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1.
Food Chem ; 370: 131015, 2022 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509943

RESUMO

The present study investigates the substitute of apple juice concentrate with some cheap sweeteners including glucose syrup, fructose syrup, and date concentrate, as the most common adulterants. For this purpose, pure and authenticated apple juice concentrate was individually adulterated with 10% to 50% of glucose syrup, fructose syrup, and date concentrate. High-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a refractive index detector (HPLC-RID) was applied to determine the carbohydrates profile of samples. The results of HPLC-RID were subjected to multivariate statistical analysis, namely principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA). The results showed that the glucose/fructose ratio and maltose content were the best indicators to detect adulteration of apple juice concentrate. A set of glucose, sorbitol, sucrose, maltose, and glucose/fructose ratio was used as a discriminating factor. Using this approach, adulteration of apple juice concentrate with cheaper sweeteners was detected at a limit of 10%, depending on the adulterant.


Assuntos
Malus , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutose , Glucose , Refratometria
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1354: 49-62, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34807436

RESUMO

The period of conceptus (embryo and extraembryonic membrane) development between fertilization and implantation in mammalian species is critical as it sets the stage for placental and fetal development. The trophectoderm and endoderm of pre-implantation ovine and porcine conceptuses undergo elongation, which requires rapid proliferation, migration, and morphological modification of the trophectoderm cells. These complex events occur in a hypoxic intrauterine environment and are supported through the transport of secretions from maternal endometrial glands to the conceptus required for the biochemical processes of cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation. The conceptus utilizes glucose provided by the mother to initiate metabolic pathways that provide energy and substrates for other metabolic pathways. Fructose, however, is in much greater abundance than glucose in amniotic and allantoic fluids, and fetal blood during pregnancy. Despite this, the role(s) of fructose is largely unknown even though a switch to fructosedriven metabolism in subterranean rodents and some cancers are key to their adaptation to hypoxic environments.


Assuntos
Embrião de Mamíferos , Placenta , Animais , Implantação do Embrião , Endométrio , Feminino , Frutose , Gravidez , Ovinos , Suínos , Útero
3.
Food Chem ; 371: 131369, 2022 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34808771

RESUMO

CO2 hydrate is applicable to solid carbonated foods. The hydrate crystal morphology, which represents the crystal size and shape, is an important characteristic that changes the texture of foods. We report an observational study of the crystal growth of CO2 hydrate in aqueous fructose solution. The difference between the phase equilibrium temperature and the experimental temperature, ΔTsub, is applied as an index of the driving force. Experiments were performed at ΔTsub range of 0.9 K to 5.4 K. At all ΔTsub, initial crystal formed at the gas-solution interface and grew along the interface. After covering the interface, the crystals grew in the liquid phase The individual crystals were identified as polyhedral with facets (ΔTsub = 0.9 K), skeletal crystals (ΔTsub = 2.0 K) and dendrites (ΔTsub = 3.0 K and 5.4 K). Based on these results, the potential effect of gas hydrate morphology on texture of foods has been discussed.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono , Frutose , Cristalização , Temperatura , Água
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(45): 13578-13585, 2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34736320

RESUMO

d-Allulose is considered an ideal alternative to sucrose and has shown tremendous application potential in many fields. Recently, most efforts on production of d-allulose have focused on in vitro enzyme-catalyzed epimerization of cheap hexoses. Here, we proposed an approach to efficiently produce d-allulose through fermentation using metabolically engineered Escherichia coli JM109 (DE3), in which a SecY (ΔP) channel and a d-allulose 3-epimerase (DPEase) were co-expressed, ensuring that d-fructose could be transported in its nonphosphorylated form and then converted into d-allulose by cells. Further deletion of fruA, manXYZ, mak, galE, and fruK and the use of Ni2+ in a medium limited the carbon flux flowing into the byproduct-generating pathways and the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas (EMP) pathway, achieving a ≈ 0.95 g/g yield of d-allulose on d-fructose using E. coli (DPEase, SecY [ΔP], ΔFruA, ΔManXYZ, ΔMak, ΔGalE, ΔFruK) and 8 µM Ni2+. In fed-batch fermentation, the titer of d-allulose reached ≈23.3 g/L.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli , Frutose , Escherichia coli/genética , Fermentação , Racemases e Epimerases
5.
Nutr J ; 20(1): 83, 2021 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34602079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of researches supported that dietary fructose was associated with most of the key features of metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, there was no related epidemiological studies among Chinese population, despite the sharp increase in MetS cases. This study explores the relationship between dietary fructose and MetS among Chinese residents aged 45 and above. METHODS: A total of 25,528 participants (11,574 males and 13,954 females) were included in this nationwide representative cross-sectional study of China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Dietary fructose intake was assessed by 3-day 24-h dietary records. MetS was defined by the International Diabetes Federation and Chinese Diabetes Society criteria. RESULTS: The consumption of dietary fructose was 11.6 g/day for urban residents and 7.6 g/day for rural residents. Fruits and vegetables as well as their products were the main sources of fructose intake. There was no association between dietary fructose intake and the odds of having MetS in both urban (P = 0.315) and rural residents (P = 0.230) after adjustment for confounding factors. Moreover, for urban residents participating physical activities, the odds of having MetS in the fourth quartiles (OR: 0.67; 95%CI: 0.52-0.87) was lower than that in the first quartile. In the sensitivity analysis, a significant reduction in the odds of having MetS was also found in the fourth quartiles (OR, 95%CI: 0.68, 0.51-0.90; 0.67, 0.49-0.91; 0.74, 0.56-0.99) compared with the first quartile when excluding smokers, alcohol users, and underweight/obesity, respectively. And there was no association between dietary fructose intake and the odds of having MetS after multivariate adjustment stratified by gender, smoking and alcohol use. CONCLUSIONS: Under the current dietary fructose intake status, there was no association between dietary fructose intake and the odds of having MetS among Chinese residents aged 45 and above. Physical activity and relatively low fructose intake may have a beneficial synergistic effect on MetS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Frutose , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
6.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Sep 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684383

RESUMO

Rapid postprandial blood glucose elevation can cause lifestyle-related diseases, such as type II diabetes. The absorption of food-derived glucose is primarily mediated by sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1). Moderate SGLT1 inhibition can help attenuate postprandial blood glucose elevation and prevent lifestyle-related diseases. In this study, we established a CHO cell line stably expressing human SGLT1 and examined the effects of phytochemicals on SGLT1 activity. Among the 50 phytochemicals assessed, tangeretin and cardamonin inhibited SGLT1 activity. Tangeretin and cardamonin did not affect the uptake of L-leucine, L-glutamate, and glycyl-sarcosine. Tangeretin, but not cardamonin, inhibited fructose uptake, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of tangeretin was specific to the monosaccharide transporter, whereas that of cardamonin was specific to SGLT1. Kinetic analysis suggested that the suppression of SGLT1 activity by tangeretin was associated with a reduction in Vmax and an increase in Km, whereas suppression by cardamonin was associated with a reduction in Vmax and no change in Km. Oral glucose tolerance tests in mice showed that tangeretin and cardamonin significantly suppressed the rapid increase in blood glucose levels. In conclusion, tangeretin and cardamonin were shown to inhibit SGLT1 activity in vitro and lower blood glucose level in vivo.


Assuntos
Glicemia/metabolismo , Chalconas/farmacologia , Flavonas/farmacologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/antagonistas & inibidores , Administração Oral , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Células CACO-2 , Chalconas/química , Cricetulus , Flavonas/química , Frutose/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Sarcosina/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Transportador 1 de Glucose-Sódio/metabolismo
7.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684516

RESUMO

The metabolic disorder caused by excessive fructose intake was reported extensively and often accompanied by intestinal barrier dysfunction. And the rising dietary fructose was consumed at an early age of human. However, related researches were almost conducted in rodent models, while in the anatomy and physiology of gastrointestinal tract, pig is more similar to human beings than rodents. Hence, weaned piglets were chosen as the model animals in our study to investigate the fructose's impacts on intestinal tight junction, inflammation response and microbiota structure of piglets. Herein, growth performance, inflammatory response, oxidation resistance and ileal and colonic microbiota of piglet were detected after 35-day fructose supplementation. Our results showed decreased tight junction gene expressions in piglets after fructose addition, with no obvious changes in the growth performance, antioxidant resistance and inflammatory response. Moreover, fructose supplementation differently modified the microbiota structures in ileum and colon. In ileum, the proportions of Streptococcus and Faecalibacterium were higher in Fru group (fructose supplementation). In colon, the proportions of Blautia and Clostridium sensu stricto 1 were higher in Fru group. All the results suggested that tight junction dysfunction might be an earlier fructose-induced event than inflammatory response and oxidant stress and that altered microbes in ileum and colon might be the potential candidates to alleviate fructose-induced intestinal permeability alteration.


Assuntos
Colite/induzido quimicamente , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Colo/efeitos dos fármacos , Íleo/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Suínos , Junções Íntimas/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684643

RESUMO

The metabolic syndrome (MetS), defined as the co-occurrence of disorders including obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and hepatic steatosis, has become increasingly prevalent in the world over recent decades. Dietary and other environmental factors interacting with genetic predisposition are likely contributors to this epidemic. Among the involved dietary factors, excessive fructose consumption may be a key contributor. When fructose is consumed in large amounts, it can quickly produce many of the features of MetS both in humans and mice. The mechanisms by which fructose contributes to metabolic disease and its potential interactions with genetic factors in these processes remain uncertain. Here, we generated a small F2 genetic cohort of male mice derived from crossing fructose-sensitive and -resistant mouse strains to investigate the interrelationships between fructose-induced metabolic phenotypes and to identify hepatic transcriptional pathways that associate with these phenotypes. Our analysis indicates that the hepatic transcriptional pathways associated with fructose-induced hypertriglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia are distinct from those that associate with fructose-mediated changes in body weight and liver triglyceride. These results suggest that multiple independent mechanisms and pathways may contribute to different aspects of fructose-induced metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Frutose/efeitos adversos , Hiperinsulinismo/complicações , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Fígado/metabolismo , Análise de Sistemas , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Haplótipos , Hiperinsulinismo/sangue , Hipertrigliceridemia/sangue , Insulina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C3H , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Fenótipo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
IET Nanobiotechnol ; 15(2): 149-156, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694703

RESUMO

The authors used mesoporous silica microspheres as a support for the immobilization of inulinase from Aspergillus brasiliensis MTCC 1344 by the process of cross-linking. Under optimized operating conditions of pH 6.0, particle/enzyme ratio of 2.0:1.0 and glutaraldehyde concentration of 7 mM, a maximum immobilization yield of 90.7% was obtained after a cross-linking time of 12.25 h. Subsequently, the cross-linked inulinase was utilized for the hydrolysis of 5% inulin, and a maximum fructose concentration of 31.7 g/L was achieved under the optimum conditions of pH 6.0 and temperature 60°C in 3 h. Furthermore, on performing reusability studies during inulin hydrolysis, it was observed that the immobilized inulinase could be reused up to 10 subsequent cycles of hydrolysis, thus providing a facile and commercially attractive process of high-fructose syrup production.


Assuntos
Frutose , Inulina , Aspergillus , Enzimas Imobilizadas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise
10.
Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf ; 20(6): 6012-6026, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34668314

RESUMO

D-allulose is the C-3 epimer of D-fructose, which rarely exists in nature, and can be biosynthesized from D-fructose by the catalysis of D-psicose 3-epimerase. D-allulose is safe for human consumption and was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration for food applications. It is not only able be used in food and dietary supplements as a low-calorie sweetener, but also modulates a variety of physiological functions. D-allulose has gained increasing attention owing to its excellent properties. This article presents a review of recent progress on the properties, applications, and bioproduction progress of D-allulose.


Assuntos
Frutose , Racemases e Epimerases , Catálise , Humanos , Edulcorantes , Estados Unidos
11.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between high fructose consumption and elevated blood pressure continues to be controversial, especially in adolescence. The aim of this study was to assess the association between fructose consumption and elevated blood pressure in an European adolescent population. METHODS: A total of 1733 adolescents (mean ± SD age: 14.7 ± 1.2; percentage of girls: 52.8%) were analysed from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study in eight European countries. Blood pressure was measured using validated devices and methods for measuring systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). Dietary data were recorded via repeated 24 h recalls (using specifically developed HELENA-DIAT software) and converted into pure fructose (monosaccharide form) and total fructose exposure (pure fructose + fructose from sucrose) intake using a specific fructose composition database. Food categories were separated at posteriori in natural vs. were non-natural foods. Elevated BP was defined according to the 90th percentile cut-off values and was compared according to tertiles of fructose intake using univariable and multivariable mixed logistic regression models taking into account confounding factors: centre, sex, age and z-score-BMI, MVPA (Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity) duration, tobacco consumption, salt intake and energy intake. RESULTS: Pure fructose from non-natural foods was only associated with elevated DBP (DBP above the 10th percentile in the highest consuming girls (OR = 2.27 (1.17-4.40); p = 0.015) after adjustment for cofounding factors. CONCLUSIONS: Consuming high quantities of non-natural foods was associated with elevated DBP in adolescent girls, which was in part due to high fructose levels in these foods categories. The consumption of natural foods containing fructose, such as whole fruits, does not impact blood pressure and should continue to remain a healthy dietary habit.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Diástole/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Diástole/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos
12.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641276

RESUMO

The incorporation of prebiotics in fermented milk products is one of the best ways to promote health benefits while improving their sensory characteristics at the same time. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of the addition of fructose and oligofructose (1% and 2%) on the physicochemical, rheological, sensory, and microbiological quality attributes of fermented milk products inoculated with indigenous probiotic starter cultures of Lactobacillus isolated from Polish traditional fermented foods. The samples were evaluated during 35 days of refrigerated storage. The oligofructose and fructose caused increases in the populations of bacteria in comparison to the control fermented milk products without the addition of saccharides. The degrees of acidification in different fermented milk samples, as well as their viscosity, firmness, syneresis, and color attributes, changed during storage. The highest overall sensory quality levels were observed for the samples supplemented with L. brevis B1 and oligofructose. This study is the first attempt to compare the influences of different sugar sources on the physicochemical, rheological, sensory, and microbiological quality attributes of fermented milk products.


Assuntos
Frutose/química , Lactobacillus/fisiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Oligossacarídeos/química , Iogurte/análise , Animais , Produtos Fermentados do Leite/análise , Fermentação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Leite/química , Iogurte/microbiologia
13.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684668

RESUMO

The role of fructose in the global obesity and metabolic syndrome epidemic is widely recognized. However, its consumption is allowed during pregnancy. We have previously demonstrated that maternal fructose intake in rats induces detrimental effects in fetuses. However, these effects only appeared in adult descendants after a re-exposure to fructose. Pregnancy is a physiological state that leads to profound changes in metabolism and hormone response. Therefore, we wanted to establish if pregnancy in the progeny of fructose-fed mothers was also able to provoke an unhealthy situation. Pregnant rats from fructose-fed mothers (10% w/v) subjected (FF) or not (FC) to a fructose supplementation were studied and compared to pregnant control rats (CC). An OGTT was performed on the 20th day of gestation, and they were sacrificed on the 21st day. Plasma and tissues from mothers and fetuses were analyzed. Although FF mothers showed higher AUC insulin values after OGTT in comparison to FC and CC rats, ISI was lower and leptinemia was higher in FC and FF rats than in the CC group. Accordingly, lipid accretion was observed both in liver and placenta in the FC and FF groups. Interestingly, fetuses from FC and FF mothers also showed the same profile observed in their mothers on lipid accumulation, leptinemia, and ISI. Moreover, hepatic lipid peroxidation was even more augmented in fetuses from FC dams than those of FF mothers. Maternal fructose intake produces in female progeny changes that alter their own pregnancy, leading to deleterious effects in their fetuses.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar , Feto/patologia , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Animais , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Insulina/metabolismo , Leptina/metabolismo , Lipídeos/análise , Fígado/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Placenta/metabolismo , Gravidez , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
14.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684889

RESUMO

Fengycin, as a lipopeptide produced by Bacillus subtilis, displays potent activity against filamentous fungi, including Aspergillus flavus and Soft-rot fungus, which exhibits a wide range of potential applications in food industries, agriculture, and medicine. To better clarify the regulatory mechanism of fructose on fengycin biosynthesis, the iTRAQ-based proteomic analysis was utilized to investigate the differentially expressed proteins of B. amyloliquefaciens fmb-60 cultivated in ML (without fructose) and MLF (with fructose) medium. The results indicated that a total of 811 proteins, including 248 proteins with differential expression levels (162 which were upregulated (fold > 2) and 86, which were downregulated (fold < 0.5) were detected, and most of the proteins are associated with cellular metabolism, biosynthesis, and biological regulation process. Moreover, the target genes' relative expression was conducted using quantitative real-time PCR to validate the proteomic analysis results. Based on the results of proteome analysis, the supposed pathways of fructose enhancing fengycin biosynthesis in B. amyloliquefaciens fmb-60 can be summarized as improvement of the metabolic process, including cellular amino acid and amide, fatty acid biosynthesis, peptide and protein, nucleotide and nucleobase-containing compound, drug/toxin, cofactor, and vitamin; reinforcement of peptide/protein translation, modification, biological process, and response to a stimulus. In conclusion, this study represents a comprehensive and systematic investigation of the fructose mechanism on improving fengycin biosynthesis in B. amyloliquefaciens, which will provide a road map to facilitate the potential application of fengycin or its homolog in defending against filamentous fungi.


Assuntos
Bacillus amyloliquefaciens/metabolismo , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Lipopeptídeos/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos
15.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: d-Allulose is a rare sugar with antiobesity and antidiabetic activities. However, its direct effect on insulin sensitivity and the underlying mechanism involved are unknown. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of d-allulose on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic (HE)-clamp method and intramuscular signaling analysis. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups: chow diet, HFD with 5% cellulose (HFC), and HFD with 5% d-allulose (HFA). After four weeks of feeding, the insulin tolerance test (ITT), intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT), and HE-clamp study were performed. The levels of plasma leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were measured using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We analyzed the levels of cell signaling pathway components in the skeletal muscle using Western blotting. RESULTS: d-allulose alleviated the increase in HFD-induced body weight and visceral fat and reduced the area under the curve as per ITT and IPGTT. d-Allulose increased the glucose infusion rate in the two-step HE-clamp test. Consistently, the insulin-induced phosphorylation of serine 307 in the insulin receptor substrate-1 and Akt and expression of glucose transporter 4 (Glut-4) in the muscle were higher in the HFA group than HFC group. Furthermore, d-allulose decreased plasma TNF-α concentration and insulin-induced phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinase/Jun N-terminal kinase in the muscle and inhibited adiponectin secretion in HFD-fed rats. CONCLUSIONS: d-allulose improved HFD-induced insulin resistance in Wistar rats. The reduction of the proinflammatory cytokine production, amelioration of adiponectin secretion, and increase in insulin signaling and Glut-4 expression in the muscle contributed to this effect.


Assuntos
Frutose/farmacologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Glucose/metabolismo , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose/métodos , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Inflamação/metabolismo , Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Fosforilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 59(12): 784-786, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34622772

RESUMO

A 35-year-old man with generalized insults was admitted to the intensive care unit because of third-line treatment of persistent epileptic insults with antiepileptic drug therapy. Topiramate was added on top of his outpatient regimen in combination with intravenous antiepileptic drugs. Miscommunication and inappropriate topiramate dosing (2,500 mg twice) resulted in an acute topiramate intoxication. Toxicokinetic assessment showed toxic serum topiramate concentration of 55 mg/L and a dose-dependent shift of peak time tmax. According to our modulations, tmax follows Y = 0.0009X + 2.65, where X is the topiramate dose. Our results have important implications for effectiveness of gut decontamination modalities.


Assuntos
Anticonvulsivantes , Frutose , Adulto , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Doença Iatrogênica , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Topiramato
17.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(39): 11637-11645, 2021 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569239

RESUMO

d-Allulose is an attractive noncaloric sugar substitute with numerous health benefits, which can be biosynthesized by d-allulose 3-epimerases (DAEases). However, enzyme instability under harsh industrial reaction conditions hampered its practical applications. Here, we developed a continuous spectrophotometric assay (CSA) for the efficient analysis of d-allulose in a mixture. Furthermore, a high-throughput screening strategy for DAEases was developed using CSA by coupling DAEase with a NADH-dependent ribitol dehydrogenase, enabling high-throughput screening of DAEase variants with desired properties. The variant M15S/P40N/S209N exhibited a half-life of 22 h at 60 °C and an 8.7 °C increase of the T5060 value, with a 1.2-fold increase of activity. Structural modeling and molecular dynamics simulations indicated that the improvement of thermostability and activity was due to some new hydrogen bonds between chains at the dimer interface and between the residue and the substrate d-fructose. This work offers a robust tool and theoretical basis for the improvement of DAEases, which will benefit the enzymatic biosynthesis of d-allulose and promote its industrial application.


Assuntos
Ensaios de Triagem em Larga Escala , Racemases e Epimerases , Carboidratos Epimerases/metabolismo , Frutose , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética
18.
J Food Biochem ; 45(10): e13917, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34510490

RESUMO

A continuous high-fat/high-fructose diet induces inflammation and lowers vascular endothelial function in the body. This research examined the effects of black raspberry (BR) powder consumption on the inflammatory response and endothelial dysfunction in rats fed with a high-fat diet and fructose solution. Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups as control (AIN-93G diet + distilled water) and HFF (high-fat diet + 20% fructose solution) groups, for 16 weeks. At 8 weeks, the HFF was further divided into three subgroups: HFF, HFFBR2.5 (2.5% BR in high-fat diet), and HFFBR5 (5% BR in high-fat diet). The BR-fed groups showed significantly higher high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower triglycerides than the HFF group. Rats supplemented with BR showed decreased mRNA and protein expressions of inflammatory cytokines and adhesion molecules in the liver and aorta tissues. Furthermore, the aortic protein expression of endothelial nitroxide synthase was significantly greater in the HFFBR2.5 and HFFBR5 than HFF. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Black raspberry (BR: Rubus occidentalis) is abundant in flavonoids and anthocyanins. BR displays various biological activities and has been used to alleviate inflammatory conditions. In our study, BR supplementation showed promising effects against high-fat/high-fructose diet-induced inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in rats by decreasing markers of inflammation and improving vascular endothelial function. These findings suggest that BR consumption could have beneficial effects on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Rubus , Animais , Antocianinas , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(17)2021 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502217

RESUMO

The development of efficient bioprocesses requires inexpensive and renewable substrates. Molasses, a by-product of the sugar industry, contains mostly sucrose, a disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose, both easily absorbed by microorganisms. Yarrowia lipolytica, a platform for the production of various chemicals, can be engineered for sucrose utilization by heterologous invertase expression, yet the problem of preferential use of glucose over fructose remains, as fructose consumption begins only after glucose depletion what significantly extends the bioprocesses. We investigated the role of hexose transporters and hexokinase (native and fructophilic) in this preference. Analysis of growth profiles and kinetics of monosaccharide utilization has proven that the glucose preference in Y. lipolytica depends primarily on the affinity of native hexokinase for glucose. Interestingly, combined overexpression of either hexokinase with hexose transporters significantly accelerated citric acid biosynthesis and enhanced pentose phosphate pathway leading to secretion of polyols (31.5 g/L vs. no polyols in the control strain). So far, polyol biosynthesis was efficient in glycerol-containing media. Moreover, overexpression of fructophilic hexokinase in combination with hexose transporters not only shortened this process to 48 h (84 h for the medium with glycerol) but also allowed to obtain 23% more polyols (40 g/L) compared to the glycerol medium (32.5 g/L).


Assuntos
Frutose/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Hexoquinase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/metabolismo , Yarrowia/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Melaço , Yarrowia/enzimologia
20.
Talanta ; 235: 122730, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517598

RESUMO

The enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) is an emerging biomarker of drug-induced liver injury (DILI). This paper introduces determination of SDH in microliter samples of human serum at commercial glucose test strips. The determination relies on the oxidation of NADH cofactor, which is used by SDH reacting with its substrates. The strips could detect NADH down to 5.0 µM (5 pmol), which was two orders of magnitude better than the prior relevant limit of detection. The concentration of cofactors (NADH, NAD+) and substrates (fructose, sorbitol) for SDH determination at a strip was optimized via internally-calibrated amperometric assays at a chitosan/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotube electrode. Such an electrode provided reliable assay data for over 3 months with no need for its reactivation. The assays yielded kinetic parameters Km and kcat and demonstrated higher apparent affinity of SDH for NADH and fructose than NAD+ and sorbitol. The glucose strips detected SDH down to 98 pM (98 amol) in buffers and 200 pM (200 amol) in human serum after 20-min incubation with an optimized (c ≥ 10Km) mixture of cofactor + substrate. The charge ΔQ flowing through a strip was linear (R2, 0.994) up to 6.0 nM SDH, which covered enzyme's clinical range. The ΔQ was selective for SDH, independent of sample matrix, and free of interferences from indigenous glucose. The use of glucose strip as an electrolytic microcell to detect picomoles of NADH and attomoles of SDH is a step toward a point-of-care monitoring of DILI.


Assuntos
L-Iditol 2-Desidrogenase , Sorbitol , Frutose , Glucose , Humanos , Cinética , L-Iditol 2-Desidrogenase/metabolismo , NAD
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