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1.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5677-5688, 2021 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33874721

RESUMO

Emissions of light-absorbing black carbon (BC) and organic aerosol (OA) from biomass burning are presented as complex mixtures, which introduce challenges in modeling their absorbing properties. In this study, we chose typical residential wood burning emission and used a novel designed chamber to investigate the early stage evolution of plumes from different burning phases under real ambient conditions. The detailed mixing state between BC and OA was evaluated, on the basis of which optical modeling was performed to achieve a closure of aerosol-absorbing properties. Intensive secondary OA (SOA) formation was observed under solar radiation. OA from flaming conditions showed a higher absorptivity than from smoldering conditions, as OA is mostly internally and externally mixed with BC, respectively. For flaming (smoldering), the imaginary refractive index of OA (kOA) was initially at 0.03 ± 0.01 (0.001) and 0.15 ± 0.02 (0.05 ± 0.02) at λ = 781 and 405 nm, respectively, with a half-decay time of 2-3 h in light but a <40% decrease under dark within 5 h. The production of less-absorbing SOA in the first 1-2 h and possible subsequent photobleaching of chromophores contributed to the decrease of kOA. The enhanced abundance but decreased absorptivity of coatings on BC resulted in a relatively maintainable absorptivity of BC-containing particles during evolution.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Madeira , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Atmosfera , Biomassa , Carbono , Fumaça , Fuligem/análise , Madeira/química
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33805472

RESUMO

The 2019-2020 summer wildfire event on the east coast of Australia was a series of major wildfires occurring from November 2019 to end of January 2020 across the states of Queensland, New South Wales (NSW), Victoria and South Australia. The wildfires were unprecedent in scope and the extensive character of the wildfires caused smoke pollutants to be transported not only to New Zealand, but also across the Pacific Ocean to South America. At the peak of the wildfires, smoke plumes were injected into the stratosphere at a height of up to 25 km and hence transported across the globe. The meteorological and air quality Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model is used together with the air quality monitoring data collected during the bushfire period and remote sensing data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellites to determine the extent of the wildfires, the pollutant transport and their impacts on air quality and health of the exposed population in NSW. The results showed that the WRF-Chem model using Fire Emission Inventory (FINN) from National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) to simulate the dispersion and transport of pollutants from wildfires predicted the daily concentration of PM2.5 having the correlation (R2) and index of agreement (IOA) from 0.6 to 0.75 and 0.61 to 0.86, respectively, when compared with the ground-based data. The impact on health endpoints such as mortality and respiratory and cardiovascular diseases hospitalizations across the modelling domain was then estimated. The estimated health impact on each of the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) census districts (SA4) of New South Wales was calculated based on epidemiological assumptions of the impact function and incidence rate data from the 2016 ABS and NSW Department of Health statistical health records. Summing up all SA4 census district results over NSW, we estimated that there were 247 (CI: 89, 409) premature deaths, 437 (CI: 81, 984) cardiovascular diseases hospitalizations and 1535 (CI: 493, 2087) respiratory diseases hospitalizations in NSW over the period from 1 November 2019 to 8 January 2020. The results are comparable with a previous study based only on observation data, but the results in this study provide much more spatially and temporally detailed data with regard to the health impact from the summer 2019-2020 wildfires.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Incêndios Florestais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Humanos , New South Wales/epidemiologia , Nova Zelândia , Oceano Pacífico , Material Particulado/análise , Queensland , Fumaça/análise , América do Sul , Austrália do Sul , Vitória
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808392

RESUMO

Thirdhand smoke (THS) is an environmental contaminant that may cause adverse health effects in smokers and nonsmokers. Currently, time-consuming analytical methods are necessary to assess chemicals in THS repositories, like upholstered furniture and clothing. Our goal was to develop a rapid, accessible method that can be used to measure THS contamination in common household fabrics and to evaluate remediation. Cotton, terry cloth, polyester, and wool were exposed to THS for various times in a controlled laboratory environment and then extracted in various media at room temperature or 60 °C to develop an autofluorescent method to quantify THS. Concentrations of nicotine and related alkaloids in the extracts were determined using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The autofluorescence of extracts was proportional to the time and amount of THS exposure received by cotton and terry cloth. Extracts of polyester and wool did not show autofluorescence unless heat was applied during extraction. Nicotine, nicotine alkaloids, and TSNA concentrations were higher in THS extracts from cotton and terry cloth than extracts of polyester and wool carpet, in agreement with the autofluorescence data. For fabrics spiked with 10 mg of nicotine, extraction efficiency was much higher from terry cloth (7 mg) than polyester (0.11 mg). In high relative humidity, nicotine recovery from both cotton and polyester was 80% (~8 mg). Our results provide a simple, rapid method to assess THS contaminants in household fabrics and further show that THS extraction is influenced by fabric type, heat, and humidity. Thus, remediation of THS environments may need to vary depending on the fabric reservoirs being treated. Understanding the dynamics of THS in fabrics can help set up appropriate remediation policies to protect humans from exposure.


Assuntos
Fumaça , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida , Humanos , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806412

RESUMO

Household smoke-exposure risk (SER) can be defined through the assessment of cooking fuels (smoke and no smoke-producing) and cooking places (indoor and outdoor) related information, which represent different levels of household air pollution. This study aimed to explore the prevalence and geographical variations in smoke-exposure risks (SERs) associated with indoor and outdoor cooking practices and use of smoke-producing and non-smoke-producing cooking fuels in Tanzania. We further investigated the social and spatial features associated with household SERs. We defined an indicator variable, the household SER, using country-level, cross-sectional data on cooking fuels and cooking places obtained from the 2015-2016 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey and then estimated zone-level average SERs. We used an ordered logistic regression model to assess the social and spatial characteristics associated with household SER. We identified 76.4% of the 12,425 households that practiced indoor cooking using smoke-producing fuels as having a high SER. High-level SER was more prevalent in the Central, Southern highland, and Southwest highland zones. Overall, wealthier households, female-headed households, and households with higher education attainments were more likely to be categorized as households with very low SER. Meanwhile, households headed by older individuals and with larger family sizes were less likely to be in the very low SER category. The prevalence of high SER is a major public health concern in Tanzania. Improved cooking stoves and cleaner fuels should be adopted simultaneously to minimize the adverse effects associated with household SER.


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Culinária , Estudos Transversais , Características da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
7.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 29(1): 56-61, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831287

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Exposure to third-hand smoke (THS) poses health risk, especially for children. THS is mostly ignored in Turkey. The aim of this study is to adapt the Beliefs about Third-Hand Smoke (BATHS) scale to Turkish. METHODS: The BATHS scale consists of 9 items, and the data collected from 273 people was considered sufficient for analyses in this methodological study. The BATHS scale is translated into Turkish and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was performed for the construct validity analysis of the scale. RESULTS: The correlation between the overall BATHS scale and its two sub-dimensions was 0.937 (p < 0.001), and the correlation between the health and persistence sub-dimensions was 0.775 (p < 0.001). Since there was a statistically positive and highly significant relationship, the adapted BATHS scale was considered structurally compatible with the sub-dimensions. The reliability value of the entire scale is 0.90. Test-retest correlation values between the health and persistence dimensions were between 0.745 and 0.960, the values obtained were above 0.70 and had a statistically positive and high level of significant relationship (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is concluded that the Turkish version of the BATHS scale is reliable and valid. This scale will allow further research and training on third-hand smoke exposure. Tobacco control programmes success will improve.


Assuntos
Fumaça , Tabaco , Criança , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tradução , Turquia
8.
Wiad Lek ; 74(1): 52-56, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33851587

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim: To determine the effect of smoking on indicators of nutritional status in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Materials and methods: A study included 91 patients with COPD. Patients were divided into two groups depending on the status of smoking: smokers and non-smokers. Everyone underwent an assessment of the severity of COPD, a study of nutritional status, a laboratory study of kidney function and blood lipid profile. RESULTS: Results: It was found that in smokers with COPD, the disease proceeds with more pronounced shortness of breath. There is also a development of sarcopenic obesity in those patients who smoke. In turn, it was found that bronchial obstruction increases with a decrease in muscle tissue content. Renal filtration function is reduced in smokers and non-smokers. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: 1. Patients suffering from COPD have a violation of nutritional status. Smoking patients develop sarcopenic obesity, which progresses with an increase in the degree of nicotine addiction, correlates with the "pack / year" index and is a predictor of increased mortality in this category of patients. 2. Increased bronchial obstruction in smokers with COPD is observed with an increase in smoking history, the number of cigarettes smoked and with a decrease in body weight. 3. Reducing the pool of muscle tissue can be considered as an early predictor of more frequent exacerbations in smoking patients with COPD. 4. The systemic effects of COPD include impaired renal function, more pronounced in smokers with COPD.


Assuntos
Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica , Fumar , Humanos , Estado Nutricional , Fumaça , Fumantes
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807503

RESUMO

To determine if cigarette smoking, electronic cigarette use, and rate of consumption of these products differed before and after a pandemic lockdown order, two convenience samples of adults in Central California were recruited and surveyed before (March 2020) and after (May 2020) COVID-19 lockdown orders were implemented in California (n = 2571). Multivariable logistic and negative binomial regression models tested the association between adults recruited pre- or post-California lockdown and past month cigarette use, past month electronic cigarette use, past month cigarette consumption, and past month e-cigarette consumption among current users, controlling for demographic differences. Adults pre- and post-lockdown had equal odds of using cigarettes during the past month. Cigarette users who responded post-lockdown had higher cigarette consumption rates compared to cigarette users who responded pre-lockdown (IRR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.23). Adults who responded post-lockdown had lower odds of using electronic cigarettes during the past month compared to participants surveyed before the order (OR = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.55, 0.78). Cigarette users may be using more cigarettes during the state mandated lockdown. Possible causes for this increase in cigarette use may include increased stress, the change in workplace smokefree protections coverage, and increased opportunities for smoking or vaping.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Adulto , California/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Humanos , Fumaça , Fumantes
10.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(8)2021 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917891

RESUMO

Firefighter's interventions under dense smoke and flames are hazardous and ideally need an efficient in-advance geo-located actuation plan. The existing communication and sensing technologies should be customized, optimized, and integrated to better know the conditions (flame locations, air condition) before and during the rescue team's interventions. In this paper, we propose a firefighter intervention architecture, which consists of several sensing devices (flame detectors, carbon dioxide air content) a navigation platform (an autonomous ground wheeled robot), and a communication/localization network (BLE IoT network) that can be used before and during an intervention in rescue or fire extinguishing missions even for indoor or confined spaces. The paper's key novelty presents our integrated solution, giving some key implementation details and an intensive experimentation campaign in two real firefighter scenarios with real controlled fires. Results carried out in these real indoor scenarios are presented to demonstrate the feasibility of the system. A fire detection system is proposed to improve fire focus in real time and moving in confined spaces with no visibility and physical references. The results obtained in the experimentation show the proposal's effectiveness in locating the fire focus's position and orientation reducing time and risk exposure. This kind of location-aware fire integrated systems would significantly impact the speed and security of first responder interventions.


Assuntos
Socorristas , Fogo , Humanos , Fumaça
11.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(5)2021 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668116

RESUMO

Smoke inhalation poses a serious health threat to firefighters (FFs), with potential effects including respiratory and cardiac disorders. In this work, environmental and physiological data were collected from FFs, during experimental fires performed in 2015 and 2019. Extending a previous work, which allowed us to conclude that changes in heart rate (HR) were associated with alterations in the inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO), we performed a HR analysis according to different levels of CO exposure during firefighting based on data collected from three FFs. Based on HR collected and on CO occupational exposure standards (OES), we propose a classifier to identify CO exposure levels through the HR measured values. An ensemble of 100 bagged classification trees was used and the classification of CO levels obtained an overall accuracy of 91.9%. The classification can be performed in real-time and can be embedded in a decision fire-fighting support system. This classification of FF' exposure to critical CO levels, through minimally-invasive monitored HR, opens the possibility to identify hazardous situations, preventing and avoiding possible severe problems in FF' health due to inhaled pollutants. The obtained results also show the importance of future studies on the relevance and influence of the exposure and inhalation of pollutants on the FF' health, especially in what refers to hazardous levels of toxic air pollutants.


Assuntos
Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Bombeiros , Frequência Cardíaca , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Fogo , Humanos , Fumaça/análise
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33670326

RESUMO

Environmental tobacco smoke exposure (ETS) and smoking have been described as the most prevalent factors in the development of certain diseases worldwide. According to the World Health Organization, more than 8 million people die every year due to exposure to tobacco, around 7 million due to direct ETS and the remaining due to exposure to second-hand smoke. Both active and second-hand exposure can be measured and controlled using specific biomarkers of tobacco and its derivatives, allowing the development of more efficient public health policies. Exposure to these compounds can be measured using different methods (involving for instance liquid- or gas-chromatographic procedures) in a wide range of biological specimens to estimate the type and degree of tobacco exposure. In recent years, a lot of research has been carried out using different extraction methods and different analytical equipment; this way, liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction or even miniaturized procedures have been used, followed by chromatographic analysis coupled mainly to mass spectrometric detection. Through this type of methodologies, second-hand smokers can be distinguished from active smokers, and this is also valid for e-cigarettes and vapers, among others, using their specific biomarkers. This review will focus on recent developments in the determination of tobacco smoke biomarkers, including nicotine and other tobacco alkaloids, specific nitrosamines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, etc. The methods for their detection will be discussed in detail, as well as the potential use of threshold values to distinguish between types of exposure.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nitrosaminas , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Nitrosaminas/análise , Fumaça , Tabaco , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
13.
Environ Pollut ; 277: 116669, 2021 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652180

RESUMO

This study aimed to examine whether and how third-hand smoke (THS) exposure would influence serum melatonin level. 1083 participants with or without exposure to THS were enrolled. Serum ROS, SOD, GSH-Px, and melatonin were measured by ELISA. Methylation microarrays detection and WGCNA were performed to identify hub methylated-sites. The methylation levels of hub-sites were validated in addtional samples. Moreover, mice were exposed to THS for 6 months mimicking exposure of human and the serum, liver, and pineal were collected. Oxidative stress-related indicators in serum, pineal, and liver were measured by ELISA. The expressions of mRNA and protein and methylation levels of hub-gene discovered in human data were further explored by RT-PCR, western-blot, and TBS. The results showed the participants exposed to THS had lower melatonin-level. 820 differentially methylated sites associated with THS were identified. And the hub-site located on the CYP1A2 promoter was identified, which mediated the association between THS and decreased melatonin-level. Decreased peak of serum melatonin, increased ROS and reduced SOD and GSH-Px in pineal and liver, and elevated CYP1A2 expression in liver was also found in the THS-exposed mice. Hypo-methylation of 7 CPG sites on the CYP1A2 promoter was identified, which accelerated the catabolism of melatonin. Overall, THS exposure is associated with abnormal melatonin catabolism through hypo-methylation of CYP1A2-promoter.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Animais , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A2/genética , Metilação de DNA , Humanos , Camundongos , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Fumaça
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1493, 2021 03 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674571

RESUMO

Wildfires are becoming more frequent and destructive in a changing climate. Fine particulate matter, PM2.5, in wildfire smoke adversely impacts human health. Recent toxicological studies suggest that wildfire particulate matter may be more toxic than equal doses of ambient PM2.5. Air quality regulations however assume that the toxicity of PM2.5 does not vary across different sources of emission. Assessing whether PM2.5 from wildfires is more or less harmful than PM2.5 from other sources is a pressing public health concern. Here, we isolate the wildfire-specific PM2.5 using a series of statistical approaches and exposure definitions. We found increases in respiratory hospitalizations ranging from 1.3 to up to 10% with a 10 µg m-3 increase in wildfire-specific PM2.5, compared to 0.67 to 1.3% associated with non-wildfire PM2.5. Our conclusions point to the need for air quality policies to consider the variability in PM2.5 impacts on human health according to the sources of emission.


Assuntos
Material Particulado/toxicidade , Respiração/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/análise , Incêndios Florestais , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , California , Mudança Climática , Exposição Ambiental , Hospitalização , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Saúde Pública , Estações do Ano
15.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 41(2): 221-4, 2021 Feb 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788475

RESUMO

In view of the limitations of the existing moxibustion instruments, i.e. possible accidental injury when using moxibustion instruments, the negative effects of products from moxibustion instruments on treatment efficacy and health of medical staff and patients, a moxibustion instrument with multi-jointed manipulator is designed. This moxibustion instrument could accurately control the temperature, maintain a safe moxibustion distance, automatically process the burning ashes of moxa and selectively handle moxa smoke. The experimental results shows that this instrument could maintain the constant temperature of target acupoint, reduce the risk of empyrosis, and reasonably deal with the products of moxibustion. The purification rate of moxa smoke is 44.9%, which not only ensures the therapeutic effect of moxa smoke, but also reduces the negative effects of high-concentration moxa smoke on the health of medical staff and patients.


Assuntos
Moxibustão , Pontos de Acupuntura , Humanos , Fumaça/análise , Temperatura
16.
Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue ; 33(1): 38-42, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565398

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To screen the time points of high survival rate and efferocytosis dysfunction of rat alveolar macrophages stimulated by cigarette smoke extract (CSE), establish an in vitro model of alveolar macrophage efferocytosis function, and study chronic respiratory diseases with chronic inflammatory reaction as the main pathological changes. METHODS: (1) Time point screening experiment: rat alveolar macrophages (NR8383 cells) were cultured in vitro, and the cells in logarithmic growth phase were divided into blank control group (100 µL complete medium) and 5% CSE group (90 µL complete medium + 10 µL 100% CSE). Alma blue method was used to detect the effect of 5% CSE on the activity of NR8383 cells at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. (2) Apoptosis induction experiment: rat type II alveolar epithelial cells (RLE-6TN cells) were cultured in vitro as phagocytic target cells of NR8383 cells, and the cells in logarithmic growth phase were divided into blank control group and 10, 30 and 60 minutes groups after ultraviolet exposure (apoptosis was induced by 30 000 µJ/cm2 ultraviolet irradiation for 15 minutes). Flow cytometry was used to detect the apoptosis rate of RLE-6TN cells cultured for 10, 30 and 60 minutes after ultraviolet exposure. (3) Cell efferocytosis experiment: NR8383 cells in logarithmic phase were divided into blank control group and 5% CSE group. Two hours before NR8383 cells were stimulated by CSE for 6, 12 and 24 hours, RLE-6TN cells were exposed to ultraviolet to induce apoptosis, and the RLE-6TN cell suspension was added to NR8383 cells (the ratio of RLE-6TN cells to NR8383 cells was 5:1). Flow cytometry was used to detect the efferocytosis rate of NR8383 cells to RLE-6TN cells at different time points treated with 5% CSE. RESULTS: (1) Compared with the blank control group, the activity of NR8383 cells significantly decreased after treatment with 5% CSE for 48 hours [cell reduction rate: (68.5±4.1)% vs. (73.6±2.3)%, P < 0.05]. However, there were no significant differences when the activities of NR8383 cells treated with 5% CSE for 6, 12 and 24 hours were compared with the blank control group, so these three time points were selected for the subsequent establishment of alveolar macrophage cell efferocytosis dysfunction in vitro model experiment. (2) Compared with the blank control group, the apoptosis rate of RLE-6TN cells significantly increased at 10, 30 and 60 minutes after ultraviolet exposure [(66.87±8.63)%, (85.51±2.39)%, (96.13±2.74)% vs. (9.13±3.17)%, all P < 0.01] in a time-dependent manner. Considering that it taked about 50 minutes for RLE-6TN cells to be labeled with PKH26 membrane labeling probe, 10 minutes after ultraviolet exposure was selected to label RLE-6TN cells. (3) Compared with the blank control group, the efferocytosis function of NR8383 cells was significantly decreased after treatment with 5% CSE for 12 hours [cell efferocytosis rate: (33.64±1.30)% vs. (44.02±2.71)%, P < 0.01], but there was no significant effect on the efferocytosis function of NR8383 cells at 6 hours and 24 hours. CONCLUSIONS: CSE can induce alveolar macrophage cell efferocytosis dysfunction. Based on the test results of the effect of 5% CSE on NR8383 cell activity and cell efferocytosis function, 12 hours with high survival rate and weak efferocytosis effect of NR8383 cells can be selected as the in vitro model condition of alveolar macrophage cell efferocytosis dysfunction.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares , Macrófagos Alveolares , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Células Epiteliais , Ratos , Fumaça
17.
Environ Pollut ; 275: 116626, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609858

RESUMO

This study characterizes the impacts of transported peat-forest (PF) burning smoke on an urban environment and evaluates associated source burning conditions based on carbon properties of PM2.5 at the receptor site. We developed and validated a three-step classification that enables systematic and more rapid identification of PF smoke impacts on a tropical urban environment with diverse emissions and complex atmospheric processes. This approach was used to characterize over 300 daily PM2.5 data collected during 2011-2013, 2015 and 2019 in Singapore. A levoglucosan concentration of ≥0.1 µg/m3 criterion indicates dominant impacts of transported PF smoke on urban fine aerosols. This approach can be used in other ambient environments for practical and location-dependent applications. Organic carbon (OC) concentrations (as OC indicator) can be an alternate to levoglucosan for assessing smoke impacts on urban environments. Applying the OC concentration indicator identifies smoke impacts on ∼80% of daily samples in 2019 and shows an accuracy of 51-86% for hourly evaluation. Following the systematic identification of urban PM2.5 predominantly affected by PF smoke in 2011-2013, 2015 and 2019, we assessed the concentration ratio of char-EC/soot-EC as an indicator of smoldering- or flaming-dominated burning emissions. When under the influence of transported PF smoke, the mean concentration ratio of char-EC to soot-EC in urban PM2.5 decreased by >70% from 8.2 in 2011 to 2.3 in 2015 but increased to 3.8 in 2019 (p < 0.05). The reversed trend with a 65% increase from 2015 to 2019 shows stronger smoldering relative to flaming, indicating a higher level of soil moisture at smoke origins, possibly associated with rewetting and revegetating peatlands since 2016.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Fumaça , Aerossóis/análise , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biomassa , Carbono/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental , Florestas , Material Particulado/análise , Estações do Ano , Singapura , Fumaça/análise , Solo
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33567509

RESUMO

Little research has examined the effects of high concentration, medium-duration smoke exposure on cardiovascular health. We investigated whether six weeks of exposure to smoke from the 2014 Hazelwood coal mine fire in Victoria (Australia), was associated with long-term clinical or subclinical cardiovascular disease approximately four years later, in adult residents of the towns of Morwell (exposed, n = 336) and Sale (unexposed, n = 162). The primary outcome was serum high sensitivity (hs) C-reactive protein (CRP). Blood pressure, electrocardiogram, flow mediated dilatation and serum levels of hs-troponin, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide and lipids were secondary outcomes. There was no significant difference in weighted median hsCRP levels between exposed and unexposed participants (1.9 mg/L vs. 1.6 mg/L, p = 0.273). Other outcomes were comparable between the groups. hsCRP was associated in a predictable manner with current smoking, obesity and use of lipid-lowering therapy. Four years after a 6-week coal mine fire, this study found no association between smoke exposure and markers of clinical or subclinical cardiovascular disease in exposed adults.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Adulto , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Cidades , Carvão Mineral/análise , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Fatores de Risco , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumaça/análise , Vitória
20.
Environ Res ; 195: 110881, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33607099

RESUMO

Cigarette butts (CBs) are the most frequently littered pieces of environmental wastes which are released both directly and indirectly into the environment and finally may reach aquatic environments and contaminate aquatic biomes. However, to date, there is no comprehensive review on the extent and magnitude of the potential effects of CBs on aquatic organisms. Hence, a systematic review of published studies was conducted in this paper to survey the fate of CBs in the aquatic environments and also the impacts of exposure to CBs on survival, growth, and reproduction of aquatic organisms. The gathered data showed that the leachates of CBs in the aquatic environment could extremely be toxic for various organisms and increasing the exposure time, increases the mortality rate. In addition, smoked filtered CBs with tobacco remnants have higher mortality rate compared to unsmoked filtered butts (USFs) for Hymenochirus curtipes, Clarias gariepinus, tidepool snails, Atherinops affinis and Pimephales promelas. The fate of CBs in the aquatic environments is affected by various factors, and prior to sinking they are floated for a long time (long distance). Hence, CBs and their associated toxic chemicals might be ingested by diverse aquatic organisms. However, further studies are necessary to understand the exact toxicity of CBs on different freshwater and marine organisms and also their fate in the aquatic media. The results of this review showed the essentiality of regulations to prevent the release of chemical and toxic compounds into the aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Produtos do Tabaco , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Água Doce , Fumaça/análise , Tabaco , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
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