Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 53
Filtrar
1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210218, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635326

RESUMO

Importance: Cigarettes are still a commonly used tobacco product among youth despite recent declines in cigarette use. Objective: The aim of this study was to prospectively estimate the age of cigarette use initiation among youth (aged 12-17 years) overall, by sex, and by race/ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from waves 1 through 4 of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study, conducted from September 12, 2013, to January 3, 2018. Two subpopulations of youth were assessed: (1) those nonsusceptible to cigarette use and (2) never users of cigarettes at their first wave of PATH participation. Weighted interval-censoring survival analyses were used to prospectively estimate the age of initiation of cigarette use outcomes. Weighted interval-censoring Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate differences in the age of initiation by sex and by race/ethnicity. Statistical analyses were performed from October 7, 2019, to May 1, 2020. Exposures: Differences in the age of initiation by sex and race/ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age of initiation of susceptibility to cigarette use, ever use, past 30-day use, and fairly regular cigarette use overall, by sex, and by race/ethnicity. Results: A total of 15 776 youth never users and, among them, 11 022 youth who were nonsusceptible to cigarette use, were included in this study (weighted mean [SE] age, 13.5 [0.01] years; 58.6% [SE, 0.46%] non-Hispanic White; and 51.0% [SE, 0.32%] boys) and 15 776 were never users of cigarettes at their first wave of PATH participation (weighted mean [SE] age, 13.7 [0.01] years; 55.0% [SE, 0.29%] non-Hispanic White; and 51.0% [SE, 0.15%] boys). By age 18 years, among those who were nonsusceptible, 46.2% (95% CI, 44.3%-48.2%) became susceptible to cigarette use. Among never users, 24.4% (95% CI, 22.9%-25.9%) initiated ever cigarette use, 16.4% (95% CI, 15.2%-17.6%) initiated past 30-day cigarette use, and 4.3% (95% CI, 3.9%-4.8%) initiated fairly regular cigarette use. Boys had a higher risk of initiating ever (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36) and past 30-day cigarette use (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.47) at earlier ages compared with girls. Non-Hispanic White youth had a higher risk of an earlier age of initiation of susceptibility to cigarette use (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.88), ever use (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71), past 30-day use (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.77), and fairly regular cigarette use (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.14-0.43) compared with non-Hispanic Black youth. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this cohort study suggest that, despite current interventions and existing laws, a large number of youth initiated cigarette use before the legal age to purchase tobacco products.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade de Início , Criança , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estados Unidos
2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 815, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data were available on smoking and smokeless tobacco use in South Asian migrants in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use in male South Asian migrants in the UAE. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study to recruit a random representative sample of male South Asian migrants, including Indian (n = 433), Pakistani (n = 383) and Bangladeshi (n = 559) nationalities. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify significant correlates of cigarettes smoking and smokeless tobacco use. RESULTS: 1375 South Asian migrant adult males participated in the study (response rate 76%) with a mean age of 34 years (SD ± 10). The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was 28% (95%CI 25-30%) and smokeless tobacco use was 11% (95%CI 10-13%). The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 21, 23, and 37% among participants from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was 6, 12, and 16% for Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi participants, respectively. Among study participants, Bangladeshi nationality, hypertension, and alcohol use were significant correlates of current cigarette smoking. Significant correlates of smokeless tobacco use included increased age, less than college level education, alcohol use, and Pakistani or Bangladeshi nationality. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking and smokeless tobacco use in South Asian migrants represent a significant public health burden in the UAE. Effective public health measures are needed to reduce tobacco use in this migrant population.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/etnologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Bangladesh , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Prevalência , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0230815, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32379818

RESUMO

Smoking is a potentially causal behavioral risk factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D), but not all smokers develop T2D. It is unknown whether genetic factors partially explain this variation. We performed genome-environment-wide interaction studies to identify loci exhibiting potential interaction with baseline smoking status (ever vs. never) on incident T2D and fasting glucose (FG). Analyses were performed in participants of European (EA) and African ancestry (AA) separately. Discovery analyses were conducted using genotype data from the 50,000-single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ITMAT-Broad-CARe (IBC) array in 5 cohorts from from the Candidate Gene Association Resource Consortium (n = 23,189). Replication was performed in up to 16 studies from the Cohorts for Heart Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology Consortium (n = 74,584). In meta-analysis of discovery and replication estimates, 5 SNPs met at least one criterion for potential interaction with smoking on incident T2D at p<1x10-7 (adjusted for multiple hypothesis-testing with the IBC array). Two SNPs had significant joint effects in the overall model and significant main effects only in one smoking stratum: rs140637 (FBN1) in AA individuals had a significant main effect only among smokers, and rs1444261 (closest gene C2orf63) in EA individuals had a significant main effect only among nonsmokers. Three additional SNPs were identified as having potential interaction by exhibiting a significant main effects only in smokers: rs1801232 (CUBN) in AA individuals, rs12243326 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals, and rs4132670 (TCF7L2) in EA individuals. No SNP met significance for potential interaction with smoking on baseline FG. The identification of these loci provides evidence for genetic interactions with smoking exposure that may explain some of the heterogeneity in the association between smoking and T2D.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Fumar Cigarros/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Jejum/sangue , Genótipo , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Risco
4.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 180-189, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low parental involvement and monitoring are risk factors for adolescent cigarette use. Assessments of parental involvement and monitoring by youth and parents may capture an additional source of risk: differences in perceptions of these parenting behaviors. This study tested for unique contributions of youth-reported parental involvement and monitoring and youth-parent discrepancies in reporting to first cigarette use in girls. METHOD: Data were drawn from interviews at ages 8-17 with 1,869 girls (57.3% Black, 42.7% White) and their primary caregivers (94% mothers) in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted to predict first cigarette use as a function of girls' reports of parental involvement and monitoring, magnitude and direction of youth-parent reporting discrepancies, and the interaction between them, adjusting for neighborhood, socioeconomic, and individual level factors. RESULTS: High magnitude of discrepancy in parental involvement reports (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03, 1.26]) and lower perceived parental involvement by girls (HR = 1.14, CI [1.03, 1.27]) were associated with an elevated risk for first cigarette use. Girls' reports of low parental monitoring also predicted first cigarette use (HR = 1.14, CI [1.06, 1.21]). CONCLUSIONS: Girls whose parents have limited awareness of their whereabouts and friends (i.e., low monitoring) are at an elevated risk for trying cigarettes, but parent-daughter differences in perceived awareness do not affect risk. By contrast, girls who perceive a lower degree of parental involvement than their parents do are at increased risk. Monitoring is one component of parenting that may reduce smoking risk; shared perspectives on the parent's level of involvement are similarly important.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Criança , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana/tendências
5.
Ann Epidemiol ; 43: 66-70, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094041

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although stroke survivors who continue smoking face increased risk for subsequent strokes, little is known about U.S. poststroke smoking patterns. We examined smoking prevalence in U.S. stroke survivors and what sociodemographic factors are associated with continuation of smoking in these individuals. METHODS: We determined the prevalence of smoking in U.S. stroke survivors (n = 56,523) using 2016-2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. A logistic regression was created to identify associations between sociodemographic factors and poststroke smoking continuation. RESULTS: 20.4% of stroke survivors continued to smoke after their stroke (14.7% smokes every day, 5.7% smokes some days). Older age, being male (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.27), Asian (OR: 2.79, 95% CI: 1.52-5.11) or Hispanic (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.06-1.63) ethnicity, higher income, higher educational attainment, and access to health care (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.02-1.59) and a personal doctor (one doctor OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.25-1.83; more than one doctor OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.27-1.99) corresponded with increased odds of smoking continuation after a stroke. CONCLUSIONS: A greater push for smoking cessation by clinicians and support programs to aid with cessation in U.S. stroke survivors is needed to decrease the high prevalence of poststroke smoking in this population.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
Am J Epidemiol ; 189(6): 543-553, 2020 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971226

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to examine whether the increased risk of colorectal cancer due to cigarette smoking differed by anatomical subsite or sex. We analyzed data from 188,052 participants aged 45-75 years (45% men) who were enrolled in the Multiethnic Cohort Study in 1993-1996. During a mean follow-up period of 16.7 years, we identified 4,879 incident cases of invasive colorectal adenocarcinoma. In multivariate Cox regression models, as compared with never smokers of the same sex, male ever smokers had a 39% higher risk (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.39, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16, 1.67) of cancer of the left (distal or descending) colon but not of the right (proximal or ascending) colon (HR = 1.03, 95% CI: 0.89, 1.18), while female ever smokers had a 20% higher risk (HR = 1.20, 95% CI: 1.06, 1.36) of cancer of the right colon but not of the left colon (HR = 0.96, 95% CI: 0.80, 1.15). Compared with male smokers, female smokers had a greater increase in risk of rectal cancer with number of pack-years of smoking (P for heterogeneity = 0.03). Our results suggest that male smokers are at increased risk of left colon cancer and female smokers are at increased risk of right colon cancer. Our study also suggests that females who smoke may have a higher risk of rectal cancer due to smoking than their male counterparts.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Adenocarcinoma/etnologia , Adenocarcinoma/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias do Colo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/mortalidade , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Neoplasias Retais/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 55(4): 447-456, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927596

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This longitudinal study aimed to identify variation by race in the associations between religious involvement and initiation of alcohol, cigarette, and marijuana use, including distinctions by substance or type of religious involvement, in Black and White adolescent girls. METHODS: Data were drawn from interviews conducted at ages 11 through 17 with 2172 Pittsburgh Girls Study participants (56.8% Black; 43.2% White). Two indicators of public religious involvement, religious service attendance and participation in other religious activities, and two indicators of private religious involvement, prayer, and importance of religion were queried. A series of Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted to identify independent effects of religious involvement indicators on initiation of each substance. RESULTS: Prior to adjusting for socioenvironmental and psychosocial factors (e.g., parental monitoring), importance of religion predicted initiation of alcohol use across race and cigarette and marijuana use in White but not Black girls. Participation in other religious activities also predicted marijuana use initiation only in White girls. In adjusted models, importance of religion remained significant for cigarette use initiation in White girls (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.68, 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.53-0.88) and participation in other religious activities remained significant for marijuana use initiation in White girls (HR = 0.63, CI: 0.47-0.83). CONCLUSIONS: The protective effects of religious involvement against cigarette and marijuana use initiation are more robust for White than Black adolescent girls and overall relatively weak for alcohol use initiation. Furthermore, importance placed on religion may be a better indicator than religious service attendance of risk for adolescent substance use initiation.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/etnologia , Religião e Psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Criança , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Uso da Maconha/psicologia
8.
Am J Prev Med ; 58(2): 244-249, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31859171

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: E-cigarette use is gaining popularity among youth, but knowledge on patterns of youth vaping different substances is limited. This study examines risk factors associated with past-30-day self-reported vaping of nicotine, marijuana, and just flavoring among youth and the patterns (single, dual, and poly) of substances youth reported in their e-cigarettes. METHODS: The 2017 Monitoring the Future survey was analyzed. Weighted estimates of substances that youth vaped were calculated, and multivariable logistic regressions were performed to examine risk factors associated with youth vaping these substances. Analyses were conducted in 2019. RESULTS: Overall (n=14,560), 8.0% of participants reported currently vaping just flavoring, followed by 7.4% vaping nicotine and 3.6% vaping marijuana. Youth who were in 12th and 10th grade (versus 8th grade), male (versus female), current smokers (versus noncurrent smokers), and current marijuana users (versus noncurrent users) had increased risk of vaping nicotine, marijuana, and just flavoring. Black non-Hispanics were less likely than white non-Hispanics to report currently vaping. Among students who reported e-cigarette use in the last 30 days (n=1,685), only 24.9% reported vaping just flavoring only, and a majority (75.1%) reported vaping nicotine, marijuana, or multiple substances. Higher (versus lower) grade or increasing cigarette smoking intensity was associated with a higher proportion of students reporting vaping nicotine only and a lower proportion of students reporting vaping just flavoring only. CONCLUSIONS: Youth e-cigarette use reveals a complex pattern, and youth reported vaping substances potentially addictive beyond just flavoring. Strategies and interventions to reduce youth e-cigarette use are needed.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Aromatizantes/administração & dosagem , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Comportamento Aditivo/etnologia , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Vaping/etnologia
9.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(1): 73-82, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31734765

RESUMO

PURPOSE: While smoking prevalence may be declining in the general population, health disparities in tobacco use remain a public health priority. This study examined national, sociodemographic, and geographic trends in American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) smoking prevalence from 1992/1993 to 2014/2015. Additionally, correlates of cigarette smoking were examined among this group. METHODS: Data were drawn from the 1992-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey. Cochran-Armitage tests were used to assess changes in the prevalence of smoking over time in the population, as well by sociodemographic characteristics. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine the correlates of cigarette smoking for AIs/ANs in 2014/2015. RESULTS: The trend analysis indicated that the prevalence of smoking, among AIs/ANs, decreased significantly from 39.1% in the 1992/1993 cycle to 20.9% in the 2014/2015. This decrease was seen in both males and females, with the prevalence of smoking decreasing from 43.6% and 35.4%, respectively, in 2006/2007 to 23.8% and 18.3% in 2014/2015. The decreasing trend was also found for all subgroups, except for the 55+ age group. Multivariable analysis showed higher odds of smoking among males, those with low income compared to those with median or higher income, and those living in non-metropolitan areas. Those aged 25-54 were more likely to be smokers compared with the 55+ age group. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate a recent decrease in AIs/ANs smoking prevalence, although these populations still experience a high prevalence of smoking compared to the general population. Our findings highlight the need for a comprehensive tobacco control strategy that includes working with stakeholders within the AI/AN community.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Geografia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Prevalência , Classe Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Biomarkers ; 25(1): 27-33, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31686544

RESUMO

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate factors affecting variabilities in the observed levels of nicotine metabolite ratios in serum (NMRS, N = 10,234) and urine (NMRU, N = 2286) for US adults aged ≥20 years.Materials and methods: Data from NHANES were used to fit regression models for log10 transformed values of NMRS and NMRU stratified by gender and smoking status.Results: Females had higher NMRS than males among both smokers and non-smokers. Females had lower NMRU than males among both smokers and non-smokers. Smokers had lower levels of both NMRS and NMRU among both males and females. The order in which NMRS by race/ethnicity was observed was non-Hispanic whites > Hispanics and others > non-Hispanic blacks. The order in which NMRU by race/ethnicity was observed was non-Hispanic blacks > non-Hispanic whites > Hispanics and others. Most of the pairwise differences between non-Hispanic blacks and whites were statistically significant (p ≤ 0.02). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) at home was associated with higher NMRU among male smokers (2.13 vs. 1.41, p = 0.01).Conclusions: Data on nicotine metabolite ratios can be used to study differences in how nicotine is metabolized by males and females and by smokers and non-smokers.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Fumar Cigarros , Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Hispano-Americanos , Nicotina/sangue , Nicotina/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Biotransformação , Fumar Cigarros/sangue , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/urina , Cotinina/sangue , Cotinina/urina , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fatores Sexuais , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
11.
BMJ Open ; 9(12): e032590, 2019 12 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31857310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although the smoking prevalence continues to decline in New Zealand (NZ) overall, little is known about smoking in university students. A 2013 survey of students aged 17-25 years found that 14% were current smokers, and 3% daily smokers. However, the sample did not include students from all NZ universities. This study examines the prevalence and patterns of cigarette smoking among students aged 18-24 years. SETTING: University students across NZ. METHODS: Data came from a March to May 2018 survey of students from all NZ universities, and were weighted to account for undersampling and oversampling, based on gender and university size. χ2 tests were used to compare smoking by age, gender and ethnicity. PARTICIPANTS: 1476 participants were included: 919 (62.3%) aged 18-20 years and 557 (37.7%) aged 21-24 years; 569 (38.6%) male and 907 (61.4%) female; and 117 (7.9%) Maori and 1359 (92.1%) non-Maori. RESULTS: 49.8% (95% CI 47.2 to 52.4) of respondents reported ever smoking, 11.1% (95% CI 9.5 to 12.9) currently smoked (smoked at least once a month) and 5.9% (95% CI 4.8 to 7.3) smoked at least daily (daily smokers). Of current smokers, 63.6% smoked 1-5 cigarettes/day, 45.8% smoked daily, 73.4% smoked first cigarette >60 min after waking, 86.0% never/almost never smoked in indoor and 64.6% in outdoor smokefree spaces, 69.9% planned to quit and 32.4% had tried to quit. Ever, current and daily smoking were significantly higher in 21-24 compared with 18-20 years olds, and in males compared with females. Older participants were more likely to report smoking more cigarettes/day. Maori were more likely to report ever smoking than non-Maori. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking among NZ university students aged 18-24 years appears to be declining but daily smoking could be increasing. However, many students appeared less addicted to nicotine, and willing to quit. We recommend increasing the availability of smokefree services for students who wish to quit.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1211, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The American Cancer Society discourages the dual use of electronic cigarettes (ECs) and cigarettes because such use has not resulted in reduced exposures to the harmful effects of smoking. American Indian (AI) people have the highest prevalence of smoking and of EC use in the United States, but very little is known about dual EC and cigarette use in AI communities. METHODS: In 2016, 375 adult AI in Oklahoma who smoked cigarettes completed a survey about EC use (vaping). We describe vaping patterns, nicotine dependence, and reasons for EC use among the subset of 44 (12%) current dual EC users. To differentiate habitual EC users from occasional or merely curious users, we defined dual use as using ECs on some days or every day in the past 30 days. RESULTS: About one-third of dual users vaped ten or more times daily. About two-thirds used a tank product. Eleven percent used ECs without nicotine and another 9% were unsure of the nicotine content. A minority (40%) enjoyed vaping more than smoking, and most (76%) would smoke first on days they did both. Thirty-one percent vaped within 5 min of waking and another 24% within 30 min. Although the two-item heaviness of use index did not differ significantly between smoking and vaping, the ten-item Penn State Dependence Index (PSDI) suggested greater dependence on smoking than vaping (11.02 vs. 6.42, respectively; p < .0001). The most common reasons for vaping were to reduce smoking (79%), enjoyment of flavors (78%), and ability to vape where smoking is not allowed (73%). Perceptions of less harm to others (69%) or to self were the next most common (65%). Fewer than half used ECs to reduce stress, for affordability, or because others used them. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly 20% of dual users used ECs either without nicotine or without knowing if the product contained nicotine. The PSDI indicated greater dependence on smoking than vaping. Reasons for vaping were nearly equal between smoking reduction and enjoying flavors. Understanding patterns of dual use will inform future efforts to address nicotine dependence for AI communities with high prevalence of smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/psicologia , Tabagismo/etnologia , Vaping/etnologia , Adulto , Feminino , Aromatizantes , Humanos , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Prevalência , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
13.
BMJ Open ; 9(9): e028770, 2019 09 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31542742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study examines ethnic disparities in prevalence and patterns of smoking and nicotine dependence in rural southwest China. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional design. SETTING: This study was conducted in rural Yunnan Province of China. PARTICIPANTS: 7027 consenting individuals aged ≥35 years among Han majority and four ethnic minority groups (Na Xi, Li Shu, Dai and Jing Po) participated in this study. Information about participants' demographic characteristics as well as smoking habits and an assessment of nicotine dependence with the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND) was obtained using a standard questionnaire. RESULTS: Males had significantly higher prevalence of current smoking than females (64.8% and 44.4%, p<0.01). Among current smokers, the prevalence of nicotine dependence was significantly higher in males compared with females (19.9% and 7.1%, p<0.01). Jing Po men and women had the highest prevalence of current smokers (72.2% vs 23.1%, p<0.01), whereas the highest prevalence of nicotine dependence was found in male Dai current smokers and female Li Shu current smokers (44.8% vs 32.5%, p<0.01). Filtered cigarettes were the most popular form of tobacco used across all five ethnic groups. Over 75% of tobacco users initiated smoking and regularly smoked during adolescence, and those of minority ethnicity smoked regularly at a younger age than those of Han descent (p<0.05). Individuals in all five ethnic groups with higher levels of education had a lower probability of current smoking status (p<0.05), whereas a negative association of level of education with nicotine dependence was only observed in current smokers in the Han majority and Dai ethnic minority groups. Among Han majority current smokers, higher annual household income was associated with a higher risk of nicotine dependence (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Future interventions to control tobacco use should be tailored to address ethnicity and socioeconomic factors.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/etnologia , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/etnologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar Cachimbo/epidemiologia , Fumar Cachimbo/etnologia , Prevalência , Classe Social , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/etnologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/epidemiologia
14.
Addict Behav ; 99: 106087, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466016

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco smoking and binge or excess drinking are unhealthy behaviors that frequently co-occur. Studies of Hispanics/Latinos have mostly been of Mexican Americans although there are substantial differences in smoking and drinking by heritage background. Associated with co-use by 5 subpopulations. METHODS: Cross-sectional data of 16,412 Hispanics/Latinos from Miami, the Bronx, Chicago and San Diego collected between 2008 and 2011 as part of the HCHS/SOL were analyzed. Smoking and alcohol consumption and demographic data were measured by self-report. Prevalence of smoking and alcohol consumption and co-use were reported. Logistic regression models examined the odds of co-use of smoking and binge or excess alcohol use by Hispanic/Latino background group. RESULTS: Men of Cuban (10.3%), Puerto Rican (8.9%), and Mexican (8.9%) background had the highest prevalence of co-use of smoking and binge drinking compared to men of Central American (6.1%) and Dominican (6.6%) background. Women of Dominican (16.4%) and Puerto Rican (19.7%) background had the highest prevalence of binge drinking compared to women of Central American (10%) and Cuban (8%) background and Puerto Rican (34.1%) and Cuban (21.8%) women were the most likely to report current smoking compared to women of Central American (8.3%) and Mexican (10.4%) background. Acculturation was not associated with co-use among men and women. Elevated depressive symptoms were positively associated with smoking and binge drinking among men, OR = 1.5 [1.2-2.0], and women, OR = 1.5 [1.1-2.2]. Puerto Rican women had increased odds of co-use of smoking and binge or excess drinking compared to Mexican American women, OR = 3.2 [1.5-6.6]. CONCLUSIONS: Puerto Rican and Dominican Latinas and Central American and South American men have a higher prevalence of co-use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Bebedeira/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Aculturação , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Região do Caribe/etnologia , América Central/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Cuba/etnologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etnologia , República Dominicana/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Porto Rico/etnologia , Fatores Sexuais , América do Sul/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 200, 2019 08 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examines how prevalence and clustering of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors differ by ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) among rural southwest Chinese adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of 7027 adults aged ≥35 years of Han and four ethnic minority group descent (Na Xi, Li Shu, Dai, and Jing Po) was used to derive prevalence of tobacco smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) as well as alcohol consumption and physical activity data. Anthropometric measurements were also taken, including height, weight, and waist and hip circumference, as well as blood pressure (BP) and fasting blood glucose (FBG) measurements. RESULTS: Current smoking and drinking status were the top two CVD risk factors in the study population. Dai ethnic minority participants had the highest prevalence of hypertension, obesity, and central obesity, whereas Jing Po ethnic minority participants had the highest prevalence of current smoking status, SHS exposure, and current drinking status (P < 0.01). Han participants had the highest prevalence of diabetes and physical inactivity (P < 0.01). 11.1% of all participants did not have any of the studied CVD risk factors, while 68.6% of Han, 60.2% of Na Xi, 50.7% of Li Shu, 82.2% of Dai, and 73.0% of Jing Po participants had clustering of two or more CVD risk factors. Prevalence of CVD risk factor clusters increased with age (P < 0.01). Males and individuals with lower education levels and lower annual household income were more likely to have CVD risk factors than their counterparts (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Clustering of CVD risk factors is common in rural southwest China. Ethnicity and individual SES significantly impact prevalence of CVD risk factors and their clustering.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etnologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Determinantes Sociais da Saúde/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , China/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Renda , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade Abdominal/etnologia , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos
16.
J Adolesc Health ; 65(3): 359-365, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31248804

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Little is known about whether adolescent cigarette and e-cigarette use patterns over time differ by ethnicity. METHODS: Data were pooled from three prospective cohort studies of adolescents in California and Connecticut (baseline: 2013-2014; 12-month follow-up: 2014-2015; N = 6,258). Adjusted polytomous regression models evaluated the association of baseline exclusive ever e-cigarette use, exclusive ever cigarette use, ever use of both e-cigarettes and cigarettes (dual use) with past 30-day use at follow-up (exclusively e-cigarettes, exclusively cigarettes, dual use; no use at baseline/follow-up were the referent groups). Interaction analyses evaluated differences by race/ethnicity (Hispanic white [HW], non-Hispanic white [NHW], Other). RESULTS: A significant global interaction was observed for the association of baseline with follow-up tobacco use by ethnicity (p = .009). Among NHW participants, ever e-cigarette or cigarette users at baseline (vs. never users) had significantly higher odds of every past 30-day use tobacco use pattern at follow-up. Among HW participants, compared with never users, exclusive e-cigarette users at baseline had increased odds of continued e-cigarette use (ORexclusive e-cigarettes = 5.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.50, 7.79; ORdual use = 3.64; 95% CI: 1.62, 8.18) but not of transition to exclusive cigarette use at follow-up (ORexclusive cigarettes = 1.27; 95% CI: .47, 3.46), and HW exclusive cigarette users at baseline had greater odds of continued cigarette use (ORexclusive e-cigarettes = 12.3; 95% CI: 5.87, 25.8; ORdual use = 3.82; 95% CI: 1.06, 13.7) but not of transition to exclusive e-cigarette use at follow-up (ORexclusive cigarettes = 1.61; 95% CI: .62, 4.18). CONCLUSIONS: Findings that NHW youth report more transitional use patterns and HW youth report more stable use patterns suggest a potential for differential impacts of e-cigarettes, by ethnicity, in increasing subsequent transition to or cessation from cigarette smoking.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Vaping/etnologia , Adolescente , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Addict Behav ; 98: 106008, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31238236

RESUMO

Research suggests different patterns of cigarette smoking behaviors across Hispanic subgroups. However, research examining differences in known cognitive correlates of smoking behavior (e.g., beliefs about smoking and perceived consequences of smoking) is lacking. The purpose of this study was two-fold. First, given the dearth of research examining cigarette smoking across Hispanic subgroups, we sought to replicate previous findings related to disparities in smoking behavior across four subgroups (i.e., Mexican American, Puerto Rican, Cuban American, and Dominican American). Second, we sought to extend previous work by examining Hispanic subgroup differences across a range of smoking-related cognitive factors (i.e., positive and negative beliefs, perceived health risks, and perceived social consequences). This study used data from 1021 Hispanic individuals from four universities in the U.S. (i.e., Texas, California, New York, Florida) in a project funded by the American Legacy Foundation. Results indicated that Cuban Americans reported more current smoking than any other subgroup and the most positive beliefs about smoking, although Puerto Ricans endorsed the fewest negative beliefs about smoking out of all the groups. There were also differences across subgroups on some perceived health risks of smoking (e.g., Cubans were most likely to believe that smoking was a risk factor for diabetes) and perceived social consequences of smoking (e.g., Mexican Americans were less likely to perceive negative social consequences from not smoking). This study underscores the need to account for heterogeneity within the Hispanic population in tobacco research to more effectively inform future research and prevention practices.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Cuba/etnologia , República Dominicana/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Porto Rico/etnologia , Risco , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
18.
Addict Behav ; 96: 94-99, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31071603

RESUMO

Hispanics are more likely to be daily light smokers (DLS) and intermittent smokers (ITS) than non-Hispanic whites. Although daily light (≤10 cigarettes per day [CPD]) and intermittent (nondaily) smoking have increased in recent years, few studies have compared DLS and ITS, especially within a Hispanic sample. The primary aims of this study were to investigate differences between DLS and ITS, and within ITS, differences between converted ITS (CITS; previously smoked daily for ≥6 months) and native ITS (NITS; never smoked daily) in a Hispanic college student sample (Mage = 23.74, SD = 5.17; 58.1% male). Analyses were conducted using baseline data from a larger study that evaluated attitudes toward tobacco free campus policies in a U.S. university on the border with México. This study included data from 45 DLS and 216 ITS (CITS: n = 77, NITS: n = 139; N = 261). Compared to DLS, ITS were younger (on average), less likely to identify as smokers, smoked on fewer days in the past month, smoked fewer cigarettes on smoking days, and reported less nicotine dependence. Compared to CITS, NITS were younger, less likely to self-identify as smokers, smoked on fewer days in the past month, smoked fewer CPD on smoking days, and were less dependent on nicotine. Given the similarities between current and past findings (suggesting that CITS are in between DLS and NITS-regarding smoking behavior), these data suggest a similar pattern likely exists also among Hispanic smokers. Additionally, the absence of some previously observed differences is relevant in characterizing this particular Hispanic college sample. These findings provide further insight for the tailoring of interventions that target Hispanic DLS, CITS and NITS).


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Estudantes , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Redução do Consumo de Tabaco , Tabagismo/etnologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126049

RESUMO

Purpose. This study investigated the effects of objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators on two health behaviors, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking, among African American older adults. Methods. This community-based study recruited 619 economically disadvantaged African American older adults (age ≥ 65 years) residing in South Los Angeles. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data. Data on demographic factors (age and gender), subjective SES (financial difficulties), objective SES (educational attainment), living arrangement, marital status, healthcare access (insurance), and health (number of chronic medical conditions, self-rated health, sick days, depression, and chronic pain) and health behaviors (cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking) were collected from participants. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results. High financial difficulties were associated with higher odds of smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, independent of covariates. Educational attainment did not correlate with our outcomes. Similar patterns emerged for cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. Conclusion. Subjective SES indicators such as financial difficulties may be more relevant than objective SES indicators such as educational attainment to health risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking among African American older adults in economically constrain urban environments. Smoking and drinking may serve as coping mechanisms with financial difficulty, especially among African American older adults. In line with the minorities' diminished returns (MDR) theory, and probably due to discrimination against racial minorities, educational attainment has a smaller protective effect among economically disadvantaged African American individuals against health risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Classe Social , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Los Angeles/etnologia , Masculino , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Prev Med ; 125: 32-39, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004620

RESUMO

In the United States (US), racial/ethnic groups differ in cigarette smoking behaviors. We examined changes in cigarette prevalence and quit ratios over 15 years by racial/ethnic group (Non-Hispanic (NH) White, NH Black, Hispanic, NH Other). Data were drawn from the 2002-2016 National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) public use data files and analyzed in 2018. Linear time trends of the prevalence of daily, nondaily, and menthol cigarette use and quit ratios (i.e., proportion of former smokers among lifetime smokers) were assessed using logistic regression models. 19.35% of NH White persons were daily smokers in 2016; this prevalence was significantly higher than all other groups (NH Black 10.99%, Hispanic 6.81%, NH Other 9.10%). Menthol use was significantly more common among NH Black individuals than all other groups in every year from 2002 to 2016 (2016: NH Black 23.38%, NH White 14.52%, Hispanic 10.49%, NH Other 8.97%). From 2002 to 2016, daily and nondaily smoking decreased significantly among all groups. The rate of decline of nondaily smoking was more rapid among Hispanic than NH White individuals while the rate of menthol smoking decline was more rapid among NH White than among Hispanic individuals. The quit ratio did not change significantly from 2002 to 2016 among NH Black individuals (31% to 35%) in contrast to a significant increase among NH White (2002, 45%; 2016, 50%) and Hispanic (2002, 33%; 2016, 41%) individuals. Further progress in tobacco control for vulnerable groups may need to include innovative strategies to address these concerning trends.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Mentol/química , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...