raw muscle, and 0.02 to 0.74 mg/kg (mean: 0.27 mg/kg) in the boiled muscle. The MeHg concentration ranged from 0.04 to 0.54 mg/kg (mean: 0.20 mg/kg) in the raw muscle. The mean ratio of MeHg to T-Hg was 0.88. The crab body weight was found to significantly correlate with the concentrations of T-Hg (r = 0.488) and MeHg (r = 0.490) (p ≤ 0.01). For the general population in Japan, the intake of MeHg from eating red snow crab was estimated to be lower than 0.013 mg/week, which was less than one-sixth of the tolerable MeHg intake (0.08 mg/week).


Assuntos
Braquiúros/química , Mercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Animais , Braquiúros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Braquiúros/metabolismo , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Japão , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/metabolismo
17.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 28-35, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590789

RESUMO

Native Americans face disproportionate exposures to environmental pollution through traditional subsistence practices including shellfish harvesting. In this study, the collection of butter clams (Saxidomus giganteus) was spatially and temporally paired with deployment of sediment pore water passive samplers at 20 locations in the Puget Sound region of the Salish Sea in the Pacific Northwest, USA, within adjudicated usual and accustomed tribal fishing grounds and stations. Clams and passive samplers were analyzed for 62 individual PAHs. A linear regression model was constructed to predict PAH concentrations in the edible fraction of butter clams from the freely dissolved fraction (Cfree) in porewater. PAH concentrations can be predicted within a factor of 1.9 ±â€¯0.2 on average from the freely dissolved PAH concentration in porewater using the following equation: PAHClam=4.1±0.1×PAHporewater This model offers a simplified, cost effective, and low impact approach to assess contaminant levels in butter clams which are an important traditional food.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Bivalves/efeitos dos fármacos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/farmacologia , Frutos do Mar/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Animais , Bivalves/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 145: 56-66, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590824

RESUMO

The concentration of nine trace elements were analyzed in the different tissue organs of commonly available crabs (Portunus sanguinolentus, Portunus pelagicus and Scylla serrate) and bivalve (Polymesoda erosa) species collected from the Miri coast, Borneo in order to evaluate the potential health risk by consumption of these aquatic organisms. Among the analyzed organs, metal accumulation was higher in the gill tissues. The essential (Cu and Zn) and non-essential (Pb and Cd) elements showed the highest (i.e. Zn) and lowest concentrations (i.e. Cd) in their tissue organs, respectively. The estimated daily intake and hazard indices of all metals in the muscle indicate that the measured values were below the provisional tolerable daily intake suggested by the joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives. Compared to Malaysian and international seafood guideline values the results obtained from the present study are lower than the permissible limits and safe for consumption.


Assuntos
Bivalves/metabolismo , Braquiúros/metabolismo , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Frutos do Mar/análise , Oligoelementos/metabolismo , Animais , Bornéu , Malásia , Medição de Risco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
19.
Anal Chim Acta ; 1089: 66-77, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627820

RESUMO

The dehydration reaction of tetraamino porphyrin and 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxaldehyde was performed for the synthesis of a novel covalent organic framework (COF), which was decorated on magnetic Fe3O4 to obtain core-shell structured Fe3O4@COFs nanospheres for the first time, for effective extraction and enrichment of sulfonamides (SAs). The morphology and structure of the synthesized nanospheres were characterized through various methods. The extraction conditions for six SAs including sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfamonomethoxine, sulfamethoxazole, sulfadimethoxine were systematically optimized. Fe3O4@COFs nanospheres were evaluated for magnetic solid-phase extraction. By coupling with high-performance liquid chromatography, a facile and sensitive method was established for the quantitation analysis of six SAs. The method showed good linearity ranging from 1 to 500 ng mL-1 with R2 > 0.99, high sensitivity with LODs in the range of 0.2-1 ng mL-1, and high precision with RSDs≤6.3%. This method was further applied into determination of SAs in environmental water and food samples, with recoveries in the range of 65.3%-107.3% and RSDs≤6.7%. These successful applications suggest that the core-shell structured Fe3O4@COFs nanospheres could be used as a potential adsorbent for efficient extraction and analysis of trace SAs.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/química , Porfirinas/química , Sulfonamidas/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Adsorção , Animais , Galinhas , Lagos/análise , Limite de Detecção , Estruturas Metalorgânicas/síntese química , Leite/química , Penaeidae , Carne de Porco/análise , Porfirinas/síntese química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
20.
Chemosphere ; 236: 124404, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545201

RESUMO

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin responsible for countless human intoxications and deaths around the world. The distribution of TTX and its analogues is diverse and the toxin has been detected in organisms from both marine and terrestrial environments. Increasing detections seafood species, such as bivalves and gastropods, has drawn attention to the toxin, reinvigorating scientific interest and regulatory concerns. There have been reports of TTX in 21 species of bivalves and edible gastropods from ten countries since the 1980's. While TTX is structurally dissimilar to saxitoxin (STX), another neurotoxin detected in seafood, it has similar sodium channel blocking action and potency and both neurotoxins have been shown to have additive toxicities. The global regulatory level for the STX group toxins applied to shellfish is 800 µg/kg. The presence of TTX in shellfish is only regulated in one country; The Netherlands, with a regulatory level of 44 µg/kg. Due to the recent interest surrounding TTX in bivalves, the European Food Safety Authority established a panel to assess the risk and regulation of TTX in bivalves, and their final opinion was that a concentration below 44 µg of TTX per kg of shellfish would not result in adverse human effects. In this article, we review current knowledge on worldwide TTX levels in edible gastropods and bivalves over the last four decades, the different methods of detection used, and the current regulatory status. We suggest research needs that will assist with knowledge gaps and ultimately allow development of robust monitoring and management protocols.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Gastrópodes/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Tetrodotoxina/análise , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos/legislação & jurisprudência , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Humanos , Países Baixos , Neurotoxinas/análise , Neurotoxinas/farmacocinética , Saxitoxina/análise , Tetrodotoxina/farmacocinética
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