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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623178

RESUMO

Identification of the youth at risk of e-cigarette use is crucial for development of effective prevention strategies. The current study aims at evaluation of predictors of susceptibility to e-cigarette initiation and experimentation among adolescents. This cross-sectional study included 1693 students (non-current users of e-cigarettes) attending 21 schools in Piotrkowski district (a socially disadvantaged rural area in central Poland). The regression models were applied so as to study factors linked to susceptibility to e-cigarette use among never users (n = 1054) and ever users (n = 639) of e-cigarettes, with susceptibility defined as the absence of a firm decision not to use these products. A high proportion of the youth was susceptible to e-cigarette use (68% of never and 78% of ever e-cigarette users). The adjusted model confirmed the following risk factors: smoking parents and friends (never users: OR = 3.0; p < 0.001; OR = 2.0; p < 0.05; ever users: OR = 2.2; OR = 2.2; p < 0.01), alcohol consumption (never users: moderate drinking OR = 2.9; p < 0.001; binge drinking OR = 2.2; p < 0.01; ever users: moderate drinking OR = 4.2; p < 0.001), cigarette smoking (never users: OR = 14.1; ever users: OR = 11.3; p < 0.001), and perception that e-cigarettes are less harmful than traditional cigarettes (never users: OR = 1.8; p < 0.001). The youth whose mothers had a medium and high educational level (never users: OR = 2.7; p < 0.01; OR = 2.7; p < 0.05; ever users: OR = 5.4; OR = 4.4; p < 0.001), those who perceived girls who use e-cigarettes as more attractive (never users: OR = 4.1; p < 0.001; ever users: OR = 2.9; p < 0.01), and secondary school students (ever users: OR = 5.6; p < 0.001) had higher odds of susceptibility to e-cigarette use. The youth who had more money per month were less susceptible to e-cigarette experimentation (OR = 0.4; p < 0.001). A multi-level intervention approach, considering vulnerable populations, is required to prevent the youth from e-cigarette initiation and experimentation.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(7): 649-658, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424243

RESUMO

Prior work suggests that exposure to graphic health warning posters (GWPs) at retail point-of-sale may increase future cigarette smoking susceptibility in adolescents who are already at risk for future smoking, but not among committed never-smokers. However, little is known about what psychological mechanisms may account for this effect of GWPs on at-risk youths. Participants (N = 441) aged 11-17 years were randomized to experimental shopping conditions in a life-sized model convenience store, in which GWPs were absent ("status quo"; n = 107) or visibly displayed near the check-out area (n = 334). Participants completed pre- and post- "shopping" measures of future smoking susceptibility, descriptive and injunctive smoking norms, and perceived harms of smoking. A series of linear regression analyses assessed whether norms and harms differentially mediated the effect of experimental condition on future smoking susceptibility in committed never smokers compared with at-risk youths. Tests showed evidence for mediated moderation of the effect of GWP exposure on future smoking susceptibility, such that changes in injunctive norms (i.e., greater perceived social disapproval)-but not descriptive norms or perceived smoking harms-partially accounted for the effect of GWPs on smoking susceptibility in at-risk youths (average causal mediation effect: B = 0.51 [0.14-1.22], p = .02), but not among committed never smokers. For adolescents already at risk of future smoking, GWPs increase perceptions of cigarettes as less socially acceptable, which may increase susceptibility to future smoking in this group. Future work should examine reactance to antismoking messaging among youth at risk for future smoking. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
3.
Anesth Analg ; 129(3): e73-e76, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425205

RESUMO

Although surgical patients who smoke could benefit from perioperative abstinence, few currently receive support. This pilot study determined the feasibility and acceptability of a perioperative text messaging smoking cessation program. One hundred patients (73% of eligible patients approached) enrolled in a surgery-specific messaging service, receiving 1-3 daily messages about smoking and surgical recovery for 30 days. Only 17 patients unenrolled, the majority responded to prompting messages, and satisfaction with the program was high. Surgical patients are amenable to text message-based interventions; a future efficacy trial of text messaging smoking cessation support in surgical patients is warranted.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Mensagem de Texto , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Perioperatória/psicologia , Projetos Piloto , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
S Afr Med J ; 109(6): 431-436, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266563

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa, ranked as the world's second most stressful country to live in, has an estimated 7 million smokers. A dedicated smoking cessation clinic established at Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town, provides the only clinical service and training centre in the country. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the smokers attending the clinic, in order to better understand the requirements of smoking cessation services in resource-limited settings. METHODS: Demographic and smoking-related data were collected prospectively from all clinic attendees since its inception. Nicotine dependence, depression scores and exhaled carbon monoxide levels were formally evaluated. Consent was provided to review the data collected. RESULTS: Ninety-seven smokers were evaluated. Their mean (standard deviation) age was 50.9 (10.7) years, and 59% (57/97) were male. The median age of smoking initiation was 16 years (interquartile range (IQR) 8 - 28), with a current median daily consumption of 12 cigarettes (IQR 7 - 20). Overall, men smoked more than women, with a median of 20 cigarettes per day (IQR 10 - 20) v. 12 (IQR 5 - 20), respectively (p=0.001). The median Fagerström nicotine dependence score was 5 (IQR 3 - 7), with scores of 6 (IQR 4 - 8) for men and 5 (2 - 7) for women (p=0.06); 50% of smokers had a Fagerström score <6 (low to above-average dependence) and 22% a score ≥8 (extreme dependence). The median Patient Health Questionnnaire-9 (PHQ-9) depression score was 8 (IQR 4 - 11), and 49% of smokers had symptoms of at least minor depression (score ≥10). The clinic could not provide pharmacotherapy. The self-reported quit rate was 28% at median follow-up of 22 months (IQR 14 - 39). CONCLUSIONS: In smokers attempting to quit, moderate levels of nicotine dependence coexist with significant depression and anxiety symptoms. These data inform resource allocation and public health strategies, suggesting that in resource-limited smoking cessation services, psychological/behavioural support focusing on depressive symptoms may be a greater priority than simple pharmacotherapy.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Depressão/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial , Testes Respiratórios , Monóxido de Carbono , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , África do Sul , Tabagismo/psicologia
5.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 11(1): e1-e6, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296013

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  Tobacco use is an important public health issue. Morocco implemented a tobacco control programme, which has been ongoing among students at middle and secondary schools since 2010. AIM:  This study aims to compare the trend in smoking among the programme beneficiaries with the results of the initial study conducted prior to the implementation of the programme. SETTING:  This study was conducted in middle and secondary schools of the Gharb Region in Morocco between 2010 and 2015. METHODS:  Two cross-sectional studies were conducted in 2010 and 2015 in the middle and secondary schools of the Gharb Region. Multistage cluster sampling was used. The information was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. RESULTS:  In the first study in 2010, 5312 students participated, and in the second one in 2015, 4208 students participated. The level of information on smoking and its effects was higher in 2015 (94.0%) than in 2010 (92.5%). In 2010, parents, primary schools and television and radio were more involved in student information on smoking compared to 2015. The proportion of students claiming that tobacco was not a pleasure (86.3%) and that it does not calm nerves (76.5%) was significantly higher in 2015 than in 2010. The prevalence of smoking increased significantly in 2015 (2.9%) against 2010 (1.8%). CONCLUSION:  This study reports the general positive evolution in knowledge about smoking and its effects. Despite that the prevalence of smokers increased in 2015. The results suggest the need to address family influences on adolescent smoking and to investigate participation of schools in education and training students in tobacco dependence prevention.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Eur J Pediatr ; 178(9): 1343-1351, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292730

RESUMO

Although tobacco use has decreased in the general population in recent years, smoking remains high among subpopulations. This study examined whether sexual identity is associated with cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use among high school students. Data were drawn from the US Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (n = 28811). We grouped participants according to sexual identity status. Propensity score matching technique was used to address covariate imbalance among sexual identity groups. Subgroup analyses were performed for male and female students. Of the four sexual identity groups analyzed in this study, bisexual adolescents had significantly higher odds of cigarette smoking (cigarette smoking, OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.24-2.08; cigarette smoking for ≥ 10 days, OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.28-2.51; cigarette smoking for ≥ 20 days, OR, 2.04; 95% CI, 1.38-3.03). Further, in a sex-based subgroup analysis, results showed significant differences, with bisexual females more likely to smoke cigarettes and use e-cigarettes for ≥ 20 days compared with heterosexual female adolescents.Conclusions: Sexual identity status is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use. Female bisexual adolescents have an increased risk of cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use for ≥ 20 days. While tobacco control policies have been effective in reducing cigarette use in the general population, targeting policy toward sexual minorities is an important consideration. What is Known: • Sexual minority groups face a disproportionate amount of stress and have a heightened risk of substance use. • Methodological concerns exist in the extant literature, including limited data at the national level. What is New: • Propensity score matching was used to account for imbalances in sexual identity subgroups, and findings show significant heterogeneity in cigarette and e-cigarette use among sexual minority high school students. • Sexual identity status is strongly associated with cigarette smoking and e-cigarette use, especially among bisexual identity female subgroup.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pontuação de Propensão , Fatores Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vaping/psicologia
7.
Australas Psychiatry ; 27(4): 392-395, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the position statement of the Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) regarding the availability of electronic cigarettes in Australia. CONCLUSION: There is limited evidence supporting the efficacy of nicotine e-cigarettes as an effective tobacco harm-reduction or cessation strategy for people with mental illness. The recommendations to increase their availability under regulation must be balanced with the physical and mental health risks of vapour inhalation and nicotine use, particularly for youth. Future recommendations by the RANZCP in relation to e-cigarettes must consider both the available evidence for harm reduction and the potential risks associated with youth e-cigarette use.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Redução do Consumo de Tabaco/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Austrália , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Humanos , Psiquiatria , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Redução do Consumo de Tabaco/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
8.
Pediatrics ; 144(1)2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160343

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: During adolescence, mental health problems may increase the risk of initiating combustible cigarette use. However, it is unknown if this association extends to electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). We examined whether internalizing and externalizing problems were associated with initiation of e-cigarette, combustible cigarette, and dual-product use among adolescents. METHODS: Participants were drawn from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study, a nationally representative longitudinal study of US adolescents followed from 2013 to 2015. The study sample included 7702 adolescents aged 12 to 17 years who at baseline reported no lifetime use of tobacco products. We examined the respective associations between baseline internalizing and externalizing problems and initiating use of e-cigarettes, combustible cigarettes, or both at 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: Compared with adolescents with low externalizing problems, adolescents with high externalizing problems were significantly more likely to initiate use of e-cigarettes (adjusted relative risk ratio [aRRR] = 2.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.76-4.40), combustible cigarettes (aRRR = 5.59; 95% CI: 2.63-11.90), and both products (aRRR = 2.23; 95% CI: 1.15-4.31). Adolescents with high internalizing problems were at increased risk of initiating use of e-cigarettes (aRRR = 1.61; 95% CI: 1.12-2.33) but not combustible cigarettes or both products. CONCLUSIONS: Mental health problems are associated with increased risk for initiating e-cigarette, combustible cigarette, and dual-product use in adolescence. This association is more consistent for externalizing problems than internalizing problems. Addressing mental health problems could be a promising target for preventing initiation of nicotine- and/or tobacco-product use by adolescents.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
9.
Public Health ; 172: 40-42, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31158567

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nationally representative studies suggest 1-2% of Indonesian women (2.3 million) smoke various tobacco products daily; however, in recent years, there has been concern that the tobacco industry has successfully increased female smoking. Our objective was to describe current cigarette smoking behaviors, past quit attempts, and intention to quit of female daily smokers in Surabaya, Indonesia. STUDY DESIGN: Survey. METHODS: Female daily smokers (n = 112) in Surabaya, Indonesia, the country's second largest city, were recruited to participate in a survey during 2018. Convenience sampling was utilized in two malls. Potential participants were intercepted in or near designated smoking areas and invited to the nearby data collection site. Survey items from Global Adult Tobacco Survey and the International Tobacco Control Policy Evaluation Project were utilized. RESULTS: Participants self-reported smoking 13.8 cigarettes per day (7.3 white machine-rolled cigarettes per day, 4.2 kreteks per day, and 2.4 roll-your-own cigarettes per day). Over 75% smoked their first cigarette within 30 min of waking. Over 53% had a heaviness of smoking index score suggesting moderate or high addiction. Approximately half (51%) did not attempt to quit smoking in the previous 12 months, and 55% planned to quit beyond 6 months or not at all. CONCLUSIONS: Our sample smoked five to six more cigarettes per day than female daily smokers in previous national surveys. Relative to previous studies, our data suggest an unexpected preference for white machine-rolled cigarettes and that there could be, at a minimum, pockets of increased smoking and addiction among female daily smokers in Indonesia.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Intenção , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 55(5)2019 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31083613

RESUMO

Background and Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate trends in smoking among middle-aged men and women based on the data from the Lithuanian High Cardiovascular Risk (LitHiR) primary prevention program between 2009 and 2016. Materials and Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study comprised 92373 Lithuanian adults (41.6% men and 58.4% women). We compared the prevalence of smoking, smoking cessation activity and smoking intensity by gender and age groups. Results: There was a statistically significant upward trend in the number of smoking subjects (average annual percent change (AAPC) 2.99%, p < 0.001). The number of smoking male subjects remained much higher than the number of smoking female subjects during the 2009-2016 period. The study showed a significant increase in the percentage of smoking quitters in the whole group (AAPC 7.22%, p < 0.001) and among men and women separately. There was no significant change in smoking intensity in groups of male and female smokers separately. Conclusions: The analysis showed that the prevalence of smoking in Lithuania is still increasing due to women smoking despite all the governmental tobacco control efforts to reduce it.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Feminino , Humanos , Lituânia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde/métodos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126049

RESUMO

Purpose. This study investigated the effects of objective and subjective socioeconomic status (SES) indicators on two health behaviors, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking, among African American older adults. Methods. This community-based study recruited 619 economically disadvantaged African American older adults (age ≥ 65 years) residing in South Los Angeles. Structured face-to-face interviews were conducted to collect data. Data on demographic factors (age and gender), subjective SES (financial difficulties), objective SES (educational attainment), living arrangement, marital status, healthcare access (insurance), and health (number of chronic medical conditions, self-rated health, sick days, depression, and chronic pain) and health behaviors (cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking) were collected from participants. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the data. Results. High financial difficulties were associated with higher odds of smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol, independent of covariates. Educational attainment did not correlate with our outcomes. Similar patterns emerged for cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking. Conclusion. Subjective SES indicators such as financial difficulties may be more relevant than objective SES indicators such as educational attainment to health risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking among African American older adults in economically constrain urban environments. Smoking and drinking may serve as coping mechanisms with financial difficulty, especially among African American older adults. In line with the minorities' diminished returns (MDR) theory, and probably due to discrimination against racial minorities, educational attainment has a smaller protective effect among economically disadvantaged African American individuals against health risk behaviors.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Classe Social , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Los Angeles/etnologia , Masculino , Populações Vulneráveis/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Epidemiol Health ; 41: e2019019, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096748

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Previous studies have shown that marital status is associated with household composition and living arrangements, which partially explain observed differences in health status according to marital status. However, due to the rapid socioeconomic and demographic transformations of the last few decades, the distribution of marital status among middle-aged adults has become more diverse. Therefore, this study aimed to obtain up-to-date information on the associations between marital status and health and to investigate the implications of these findings for conventional explanations of the health effects of marriage. METHODS: The data for this study were obtained from the 2015 Korean Community Health Study. We compared 4 modifiable lifestyle behaviors-smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity, and self-rated health status-as outcome variables in association with marital status in Korean middle-aged men (age 40-44) living in Seoul and other regions. RESULTS: Married men showed the lowest cigarette smoking prevalence and the highest subjective health status both before and after adjusting for education and income. The odds of engaging in vigorous physical activity did not show a major difference before and after adjustment for income and education. CONCLUSIONS: In married men, the prevalence of cigarette smoking was lowest and subjective health status was highest, similar to previous studies. However, the prevalence of engaging in physical activity was highest in divorced/widowed/separated men. The health behaviors and health status of Korean middle-aged adults should be more closely followed, since they are representative of demographic changes in the Korean population.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Nível de Saúde , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Exercício/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987284

RESUMO

The current study aims to explore gender differences in the risk of cigarette smoking among African-American (AA) older adults who live in economically disadvantaged urban areas of southern Los Angeles. This cross-sectional study enrolled 576 older AA adults (age range between 65 and 96 years) who were residing in Service Planning Area 6 (SPA 6), one of the most economically challenged areas in southern Los Angeles. All participants had cardiometabolic disease (CMD). Data were collected using structured face-to-face interviews. Demographic factors (age and gender), socioeconomic status (educational attainment and financial difficulty), health (number of comorbid medical conditions and depressive symptoms), and health behaviors (current alcohol drinking and current smoking) were measured. Logistic regressions were used to analyze the data without and with interaction terms between gender and current drinking, depressive symptoms, and financial difficulty. AA men reported more smoking than AA women (25.3% versus 9.3%; p < 0.05). Drinking showed a stronger association with smoking for AA men than AA women. Depressive symptoms, however, showed stronger effects on smoking for AA women than AA men. Gender did not interact with financial difficulty with regard to current smoking. As AA older men and women differ in psychological and behavioral determinants of cigarette smoking, gender-specific smoking cessation interventions for AA older adults who live in economically deprived urban areas may be more successful than interventions and programs that do not consider gender differences in determinants of smoking. Gender-tailored smoking cessation programs that address drinking for AA men and depression for AA women may help reduce the burden of smoking in AA older adults in economically disadvantaged urban areas. Given the non-random sampling, there is a need for replication of these findings in future studies.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Cigarros/economia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/economia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
14.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 198: 168-175, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30939374

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Understanding differences in nicotine dependence assessments' ability to predict smoking cessation is complicated by variation in quit attempt contexts. Pregnancy reduces this variation, as each pregnant smoker receives the same strong cessation incentive. Cigarette smoking during pregnancy (SDP) provides a powerful paradigm for analyzing the interplay between nicotine dependence measures and sociodemographics in predicting cessation failure. METHODS: Data from a female twin cohort (median birth year 1980), assessed in teens and early twenties, were merged with birth records to identify those with smoking history who experienced childbirth (N = 1657 births, N = 763 mothers). Logistic regression predicting SDP, as a function of birth record sociodemographic variables, generated a sociodemographic risk-score. Further analysis incorporated the risk-score with data from research interviews on DSM-IV-Nicotine Dependence symptom count, Heaviness of Smoking Index. RESULTS: Low maternal educational level, younger age at childbirth, and being unmarried all contributed risk for SDP. In addition to sociodemographic risk-score, the best predictors of SDP included HSI-score (OR:1.51), their two-way interaction (OR:0.39; reduced impact of dependence at intermediate-high sociodemographic risk), history of ≥ two failed quit attempts (OR:1.38), and a dummy variable for prior pregnancy at time of assessment (OR:1.82). DSM-IV-Nicotine Dependence symptoms underperformed the Heaviness of Smoking Index and did not improve prediction when added to the best model. CONCLUSIONS: The 2-item Heaviness of Smoking Index measure and report of ≥ two failed quit attempts performed best for predicting SDP. The contribution of either nicotine dependence measure to SDP risk was diminished at increased levels of sociodemographic risk.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Complicações na Gravidez/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Tabagismo/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Motivação , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Gêmeos/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(4): 371-381, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958013

RESUMO

Sexual minority (SM) young adults, such as those who identify as lesbian, gay, or bisexual (LGB), have well documented smoking disparities compared to heterosexual young adults. However, no studies have simultaneously tested the role of three risk factors (depressive symptoms, recalling tobacco marketing in bars, and cigarette-related social norms) to explain SM tobacco use disparities. Longitudinal structural equation modeling was used to explore if the association between SM identity and past 30-day cigarette smoking one year later was mediated by these three risk factors. Starting in fall 2015, three surveys were administered every 6 months to 3,972 young adult college students. Surveys assessed SM identity, depressive symptoms, tobacco marketing in bars, normative perceptions of cigarettes, and tobacco use behaviors. Greater depressive symptoms, recalling more tobacco marketing in bars, and more accepting cigarette-related social norms were each hypothesized to explain a unique portion of the association between SM identity and subsequent cigarette use. SM young adults reported higher prevalence of cigarette use, depressive symptom scores reflecting elevated risk for major depressive disorder, and more accepting cigarette-related social norms than their heterosexual peers. Results indicated that only cigarette-related social norms mediated the association between SM identity and subsequent past 30-day smoking, while controlling for depressive symptoms, recalling tobacco marketing in bars, sociodemographic factors, and previous tobacco use. Findings reflect a need for tailored tobacco control messaging that shift the more accepting cigarette-related norms of SM young adults, as doing so may ultimately lead to decreased smoking for this high-risk subgroup. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/psicologia , Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Marketing , Modelos Psicológicos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(3): 318-330, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869922

RESUMO

Cigarette and electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use prevalence increases during adolescence and peaks in young adulthood, with substantial increases during the transition from high school to college especially more recently for e-cigarette use. It is important to identify the underlying factors that serve as risk factors for tobacco use and social perceptions about cigarette and e-cigarette use. It is unknown whether attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms are associated with social perceptions about tobacco or increased tobacco use during the high school to college transition. This three timepoint prospective longitudinal study evaluates the reciprocal relationship between ADHD symptoms and social perceptions about tobacco as well as the frequency of cigarette and e-cigarette use in a sample of 150 high school seniors (Mage = 18.25, 66.0% female, 65.3% White) across the transition to college. ADHD symptoms in high school predicted increases in e-cigarette use during the first semester of college, and this association maintained through the end of the first year. ADHD symptoms predicted changes in social perceptions about cigarette and e-cigarette use after the transition to college. ADHD symptoms were predicted by social perceptions about e-cigarettes at the beginning of college. Understanding the psychosocial mechanisms underlying the pathways from ADHD symptoms to e-cigarette use may advance tobacco use etiology and prevention efforts, which is important considering the rapid growth in e-cigarette use among emerging adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Percepção Social , Universidades , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 197: 335-343, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878884

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescence is a critical developmental period in the trajectory of nicotine dependence, highlighting the need for a greater understanding of the modifiable risk factors. An extensive body of research has found that trait impulsivity is associated with higher levels of adolescent smoking; however, findings have been mixed. The present study aimed to synthesise existing literature to determine the strength and nature of the relationship between the UPPS-P impulsive traits and both adolescent cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. METHODS: Fifty-one studies were meta-analysed using a random effects model to determine the association between each UPPS-P impulsive trait and both adolescent cigarette consumption and nicotine dependence. Age, gender, ethnicity and sample type were examined as potential moderators. RESULTS: Cigarette consumption was positively associated with each UPPS-P impulsive trait (r's ranging from 0.17-0.20). There were an insufficient number of studies to meta-analyse the association between nicotine dependence and the UPPS-P impulsive traits. There were no significant moderation effects of age, gender, ethnicity or sample type. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that each UPPS-P impulsive trait shares similar associations with adolescent cigarette consumption. Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship between adolescent nicotine dependence and impulsivity. As most adult smokers initiate during adolescence, targeting these impulsive traits via novel prevention and intervention strategies may assist in reducing the prevalence of smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Comportamento Impulsivo , Personalidade , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
18.
An Sist Sanit Navar ; 42(1): 41-47, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30895965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To determine attitudes towards smoking, perception of self-efficacy, and the intention of smoking cessation in college student smokers, and their variation according to the stage of the tobacco cessation process. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 255 college students (18-24 years old) smokers of =1 cigarette per week. Instruments used: a personal interview, Fageström test, trans-theoretical change model, scale of Attitudes, self-efficacy and intention to quit smoking in college smokers and CO in exhaled air. RESULTS: Sample with a majority of women (62%), average age 20.3 years, users of 9.2 cigarettes/day for 5.7 years, with mild dependence on nicotine; 69% were in the stages of pre-contemplation and contemplation. Although smoking was considered to be negative for health and the environment for more than 70%, and 96.7% had negative attitudes towards tobacco, only 45.1% were aware of the associated morbidity and mortality. More than 60% considered tobacco to be a social facilitator, thus anxiety (72.6%) and having friends who smoke (69.4%) are factors considered negative for tobacco cessation. Ninety-one percent believed that they would smoke next year, but 86% stated that they would not be a smoker within five years. One hundred percent of the subjects in pre-contemplation considered that they will smoke during the next year as opposed to 83.5% of those in the stage of preparation. CONCLUSION: College student smokers show positive attitudes, erroneous beliefs and a low perception of self-efficacy about smoking cessation. All students in the pre-contemplation phase do not even consider smoking cessation in the medium and long term.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Autoeficácia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Intenção , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
19.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 27(5): 496-501, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896238

RESUMO

Developing briefer behavioral economic measures is an important priority to ensure that these measures can be used in a variety of different contexts and to reduce participant burden. We developed and sought to validate a Brief Assessment of Cigarette Demand (BACD). A 17-item Cigarette Purchase Task (CPT) and a 3-item BACD were completed concurrently in 2 community samples of smokers (Study 1, adult smokers [n = 80] with substance use disorders; Study 2, adolescent smokers [n = 81]). Responses on the CPT and BACD were compared on the following demand indices: (a) intensity (the number of cigarettes requested at no cost), (b) Omax (the maximum expenditure on cigarettes in a 24-hr period), and (c) breakpoint (the point at which consumption is totally suppressed/no cigarettes are purchased). Correlations of demand indices with cigarettes per day and nicotine dependence were calculated. Measures of cigarette demand on the CPT and BACD were significantly correlated, albeit at very different magnitudes, for all 3 indices in the adult sample (intensity, r = .86; breakpoint, r = .23; and Omax, r = .43) and for 2 of the indices in the adolescent sample (intensity, r = .97; breakpoint, r = .33). The CPT and BACD relationships with smoking and nicotine dependence were similar for breakpoint and intensity but not for Omax. As initial findings were mixed, additional validation work is recommended to improve psychometric properties before adoption. Valid brief measures of demand could have utility for research and treatment of addictive disorders. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Economia Comportamental , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/economia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
20.
Exp Clin Psychopharmacol ; 27(6): 569-577, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30896240

RESUMO

Smoking is among the most important health behaviors linked to premature death and disability among the Latinx population. Yet there is limited understanding of whether transdiagnostic factors like anxiety sensitivity may help explain smoking expectancies among Spanish-speaking Latinx smokers. The present investigation evaluated anxiety sensitivity in regard to smoking outcome expectancy factors among a large sample of adult Latinx smokers. Participants were 363 Spanish-speaking Latinx daily smokers (58.7% female, Mage = 33.3 years, SD = 9.8). As expected, anxiety sensitivity was significantly related to expectancies of negative reinforcement and negative personal consequences. Anxiety sensitivity also was a significant predictor of smoking expectancies of appetite control and positive reinforcement. The present study provides novel empirical evidence that anxiety sensitivity explains a notable degree of variance in smoking outcome expectancies over the variance accounted for by a range of theoretically relevant covariates among Latinx smokers. These results highlight the clinical utility in assessing anxiety sensitivity among Latinx smokers and focusing greater attention on this construct in efforts to better understand cognitive-based smoking expectancies among this population. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Fumantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Linguagem , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar
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