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1.
Harmful Algae ; 102: 101733, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875174

RESUMO

In France, REPHY (Observation and Surveillance Network for Phytoplankton and Hydrology in coastal waters) and REPHYTOX (Monitoring Network for Phycotoxins in marine organisms) have been contributing to long-term time series on ocean health for more than 30 years. The aim of this paper is to describe these networks and to highlight their key results. Over the last 20 years, phytoplankton flora analysis on French coasts from the Channel to Mediterranean has shown that the five "emblematic" taxa are Chaetoceros, Skeletonema, Cryptophyceae, Leptocylindrus and Pseudo-nitzschia. The latter, together with the taxa of interest Dinophysis + Phalacroma, Alexandrium, and Karenia, have been consistently recorded along the entire French coastline. However, when taking into account frequency of occurrence some taxa exhibit more distinct geographical distributions. In particular, the occurrence of Phaeocystis appeared to be strongly specific to the northern coasts of the Channel. French coasts have been regularly affected since the 1980s by the presence of toxins in bivalve molluscs, leading to bans on fishing and sale of shellfish during periods of varying duration. Three categories of toxins were involved. PST and AST were absent from the French coasts, respectively before 1988 and 2000. DST (Diarrheic Shellfish Toxins) have affected many areas along the whole coast every year since 1987. For PST (Paralytic Shellfish Toxins), only a few areas have been affected, sometimes sporadically, since 1988 in the Channel, 1993 in the Atlantic, and 1998 in the Mediterranean. Many areas have been impacted since 2000 by AST (Amnesic Shellfish Toxins) episodes, mainly affecting scallops in the Channel and on Atlantic coasts. The patterns of change of shellfish toxicity episodes showed no real trend in any province over the entire period 1987-2018.


Assuntos
Fitoplâncton , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , França , Toxinas Marinhas , Frutos do Mar/análise
2.
Harmful Algae ; 102: 101848, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875178

RESUMO

Similarities and differences between Australia and New Zealand in Harmful Algal species occurrences and Harmful Algal Events impacting on human society (HAEDAT) are reported and factors that explain their differences explored. Weekly monitoring of harmful phytoplankton and biotoxins commenced in Australia in 1986 and in New Zealand in 1993. Anecdotal historic HAB records in both countries are also catalogued. In Australia, unprecedented highly toxic Paralytic Shellfish Toxin (PST)-producing blooms of Alexandrium catenella have impacted the seafood industry along the 200 km east coast of Tasmania from 2012 to present. Toxic blooms in 1986-1993 by Gymnodinium catenatum in Tasmania were effectively mitigated by closing the affected area for shellfish farming, while a bloom by this same species in 2000 in New Zealand caused significant economic damage from restrictions on the movement of greenshell mussel spat. The biggest biotoxin event in New Zealand was an unexpected outbreak of Neurotoxic Shellfish Poisoning (NSP) in 1993 in Hauraki Gulf (putatively due to Karenia cf. mikimotoi) with 180 reported cases of human poisonings as well as reports of respiratory irritation north of Auckland. Strikingly, NSP never recurred in New Zealand since and no NSP events have ever been reported in Australia. In New Zealand, Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) was the predominant seafood toxin syndrome, while in Australia Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP) was the major reported seafood toxin syndrome, while no CFP has been recorded from consumption of New Zealand fish. In Australia, Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning (DSP) illnesses were recorded from two related outbreaks in 1997/98 following consumption of beach harvested clams (pipis) from a previously non-monitored area, whereas in New Zealand limited DSP illnesses are known. No human illnesses from Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning (ASP) have been reported in either Australia or New Zealand. Selected examples of HABs appearing and disappearing (NSP in New Zealand, Alexandrium catenella in Tasmania), species expanding their ranges (Noctiluca, Gambierdiscus), and reputed ballast water introductions (Gymnodinium catenatum) are discussed. Eutrophication has rarely been invoked as a cause except for confined estuaries and fish ponds and estuarine cyanobacterial blooms. No trend in the number of HAEDAT events from 1985 to 2018 was discernible.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Austrália , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Frutos do Mar/análise
3.
Toxicon ; 196: 1-7, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33716070

RESUMO

Economic bivalve ingested toxic algae causes frequent human poisoning events. To explore new compounds that can accelerate the depuration of toxins in shellfish, we investigated the detoxification of the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) and the biotransformation pathway of PSTs during detoxification by the application of three treatments to a toxic bloom, Alexandrium minutum (A. minutum). The detoxification effect of Platymonas subcordiformis (PS) mixed with carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) group is significantly better than the starving group in each oyster tissues. The toxicity of viscera which occupied 78.95% of total toxicity reduced to 155 MU/100g after 13 days' depuration experiment. And adding CMC could significantly achieve rapid detoxification and effectively reduce the STX to 0.07 µmol/100 g in viscera. Meanwhile, PSTs underwent biotransformation during the depuration process, which mainly manifested as GTX1/4→GTX2/3→STX, GTX2→dcGTX2. This study explored a new strategy for toxin depuration in shellfish.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Dinoflagelados , Ostrea , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Biotransformação , Dinoflagelados/metabolismo , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/metabolismo , Ostrea/metabolismo , Frutos do Mar/análise
4.
Toxicon ; 195: 48-57, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722633

RESUMO

Blooms of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella, which produces Paralytic Shellfish Toxins (PST), generate serious socio-economic consequences for mariculture in Chile, especially for the production of Mytilus chilensis and other bivalves. Palliative strategies, such as the depuration of mussels in enriched water with chitosan offer encouraging prospects against the advance of contaminated areas and toxin persistence. Adult mussels were fed with A. catenella for 20 days and then were allowed to depurate using chitosan as facilitator, for the same period. Intoxicated mussels showed a reduction in feeding activity and rapid PST accumulation in 20 days (C = 451.5t + 1,673.6, R2 = 0.55 p = 0.008). Not enough evidence was found to indicate a positive effect of chitosan in mussel depuration after 20 days (C = -311.1t + 8,462.4, R2 = 0.8 p = 0.001). At the end of the study, toxicity was higher than 800 µg STX eq kg-1. C2 and GTX4 analogues were the most abundant in the dinoflagellate strain, while C2 and C1 were the most accumulated in mussels. The presence of C1 was notorious during depuration, as the persistence of GTX2,3. GTX5 was only detected in A. catenella, while STX was only present in mussels. Mussel sensitivity to the presence of the toxic dinoflagellate was observed in the present study. The biotransformation, selective elimination and epimerization processes were deduced from intoxication and depuration experiments.


Assuntos
Quitosana , Dinoflagelados , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Mytilus , Animais , Chile , Quitosana/toxicidade , Frutos do Mar/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar
5.
Analyst ; 146(8): 2638-2645, 2021 Apr 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660716

RESUMO

Okadaic acid (OA) is produced by marine dinoflagellates and it can be easily accumulated in shellfish, causing intoxications when consumed by humans. Consequently, there is a need for sensitive, reliable and cost-effective methods to detect OA in real samples. In this work, we developed a novel and affordable microfluidic system to detect OA based on the protein phosphatase 1 inhibition colorimetric assay. This enzyme was immobilized in a microfluidic chamber by physisorption in an alumina sol-gel. The results show good enzyme stability over time when maintained at 4 °C. The developed system was sensitive for OA standard solutions, presenting a limit of detection (LOD) of 11.6 nM over a large linear range (43.4 to 3095.8 nM). Our method revealed an LOD as low as 0.2 µg kg-1 and a linear range between 1.47 and 506 µg kg-1 for extracted mussel matrix, detecting OA concentrations in contaminated mussels much lower than the regulated limit (160 µg kg-1). The enzyme stability and reusability along with the simplicity and low cost associated with microfluidics systems make this method very interesting from a commercial point of view.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Microfluídica , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Humanos , Ácido Okadáico , Frutos do Mar/análise
6.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 342: 109073, 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33550154

RESUMO

Clam jeotgal, called "jogaejeotgal," is a Korean fermented seafood product with, generally, a high amount of added salt to inhibit the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against murine norovirus 1 (MNV-1), a surrogate for human norovirus, in salt-fermented clam, jogaejeotgal. The sequential effect of ClO2 and electron-beam (e-beam) irradiation on the inactivation of MNV-1 was also investigated. Treatments of up to 300 ppm ClO2 and 1000 ppm NaOCl were used to determine the disinfectant concentrations at which more than 1 log (90%) MNV-1 inactivation occurred. The sequential treatment of ClO2 (50-300 ppm) and e-beam (1-5.5 kGy) was performed after storage at 4 °C for 7 days. There was a 1.9-log reduction of the virus in seasoned clams irradiated at 5.5 kGy after ClO2 treatment at 300 ppm. No significant change (p > 0.05) in physicochemical quality was observed after the combined treatment, suggesting the potential for the use of a combined treatment using ClO2 (300 ppm) and e-beam (5.5 kGy) in the jeotgal manufacturing industry for the reduction of norovirus.


Assuntos
Bivalves , Compostos Clorados/farmacologia , Elétrons , Norovirus/fisiologia , Óxidos/farmacologia , Frutos do Mar/virologia , Animais , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Irradiação de Alimentos , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Norovirus/efeitos da radiação , República da Coreia , Frutos do Mar/análise , Hipoclorito de Sódio/farmacologia , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação de Vírus/efeitos da radiação
7.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 50(1): 116-142, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33517972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A method utilizing liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) coupled with dispersive solid phase extraction for quantitative analysis of domoic acid in four kinds of shellfish was established. METHODS: The sample of 0. 1 g was extracted with 25% methanol aqueous solution, the extract was purified by dispersive solid phase extraction with 50 mg HLB and 5 mg GCB, and then filtered through a PTFE membrane. The analytes were separated on a C_(18) column(100 mm×2. 1 mm, 1. 9 µm), and detected in selected reaction monitoring(SRM) mode via positive electrospray ionization. The matrix matching and external standard method was used for quantitation. RESULTS: Domoic acid showed good linearity in the concentration range between 1. 0 ng/mL and 50. 0 ng/mL with correlation coefficients higher than 0. 9994. The detection limits of domoic acid in shellfish was 5 µg/kg. The inter-and intra-day recoveries were 91. 6%-109. 2% and 90. 9%-109. 3%, respectively. The inter-and intra-day ralitive standard deviations(RSDs) were lower than 8. 2% at spiked concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 µg/kg. CONCLUSION: The method is accurate, fast, easy to operate, which can satisfy the requirements of public health emergency testing or routine testing.


Assuntos
Extração em Fase Sólida , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia Líquida , Ácido Caínico/análogos & derivados , Frutos do Mar/análise
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(5): 1610-1618, 2021 Feb 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501827

RESUMO

Nanoparticles can be prepared by several sophisticated processes but until now, it cannot be prepared by simple home cooking. Here, we report that two incidental food nanoparticles (iFNPs) consisting of proteoglycans and phytosterols were isolated from soup made from freshwater clam (Corbicula fluminea Muller), a renowned folk remedy for liver problems in China and other parts of East Asia. These two bioactive iFNPs were obtained and characterized by anionic exchange chromatography coupled with multi-angle laser light scattering measurement. Their hydrodynamic diameters and ζ-potentials were 50 ± 0.2 nm and -28.0 mV and 67 ± 0.4 nm and -9.96 mV, respectively. FT-IR revealed that the proteoglycans in the particles contained α-type heteropolysaccharides. Both iFNPs were resistant to pH changes and separation by mechanical force but responsive to temperature changes. They effectively inhibited cholesterol uptake in vitro, which resonates with the traditional belief that freshwater clam soup provides hepatoprotective benefits. This study suggests that these two proteoglycan-lipid iFNPs are the active moieties and offers a supramolecular structure-based approach to study the function of such complex matrices derived from food.


Assuntos
Corbicula/química , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Proteoglicanas/química , Animais , Culinária , Água Doce , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
9.
J Chromatogr A ; 1639: 461902, 2021 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486447

RESUMO

Low extraction efficiency (60-81%) of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin 1 (DTX1) was obtained for 4 out of 5 shellfish species from Washington State (WA), USA, during application of a standard extraction method for determination of lipophilic marine biotoxins by LC-MS/MS as recommended by the European Union Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins (EURLMB). OA and total OA including esters, DTX1, DTX2, and total DTX including esters, azaspiracid 1, 2, and 3 (AZA1, AZA2, and AZA3), pectenotoxin 2 (PTX2), and yessotoxin (YTX) were the toxins examined. Matrix-matched standards prepared from the same control samples used for spike-and-recovery tests were employed to evaluate toxin extraction efficiency and sample clean-up procedures. We adjusted the EURLMB extraction method by either using an acidified methanol extraction or pre-cooking shellfish homogenates at 70 °C for 20 min before EURLMB extraction. Extraction efficiency was improved markedly for OA and DTX1 with both modified methods and for YTX with the pre-cooking step included. However, recoveries were lower for YTX using the acidified methanol extraction and for PTX2 in non-mussel samples with the pre-cooking step. A hexane wash was applied to clean water-diluted non-hydrolyzed samples and a hexane wash was combined with solid-phase extraction for cleaning hydrolyzed samples. Improved sample clean-up, combined with LC-MS/MS adjustments, enabled quantification of U.S. Food and Drug Administration-regulated toxins in five shellfish species from WA with acceptable accuracy using non-matrix matched calibration standards.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Lipídeos/química , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Álcalis/química , Animais , Furanos/análise , Macrolídeos/análise , Metanol/química , Ácido Okadáico/análogos & derivados , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Oxocinas/análise , Compostos de Espiro/análise , Washington
10.
Environ Pollut ; 271: 116400, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421845

RESUMO

Freshwater cyanobacteria produce highly toxic secondary metabolites, which can be transported downstream by rivers and waterways into the sea. Estuarine and coastal aquaculture sites exposed to toxic cyanobacteria raise concerns that shellfish may accumulate and transfer cyanotoxins in the food web. This study aims to describe the competitive pattern of uptake and depuration of a wide range of microcystins (MC-LR, MC-LF, MC-LW, MC-LY, [Asp3]-MC-LR/[Dha7]-MC-LR, MC-HilR) and nodularins (NOD cyclic and linear) within the common blue mussel Mytilus edulis exposed to a combined culture of Microcystis aeruginosa and Nodularia spumigena into the coastal environment. Different distribution profiles of MCs/NODs in the experimental system were observed. The majority of MCs/NODs were present intracellularly which is representative of healthy cyanobacterial cultures, with MC-LR and NOD the most abundant analogues. Higher removal rate was observed for NOD (≈96%) compared to MCs (≈50%) from the water phase. Accumulation of toxins in M. edulis was fast, reaching up to 3.4 µg/g shellfish tissue four days after the end of the 3-days exposure period, with NOD (1.72 µg/g) and MC-LR (0.74 µg/g) as the dominant toxins, followed by MC-LF (0.35 µg/g) and MC-LW (0.31 µg/g). Following the end of the exposure period depuration was incomplete after 27 days (0.49 µg/g of MCs/NODs). MCs/NODs were also present in faecal material and extrapallial fluid after 24 h of exposure with MCs the main contributors to the total cyanotoxin load in faecal material and NOD in the extrapallial fluid. Maximum concentration of MCs/NODs accumulated in a typical portion of mussels (20 mussels, ≈4 g each) was beyond greater the acute, seasonal and lifetime tolerable daily intake. Even after 27 days of depuration, consuming mussels harvested during even short term harmful algae blooms in close proximity to shellfish beds might carry a high health risk, highlighting the need for testing.


Assuntos
Cianobactérias , Microcystis , Animais , Microcistinas , Nodularia , Frutos do Mar/análise
11.
Food Chem ; 334: 127558, 2021 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711269

RESUMO

Shellfishes contain plasmalogens correlating to the functions of brain, heart, etc. Herein, a mild acid hydrolysis and hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) tandem mass spectrometry method was developed for analyzing plasmalogens in six shellfish species. A total of 19 plasmalogen molecular species were successfully identified, including nine phosphatidylcholine plasmalogen (plasPC), seven phosphatidylethanolamine plasmalogen (plasPE), and three phosphatidylserine plasmalogen (plasPS). The quantitative results indicated that mussel (32 µg·mg-1) possessed the highest content of plasmalogens, followed by oyster (21 µg·mg-1) and razor clam (15 µg·mg-1). The statistic models showed that the plasPE P-18:0/20:5 (m/z 748), plasPE P-16:0/22:2 & P-18:0/20:2 (m/z 754) and plasPS were the most contributing difference between shellfishes. The results indicated that this method was sensitive and precise to determine plasmalogens in shellfish, and mussel was demonstrated to be a good choice for the large-scale preparation of plasmalogens.


Assuntos
Bivalves/química , Cromatografia/métodos , Plasmalogênios/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos , Animais , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Lipidômica/métodos , Ostrea/química , Fosfatidilcolinas/análise , Fosfatidilserinas/análise , Plasmalogênios/química
12.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128374, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182088

RESUMO

Lipophilic marine algal toxins (LMATs) are highly toxic secondary metabolites produced by marine microalgae that pose a great threat to marine aquaculture organisms and human health. In this study, a novel and automated method for the simultaneous determination of six groups of LMATs in seawater was developed by on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Condition optimization and method validation were performed, and the recoveries of all 14 target LMATs featuring different properties ranged from 83.5% to 96.0%. The limits of detection of most target compounds were within ≤3.000 ng/L with good precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 12.1%) and linearity (R2≥0.9916). Compared with off-line SPE methods, the proposed on-line SPE method has better recovery, sensitivity, repeatability, and throughput; in addition, the volume of seawater sample necessary to conduct determinations is greatly reduced in the present method. Finally, the method was applied to determine LMATs in actual seawater samples collected from the Bohai and South Yellow Seas of China in summer, and okadaic acid and pectenotoxin-2 were detected in all seawater samples. The highest concentration of ∑LMATs (22.23 ng/L) occurred in the coastal mariculture area of Shandong Province. Therefore, routine monitoring of LMATs in seawater of the coastal mariculture zone is necessary to prevent shellfish contamination especially in summer, and the proposed on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS method is a powerful way for direct and automatic detection of various LMATs in coastal mariculture area.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Água do Mar/química , Aquicultura , China , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Furanos , Humanos , Macrolídeos , Oceanos e Mares , Ácido Okadáico/análise , Piranos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
13.
Talanta ; 224: 121842, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33379060

RESUMO

Phycotoxins in the marine food-web represent a serious threat to human health. Consumption of contaminated shellfish and/or finfish poses risk to consumer safety: several cases of toxins-related seafood poisoning have been recorded so far worldwide. Cyclic imines are emerging lipophilic toxins, which have been detected in shellfish from different European countries. Currently, they are not regulated due to the lack of toxicological comprehensive data and hence the European Food Safety Authority has required more scientific efforts before establishing a maximum permitted level in seafood. In this work, a novel data dependent liquid chromatography - high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) approach has been successfully applied and combined with targeted studies for an in-depth investigation of the metabolic profile of shellfish samples. The proposed analytical methodology has allowed: i) to discover a plethora of unknown fatty acid esters of gymnodimines and ii) to conceive a brand new MS-based strategy, termed as backward analysis, for discovery and identification of new analogues. In particular, the implemented analytical workflow has broadened the structural diversity of cyclic imine family through the inclusion of five new congeners, namely gymnodimine -F, -G, -H, -I and -J. In addition, gymnodimine A (376.5 µg/kg), 13-desmethyl spirolide C (11.0-29.0 µg/kg) and pinnatoxin G (3.1-7.7 µg/kg) have been detected in shellfish from different sites of the Mediterranean basin (Tunisia and Italy) and the Atlantic coast of Spain, with the confirmation of the first finding of pinnatoxin G in mussels harvested in Sardinia (Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy).


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas , Compostos de Espiro , Animais , Ésteres , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Espanha , Compostos de Espiro/análise
14.
Rev. esp. nutr. comunitaria ; 26(3): 0-0, jul.-sept. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-200756

RESUMO

FUNDAMENTOS: El yodo es un elemento fundamental para el buen funcionamiento del cuerpo humano, por lo que su ingesta ha de ser suficiente para garantizar sus funciones en el mismo. Existen grupos de alimentos más ricos en yodo como son las algas, los productos lácteos o la sal yodada. MÉTODOS: Se estudió una población de 418 individuos de diferentes zonas de España, siendo una muestra representativa de la población española. Se realizaron encuestas sobre hábitos alimentarios y recuerdo de consumo de 24 horas durante 2 días, utilizando estos datos para determinar el aporte de yodo de los alimentos consumidos y así determinar las principales fuentes de yodo. RESULTADOS: Las principales fuentes alimentarias de yodo de la población estudiada, exceptuando la sal yodada, son la leche, el marisco y el pescado. Otras fuentes de yodo, de menor contribución, resultaron las bebidas alcohólicas en el caso de los hombres y las algas en el caso de las mujeres. CONCLUSIONES: Con los resultados obtenidos se concluye que después de la sal yodada, son los productos lácteos, el pescado y los mariscos los alimentos que más yodo aportan a la dieta de los españoles


BACKGROUND: Iodine is an essential element for a proper human body performance, due to this; its intake must be enough to guarantee this performance. There are some groups of aliments, such as seaweeds, milky products and iodize salt, in which the iodine content is higher. METHODS: Along the research study, 418 people from different Spanish locations were studied; this is a representative sample of the Spanish population. In order to make a dietary assessment, surveys about feeding habits and 24 hours dietary recall of 2 days have been collected. These data were used to define the iodine contribution from all the aliments within the analyzed diets, in order to obtain the main iodine sources. RESULTS: The main iodine dietary sources, in the population under study, aside the iodized salt, are milk, seafood and fish. Other iodine sources, with a low contribution level, were alcoholic drinks in male subjects and seaweeds in female subjects. CONCLUSIONS: Taking into account the outcomes from the research study, we infer that, with the exception of iodized salt, the aliments that contribute the most in the Spanish population diet are milky products, fish and seafood


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Iodo/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Sódio na Dieta/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Composição de Alimentos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Leite/química , Frutos do Mar/análise
15.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(33): 41143-41156, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32809126

RESUMO

Bivalve molluscs can acquire marine biotoxins by filter-feeding upon certain toxin-producing microalgae. The two most common syndromes observed in temperate coastal waters have been diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). While DSP is a non-fatal gastrointestinal syndrome, PSP is a neurological syndrome which can lead to death by respiratory paralysis in high intoxication scenarios. In Portugal, the presence of both DSP and PSP toxins leads to recurrent seasonal bans of bivalve harvesting. On a few occasions, the bans were not placed in time, not properly disseminated to the public or were disregarded by recreational harvesters. Several cases of poisonings have been studied in collaboration between health authorities and the laboratory in charge of the biotoxin monitoring programme. Some of the outbreaks have even called the attention of the local media. In several of these recorded cases, a common trait has emerged throughout the years: bivalve harvest had often been done during very low tides attributed to either new or full moons. These tides expose intertidal bivalves more widely, increase harvesting time, and allow picking of larger-sized specimens. In some occasions, the consumers were extremely unfortunate because a noxious coincidence had occurred: larger-sized specimens were available but had attained the highest toxin content of the toxic season. This review alerts that despite costly monitoring programmes have been perfected through the years, human poisonings still take place due to the rapid increase in toxin levels and/or disrespect of harvest bans.


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Humanos , Portugal , Estações do Ano , Frutos do Mar/análise
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111414, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753198

RESUMO

Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins and pectenotoxins (PTX) produced by endemic species of the genus Dinophysis, mainly D. acuta and D. acuminata, pose a big threat to public health, artisanal fisheries and the aquaculture industry in Southern Chile. This work reports the first detection of lipophilic toxins, including pectenotoxin-2 (PTX-2) and gymnodimine-A (GYM-A), in hard razor clam (Tagelus dombeii) associated with an unprecedented spring bloom -38.4 × 103 cells L-1 in integrated hose sampler (0-10 m) - of Dinophysis acuminata in coastal waters of central Chile. The socio-economic challenges to small-scale fisheries are discussed. The study points to the pressing need for sound policies to face unexpected HAB event, probably due to biogeographical expansions, with a focus on fisheries management, participation of stakeholders, and development of adaptive capacities.


Assuntos
Dinoflagelados , Toxinas Marinhas , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Chile , Frutos do Mar/análise
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139887, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32758939

RESUMO

The ingestion of microplastics by shellfish pose a potential health risk for human via seafood consumption. This study investigated and compared the contamination levels and potential human health risks of microplastics in the digestive system of commercial shellfish from North (Qingdao) and South (Xiamen) China. Microplastics were detected in 70%-100% of shellfish samples from Qingdao and 70%-90% of shellfish samples from Xiamen, with abundances ranging from 1.2 to 4.1 items/individual (or 0.8-4.4 items/g, wet weight of digestive system) in shellfish from Qingdao and 1.3-6.0 items/individual (or 2.1-4.0 items/g) in shellfish from Xiamen. The microplastic composition was dominated by rayon and tended to be fibrous in shape, and white, black, and transparent in color. Microplastics <500 µm were the dominant size range, in which the size range of 100-200 µm was the most abundant size. Features of microplastics in the water-dwelling shellfish were different from those of the sediment-dwelling shellfish, and the microplastic features in the shellfish correlated with the sampling region, shellfish length, total wet body weight, and wet weight of the digestive system. Risk assessment results revealed that the potential human health risk posed by microplastics from the digestive system of commercial shellfish was higher in Qingdao than Xiamen.


Assuntos
Plásticos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , China , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Microplásticos , Frutos do Mar/análise
18.
Environ Res ; 188: 109846, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846638

RESUMO

Marine toxins in bivalves pose an important risk to human health, and regulatory authorities throughout the world impose maximum toxicity values. In general, bivalve toxicities due to paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) above the regulatory limit occur during short periods, but in some cases, it may be extended from weeks to months. The present study examines whether cockles (Cerastoderme edule), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and razor shells (Solen marginatus) naturally exposed to a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum activated or suppressed biochemical responses as result of the presence of PSTs in their soft tissues. Toxins (C1+2, C3+4, GTX5, GTX6, dcSTX, dcGTX2+3 and dcNEO) and a set of biomarkers (ETS, electron transport system activity; GLY, glycogen; PROT, protein; SOD, superoxide dismutase; CAT, catalase; GPx, glutathione peroxidase; GST, glutathione S-transferases; LPO, lipid peroxidation; reduced (GSH) and oxidized (GSSG) glutathione contents and AChE, acetylcholinesterase activity) were determined in the three bivalve species. Specimens were harvested weekly in Aveiro lagoon, Portugal, along thirteen weeks. This period included three weeks in which bivalve toxicity exceeded largely the regulatory limit and the subsequence recovery period of ten weeks. Biochemical performance of the surveyed species clearly indicated that PSTs induce oxidative stress and neurotoxicity, with higher impact on mussels and razor shells than in cockles. The antioxidant enzymes CAT and GPx seemed to be the biomarkers better associated with toxin effects.


Assuntos
Cardiidae , Toxinas Marinhas , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Animais , Humanos , Toxinas Marinhas/toxicidade , Portugal , Frutos do Mar/análise
19.
Chemosphere ; 260: 127570, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668364

RESUMO

Plastics profoundly threatens ecological balance in marine ecosystems across the globe in the current era of industrialization. Microplastics (MP), in particular, can pose risks reaching humans through the food web via various marine organisms. Among these organisms, since they are consumed as a whole, mussels are vital vectors of MP transfer during human consumption. Hence, here we analyzed MP pollution in Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) sampled from 23 different locations all along the Turkish coasts of the Black Sea, Sea of Marmara, and the Aegean Sea. After digestion of the mussels with H2O2, the micro-particles were determined under a stereomicroscope and characterized by confirming with FTIR analyses. 48% of the sampled mussels were found to have MPs. The average MP abundance was 0.69 item/mussel and 0.23 item/g fresh weight (fw) of soft tissue. Morphology was ordered as follows: fragments (67.6%)> fibers (28.4%)> films (4.05%). The dominant size of MPs was detected less than 0.5 mm (26.58%). 12 different polymers have been identified by FTIR and PET (32.9%), PP (28.4%), and PE (19.4%) were found to constitute 80% of the total MPs. The annual average exposure amount for mussel consumers in Turkey was estimated as 1918 MPs item/per year. Even though international organizations such as FAO, JECFA, or EU have not declared permissible limits, our data may inform human health uptake of MP ingestion via mussels. This data might also serve as a reference data-set for further MP monitoring research in Turkish and European Seas.


Assuntos
Microplásticos/análise , Mytilus/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Mar Negro , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Frutos do Mar/análise , Turquia
20.
Chemosphere ; 256: 127019, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32417588

RESUMO

Marine and freshwater toxins contaminate water resources, shellfish and aquaculture products, causing a broad range of toxic effects in humans and animals. Different core-shell nanoparticles were tested as a new sorbent for removing marine and freshwater toxins from liquid media. Water solutions were contaminated with 20 µg/L of marine toxins and up to 50 µg/L of freshwater toxins and subsequently treated with 250 or 125 mg/L of nanoparticles. Under these conditions, carbon nanoparticles removed around 70% of saxitoxins, spirolides, and azaspiracids, and up to 38% of diarrheic shellfish poisoning toxins. In the case of freshwater toxins, the 85% of microcystin LR was eliminated; other cyclic peptide toxins were also removed in a high percentage. Marine toxins were adsorbed in the first 5 min of contact, while for freshwater toxins it was necessary 60 min to reach the maximum adsorption. Toxins were recovered by extraction from nanoparticles with different solvents. Gymnodinium catenatum, Prorocentrum lima, and Microcystis aeruginosa cultures were employed to test the ability of nanoparticles to adsorb toxins in a real environment, and the same efficacy to remove toxins was observed in these conditions. These results suggest the possibility of using the nanotechnology in the treatment of contaminated water or in chemical analysis applications.


Assuntos
Toxinas Marinhas/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Compostos de Espiro/química , Purificação da Água/métodos , Animais , Dinoflagelados , Água Doce/química , Humanos , Fenômenos Magnéticos , Toxinas Marinhas/análise , Microcistinas , Microcystis , Saxitoxina , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Frutos do Mar/análise , Intoxicação por Frutos do Mar , Compostos de Espiro/análise
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