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1.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e3, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33764140

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread throughout the world, with devastating effects of the virus as well as the repercussions of the resulting 'lockdowns'. South Africa went into a national lockdown in March 2020 to mitigate the impact of the virus. This included a ban on the sales of tobacco and electronic cigarette products. The ban has been a highly contentious issue in South Africa, discussed worldwide, which has drawn many criticisms. The prevalence rate of smoking in South Africa was around 21.5%, with the Western Cape province having a prevalence rate of 39%. We compared the number of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) presentations at a large regional referral hospital in the Western Cape province from January to August 2019 with the same period in 2020. Electronic emergency centre data showed a reduction of 69.28% in COPD presentations. To control for some confounders for the same period, we also reviewed patients presenting with urinary tract infections, which showed only a 30.60% reduction. This notable reduction in COPD presentations reduced service pressure of emergency centre and most likely benefitted patients' health. Further research and policies are needed to ensure ongoing reduction in the prevalence of smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/terapia , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , /epidemiologia , /virologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar Cigarros/prevenção & controle , Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/complicações , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 16: 2203-2217, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762821

RESUMO

Background: It is well known that smoking is harmful to health; however, it can also ameliorate anxiety. To date, it is unclear whether any nanoparticles found in cigarette mainstream smoke (CS) contribute to this effect. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the particle composition of CS to identify novel anti-anxiety components. Methods: Carbon dots (CDs) from CS (CS-CDs) were characterised using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, ultraviolet, fluorescence, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and high-performance liquid chromatography. The anti-anxiety effects of CS-CDs in mouse models were evaluated and confirmed with the elevated plus maze and open-field tests. Results: The quantum yield of CS-CDs was 13.74%, with a composition of C, O, and N. In addition, the surface groups contained O-H, C-H, C=O, C-N, N-H, C-O-C, and COO- bonds. Acute toxicity testing revealed that CS-CDs had low in vitro and in vivo toxicity within a certain concentration range. The results of the elevated plus maze and open-field tests showed that CS-CDs had a significant anti-anxiety effect and a certain sedative effect in mice. The mechanism of these effects may be related to the decrease in glutamate levels and promotion of norepinephrine production in the mouse brain, and the decrease in dopamine in mouse serum due to CS-CDs. Conclusion: CS-CDs may have anti-anxiety and certain sedative effects. This study provides a new perspective for a more comprehensive understanding of the components, properties, and functions of CS. Furthermore, it offers a novel target for the development of smoking cessation treatments, such as nicotine replacement therapy.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Carbono/química , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Sistema Endócrino/metabolismo , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Pontos Quânticos/química , Água/química , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Animais , Ansiedade/sangue , Ansiedade/patologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Corticosterona/sangue , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/sangue , Dopamina/sangue , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Espectroscopia Fotoeletrônica , Pontos Quânticos/ultraestrutura , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria de Fluorescência , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Análise Espectral Raman , Testes de Toxicidade Aguda , Difração de Raios X
3.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1300: 137-150, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523432

RESUMO

In this chapter, we first gave a brief introduction to the detriments of cigarette smoking, with an emphasis on its adverse effects on female reproductive health. Then, we outlined recent advances about the impacts of cigarette smoke on preimplantation embryo development. Additionally, toxicities of cadmium and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) at this specific developmental window were also discussed, to illustrate the potential mechanisms involved in cigarette smoke-associated embryotoxicity. Finally, we provide an overview of the issues to be solved in the future research. Further studies about the molecular mechanism of cigarette smoking-associated female infertility may provide vital insights into developing new interventions for the women smokers and thus improving their reproductive outcomes.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Fumaça , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabaco
4.
Adv Clin Exp Med ; 30(2): 189-195, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33636060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a chronic inflammatory disease with poorly understood pathogenesis. The disease has a chronic course with improvements and exacerbations. Due to palmoplantar location, PPP has a severely negative impact on patients' quality of life. OBJECTIVES: To identify demographic and environmental factors, concomitant diseases, medications, and bacterial factors which may affect the course of PPP. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 51 patients suffering from PPP took part in the study. They were classified according to the Palmoplantar Pustulosis Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (ppPASI) into 3 groups due to the severity of the disease. Pack-year of smoking score was established as a quotient of packets smoked every 24 h and the years of being addicted. Diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the IDF criteria from 2009. Chlamydia trachomatis was detected using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique, Staphylococcus aureus by the culture swabs. Contact hypersensitivity was examined with the T.R.U.E. test. RESULTS: Significantly high severity of PPP was observed in patients addicted to smoking with a high pack-year score (p = 0.03). Significantly lower intensity of PPP lesions was observed in patients treated with ibuprofen (p < 0.01). There was no correlation between severity of PPP skin lesions and comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: Addiction to cigarette smoking and a high pack-year score aggravates the course of PPP. Treatment with ibuprofen can improve the course of the disease.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Psoríase , Doença Crônica , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Comorbidade , Humanos , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida
5.
Respir Res ; 22(1): 22, 2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468121

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence shows that endothelial apoptosis contributes to cigarette smoke (CS)-induced disease progression, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Our previous studies have validated Notch1 as an anti-apoptotic signaling in CS-induced endothelial apoptosis. Resveratrol (RESV) is a naturally occurring polyphenol that exhibits an anti-apoptotic activity in endothelial cells that exposed to many kinds of destructive stimulus. However, the effects of resveratrol on Notch1 signaling in CS-induced endothelial apoptosis have not yet been fully elucidated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine whether RESV can protect endothelial cells from CS-induced apoptosis via regulating Notch1 signaling. METHODS: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated with RESV for 2 h, followed by cotreatment with 2.5%CSE for 24 h to explore the role of RESV in CSE induced endothelial apoptosis. 3-methyladenine (3-MA) or rapamycin was used to alter autophagic levels. Lentivirus Notch1 intracellular domain (LV-N1ICD), γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT) and Notch1 siRNA were used to change Notch1 expression. The expression of Notch1, autophagic and apoptotic markers were examined by Western blot and the apoptosis rate was detected by Flow cytometry analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that activating autophagy reduced CSE-induced endothelial apoptosis, while blocking autophagy promoted cell apoptosis in HUVECs. RESV pretreatment attenuated the CSE-induced endothelial apoptosis and activated Notch1 signaling. RESV pretreatment also increased LC3b-II and Beclin1 production, decreased p62 and mTOR expression. 3-MA treatment inhibited autophagy and aggravated CSE induced apoptosis, while rapamycin promoted autophagy, led to a decrease in cell apoptosis. LV-N1ICD transfection upregulated autophagy and reduced apoptosis. However, this protective effect was abolished by 3-MA treatment. In cells treated with DAPT or Notch1 siRNA, autophagy was decreased, while apoptosis was increased. RESV partly rescued the DAPT or Notch1 siRNA induced apoptosis by activating Notch1 signaling. CONCLUSION: In HUVECs, RESV attenuates CSE induced endothelial apoptosis by inducing autophagy in a Notch1-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Apoptose/fisiologia , Autofagia/fisiologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Resveratrol/farmacologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
6.
Life Sci ; 267: 118927, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358908

RESUMO

AIMS: Gender disparities exist in smoking-related lung cancer epidemiology, but the molecular basis has not been explored so far. We aimed at identifying genes with gender-bias expression pattern in smoking lung cancer patients for understanding the molecular basis of gender bias in smokers using meta-analysis of microarray gene expression data. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Transcriptome of around 1100 samples from 13 studies were used in the meta-analysis to identify 'Lung Cancer genes specific to Female-Smokers' (LCFS) and 'Lung Cancer genes specific to Male-Smokers' (LCMS). The expression profiles of these genes were validated with an independent microarray report and TCGA-RNA-sequencing data. The molecular interactions, pathway, and other functional annotations were portrayed for the key genes identified. KEY FINDINGS: We identified 1159 gender-biased genes in smoking lung cancer patients. Of these, 400 and 474 genes showed differential expression in cancerous compared to normal lung of women (LCFS) and men (LCMS), respectively. While many up-regulated LCFS were involved in 'immune responses' including T-cell activation, leukocyte cell-cell adhesion, the LCMS were mainly involved in 'positive regulation of gene expression', signaling pathways including RAS, VEGF, insulin-receptor signaling, and 'cell cycle'. SIGNIFICANCE: The strategic-method identified genes, particularly, SNX20, GIMAP6, MTMR2, FAM171B, IDH1, MOBP, FBXO17, LPXN and WIPF1, which were consistently differentially expressed in at least 4 studies, and in agreement with RNA-Seq data. Exploring their functions could be beneficial to the gender-based diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of lung cancer in smokers. The current meta-analysis supports existing knowledge of sexual-dimorphism of immune responses in cancer.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Humanos , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Pulmão/citologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/métodos , Fosfoproteínas/genética , Prognóstico , Proteínas Tirosina Fosfatases não Receptoras/genética , RNA/genética , Fatores Sexuais , Nexinas de Classificação/genética , Transcriptoma
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33327373

RESUMO

Depression is a risk factor for nicotine use and withdrawal. Population level epidemiologic studies that include users of either combustible or electronic cigarette (NICUSER) could inform interventions to reduce nicotine dependence in vulnerable populations. The current study examined the relationship between depression diagnosis (DEPDX), NICUSER, and lifetime rates of DSM-V nicotine withdrawal (NW) symptoms in a nationally representative sample of US adults (N = 979), who answered related questions in surveys administered through GfK's KnowledgePanel. Over 42% of the sample reported lifetime ever combustible cigarette use, 15.6% electronic-cigarette use, and 45.9% either (NICUSER). Weighted logistic regression analyses (controlling for age and gender) found that DEPDX was associated with 2.3 times increased odds (ratio (OR); 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 1.5-3.5) of being a NICUSER. Regarding risks of NW symptoms among NICUSER, models that additionally controlled for frequency of nicotine use found that DEPDX was significantly associated with increased odds of concentration problems (OR = 2.4; 95% CI: 1.3-4.5) and depressed mood (OR = 2.2; 95% CI: 1.1-4.1) when quitting or cutting down on nicotine use. Results highlight the consistent comorbidity between depression, nicotine use, and symptomatic nicotine withdrawal in a population-based sample of combustible and electronic cigarette users.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Depressão , Nicotina , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias , Vaping , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/induzido quimicamente , Depressão/epidemiologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos
8.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(Suppl 1): S45-S53, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320252

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Electronic cigarettes (ECIGs) expose users to an aerosol containing chemicals, which could affect the respiratory system negatively. This study examined negative respiratory symptoms associated with ECIG use. METHODS: In 2019, adult current ECIG users from 24 US states who reported experiencing negative respiratory symptoms from ECIG use (n = 49; 44.9% women; mean age = 35.2, SD = 11.5) completed an online survey and brainstormed statements that completed the prompt: "A specific negative effect or symptom related to my breathing, nose, mouth, throat, or lungs that I have experienced from vaping/using my e-cigarette is..." Participants sorted the final list of 56 statements into groups of similar content and rated statements on how true they were for them. Multidimensional scaling analysis identified thematic clusters. RESULTS: Eight ECIG use respiratory symptom clusters identified in analysis included Mucus and Congestion, Fatigue, Throat Symptoms, Breathing Problems, Mouth Symptoms, Chest Symptoms, Illness Symptoms, and Nose and Sinus Symptoms. Highly rated (ie, most common) symptoms included dry throat or mouth, fatigue during physical activity, coughing, shortness of breath, excessive phlegm, and bad taste in mouth. Mean cluster ratings did not differ based on lifetime cigarette smoking status (100 lifetime cigarettes smoked), but current cigarette smokers (ie, dual users) rated the Fatigue, Breathing Problems, Mucus and Congestion, and Nose and Sinus Symptoms clusters higher than noncurrent cigarette smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Participant-identified respiratory symptoms perceived to be ECIG related, many similar to cigarette smoking symptoms. Future research should assess if these symptoms are associated with other negative health outcomes. IMPLICATIONS: ECIG use exposes users to chemicals that may have negative health impacts on the respiratory system. Limited research has examined the broad range of negative respiratory symptoms associated with e-cigarette use. This study identified that ECIG-cigarette users perceive their ECIG use to be associated with negative respiratory symptoms. Many e-cigarette user-reported negative respiratory symptoms are similar to those associated with cigarette smoking, though some appear unique to e-cigarette use. Future research should continue to monitor respiratory symptoms reported by ECIG users and whether these are associated with health outcomes over time.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 9(24): e017000, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33317369

RESUMO

Background The role of microRNAs dysregulation in tobacco cigarette smoking-induced vascular damage still needs to be clarified. We assessed the acute effects of tobacco cigarette smoking on endothelial cell-related circulating microRNAs in healthy subjects. In addition, we investigated the potential role of microRNAs in smoking-dependent endothelial cell damage. Methods and Results A panel of endothelial-related microRNAs was quantified in healthy subjects before and after smoking 1 tobacco cigarette. Serum levels of miR-155 were found to be significantly increased shortly after smoking. We also observed a progressive and significant miR-155 accumulation in culture media of human endothelial cells after 30 minutes and up to 4 hours of cigarette smoke condensate treatment in vitro without evidence of cell death, indicating that miR-155 can be released by endothelial cells in response to smoking stress. Cigarette smoke condensate appeared to enhance oxidative stress and impair cell survival, angiogenesis, and NO metabolism in human endothelial cells. Notably, these effects were abrogated by miR-155 inhibition. We also observed that miR-155 inhibition rescued the deleterious effects of cigarette smoke condensate on endothelial-mediated vascular relaxation and oxidative stress in isolated mouse mesenteric arteries. Finally, we found that exogenous miR-155 overexpression mimics the effects of smoking stress by inducing the upregulation of inflammatory markers, impairing angiogenesis and reducing cell survival. These deleterious effects were associated with downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor and endothelial NO synthetase. Conclusions Our results suggest that miR-155 dysregulation may contribute to the deleterious vascular effects of tobacco smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/sangue , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Indutores da Angiogênese/metabolismo , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/metabolismo , Sobrevivência Celular , Regulação para Baixo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Artérias Mesentéricas/metabolismo , Artérias Mesentéricas/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Modelos Animais , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Regulação para Cima , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
10.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1549-1554, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135438

RESUMO

AIMS: The impact of tobacco use on readmission and medical and surgical complications has been documented in hip and knee arthroplasty. However, there remains little information about the effect of smoking on the outcome after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). We hypothesized that active smokers are at an increased risk of poor medical and surgial outcomes after TSA. METHODS: Data for patients who underwent arthroplasty of the shoulder in the USA between January 2011 and December 2015 were obtained from the National Readmission Database, and 90-day readmissions and complications were documented using validated coding methods. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to quantify the risk of smoking on the outcome after TSA, while controlling for patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital-level confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 196,325 non-smokers (93.1%) and 14,461 smokers (6.9%) underwent TSA during the five-year study period. Smokers had significantly increased rates of 30- and 90-day readmission (p = 0.025 and 0.001, respectively), revision within 90 days (p < 0.001), infection (p < 0.001), wound complications (p < 0.001), and instability of the prosthesis (p < 0.001). They were also at significantly greater risk of suffering from pneumonia (p < 0.001), sepsis (p = 0.001), and myocardial infarction (p < 0.001), postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Smokers have an increased risk of readmission and medical and surgical complications after TSA. These risks are similar to those found for smokers after hip and knee arthroplasty. Many surgeons choose to avoid these elective procedures in patients who smoke. The increased risks should be considered when counselling patients who smoke before undertaking TSA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1549-1554.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Ombro , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia do Ombro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
11.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0237643, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064729

RESUMO

We previously reported that maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure resulted in impairment of central chemoreception and induced mitochondrial dysfunction in offspring parafacial respiratory group (pFRG), the kernel for mammalian central chemoreception. We also found that hydrogen sulfide (H2S) could attenuate maternal CS exposure-induced impairment of central chemoreception in the rat offspring in vivo. Mitochondrial ATP sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channel has been reported to play a significant role in mitochondrial functions and protect against apoptosis in neurons. Thus, we hypothesize here that mitoKATP channel plays a role in the protective effects of H2S on neonatal central chemoreception in maternal CS-exposed rats. Our findings revealed that pretreatment with NaHS (donor of H2S, 22.4mM) reversed the central chemosensitivity decreased by maternal CS exposure, and also inhibited cell apoptosis in offspring pFRG, however, 5-HD (blocker of mitoKATP channels, 19mM) attenuated the protective effects of NaHS. In addition, NaHS declined pro-apoptotic proteins related to mitochondrial pathway apoptosis in CS rat offspring pFRG, such as Bax, Cytochrome C, caspase9 and caspase3. NaHS or 5-HD alone had no significant effect on above indexes. These results suggest that mitoKATP channels play an important role in the protective effect of H2S against impairment of central chemoreception via anti-apoptosis in pFRG of rat offspring exposed to maternal CS.


Assuntos
Células Quimiorreceptoras/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Sulfeto de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Canais de Potássio/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Quimiorreceptoras/patologia , Células Quimiorreceptoras/fisiologia , Feminino , Bulbo/efeitos dos fármacos , Bulbo/patologia , Bulbo/fisiopatologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Mecânica Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Mecânica Respiratória/fisiologia , Sulfetos/metabolismo , Sulfetos/farmacologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237938, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More smokers report using e-cigarettes to help them quit than FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of e-cigarettes with future abstinence from cigarette and tobacco use. DESIGN: Cohort study of US sample, with annual follow-up. PARTICIPANTS: US adult (ages 18+) daily cigarette smokers identified at Wave 1 (W1; 2013-14) of the PATH Study, who reported a quit attempt before W2 and completed W3 (n = 2443). EXPOSURES: Use of e-cigarettes, pharmacotherapy (including nicotine replacement therapy), or no product for last quit attempt (LQA), and current daily e-cigarette use at W2. ANALYSIS: Propensity score matching (PSM) of groups using different methods to quit. OUTCOME MEASURES: 12+ months abstinence at W3 from cigarettes and from all tobacco (including e-cigarettes). 30+ days abstinence at W3 was a secondary outcome. RESULTS: Among daily smokers with an LQA, 23.5% used e-cigarettes, 19.3% used pharmacotherapy only (including NRT) and 57.2% used no product. Cigarette abstinence for 12+ months at W3 was ~10% in each group. Half of the cigarette abstainers in the e-cigarette group were using e-cigarettes at W3. Different methods to help quitting had statistically comparable 12+ month cigarette abstinence at W3 (e-cigarettes vs no product: Risk Difference (RD) = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.06; e-cigarettes vs pharmacotherapy: RD = 0.02, 95% CI:-0.04 to 0.09). Likewise, daily e-cigarette users at W2 did not show a cessation benefit over comparable no-e-cigarette users and this finding was robust to sensitivity analyses. Abstinence for 30+ days at W3 was also similar across products. LIMITATIONS: The frequency of e-cigarette use during the LQA was not assessed, nor was it possible to assess continuous abstinence from the LQA. CONCLUSION: Among US daily smokers who quit cigarettes in 2014-15, use of e-cigarettes in that attempt compared to approved cessation aids or no products showed similar abstinence rates 1-2 years later.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Tratamento Farmacológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS Med ; 17(8): e1003158, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810187

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most of the women who smoke before pregnancy continue smoking during pregnancy, and some start to quit smoking after being pregnant, although existing guidelines for pregnancy recommend that women who smoke should quit smoking before pregnancy. Findings about the timing and intensity of maternal smoking, especially low-intensity smoking (1-9 cigarettes per day), and preterm birth are still inconsistent and ambiguous. This study aimed to examine the association of the timing of smoking and doses of smoking before pregnancy and during the first or second trimester of pregnancy with preterm birth in a large-scale population-based retrospective cohort study. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used nationwide birth certificate data from singleton mother-infant pairs in the United States National Vital Statistics System, 2011-2018. All adult women with live singleton births, without preexisting hypertension or diabetes, and with complete data on smoking and gestational age at delivery were included. Participants reported their smoking status (yes or no) and daily number of cigarettes consumed before and during each trimester of pregnancy. The outcome of interest was preterm birth, defined as a birth before 37 weeks of gestation. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of preterm birth associated with smoking status and the number of cigarettes consumed, adjusting for maternal age, race/ethnicity, parity, education levels, prepregnancy BMI, previous history of preterm birth, marital status, infant sex, and initiation of prenatal care. This study included 25,623,479 women, with a mean age of 29 years (range 20-50 years); 13,742,486 (53.6%) participants were of non-Hispanic white ancestry, 5,971,598 (23.3%) of Hispanic ancestry, and 3,417,456 (13.34%) of non-Hispanic black ancestry. The prevalence of preterm birth was 9.3% (n = 2,378,398). We found that maternal smoking during pregnancy, even at a very low level of intensity, was associated with an increased risk of preterm delivery. The adjusted ORs (95% CI) of preterm birth for mothers who smoked 1-2, 3-5, 6-9, 10-19, and ≥20 cigarettes per day during the first trimester compared with mothers who did not smoke were 1.31 (1.29-1.33), 1.31 (1.30-1.32), 1.33 (1.31-1.35), 1.44 (1.43-1.45), and 1.53 (1.52-1.55), respectively (all P values < 0.001), whereas for those who smoked during the second trimester, the corresponding ORs were 1.37 (1.35-1.39), 1.36 (1.35-1.38), 1.36 (1.34-1.38), 1.48 (1.47-1.49), and 1.59 (1.58-1.61), respectively (all P values < 0.001). Furthermore, smokers who quit before pregnancy, regardless of smoking intensity, had a comparable risk of preterm birth with nonsmokers, although this was not the case when cessation occurred in the first or second trimester of pregnancy. The major limitation of this study is the self-reported information about smoking, which may be subject to information bias. In addition, we cannot rule out the possibility of residual confounding caused by unmeasured factors in an observational research design. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that low-intensity cigarette consumption during either the first or second trimester of pregnancy, even as low as 1-2 cigarettes per day, was associated with an increased risk of preterm birth. These findings suggest that there is no safe level or safe trimester for maternal smoking during pregnancy. Women of reproductive age who smoke should be strongly encouraged and supported to quit smoking before pregnancy.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Comportamento Materno , Nascimento Prematuro/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/diagnóstico , Nascimento Prematuro/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/diagnóstico , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
Life Sci ; 259: 118260, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795541

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke (CS), the major risk factor of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), contains numerous free radicals that can cause oxidative stress and exaggerated inflammatory responses in the respiratory system. Lipid peroxidation which is oxidative degradation of polyunsaturated fatty acids and results in cell damage has also been associated with COPD pathogenesis. Increased levels of lipid peroxidation as well as its end product 4-hydroxynonenal have indeed been detected in COPD patients. Additionally, reactive oxygen species such as those contained in CS can activate nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway, initiating cascades of proinflammatory mediator expression. As emerging evidence attests to the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties of tea catechins, we sought to determine whether epigallocatechin gallate, the most abundant tea catechin, can provide protection against oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammatory responses caused by CS. We found that EGCG treatment blocked cigarette smoke extract (CSE)-induced oxidative stress as indicated by decreased production and accumulation of reactive oxygen species in airway epithelial cells (AECs). Likewise, lipid peroxidation in CSE-stimulated AECs was suppressed by EGCG. Our findings further suggest that EGCG sequestered 4-hydroxynonenal and interfered with its protein adduct formation. Lastly, we show that EGCG inhibited nuclear factor-κB activation and the downstream expression of proinflammatory mediators. In summary, our study describing the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of EGCG in CSE-exposed AECs provide valuable information about the therapeutic potential of this tea catechin for COPD.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Catequina/análogos & derivados , Fumar Cigarros/tratamento farmacológico , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brônquios/metabolismo , Catequina/metabolismo , Catequina/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Células Epiteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
15.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(4): 519-523, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798097

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess whether youth cigarette and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use are associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms, testing, and diagnosis. METHODS: An online national survey of adolescents and young adults (n = 4,351) aged 13-24 years was conducted in May 2020. Multivariable logistic regression assessed relationships among COVID-19-related symptoms, testing, and diagnosis and cigarettes only, e-cigarettes only and dual use, sociodemographic factors, obesity, and complying with shelter-in-place. RESULTS: COVID-19 diagnosis was five times more likely among ever-users of e-cigarettes only (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.82-13.96), seven times more likely among ever-dual-users (95% CI: 1.98-24.55), and 6.8 times more likely among past 30-day dual-users (95% CI: 2.40-19.55). Testing was nine times more likely among past 30-day dual-users (95% CI: 5.43-15.47) and 2.6 times more likely among past 30-day e-cigarette only users (95% CI: 1.33-4.87). Symptoms were 4.7 times more likely among past 30-day dual-users (95% CI: 3.07-7.16). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with youth use of e-cigarettes only and dual use of e-cigarettes and cigarettes, suggesting the need for screening and education.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Betacoronavirus , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236988, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764771

RESUMO

Exposure to secondhand cigarette smoke is associated with the development of diverse diseases. Resistance training has been considered one of the most useful tools for patients with pulmonary disease, improving their quality of life. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of resistance training (RT) on the prevention of thickening of the right ventricle wall of rats exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control (C), Smoker (S), Exercised (E) and Exercised Smoker (ES). The smoker groups were exposed to the smoke of four cigarettes for 30 min, twice daily, five days a week, for 16 weeks. The exercised groups climbed on a vertical ladder with progressive load, once a day, five days a week, for 16 weeks. The heart, trachea, lung, liver and gastrocnemius muscle were removed for histopathological analysis. Pulmonary emphysema (S and ES vs C and E, P < 0.0001) and pulmonary artery thickness enlargement (S vs C and E, P = 0.003, ES vs C, P = 0.003) were detected in the smoking groups. There was an increase in the right ventricle thickness in the S group compared with all other groups (P < 0.0001). An increase in resident macrophages in the liver was detected in both smoking groups compared with the C group (P = 0.002). Additionally, a relevant reduction of the diameter of the muscle fibers was detected only in ES compared with the C, S and E groups (P = 0.0002), impairing, at least in part, the muscle mass in exercised smoking rats. Therefore, it was concluded that resistance training prevented the increase of thickness of the right ventricle in rats exposed to secondhand cigarette smoke, but it may be not so beneficial for the skeletal muscle of smoking rats.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/prevenção & controle , Condicionamento Físico Animal/métodos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Fumar Cigarros/patologia , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/patologia , Hipertrofia Ventricular Direita/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/patologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Treinamento de Resistência
17.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236021, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that annual screening with low dose CT in high-risk population was associated with reduction in lung cancer mortality. Nonetheless, the leading cause of mortality in the study was from cardiovascular diseases. PURPOSE: To determine whether the used machine learning automatic algorithms assessing coronary calcium score (CCS), level of liver steatosis and emphysema percentage in the lungs are good predictors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality and incidence when applied on low dose CT scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three fully automated machine learning algorithms were used to assess CCS, level of liver steatosis and emphysema percentage in the lung. The algorithms were used on low-dose computed tomography scans acquired from 12,332 participants in NLST. RESULTS: In a multivariate analysis, association between the three algorithm scores and CVD mortality have shown an OR of 1.72 (p = 0.003), 2.62 (p < 0.0001) for CCS scores of 101-400 and above 400 respectively, and an OR of 1.12 (p = 0.044) for level of liver steatosis. Similar results were shown for the incidence of CVD, OR of 1.96 (p < 0.0001), 4.94 (p < 0.0001) for CCS scores of 101-400 and above 400 respectively. Also, emphysema percentage demonstrated an OR of 0.89 (p < 0.0001). Similar results are shown for univariate analyses of the algorithms. CONCLUSION: The three automated machine learning algorithms could help physicians to assess the incidence and risk of CVD mortality in this specific population. Application of these algorithms to existing LDCT scans can provide valuable health care information and assist in future research.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Aprendizado de Máquina , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Enfisema/diagnóstico , Enfisema/epidemiologia , Enfisema/etiologia , Fígado Gorduroso/diagnóstico , Fígado Gorduroso/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , National Cancer Institute (U.S.) , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748882

RESUMO

Chronic cigarette smokers (CCS) are known to have elevated levels of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). However, it is not known whether increased levels of COHb are associated with endothelial dysfunction (ED), and therefore the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). The aim of the study was to investigate the association of blood COHb and plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels, and whether it is an independent risk factor in the development of PAD among CCS at Dr George Mukhari Academic Hospital (DGMAH). A sample of 120 CCS with PAD and a convenience sample of 100 CCS without PAD were recruited into the study. Blood COHb levels were measured using the ABL 90 FLEX CO-oximeter automated spectroscopy. Plasma nitric oxide (NO) levels were measure using ELISA. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the association of blood COHb and plasma NO with PAD. Blood COHb levels of CCS with PAD were significantly higher than those of CCS without PAD, and the NO levels of CCS with PAD were significantly lower than those of CCS without PAD. Although both the blood COHb and plasma NO in CCS were significantly associated with PAD in bivariate logistic analysis, only plasma NO was independently associated with PAD in multivariate logistic analysis. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that COHb is a cause of arterial damage in PAD, leading to reduced NO, and therefore reduced arterial dilation.


Assuntos
Carboxihemoglobina/análise , Fumar Cigarros/sangue , Óxido Nítrico/sangue , Doença Arterial Periférica/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Artérias , Carboxihemoglobina/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oximetria , Doença Arterial Periférica/patologia , Fumantes
19.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(3): H547-H556, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734819

RESUMO

Tobacco cigarette (TC) smoking has never been lower in the United States, but electronic cigarette (EC) vaping has reached epidemic proportions among our youth. Endothelial dysfunction, as measured by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) is a predictor of future atherosclerosis and adverse cardiovascular events and is impaired in young TC smokers, but whether FMD is also reduced in young EC vapers is uncertain. The aim of this study in otherwise healthy young people was to compare the effects of acute and chronic tobacco cigarette (TC) smoking and electronic cigarette (EC) vaping on FMD. FMD was compared in 47 nonsmokers (NS), 49 chronic EC vapers, and 40 chronic TC smokers at baseline and then after EC vapers (n = 31) and nonsmokers (n = 47) acutely used an EC with nicotine (ECN), EC without nicotine (EC0), and nicotine inhaler (NI) at ~4-wk intervals and after TC smokers (n = 33) acutely smoked a TC, compared with sham control. Mean age (NS, 26.3 ± 5.2 vs. EC, 27.4 ± 5.45 vs. TC, 27.1 ± 5.51 yr, P = 0.53) was similar among the groups, but there were more female nonsmokers. Baseline FMD was not different among the groups (NS, 7.7 ± 4.5 vs. EC:6.6 ± 3.6 vs. TC, 7.9 ± 3.7%∆, P = 0.35), even when compared by group and sex. Acute TC smoking versus control impaired FMD (FMD pre-/postsmoking, -2.52 ± 0.92 vs. 0.65 ± 0.93%∆, P = 0.02). Although the increase in plasma nicotine was similar after EC vapers used the ECN versus TC smokers smoked the TC (5.75 ± 0.74 vs. 5.88 ± 0.69 ng/mL, P = 0.47), acute EC vaping did not impair FMD. In otherwise healthy young people who regularly smoke TCs or ECs, impaired FMD compared with that in nonsmokers was not present at baseline. However, FMD was significantly impaired after smoking one TC, but not after vaping an equivalent "dose" (estimated by change in plasma nicotine) of an EC, consistent with the notion that non-nicotine constituents in TC smoke mediate the impairment. Although it is reassuring that acute EC vaping did not acutely impair FMD, it would be dangerous and premature to conclude that ECs do not lead to atherosclerosis.NEW & NOTEWORTHY In our study of otherwise healthy young people, baseline flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a predictor of atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk, was not different among tobacco cigarette (TC) smokers or electronic cigarette (EC) vapers who had refrained from smoking, compared with nonsmokers. However, acutely smoking one TC impaired FMD in smokers, whereas vaping a similar EC "dose" (as estimated by change in plasma nicotine levels) did not. Finally, although it is reassuring that acute EC vaping did not acutely impair FMD, it would be premature and dangerous to conclude that ECs do not lead to atherosclerosis or increase cardiovascular risk.


Assuntos
Artéria Braquial/fisiopatologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Vapor do Cigarro Eletrônico/efeitos adversos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Endotélio Vascular/fisiopatologia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vasodilatação , Adulto , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Estudos Cross-Over , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição Aleatória , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854185

RESUMO

Tobacco use is exceedingly high among those who are homeless or at risk of homelessness but not commonly addressed by clinicians. Taking Texas Tobacco Free (TTTF) is a tobacco control program that addresses known clinician barriers to intervention (e.g., low training receipt, limited resources). Here, we examine the process and outcomes of TTTF's adaptation within four agencies that provide housing or other services to individuals who are homeless or vulnerably housed. Pre- and post-implementation data were collected from clinicians (N = 68) to assess changes in training receipt, knowledge, and intervention behaviors, relative to program goals. Results indicated significant gains in clinicians' receipt of training in 9 (of 9) target areas (p's ≤ 0.0042) and a 53% knowledge gain (p < 0.0001). From pre- to post-implementation, there were mean increases in the use of the 5As (ask, advise, assess, assist, and arrange) and other evidence-based interventions for tobacco cessation, with significant gains seen in assisting residents/clients to quit, arranging follow-ups, and providing or referring for non-nicotine medications (p's ≤ 0.0491). All program goals, except gains related to advising smokers to quit and the use of specific interventions (behavioral counseling), were met. Overall, TTTF improved clinicians' capacity to address tobacco use among homeless and vulnerably housed individuals and can serve as a model for tobacco control efforts in similar agencies.


Assuntos
Fortalecimento Institucional , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle , Fumar Cigarros/prevenção & controle , Educação em Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Texas , Local de Trabalho
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