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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(5): e058324, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35501081

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We sought to quantify the impact of vaping introduction on cigarette smoking across settings with varied regulatory approaches to vaping. DESIGN: Interrupted time series analysis, adjusted for cigarette tax levels. SETTING: Four Canadian provinces, UK and Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Entire population of smokers in each country. INTERVENTIONS: The year that vaping was widely introduced in each country. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome is cigarette consumption per adult, and the secondary outcome is smoking prevalence among young adults. RESULTS: Based on allowable nicotine levels, restrictions on e-cigarette advertising, sales and access, and taxation, the least to most restrictive jurisdictions were, in order, Alberta, Ontario, Quebec and British Columbia (all in Canada), UK and Australia. In most, but not all, settings where higher nicotine content was permitted in vaping products (66 mg/mL), vaping introduction led to a reduction in cigarette consumption per capita (Ontario: p=0.037, Quebec: p=0.007) or in smoking prevalence among young adults (Alberta men, p=0.027; Quebec men, p=0.008; Quebec women, p=0.008). In the UK, where the maximum permitted nicotine content in vaping products was 20 mg/mL, vaping introduction slowed the declining trend in cigarette smoking among men aged 16-24 years (p=0.031) and 25-34 years (p=0.002) but not in cigarette consumption per adult. In Australia, where nicotine was not permitted in e-cigarettes, e-cigarette introduction slowed the declining trend in cigarette consumption per capita and in smoking prevalence among men aged 18-24 years (cigarette consumption: p=0.015, prevalence: p=0.044). CONCLUSION: In environments that enable substitution of cigarettes with e-cigarettes, e-cigarette introduction reduces overall cigarette consumption. Thus, to reduce cigarette smoking, policies that encourage adults to substitute cigarette smoking with vaping should be considered.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Masculino , Nicotina , Ontário , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(5): e2210029, 2022 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35503218

RESUMO

Importance: Menthol cigarettes were prohibited in England in May 2020 and nationally in Canada in October 2017 but remain permitted in the US. Evidence on the outcomes of menthol cigarette bans among youth outside of Canada, and the characteristics of youth smokers, is lacking. Objectives: To evaluate the outcomes of menthol cigarette bans on youth menthol cigarette smoking and to characterize youth menthol cigarette smokers in terms of demographics and cigarette consumption and dependence. Design, Setting, and Participants: This survey study uses data from online repeat cross-sectional International Tobacco Control Youth Tobacco and Vaping Surveys conducted in 2018, 2019, February 2020, and August 2020. Participants included past 30-day smokers aged 16 to 19 years. Data analysis was performed from March 2021 to January 2022. Main Outcomes and Measures: Usually smoke a brand of cigarettes that was menthol, including capsule. Exposures: Menthol cigarette ban, comparing 3 countries over time: Canada, where a ban already existed, England, where a ban was implemented during the study, and the US, where no national ban was present. Age, sex, race, and consumption and dependence were also examined by menthol smoking in each country, and in England before vs after the ban. Results: The analytical sample comprised 7067 participants aged 16 to 19 years, of whom 4129 were female and 5019 were White. In England, the weighted percentage of youth smokers who reported smoking a menthol or capsule cigarette brand was stable in the 3 survey waves before the menthol ban (2018 to February 2020, 9.4% vs 12.1%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.99-1.06; P = .15) but decreased to 3.0% after the ban (February 2020 vs August 2020, AOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.10; P < .001). The decrease between February and August 2020 in England was similar across all demographic groups but was greater among youth who perceived themselves as addicted to cigarettes (AOR, 0.37; 95% CI, 0.41-0.97; P = .04). In the 2 comparison countries, menthol or capsule smoking was stable across all waves (2018 to August 2020: US, 33.6%-36.9%; Canada, 3.1%-2.3%) and was more prevalent in the US than in England (AOR, 5.58; 95% CI, 4.63-6.72; P < .001). Menthol or capsule smoking was also more prevalent among smokers in England who were female vs male (10.9% vs 7.2%; AOR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.06; P = .002); among smokers in the US who identified as Black vs White (60.6% vs 31.9%; AOR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.23-1.44; P < .001) or who were frequent smokers (AOR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.01-1.13; P = .03), smoked more cigarettes per day (2-5 vs 1, AOR, 1.09; 95% CI, 1.02-1.15; P = .006; >5 vs 1, AOR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.03-1.18; P = .007), or had urges to smoke every or most days (AOR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.02-1.14; P = .006); and among smokers in Canada who perceived themselves as addicted to cigarettes (AOR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.00-1.03; P = .01). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study, the proportion of youth smokers who smoke menthol (including capsule) cigarettes decreased substantially after the menthol ban in England. This association was consistent across all demographic groups. Perceived addiction among menthol smokers was also lower where menthol cigarettes were banned.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Canadá/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mentol , Tabaco
3.
JAMA ; 327(16): 1566-1576, 2022 04 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35471512

RESUMO

Importance: Tobacco use is highly concentrated in persons with mental illness. Objectives: To assess trends in past-month prevalence of cigarette smoking among adults with vs without past-year depression, substance use disorders (SUDs), or both, using nationally representative data. Design, Setting, and Participants: Exploratory, serial, cross-sectional study based on data from 558 960 individuals aged 18 years or older who participated in the 2006-2019 US National Surveys on Drug Use and Health. Exposure: Past-year major depressive episode (MDE) and SUD using Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition, Text Revision) criteria. Main Outcomes and Measures: Past-month self-reported cigarette use, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics. Results: Of the sampled 558 960 adults, 41.4% (unweighted) were aged 18 to 25 years, 29.8% (unweighted) were aged 26 to 49 years, and 53.4% (unweighted) were women. From 2006 to 2019, the past-month self-reported cigarette smoking prevalence declined significantly among adults with MDE from 37.3% to 24.2% for an average annual percent change of -3.2 (95% CI, -3.5 to -2.8; P < .001), adults with SUD from 46.5% to 35.8% for an average annual percent change of -1.7 (95% CI, -2.8 to -0.6; P = .002), and adults with co-occurring MDE and SUD from 50.7% to 37.0% for an annual average annual percent change of -2.1 (95% CI, -3.1 to -1.2; P < .001). The prevalence declined significantly for each examined age, sex, and racial and ethnic subgroup with MDE and with SUD (all P < .05), except for no significant changes in American Indian or Alaska Native adults with MDE (P = .98) or with SUD (P = .46). Differences in prevalence of cigarette smoking between adults with vs without MDE declined significantly for adults overall from 11.5% to 6.6%, for an average annual percent change of -3.4 (95% CI, -4.1 to -2.7; P < .001); significant average annual percent change declines were also seen for men (-5.1 [95% CI, -7.2 to -2.9]; P < .001); for women (-2.7 [95% CI, -3.9 to -1.5]; P < .001); for those aged 18 through 25 years (-5.2 [95% CI, -7.6 to -2.8]; P < .001); for those aged 50 years or older (-4.7 [95% CI, -8.0 to -1.2]; P = .01); for Hispanic individuals (-4.4 [95% CI, -8.0 to -0.5]; P = .03), and for White individuals (-3.6 [95% CI, -4.5 to -2.7]; P < .001). For American Indian or Alaska Native adults, prevalence did not significantly differ between those with vs without MDE during 2006-2012 but was significantly higher for those with MDE during 2013-2019 (difference, 11.3%; 95% CI, 0.9 to 21.7; P = .04). Differences among those with vs without SUD declined for women for an average annual percent change of -1.8 (95% CI, -2.8 to -0.9; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this exploratory, serial, cross-sectional study, there were significant reductions in the prevalence of self-reported cigarette smoking among US adults with major depressive episode, substance use disorder, or both, between 2006 and 2019. However, continued efforts are needed to reduce the prevalence further.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e056209, 2022 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate smoking status and its influencing factors in high-income areas of China. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: High-income areas in China. PARTICIPANTS: 4064 persons aged 15 years or older from the survey results in Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China 2018. METHODS: Gross national income data were used to determine China's high-income economic regions, and the results of the survey in Global Adult Tobacco Survey-China 2018 were used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: A total of 4064 people were included in our study, including 881 current smokers, 2884 who had never smoked and 299 who had quit smoking. Using the standardised rate method, the standardised smoking rates in high-income and non-high-income areas in China were calculated to be 23.56% and 27.77%, respectively. Men, high school education or below, knowledge of e-cigarette information, permission to smoke at home and people with poor smoking health literacy are the main influencing factors of smokers in high-income areas of China. CONCLUSION: The smoking rate of people in China's high-income areas is lower than the overall smoking rate in China, and we should increase the public awareness that smoking is harmful to health, encourage the prohibition of smoking at home, increase investment in higher education and improve residents' smoking health literacy level. The purpose of this study was to encourage reduction in the rate of smoking and better control the prevalence of smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Tabaco
5.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(4)2022 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35454341

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: Cigarette smoking among the youth population has increased significantly in developing countries, including Bosnia and Herzegovina. However, no extant literature assesses the prevalence of tobacco use, nor identifies factors associated with smoking. This study determined the prevalence of cigarette smoking among a specific cohort of students and assessed factors related to tobacco use in this population. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study included 1200 students at all faculties of Banja Luka University. Data were collected from questionnaires adapted from the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) and the Global Health Professional Student Survey (GHPSS) standardized questionnaires and were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's χ2 test, and logistic regression. Results: When the prevalence of cigarette smoking within the last thirty days was recorded, we found that 34.1% of students smoked within this period. Nearly three-quarters (74.9%) of the student population had smoked or experimented with cigarette smoking. However, medical students were 27.2% less likely to smoke than their counterparts from other faculties. Overall, 87% of all students were aware of the harmful effects of cigarette smoking, 79% were aware of the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, and 65% reported that it was difficult to quit. Increased spending of personal money was associated with a higher probability of smoking, while exposure to secondhand smoke increased the odds of smoking by 62%. Conclusion: Policies, strategies, and action plans should be introduced in order to reduce the prevalence of smoking among university students and to create a smoke-free environment at the various universities involved.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Estudantes de Medicina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35409765

RESUMO

Carcinogenic effects of tobacco smoke may affect breast tumorigenesis. To assess whether cigarette smoking is associated with breast cancer characteristics, we investigated the relationships between smoking, pathological characteristics, and outcomes in 2153 women diagnosed with breast cancer 2001-2016. Patients were classified as never, former, or current smokers at the time of diagnosis. Logistic regression and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis were performed to determine whether smoking was associated with tumor characteristics. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis was conducted to compare former or current smokers to never smokers in survival with adjustment for the potential confounders. The majority of women (61.8%) never smoked, followed by former smokers (26.2%) and current smokers (12.0%). After adjustment for demographic variables, body mass index, and comorbidities, tumor characteristics were not significantly associated with smoking status or pack-years smoked. Ten-year overall survival was significantly lower for former and current smokers compared to never smokers (p = 0.0105). However, breast cancer specific survival did not differ significantly between groups (p = 0.1606). Although cigarette smoking did not alter the underlying biology of breast tumors or breast cancer-specific survival, overall survival was significantly worse in smokers, highlighting the importance of smoking cessation in the recently diagnosed breast cancer patient.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama , Fumar Cigarros , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Tabaco
7.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 86(4): 1849-1859, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35253762

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although cigarette smoking is an important modifiable factor of cognitive impairment, the roles of the Alzheimer's disease (AD) core pathologies in modulating this process have not been fully delineated. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore associations of cigarette smoking with cognition and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) AD biomarkers. METHODS: A total of 1,079 non-demented participants were included from the Chinese Alzheimer's Biomarker and LifestylE (CABLE) study. Associations of cigarette smoking with cognition and CSF AD biomarkers were explored by multiple linear regression models. The mediation analyses with 10,000 bootstrapped iterations were conducted to explore the mediation effects. RESULTS: Heavy cigarette smokers (pack-years > 20) had poorer global cognition as well as higher levels of CSF p-tau and t-tau compared with the non-smokers (p < 0.01). Time-dose effect analysis among smokers also suggested that both cognitive impairment and tau pathologies markedly deteriorated with greater cumulative cigarette exposure, independently of the Aß pathology (p < 0.01). In addition, smokers with older age or APOEɛ4 showed more obvious influences on CSF tau pathologies but not on cognition. Overall, the influence of smoking on cognition was partially mediated by tau pathologies (estimated proportion: 12%), which still remained in late-life (10% ∼11%) and increased in APOEɛ4 carriers (18% ∼24%). Encouragingly, long-term smoking cessation mitigated both cognitive impairment and tau pathologies (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking was associated with both cognitive impairment and tau pathologies, which were accompanied by time-dose effects. Tau pathology might be a key mediator for influences of cigarette smoking on cognitive impairments.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Fumar Cigarros , Disfunção Cognitiva , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
8.
Subst Use Misuse ; 57(6): 940-947, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35317713

RESUMO

Background: Adverse childhood experiences are linked to a wide range of physical, social, sexual, and family dysfunctions. These experiences, such as smoking, may have negative health consequences. Objective: The goal of this study was to explain the desire to smoke in university students in Isfahan, Iran based on adverse childhood events and subjective socioeconomic status. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 450 young adults who were recruited randomly from Isfahan universities in 2020. To collect data, a checklist of adverse childhood events, craving for smoking, and a question about subjective socioeconomic status were used. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results: According to the findings, 46.5 percent of all university students had at least one Adverse Childhood Experience, and 68.8 percent of all university students had some level of smoking craving. Controlling for demographic variables, respondents with one to five adverse childhood experiences (OR: 1.84; 95 percent of CI: 1.11-3.04) and six or more adverse childhood experiences (OR: 5.37; 95 percent of CI: 2.58-11.71) were more likely to crave smoking than respondents with no adverse childhood experiences. Furthermore, among all students, a higher subjective socioeconomic status reduced the likelihood of smoking by 19%. Conclusions and implications: It can be concluded that university students who have had adversity in their childhood are more likely to engage in high-risk behaviors like smoking. Because smoking is recognized as a coping mechanism for stressful events, it is suggested that personal, local, and national strategies aimed at young adults in Iran be developed.


Assuntos
Experiências Adversas da Infância , Fumar Cigarros , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fissura , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270603

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Black cigarette smokers experience a disproportionate burden of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) compared to other racial and ethnic groups, despite starting to smoke later in life, smoking less frequently, and smoking fewer cigarettes per day compared with White smokers. Research has shown that these disparities in NSCLC are wider in rural areas. OBJECTIVE: To examine differences in smoking behaviors between Black and White individuals living in non-metropolitan areas and metropolitan areas. METHODS: Using harmonized data from the Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) years 2010-2011, 2014-2015, and 2018-2019, we compared smoking behaviors between Black and White current and former smokers by metropolitan status (i.e., whether an individual lives in a densely populated area or not) and by both metropolitan status and sex. RESULTS: Smoking prevalence was higher among White participants living in non-metropolitan versus Black participants. Further, in non-metropolitan areas, Black individuals reported smoking fewer cigarettes per day, fewer years of smoking, and a later age of initiation compared to White individuals. Additionally, Black individuals, especially men, were more likely than White individuals to be current non-daily smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings show that Black individuals living in non-metropolitan areas do not, in aggregate, have more cigarette smoking exposure relative to White individuals. Additional research is needed to further understand smoking-related exposures and other factors that may contribute to lung cancer disparities, especially in non-metropolitan areas.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas , Fumar Cigarros , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fumantes
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35270751

RESUMO

University student's smoking is a significant public health problem. It is estimated that, globally, every fifth medical student is a smoker. So far, no research dealing with cigarette smoking among medical students has been conducted in the countries of the Western Balkans. The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence and risk factors of cigarette smoking among Western Balkans medical students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 2452 students from 14 medical faculties in the Western Balkans (Republic of Slovenia, Republic of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Republic of North Macedonia and Republic of Serbia). The data were gathered through an online survey. There were significantly more non-smokers than smokers among medical students. Only gender and parents smoking status were statistically significantly associated with students smoking status. The smokers were more often male students, who lived in urban areas prior their studies, and whose parents were both smokers. With the aim of monitoring and enhancing student population health, it is necessary for public health activists and health officials to continually survey the students' smoking status in order to recognize the smoking influencing factors, and form and take on appropriate activities to improve the prevention of cigarette smoking among students, as well as motivate those who smoke to give up smoking, which would contribute to improving the health of the student population.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Estudantes de Medicina , Península Balcânica/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Tabaco , Universidades
11.
Int Urol Nephrol ; 54(6): 1169-1185, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35332429

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The disease burden of bladder cancer is increasing worldwide; therefore, to deal with this situation, many studies on bladder cancer have been carried out extensively. Among these studies, the risk factors studies may provide a possible way to reduce the incidence of bladder cancer. Meta-analyses and original researches have confirmed that smoking is a risk factor of bladder cancer. However, the specific dose-response relationship between smoking and bladder cancer risk was still unclear. This meta-analysis addresses this research gap by summarizing the accumulated evidences, quantitatively. METHODS: Relevant studies were obtained by searching PubMed, Embase and Web of Science database since inception until August 10, 2021, without restrictions. To obtain more comprehensive data, reference lists of identified articles were also browsed. Studies that reported risk estimates (relative risks (RR) or odds ratio (OR)) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) focusing on the association between cigarette smoking and risk of bladder cancer were included in a dose-response meta-analysis. RESULTS: A non-linear dose-response relationship was confirmed between cigarette smoking and risk of bladder cancer on the basis of 8 cohorts and 44 case-control studies. The summary relative risk of developing bladder cancer for 1 more cigarettes/day (7 cohorts and 24 case-control studies) was 1.039 (95% CI 1.038-1.040, I2 = 0%), for 1 more pack-year (3 cohorts and 21 case-control studies) was 1.017(95% CI 1.016-1.019, I2 = 0%) and for 1 more year of exposure (16 case-control studies) was 1.021 (95% CI 1.020-1.023, I2 = 0%). CONCLUSION: A positive non-linear dose-response relationship is confirmed between all smoking intensity, pack-years of smoking, smoking duration(years) and the risk of bladder cancer, but the plateau only occurred when smoking intensity reached 20 cigarettes/day. Further studies should report more detailed results, including those for subtypes of gender, age, region and be stratified by other risk factors to rule out residual confounding.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/etiologia
12.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 613, 2022 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35351046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner sexual violence (IPSV) is a prevalent public health problem affecting millions of people each year globally, particularly in developing countries like Papua New Guinea (PNG). Although over two-thirds of women in PNG are estimated to experience some form of sexual violence in their lifetime, empirical evidence is limited on the association between IPSV and cigarette smoking. Thus, the present study aims to examine the prevalence of IPSV and its association with cigarette smoking among women in union  in PNG. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used data from the first demographic and health survey of PNG conducted between 2016 and 2018. A total of 9,943 women aged 15-49 years in intimate unions were included in this study. We estimated the relative risk of smoking cigarette using modified Poisson regression models with a robust variance and 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: The rates of IPSV and current cigarette smoking were 25.9% and 26.8%, respectively. The modified Poisson regression results showed that IPSV was significantly associated with an elevated risk for cigarette smoking. Women with IPSV history were more likely to smoke cigarette relative to their counterparts with no IPSV history (RR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.18-1.50) in the absence of covariates. After controlling for demographic, social and economic factors, the association between IPSV and cigarette smoking remained statistically significant (RR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.08-1.42). CONCLUSIONS: The rates of IPSV and cigarette smoking among women in union in PNG in the current study were relatively high. Irrespective of diverse demographic, social and economic factors, IPSV was still significantly associated with cigarette smoking among women in union in PNG. The findings presented call the attention of policy-makers and relevant authorities in PNG to an important association that needs to be addressed. Counseling, awareness creation, service provision and program design on IPSV are urgently required to minimize cigarette smoking and IPSV among women in union in PNG.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Delitos Sexuais , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papua Nova Guiné/epidemiologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35329179

RESUMO

This study aimed to estimate the burden of cancer in Koreans attributable to smoking and alcohol consumption using disability-adjusted life years and population attributable fractions. We estimated the burden of 12 cancers due to simultaneous and independent smoking and alcohol exposure in Koreans aged ≥40 years. In men, the cancer burden attributable to the combined risk factors, smoking alone, and alcohol consumption alone were 9.5, 14.8, and 6.1%, respectively; the corresponding values for women were 1.1, 2.5, and 2.7%, respectively. In men, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers were the most common cancer types. The disease burden may have been reduced by 16.8, 32.3, and 4.1% in the absence of the combined risk factors, smoking alone, and alcohol consumption alone, respectively. Our findings suggest that risk factor-based intervention may have the greatest preventative effect for lung cancer among all cancers in men. Our real-world data methodology could provide further evidence-based methods to explore and facilitate effective health promotion interventions for specific target groups and may lay the foundation for the establishment of healthcare services according to population subgroups or regional characteristics.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Neoplasias , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/etiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 505, 2022 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35292000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of smokeless tobacco has increased worldwide among young people. This study aimed to investigate the association between smokeless tobacco use and cigarette smoking amount in adult smoker groups stratified by age. METHOD: 2013-2015 National Health Interview Survey was used. A total of 19,635 subjects were included in our analysis. Propensity score matching was used to adjust for selection and any other bias. Generalized estimating equation was used to analyze the association between smokeless tobacco use and cigarette smoking amount by age. RESULTS: All 580 smokeless tobacco users were matched to 2,900 non-smokeless tobacco users. Among those who were aged under 30, smokeless tobacco use was positively associated with the number of cigarettes used per day. Smokeless tobacco users who were aged under 30 and tried quitting smoking used more cigarettes than those who did non-smokeless tobacco users. CONCLUSIONS: The present study revealed that among those who were aged under 30, smokeless tobacco use was positively associated with the number of cigarettes used per day. This study could contribute to understand the behaviors and tendencies of smoking in young adulthood and to establish effective smoking cessation methods for their age.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Humanos , Tabaco , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Addict Biol ; 27(2): e13129, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35229938

RESUMO

The aims of this study are to estimate the contributions of genetic factors to the variation of tea drinking and cigarette smoking, to examine the roles of genetic factors in their correlation and further to investigate underlying causation between them. We included 11 625 male twin pairs from the Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR). Bivariate genetic modelling was fitted to explore the genetic influences on tea drinking, cigarette smoking and their correlation. Inference about Causation through Examination of FAmiliaL CONfounding (ICE FALCON) was further used to explore the causal relationship between them. We found that genetic factors explained 17% and 23% of the variation in tea drinking and cigarette smoking, respectively. A low phenotypic association between them was reported (rph = 0.21, 95% confidence interval [CI]: [0.19, 0.24]), which was partly attributed to common genetic factors (rA = 0.45, 95% CI [0.19, 1.00]). In the ICE FALCON analysis with current smoking as the exposure, tea drinking was associated with his own (ßself = 0.39, 95% CI [0.23, 0.55]) and his co-twin's smoking status (ßco-twin = 0.25, 95% CI [0.10, 0.41]). Their association attenuated with borderline significance conditioning on his own smoking status (p = 0.045), indicating a suggestive causal effect of smoking status on tea drinking. On the contrary, when we used tea drinking as the predictor, we found familial confounding between them only. In conclusion, both tea drinking and cigarette smoking were influenced by genetic factors, and their correlation was partly explained by common genetic factors. In addition, our finding suggests that familial confounders account for the relationship between tea drinking and cigarette smoking. And current smoking might have a causal effect on weekly tea drinking, but not vice versa.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Fumar , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , China , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética , Chá , Gêmeos/genética
16.
Addict Behav ; 130: 107289, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35228020

RESUMO

Smoking prevalence among youth experiencing homelessness (YEH) is three times higher than smoking prevalence among the general population. Many YEH who smoke are interested in quitting smoking, but also report smoking to cope with mental health symptoms. Research on factors that facilitate or impede successful smoking cessation among YEH is limited. This study examined mental health correlates (i.e., anxiety and depression symptoms) of quitting-related factors (i.e., quit attempts, perceived barriers to quitting) and whether smoking to cope moderates these relationships among this vulnerable population. The sample consisted of 77 YEH cigarette smokers between the ages of 18-25 who were interested in quitting. Participants completed a survey assessing various behavioral and cognitive factors related to tobacco use. Analyzing two separate models, hierarchical negative binomial and hierarchical linear regression were used to examine hypothesized correlates of the number of past year quit attempts and perceived barriers to quitting. Smoking to cope moderated the relationships of depression with past year quit attempts and perceived barriers to quitting. Those high in depression and smoking to cope had the fewest number of quit attempts and reported the greatest perceived barriers. Anxiety symptoms were not significantly associated with quit attempts or perceived barriers. Smoking cessation interventions that address using smoking to cope with mental health symptoms may be important for YEH with depression.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Health Psychol ; 41(3): 169-177, 2022 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35298209

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with physical inactivity and cigarette smoking. However, little is known about the degree to which comorbid psychiatric conditions affect the odds of physical inactivity and smoking among individuals with PTSD. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between PTSD, comorbid psychiatric conditions (depression, anxiety, or hazardous alcohol/substance use), physical inactivity and smoking among military veterans. METHOD: This was a cross-sectional analysis of data on U.S. veterans from Project VALOR (Veterans' After-discharge Longitudinal Registry; n = 1140). Logistic regressions examined associations between PTSD, comorbid psychiatric conditions, physical inactivity, and cigarette smoking. RESULTS: PTSD was associated with increased odds of being physically inactive (odds ratio [OR] = 2.08, p < .001) and a current smoker (OR = 1.39, p = .037), relative to no PTSD. PTSD with cooccurring depression was associated with increased odds for physical inactivity (OR = 2.68, p < .001) and smoking (OR = 1.78, p = .003), relative to PTSD only. PTSD with anxiety was associated with physical inactivity (OR = 2.17, p < .001), whereas cooccurring alcohol (OR = 1.60, p = .023) and substance use (OR = 2.00, p = .001) were associated with smoking. Additionally, numerous combinations of PTSD plus multiple conditions (e.g., PTSD + depression + anxiety) further increased the odds of physical inactivity and smoking (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Greater numbers of psychiatric comorbidities increase the odds of physical inactivity and cigarette smoking among veterans with PTSD. Physical inactivity and cigarette smoking are important predictors of cardiovascular and metabolic disease, and PTSD rarely occurs without psychiatric comorbidity. Thus, additional longitudinal research is needed to determine the impact of these associations, as they have clear physical and mental health implications. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos , Veteranos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Comportamento Sedentário , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Veteranos/psicologia
18.
Addict Behav ; 129: 107265, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual minority females have higher rates of cigarette smoking than heterosexual females. Additionally, menthol cigarette use disproportionately impacts minority smokers, including sexual minority individuals. This study examined differences between sexual minority and heterosexual females on several smoking variables, including initiation with a menthol cigarette, and past 30-day cigarette and menthol cigarette use. METHODS: Participants were female ever smokers (N = 11,576; n = 1,474, 12.7% sexual minority) who completed Wave 4 of the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Survey. Participants reported on the age they began smoking regularly (≤18 years old, 18-24, >25), whether they initiated with a menthol cigarette, past 30-day cigarette smoking and menthol cigarette use, cigarettes smoked per day (≤10, 11-20, >20), cigarette dependence (smoke ≤ 5 min of waking or > 5 min of waking), and whether they were a current (someday/every day) or former (no past year/current use) established smoker (≥100 lifetime cigarettes), or an experimental smoker (<100 lifetime cigarettes). Chi-square and multivariable logistic regression analyses examined differences between sexual minority females and heterosexual females on smoking variables. RESULTS: Sexual minority female smokers began smoking regularly at an earlier age and smoked fewer cigarettes per day than heterosexual females. Sexual minority females were more likely to initiate smoking with a menthol cigarette (aOR = 1.27), report past 30-day smoking (aOR = 1.36) and menthol cigarette use (aOR = 1.24) compared to heterosexual females. There were no differences on cigarette dependence. CONCLUSIONS: Given the high rates of initiation and current menthol smoking, policies to regulate menthol may decrease smoking disparities for sexual minority females.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Produtos do Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Heterossexualidade , Humanos , Mentol , Tabaco
19.
Am J Cardiol ; 168: 90-98, 2022 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35045935

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is associated with adverse cardiac outcomes, including incident heart failure (HF). However, key components of potential pathways from smoking to HF have not been evaluated in older adults. In a community-based study, we studied cross-sectional associations of smoking with blood and imaging biomarkers reflecting mechanisms of cardiac disease. Serial nested, multivariable Cox models were used to determine associations of smoking with HF, and to assess the influence of biochemical and functional (cardiac strain) phenotypes on these associations. Compared with never smokers, smokers had higher levels of inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin-6), cardiomyocyte injury (cardiac troponin T [hscTnT]), myocardial "stress"/fibrosis (soluble suppression of tumorigenicity 2 [sST2], galectin 3), and worse left ventricle systolic and diastolic function. In models adjusting for age, gender, and race (DEMO) and for clinical factors potentially in the causal pathway (CLIN), smoking exposures were associated with C-reactive protein and interleukin-6, sST2, hscTnT, and with N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic protein (in Whites). In DEMO adjusted models, the cumulative burden of smoking was associated with worse left ventricle systolic strain. Current smoking and former smoking were associated with HF in DEMO models (hazard ratio 1.41, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.64 and hazard ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.25, respectively), and with current smoking after CLIN adjustment. Adjustment for time-varying myocardial infarction, inflammation, cardiac strain, hscTnT, sST2, and galectin 3 did not materially alter the associations. Smoking was associated with HF with preserved and decreased ejection fraction. In conclusion, in older adults, smoking is associated with multiple blood and imaging biomarker measures of pathophysiology previously linked to HF, and to incident HF even after adjustment for clinical intermediates.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Insuficiência Cardíaca , Idoso , Biomarcadores , Proteína C-Reativa , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Galectina 3 , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Interleucina-6 , Estudos Prospectivos
20.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 2272281, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35097111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco is the only legal product that kills a large number of its consumers when used as intended by producers. Information on cigarette smoking and associated factors among adults at the household level is very limited. OBJECTIVE: To assess prevalence of cigarette smoking and associated factors among residents of Hossana town, Hadiya zone, Southern Ethiopia, 2020. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A cross-sectional study design was performed. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression was used to identify risk factors of cigarette smoking. Variables significant at a p value of less than 0.05 were considered as independent predictors. Hosmer and Lemeshow test statistics were done to test the model fitness for the final model. Similarly, multicollinearity was checked by using collinearity statistics (tolerance and VIf). RESULT: In total, 591 people responded to the survey, resulting in a 98.2% response rate. Among the study participants, cigarette smokers were 183 (31.0%). Educational status, alcohol use, and parental smoking were all found to have a significant relationship with cigarette smoking among research participants in Hosanna town. When compared to people with a college education or above, illiterates are approximately nine times more likely to consume cigarettes (95% CI = 9.058 (3.52, 22.469)). Alcoholics are about twice as likely as nondrinkers to smoke cigarettes (95% CI = 2.288 (1.548, 3.383)). Those who have cigarette-smoking parents are approximately twice as likely as their counterparts to smoke cigarettes (95% CI = 2.288 (1.548, 3.383)). CONCLUSION: According to this survey, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was high. Furthermore, cigarette smoking was linked to illiteracy, alcohol consumption, and parental smoking in this study.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Tabaco
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