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1.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445050

RESUMO

Fructose malabsorption is regarded as one of the most common types of sugar intolerance. However, the correlation between gastrointestinal symptoms and positive results in fructose hydrogen breath tests (HBTs) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the clinical importance of positive fructose HBT by correlating the HBT results with clinical features in children with various gastrointestinal symptoms. Clinical features and fructose HBT results were obtained from 323 consecutive children (2-18 years old, mean 10.7 ± 4.3 years) that were referred to the Tertiary Paediatric Gastroenterology Centre and diagnosed as having functional gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 114 out of 323 children (35.3%) had positive HBT results, of which 61 patients were females (53.5%) and 53 were males (46.5%). Children with positive HBT were significantly younger than children with negative HBT (9.0 vs. 11.6 years old; p < 0.001). The most frequent symptom among children with fructose malabsorption was recurrent abdominal pain (89.5%). Other important symptoms were diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, and flatulence. However, no correlation between positive fructose HBT results and any of the reported symptoms or general clinical features was found. In conclusion, positive fructose HBT in children with functional gastrointestinal disorders can be attributed to their younger age but not to some peculiar clinical feature of the disease.


Assuntos
Testes Respiratórios , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Hidrogênio/análise , Absorção Intestinal , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Síndromes de Malabsorção/complicações , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Feminino , Frutose/metabolismo , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/metabolismo , Hospitalização , Humanos , Síndromes de Malabsorção/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Malabsorção/metabolismo , Masculino , Polônia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The consumption of sweetened beverages is associated with increased risk of metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that the metabolic effects of fructose in sugary beverages might be modulated by the speed of ingestion in addition to the overall amount. DESIGN: Thirty healthy subjects free of any disease and medication were recruited into two groups. After overnight fasting, subjects in group 1 drank 500 mL of apple juice over an hour by drinking 125 mL every 15 min, while subjects in group 2 drank 500 mL of apple juice over 5 min. Blood samples were collected at time zero and 15, 30, 60, and 120 min after ingestion to be analyzed for serum glucose, insulin, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) score, fibroblast growth factor 21, copeptin, osmolarity, sodium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), lactate, uric acid, and phosphate levels. RESULTS: Serum glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, fibroblast growth factor 21, copeptin, osmolarity, sodium, BUN, and lactate levels increased following apple juice ingestion. The increases were greater in the fast-drinking group, which were more significant after 15 min and 30 min compared to baseline. The changes in uric acid were not statistically different between the groups. Phosphate levels significantly increased only in the fast-drinking group. CONCLUSION: Fast ingestion of 100% apple juice causes a significantly greater metabolic response, which may be associated with negative long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that the rate of ingestion must be considered when evaluating the metabolic impacts of sweetened beverage consumption.


Assuntos
Ingestão de Alimentos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Bebidas Adoçadas com Açúcar/efeitos adversos , Açúcares/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Glicemia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Fatores de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais , Glucose , Glicopeptídeos , Humanos , Insulina , Masculino , Malus , Concentração Osmolar , Precursores de Proteínas/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34281257

RESUMO

The modern lifestyle brings both excessive fructose consumption and daily exposure to stress which could lead to metabolic disturbances and type 2 diabetes. Muscles are important points of glucose and lipid metabolism, with a crucial role in the maintenance of systemic energy homeostasis. We investigated whether 9-week fructose-enriched diet, with and without exposure to 4-week unpredictable stress, disturbs insulin signaling in the skeletal muscle of male rats and evaluated potential contributory roles of muscle lipid metabolism, glucocorticoid signaling and inflammation. The combination of fructose-enriched diet and stress increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-α and -δ and stimulated lipid uptake, lipolysis and ß-oxidation in the muscle of fructose-fed stressed rats. Combination of treatment also decreased systemic insulin sensitivity judged by lower R-QUICKI, and lowered muscle protein content and stimulatory phosphorylations of insulin receptor supstrate-1 and Akt, as well as the level of 11ß-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 and glucocorticoid receptor. At the same time, increased levels of protein tyrosine phosphatase-1B, nuclear factor-κB, tumor necrosis factor-α, were observed in the muscle of fructose-fed stressed rats. Based on these results, we propose that decreased glucocorticoid signaling in the skeletal muscle can make a setting for lipid-induced inflammation and the development of insulin resistance in fructose-fed stressed rats.


Assuntos
Frutose/administração & dosagem , Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Animais , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Biológicos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Receptores de Glucocorticoides/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
4.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210097

RESUMO

Obesity and hyperlipidemia are metabolic dysregulations that arise from poor lifestyle and unhealthy dietary intakes. These co-morbidity conditions are risk factors for vascular diseases. Piper sarmentosum (PS) is a nutritious plant that has been shown to pose various phytochemicals and pharmacological actions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of PS on obesity and hyperlipidemia in an animal model. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five experimental groups. The groups were as follows: UG-Untreated group; CTRL-control; FDW-olive oil + 20% fructose; FDW-PS-PS (125 mg/kg) + 20% fructose; FDW-NGN-naringin (100 mg/kg) + 20% fructose. Fructose drinking water was administered daily for 12 weeks ad libitum to induce metabolic abnormality. Treatment was administered at week 8 for four weeks via oral gavage. The rats were sacrificed with anesthesia at the end of the experimental period. Blood, liver, and visceral fat were collected for further analysis. The consumption of 20% fructose water by Wistar rats for eight weeks displayed a tremendous increment in body weight, fat mass, percentage fat, LDL, TG, TC, HMG-CoA reductase, leptin, and reduced the levels of HDL and adiponectin as well as adipocyte hypertrophy. Following the treatment period, FDW-PS and FDW-NGN showed a significant reduction in body weight, fat mass, percentage fat, LDL, TG, TC, HMG-CoA reductase, and leptin with an increment in the levels of HDL and adiponectin compared to the FDW group. FDW-PS and FDW-NGN also showed adipocyte hypotrophy compared to the FDW group. In conclusion, oral administration of 125 mg/kg PS methanolic extract to fructose-induced obese rats led to significant amelioration of obesity and hyperlipidemia through suppressing the adipocytes and inhibiting HMG-CoA reductase. PS has the potential to be used as an alternative or adjunct therapy for obesity and hyperlipidemia.


Assuntos
Frutose/efeitos adversos , Hiperlipidemias , Síndrome Metabólica , Metanol/química , Obesidade , Piper/química , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Frutose/farmacologia , Hiperlipidemias/induzido quimicamente , Hiperlipidemias/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperlipidemias/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Metabólica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Obesidade/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
5.
Phytomedicine ; 91: 153643, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34325092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atractylodis rhizoma, an aromatic herb for resolving dampness, is used to treat Kidney-related edema in traditional Chinese medicine for thousands years. This herb possesses antioxidant effect. However, it is not yet clear how Atractylodis rhizoma prevents glomerular injury through its anti-oxidation. PURPOSE: Based the analysis of Atractylodis rhizoma water extract (ARE) components and network pharmacology, this study was to explore whether ARE prevented glomerular injury via its anti-oxidation to inhibit oxidative stress-driven transient receptor potential channel 6 (TRPC6) and its downstream molecule calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV (CaMK4) signaling. METHODS: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to analyze ARE components. Network pharmacology analysis was preliminarily performed. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given 10% fructose drinking water (100 mL/d) for 16 weeks. ARE at 720 and 1090 mg/kg was orally administered to rats for the last 8 weeks. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in rat kidney cortex were detected, respectively. In rat glomeruli, redox-related factors forkhead box O3 (FoxO3), SOD2 and catalase (CAT), podocyte slit diaphragm proteins podocin and nephrin, cytoskeleton proteins CD2-associated protein (CD2AP) and α-Actinin-4, as well as TRPC6, p-CaMK4 and synaptopodin protein levels were analyzed by Western Blotting. SOD2 and CAT mRNA levels were detected by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: 36 components were identified in ARE. Among them, network pharmacology analysis indicated that ARE might inhibit kidney oxidative stress. Accordingly, ARE up-regulated nuclear FoxO3 expression, and then increased SOD2 and CAT at mRNA and protein levels in glomeruli of fructose-fed rats. It reduced H2O2 and MDA levels, and increased SOD activity in renal cortex of fructose-fed rats. Subsequently, ARE down-regulated TRPC6 and p-CaMK4, and up-regulated synaptopodin in glomeruli of fructose-fed rats. Furthermore, ARE increased podocin and nephrin, as well as CD2AP and α-Actinin-4, being consistent with its reduction of urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and improvement of glomerular structure injury in this animal model. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that ARE may prevent glomerular injury in fructose-fed rats possibly by reducing oxidative stress to inhibit TRPC6/p-CaMK4 signaling and up-regulate synaptopodin expression. Therefore, ARE may be a promising drug for treating high fructose-induced glomerular injury in clinic.


Assuntos
Atractylodes , Proteína Quinase Tipo 4 Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Canais de Cátion TRPC/metabolismo , Animais , Atractylodes/química , Cromatografia Líquida , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Nefropatias/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Oxirredução , Estresse Oxidativo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Rizoma/química , Transdução de Sinais , Canal de Cátion TRPC6 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
6.
Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol ; 321(2): G232-G242, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133236

RESUMO

The Western diet has been suggested to contribute to the rising incidence of inflammatory bowel diseases. This has led to the hypothesis that fructose, a component of the Western diet, could play a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. A high-fructose diet is known to exacerbate experimental colitis. This study tested whether the expression of GLUT5, the fructose transporter, is a determinant of the severity of experimental colitis during elevated fructose consumption and whether ileal inflammation is associated with altered GLUT5 expression in Crohn's disease. Studies in genetically engineered mice showed that in comparison to Glut5+/+ mice, feeding a 15 kcal% fructose diet to Glut5-/- mice led to worse dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. This effect was associated with elevated levels of colonic fructose and a shift in the fecal microbiota in Glut5-/- mice. Importantly, treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics protected against the worsening of colitis mediated by dietary fructose in Glut5-/- mice. Gene expression analysis revealed that GLUT5 levels are reduced in the intestines of patients with ileal Crohn's disease. Moreover, levels of GLUT5 negatively correlated with expression of proinflammatory mediators in these samples. Collectively, these results demonstrate that dietary constituent (fructose)-host gene (GLUT5) interactions can shape the colonic microbiota, thereby impacting the severity of colitis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY This study provides the first evidence that reduced levels of GLUT5, the fructose transporter, worsen experimental colitis upon fructose feeding, an effect mediated by changes in the gut microbiota. Moreover, GLUT5 expression is reduced in Crohn's ileitis. Overall, these findings demonstrate the importance of interactions between dietary fructose and host GLUT5 as determinants of both the composition of colonic microbiota and severity of experimental colitis.


Assuntos
Colite Ulcerativa/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Frutose/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 5/metabolismo , Animais , Colite Ulcerativa/etiologia , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/metabolismo , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 5/genética , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dodecilsulfato de Sódio/toxicidade
7.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr ; 73(1): 99-102, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34135298

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of high fructose diet on ultrastructure and content of hepatic mitochondria, we randomized 6-8 weeks old male C57Bl6/J mice to ad lib chow or high-fat-high-fructose (HF2) diet for 32 weeks. HF2-fed mice gained more weight, had higher plasma alanine aminotransferase, and fasting glucose levels and increased hepatic triglyceride content at all time points compared to chow-fed mice. HF2-fed mice had lower mitochondrial to nuclear DNA ratio compared to chow-fed mice. HF2-fed mice had lower average mitochondrial surface area and the number of mitochondria compared to chow-fed mice. HF2-fed mice had higher expression of the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress marker Chop, compared to chow-fed mice. A diet high in fat and fructose leads to enhanced hepatic mitochondrial aging, depletion, and dysfunction, which may be important determinants of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Frutose , Fígado , Envelhecimento , Animais , Dieta , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Mitocôndrias
8.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 30(6): 728-731, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34102791

RESUMO

Sulphamate drugs, widely prescribed for various systemic conditions, are reported to have rare ocular adverse-effects, usually within weeks of initiation of treatment. Medical and drug history in such cases are of pivotal importance in reaching a proper diagnosis. This study reports three cases, which developed topiramate-induced ocular side effects. In one of the cases, although the angles were narrow in both eyes, yet intra-ocular pressure (IOP) was not high. Also, in the third case, there were no macular striae. Topiramate was immediately withheld and all cases were improved without any permanent ocular damage. Key Words: Sulphamate, Topiramate, Angle closure glaucoma, Myopia.


Assuntos
Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado , Miopia , Anticonvulsivantes/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/induzido quimicamente , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/diagnóstico , Humanos , Pressão Intraocular , Miopia/induzido quimicamente , Topiramato/efeitos adversos
9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 225: 108762, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049101

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In an initial study, we reported that topiramate reduced heavy drinking among individuals who sought to reduce their drinking and that the effect was moderated by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; rs2832407) in GRIK1, which encodes the kainate GluK1 receptor subunit (Kranzler et al., 2014). In a subsequent study that prospectively randomized patients to medication group based on their rs2832407 genotype, we replicated the main effect of topiramate but not the moderating effect of the SNP (Kranzler et al., 2021). Given the similar design of the two studies, here we combined the findings to provide greater statistical power to test the pharmacogenetic effect. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This secondary analysis of two 12-week, randomized controlled trials of topiramate included a total of 292 European-ancestry individuals (67.1 % male; topiramate: 48.3 %, placebo: 51.7 %) with problematic alcohol use. Using MANOVA, we examined changes in self-reported alcohol consumption, problems resulting from alcohol use, and quality of life, and the biomarker γ-glutamyltransferase. To test the pharmacogenetic hypothesis, all patients were genotyped for rs2832407. RESULTS: There was a significant overall effect of topiramate on the alcohol-related outcomes (partial η2 = 0.134, p < 0.001), with follow-up analyses showing significant reductions in percent heavy drinking days (Cohen's d = 0.49), percent days abstinent (d = 0.23), drinks/day (d = 0.29) and alcohol-related problems (d = 0.45). Overall, the moderating effect of the SNP was non-significant (partial η² = 0.026, p = 0.37). CONCLUSIONS: Although topiramate is an efficacious medication for reducing drinking and alcohol-related problems among patients with problematic alcohol use, rs2832407 does not appear to moderate its therapeutic effects. www.clinicaltrials.gov registrations: NCT00626925 and NCT02371889.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/genética , Feminino , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Qualidade de Vida , Topiramato/uso terapêutico
10.
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab ; 320(6): E1173-E1182, 2021 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969706

RESUMO

Retinopathy is a leading cause of blindness, and there is currently no cure. Earlier identification of the progression of retinopathy could provide a better chance for intervention. Diet has profound effects on retinal function. A maternal high-fructose diet (HFD) triggers diseases in multiple organs. However, whether maternal HFD impairs retinal function in adult offspring is currently unknown. By using the rodent model of maternal HFD during pregnancy and lactation, our data indicated a reduced b-wave of electroretinography (ERG) in HFD female offspring at 3 mo of age compared with age-matched offspring of dams fed regular chow (ND). Immunofluorescence and Western blot analyses indicated that the distributions and expressions of synaptophysin, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), and phospho(p)-Ca2+/calmodulin-stimulated protein kinase IIα (CaMKIIα) were significantly suppressed in the HFD group. Furthermore, the ATP content and the mitochondrial respiratory protein, Mt CPX 4-2, were decreased. Moreover, the expressions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1-α (PGC-1α) and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM) in the retina of the HFD group were downregulated. Treatment with coenzyme Q10 (Q10), a key mediator of the electron transport chain, effectively reversed these abovementioned dysfunctions. Together, these results suggested that maternal HFD impaired retinal function in adult female offspring. The mechanism underlying early-onset retinopathy may involve the reduction in the capacity of mitochondrial energy production and the suppression of synaptic plasticity. Most importantly, mitochondria could be a feasible target to reprogram maternal HFD-damaged retinal function.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we provide novel evidence that maternal high-fructose diet during gestation and lactation could induce early-onset retinopathy in adult female offspring. Of note, the insufficient energy content, downregulated mitochondrial respiratory complex 4-2, and impaired mitochondrial biogenesis might contribute to the decrease of synaptic plasticity resulting in retinal function suppression. Oral application with coenzyme Q10 for 4 wk could at least partially reverse the aforementioned molecular events and retinal function.


Assuntos
Frutose/efeitos adversos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Plasticidade Neuronal/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal , Doenças Retinianas/induzido quimicamente , Fatores Etários , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Carboidratos da Dieta/farmacologia , Regulação para Baixo/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Frutose/farmacologia , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Mitocôndrias/fisiologia , Biogênese de Organelas , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/psicologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Doenças Retinianas/fisiopatologia
11.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2021: 5543025, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976753

RESUMO

The benefits of walnut (Juglans regia) consumption for metabolic health are known, but the molecular background underlying their putative antioxidant and anti-inflammatory/immunomodulatory effects is underexplored. We assessed that walnut supplementation (6 weeks) reverted unfavorable changes of the SIRT1/FoxO3a/MnSOD/catalase axis in the heart induced by fructose-rich diet (FRD). Intriguingly, Nox4 was increased by both FRD and walnut supplementation. FRD increased the cytosolic fraction and decreased the nuclear fraction of the uniquely elucidated ChREBP in the heart. The ChREBP nuclear fraction was decreased in control rats subjected to walnuts. In addition, walnut consumption was associated with a reduction in systolic BP in FRD and a decrease in fatty acid AA/EPA and AA/DHA ratios in plasma. In summary, the protective effect of walnut supplementation was detected in male rats following the fructose-induced decrease in antioxidative/anti-inflammatory capacity of cardiac tissue and increase in plasma predictors of low-grade inflammation. The current results provide a novel insight into the relationship between nutrients, cellular energy homeostasis, and the modulators of inflammatory/immune response in metabolic syndrome, emphasizing the heart and highlighting a track for translation into nutrition and dietary therapeutic approaches against metabolic disease.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Juglans/química , Sirtuína 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios , Humanos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
12.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 134(11): 1276-1285, 2021 May 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010200

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Excessive consumption of fructose, the sweetest of all naturally occurring carbohydrates, has been linked to worldwide epidemics of metabolic diseases in humans, and it is considered an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We provide an overview about the features of fructose metabolism, as well as potential mechanisms by which excessive fructose intake is associated with the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases both in humans and rodents. To accomplish this aim, we focus on illuminating the cellular and molecular mechanisms of fructose metabolism as well as its signaling effects on metabolic and cardiovascular homeostasis in health and disease, highlighting the role of carbohydrate-responsive element-binding protein in regulating fructose metabolism.


Assuntos
Frutose , Doenças Metabólicas , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Homeostase , Humanos , Doenças Metabólicas/etiologia
13.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 18(1): 40, 2021 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34044858

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate (CHO) ingestion enhances exercise performance; however, the efficacy of CHO intake on repeated bouts of exercise simulating a taekwondo tournament is unknown. Therefore, the purpose was to compare the effects of two different doses of CHO on a sports-specific kicking test during a simulated taekwondo tournament compared to placebo (PLA). METHODS: In a double-blind, randomized-placebo controlled, cross-over trial, eleven junior male professional taekwondo athletes (age: 16 ± 0.8 years, body mass: 55.3 ± 7.3 kg) ingested one of three solutions: (i) high dose (C45): 45 g of CHO (60 g∙h- 1), (ii) low dose (C22.5): 22.5 g of CHO (30 g∙h- 1; both solutions containing 2:1 glucose:fructose), or a PLA immediately following each kicking test. The kicking test was repeated 5 times, separated by 45 mins of rest, simulating a typical taekwondo competition day. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and gastrointestinal discomfort (GI) scores were collected immediately after, and blood glucose before each test. RESULTS: The results revealed that C45 and C22.5 did not improve total, successful, or percentage of successful kicks compared to PLA (p > 0.05). Blood glucose was significantly higher following both CHO conditions compared with PLA across all five tests (p < 0.05). There were no differences between treatments or across tests for RPE (p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: CHO intake, independent of the dose, did not alter taekwondo kick performance during a simulated taekwondo tournament.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Sacarose na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Artes Marciais/fisiologia , Adolescente , Bebidas , Glicemia/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Sacarose na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Azia/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção/fisiologia , Esforço Físico/fisiologia
14.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 177: 108793, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33951480

RESUMO

First-degree relatives of diabetes patients, despite being euglycemic, presented impaired BRS and exacerbation of sympathetic modulation after ingestion of a high fructose drink when challenged to orthostatic stress. This finding alerts the importance of early autonomic dysfunction even in clinically healthy people, especially in face of a stressful situation.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus , Ingestão de Alimentos , Barorreflexo , Pressão Sanguínea , Diabetes Mellitus/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus/genética , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Reflexo
15.
Nutrients ; 13(4)2021 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33923525

RESUMO

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the result of hepatic fat overload not due to alcohol consumption and potentially evolving to advanced fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Fructose is a naturally occurring simple sugar widely used in food industry linked to glucose to form sucrose, largely contained in hypercaloric food and beverages. An increasing amount of evidence in scientific literature highlighted a detrimental effect of dietary fructose consumption on metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, obesity, hepatic steatosis, and NAFLD-related fibrosis as well. An excessive fructose consumption has been associated with NAFLD development and progression to more clinically severe phenotypes by exerting various toxic effects, including increased fatty acid production, oxidative stress, and worsening insulin resistance. Furthermore, some studies in this context demonstrated even a crucial role in liver cancer progression. Despite this compelling evidence, the molecular mechanisms by which fructose elicits those effects on liver metabolism remain unclear. Emerging data suggest that dietary fructose may directly alter the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, including those that increase hepatic fat accumulation or reduce hepatic fat removal. This review aimed to summarize the current understanding of fructose metabolism on NAFLD pathogenesis and progression.


Assuntos
Dieta/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Fígado/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Animais , Progressão da Doença , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenótipo
16.
J Food Biochem ; 45(4): e13671, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33694197

RESUMO

In the present study, we associated a high-fat diet (HF group: 45% kcal from lipids) or very high-fat (VHF group: 60% kcal from lipids) diet with a fructose drink (10% fructose) for hydration. Normal rat chow that received the control diet (content 16.3% kcal from lipid-AIN93G) and water. The treatments were introduced soon after weaning and were administered for 70 days. We aimed to compare HF and VHF groups and find which acts as a better model mimicking human obesity. Body mass gain, final body weight, adipocyte area in inguinal depots, visceral and subcutaneous adipose depots, serum triacylglycerol, and VLDL-c were all higher in the HF group, followed by the VHF group, compared to the C group. Only the HF group showed hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia and higher total caloric intake, Lee index, HOMA2-IR, and total cholesterol. Serum TNF-α and IL-6 levels were lower in the HF and VHF groups than in the C group at the end for 70 days. In Summary, the HF (45%) diet administered with fructose induced a higher similarity of metabolic and hormonal alterations associated with human obesity. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: High intake of lipids with sugary drinks has been associated with obesity and its comorbidities. Although a diet with 45% or 60% of lipids is considered hyperlipidic, they are different in their effects on eating behavior and also probably from a metabolic point of view. Common sense is that the reduction in intake of lipids is favorable to health. Our study shows that this is not wholly true, and this information contributes to the guidelines for the treatment of obesity. In addition, the scientific literature on the subject has shown the most diverse results and also the use of experimental models with few similarities with human obesity. Our findings can contribute as a good model of obesity initiated during childhood to investigate possible using nutritional strategies, or the adoption of ergogenic nutritional resources in future studies, for example.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica , Frutose , Animais , Peso Corporal , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Obesidade/etiologia , Ratos , Desmame
17.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673227

RESUMO

The use of translationally relevant animal models is essential, also within the field of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Compared to frequently used mouse and rat models, the hamster may provide a higher degree of physiological similarity to humans in terms of lipid profile and lipoprotein metabolism. However, the effects in hamsters after long-term exposure to a NASH diet are not known. Male Syrian hamsters were fed either a high-fat, high-fructose, high-cholesterol diet (NASH diet) or control diets for up to 12 months. Plasma parameters were assessed at two weeks, one, four, eight and 12 months and liver histopathology and biochemistry was characterized after four, eight and 12 months on the experimental diets. After two weeks, hamsters on NASH diet had developed marked dyslipidemia, which persisted for the remainder of the study. Hepatic steatosis was present in NASH-fed hamsters after four months, and hepatic stellate cell activation and fibrosis was observed within four to eight months, respectively, in agreement with progression towards NASH. In summary, we demonstrate that hamsters rapidly develop dyslipidemia when fed a high-fat, high-fructose, high-cholesterol diet. Moreover, within four to eight months, the NASH-diet induced hepatic changes with resemblance to human NAFLD.


Assuntos
Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Açúcares da Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dislipidemias/etiologia , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Animais , Colesterol na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Cricetinae , Dieta Hiperlipídica/métodos , Açúcares da Dieta/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/sangue , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Células Estreladas do Fígado/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
18.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 118(5): 71-78, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785129

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The excessive consumption of free sugars, including fructose, is considered a cause of overweight and metabolic syndrome throughout the Western world. In Germany, the prevalence of overweight and obesity among adults (54%, 18%) and children (15%, 6%) has risen in the past few decades and has now become stable at a high level. The causative role of fructose is unclear. METHODS: This review is based on publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and the Cochrane Library, with special attention to international guidelines and expert recommendations. RESULTS: The hepatic metabolism of fructose is insulin-independent; because of the lack of a feedback mechanism, it leads to substrate accumulation, with de novo lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis. Recent meta-analyses with observation periods of one to ten weeks have shown that the consumption of fructose in large amounts leads to weight gain (+ 0.5 kg [0.26; 0.79]), elevated triglyceride levels (+ 0.3 mmol/L [0.11; 0.41]), and steatosis hepatis (intrahepatocellular fat content: + 54% [29; 79%]) when it is associated with a positive energy balance (fructose dose + 25-40% of the total caloric requirement). Meta-analyses in the isocaloric setting have not shown any comparable effects. Children, with their preference for sweet foods and drinks, are prone to excessive sugar consumption. Toddlers under age two are especially vulnerable. CONCLUSION: The effects that have been observed with the consumption of large amounts of fructose cannot be reliably distinguished from the effects of a generally excessive caloric intake. Further randomized and controlled intervention trials of high quality are needed in order to determine the metabolic effects of fructose consumed under isocaloric conditions. To lessen individual consumption of sugar, sugary dietary items such as sweetened soft drinks, fruit juice, and smoothies should be avoided in favor of water as a beverage and fresh fruit.


Assuntos
Frutose , Açúcares , Adulto , Bebidas/análise , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Obesidade
19.
Lab Invest ; 101(5): 588-599, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33526807

RESUMO

NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) promotes the inflammatory response during progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). This study aimed to further delineate the role of NLRP3 in NASH development by abolishing its expression in mice. A high-fat and calorie diet plus high fructose and glucose in drinking water (HFCD-HF/G) was used to establish NASH in both wild-type (WT) and NLRP3 knock-out (KO) mice. Hepatocellular injury, hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, as well as inflammatory response and insulin resistance in the liver and epidydimal white adipose tissue (eWAT) were determined. Elevated body weight, liver weight and serum alanine transaminase level, increased hepatic triglyceride accumulation and collagen deposition, and worsened systemic insulin resistance were observed in Nlrp3-/- mice compared to WT mice under HFCD-HF/G feeding. Upregulated hepatic transcription of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), and enhanced infiltration of inducible nitric oxide synthase-positive (iNOS+) M1 macrophages were also documented in HFCD-HF/G-fed Nlrp3-/- mice in comparison to HFCD-HF/G-fed WT mice. Moreover, transcription of TNF-α and MCP-1 and infiltration of iNOS+ M1 macrophages were increased in the liver of Nlrp3-/- mice under control diet. NLRP3 deficiency did not attenuate, but instead aggravated NASH development under HFCD-HF/G feeding. The worsened extent of NASH might be attributed to enhanced hepatic MCP-1 expression and M1 macrophage infiltration in Nlrp3-/- mice. Our study points to additional caution when NLRP3 blockade is considered as a therapeutic strategy in the treatment of human NASH.


Assuntos
Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Animais , Colágeno/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Resistência à Insulina , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/imunologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9178-9187, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560835

RESUMO

Endogenous ceramide is considered to be associated with the progress of insulin resistance. However, the effects of dietary exogenous glucosylceramides and ceramides on insulin resistance are unclear. A model of fructose-induced male Sprague Dawley rats was used to compare the effects of sea-cucumber-derived glucosylceramides and ceramides on insulin resistance. Both glucosylceramides and ceramides significantly improved glucose tolerance, reduced the concentrations of serum glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin, and alleviated the accompanied hypertension. Ceramides significantly enhanced glycogen levels in skeletal muscle, whereas glucosylceramides significantly increased the hepatic glycogen levels. Moreover, glucosylceramides alleviated insulin resistance by inhibiting gluconeogenesis, promoting glycogen synthesis and insulin signal transduction in the liver; meanwhile, ceramides were mainly due to the promotion of glycogen synthesis and insulin signal transduction in skeletal muscle. Additionally, glucosylceramides and ceramides effectively attenuated inflammation in adipose tissue. These results indicate that glucosylceramides and ceramides have potential value in the prevention and alleviation of insulin resistance.


Assuntos
Cucumis sativus , Resistência à Insulina , Pepinos-do-Mar , Animais , Ceramidas , Cucumis sativus/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Frutose/efeitos adversos , Glucosilceramidas , Insulina , Masculino , Fosfatidilinositol 3-Quinases/metabolismo , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-akt/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Pepinos-do-Mar/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
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