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1.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(2): e210218, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635326

RESUMO

Importance: Cigarettes are still a commonly used tobacco product among youth despite recent declines in cigarette use. Objective: The aim of this study was to prospectively estimate the age of cigarette use initiation among youth (aged 12-17 years) overall, by sex, and by race/ethnicity. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from waves 1 through 4 of the nationally representative Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health (PATH) study, conducted from September 12, 2013, to January 3, 2018. Two subpopulations of youth were assessed: (1) those nonsusceptible to cigarette use and (2) never users of cigarettes at their first wave of PATH participation. Weighted interval-censoring survival analyses were used to prospectively estimate the age of initiation of cigarette use outcomes. Weighted interval-censoring Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate differences in the age of initiation by sex and by race/ethnicity. Statistical analyses were performed from October 7, 2019, to May 1, 2020. Exposures: Differences in the age of initiation by sex and race/ethnicity. Main Outcomes and Measures: Age of initiation of susceptibility to cigarette use, ever use, past 30-day use, and fairly regular cigarette use overall, by sex, and by race/ethnicity. Results: A total of 15 776 youth never users and, among them, 11 022 youth who were nonsusceptible to cigarette use, were included in this study (weighted mean [SE] age, 13.5 [0.01] years; 58.6% [SE, 0.46%] non-Hispanic White; and 51.0% [SE, 0.32%] boys) and 15 776 were never users of cigarettes at their first wave of PATH participation (weighted mean [SE] age, 13.7 [0.01] years; 55.0% [SE, 0.29%] non-Hispanic White; and 51.0% [SE, 0.15%] boys). By age 18 years, among those who were nonsusceptible, 46.2% (95% CI, 44.3%-48.2%) became susceptible to cigarette use. Among never users, 24.4% (95% CI, 22.9%-25.9%) initiated ever cigarette use, 16.4% (95% CI, 15.2%-17.6%) initiated past 30-day cigarette use, and 4.3% (95% CI, 3.9%-4.8%) initiated fairly regular cigarette use. Boys had a higher risk of initiating ever (hazard ratio [HR], 1.21; 95% CI, 1.08-1.36) and past 30-day cigarette use (HR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.10-1.47) at earlier ages compared with girls. Non-Hispanic White youth had a higher risk of an earlier age of initiation of susceptibility to cigarette use (HR, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68-0.88), ever use (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.49-0.71), past 30-day use (HR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.77), and fairly regular cigarette use (HR, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.14-0.43) compared with non-Hispanic Black youth. Conclusions and Relevance: The results of this cohort study suggest that, despite current interventions and existing laws, a large number of youth initiated cigarette use before the legal age to purchase tobacco products.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Idade de Início , Criança , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estados Unidos
2.
Addict Behav ; 115: 106783, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360444

RESUMO

We examined tobacco use changes in young adult college students in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, focusing on smoking and vaping. First, we evaluated changes in tobacco use from pre to post campus closure focusing on smoking and electronic nicotine vaping frequency (days) and quantity (cigarettes/cartridges per day). Also, given the potential protective effects of pausing (temporarily or permanently discontinuing) smoking or vaping, we evaluated its predictors. We hypothesized that generalized anxiety and moving home would increase the odds of pausing. We also explored effects of COVID-related news exposure and seeking on tobacco use. We re-contacted young adults two years after they completed a study on alcohol and marijuana co-use. A subset (N = 83; 26.6% of the 312 respondents) were enrolled in college and reported use of cigarettes (n = 35) and/or e-cigarettes (n = 69) in the week prior to their campus closing (PC). Paired sample t-tests compared smoking and vaping frequency and quantity PC to past-week use since closing (SC). Multivariate logistic regression models were fit to examine predictors of pausing. Both smoking and vaping frequency decreased from PC to SC; however, decreased frequency did not correspond to reduced quantity. Twenty-four participants (28.9%) paused past-week use SC. Higher anxiety and moving home (versus living independently) were related to increased odds of pausing, whereas COVID-19 related news exposure and seeking were related to decreased odds of pausing. Characterizing COVID-19 related tobacco use change provides insights into how college students respond to novel health threats and informs potential interventions.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pandemias , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(Suppl 1): S61-S69, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The link between e-cigarette use and subsequent development of respiratory diseases remains an open question. AIMS AND METHODS: A subset of a probability sample of U.S. adults from the Population Assessment of Tobacco and Health Study Waves 1 and 2 were selected for biospecimen analysis (n = 4614). Subjects were divided into three mutually exclusive groups at baseline: nonusers (n = 2849), exclusive e-cigarette users (n = 222), and poly e-cigarette/tobacco users (n = 1,543). Geometric mean concentrations of baseline biomarkers from five classes of harmful and potentially harmful constituents were reported. Multivariable linear regressions were conducted to examine the relationship between baseline biomarkers and subsequent respiratory symptoms among user groups. RESULTS: Baseline exclusive e-cigarette users (33.6%[confidence interval, CI: 26.7% to 41.4%]) and poly e-cigarette/tobacco users (50.8%[CI: 47.4% to 54.2%]) had higher prevalence of subsequent respiratory symptoms than nonusers (21.7%[19.2% to 24.4%]). As compared with nonusers, poly e-cigarette/tobacco users had higher concentrations in clinically relevant biomarkers at baseline than exclusive e-cigarette users. Among poly e-cigarette/tobacco users, baseline nicotine metabolites (TNE2, cotinine), tobacco-specific nitrosamine (NNAL), PAH (1-NAP, 3-FLU), and volatile organic compound (N-Acetyl-S-(2-carboxyethyl)-l-cysteine, N-acetyl-S-(2-cyanoethyl)-l-cysteine) were significantly higher among those reporting subsequent respiratory symptoms than those who did not. Among exclusive e-cigarette users, baseline NNAL was significantly higher among those reporting subsequent respiratory symptoms than those who did not. Within subjects with subsequent respiratory symptoms, NNAL was 2.5 times higher in exclusive e-cigarette users (10.7[6.5 to 17.5]) and 63.4 times higher in poly e-cigarette/tobacco users (199.6[176.7 to 225.4]) than nonusers (3.1[2.4 to 3.9]). CONCLUSIONS: E-cigarette use is associated with higher concentrations of known tobacco-related toxicants and risks of subsequent respiratory symptoms than nonusers. Poly e-cigarette/tobacco users exhibit higher risk than exclusive e-cigarette users. IMPLICATIONS: This longitudinal study identified positive associations between baseline urinary biomarkers of exposure to tobacco-related toxicants and increased risks of subsequent respiratory symptoms across varying e-cigarette use groups. E-cigarette use is associated with increased exposure to known tobacco-related toxicants, and certain toxicant exposure increases the risk of respiratory symptoms.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Vaping/epidemiologia , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Respiratórias/induzido quimicamente , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMJ ; 371: m3797, 2020 10 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare several monetary incentive programmes for promoting smoking abstinence among employees who smoke at workplaces in a middle income country. DESIGN: Parallel group, open label, assessor blinded, cluster randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Large industrial workplaces in metropolitan Bangkok, Thailand. PARTICIPANTS: Employees who smoked cigarettes and planned to quit within six months recruited from 101 worksite clusters (84 different companies). INTERVENTIONS: Worksites were digitally cluster randomized by an independent investigator to usual care or usual care plus one of eight types of incentive programmes. Usual care consisted of one time group counseling and cessation support through a 28 day text messaging programme. The incentive programmes depended on abstinence at three months and varied on three intervention components: refundable deposits, assignment to a teammate, and bonus size ($20 (£15; €17) or $40). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was biochemically verified seven day point prevalence smoking abstinence at 12 months. Secondary outcomes were programme acceptance at enrollment and smoking abstinence at three months (end of intervention) and at six months. All randomized participants who had complete baseline information were included in intention-to-treat analyses; participants with missing outcomes were coded as continuing smokers. RESULTS: Between April 2015 and August 2016, the trial enrolled 4190 participants. Eighteen were omitted because of missing baseline covariates and death before the primary endpoint, therefore 4172 participants were included in the intention-to-treat analyses. Programme acceptance was relatively high across all groups: 58.7% (2451/4172) overall and 61.3% (271/442) in the usual care group. Abstinence rates at 12 months did not differ among deposit programmes (336/2253, 14.9%) and non-deposit programmes (280/1919, 14.6%; adjusted difference 0.8 points, 95% confidence interval -2.7 to 4.3, P=0.65), but were somewhat lower for team based programmes (176/1348, 13.1%) than individual based programmes (440/2824, 15.6%; -3.2 points, -6.6 to -0.2, P=0.07), and higher for $40 bonus programmes (322/1954, 16.5%) than programmes with no bonus (148/1198, 12.4%; 5.9 points, 2.1 to 9.7, P=0.002). The $40 individual bonus was the most efficacious randomization group at all endpoints. Intervention components did not strongly interact with each other. CONCLUSIONS: Acceptance of monetary incentive programmes for promoting smoking abstinence was high across all groups. The $40 individual bonus programmes increased long term smoking abstinence compared with usual care, although several other incentive designs did not, such as team based programmes and deposit programmes. Incentive design in workplace wellness programmes might influence their effectiveness at reducing smoking rates in low resource settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02421224).


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Motivação , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador/métodos , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Aconselhamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Recompensa , Método Simples-Cego , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Tailândia , Resultado do Tratamento , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
5.
Eur Addict Res ; 26(6): 309-315, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32961535

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has led to measures of social distancing and quarantine worldwide. This stressful period may lead to psychological problems, including increases in substance use. OBJECTIVE: To investigate changes in alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis consumption before and during COVID-19 lockdown and motives for these changes in substance use. METHOD: A web-based survey was filled out by an unselected population during the social distancing measures of the COVID-19 pandemic in Belgium that assessed changes in alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis consumption in the period before and during the COVID-19 lockdown and also asked about reasons for change. RESULTS: A total of 3,632 respondents (mean age 42.1 ± 14.6 years; 70% female) filled out the survey. Overall, respondents reported consuming more alcohol (d = 0.21) and smoking more cigarettes (d = 0.13) than before the COVID-19 pandemic (both p < 0.001), while no significant changes in the consumption of cannabis were noted. The odds of consuming more alcohol during the lockdown were associated with younger age (OR = 0.981, p < 0.001), more children at home (OR = 1.220, p < 0.001), non-healthcare workers (p < 0.001), and being technically unemployed related to COVID-19 (p = 0.037). The odds of smoking more cigarettes during the lockdown were associated with younger age (OR = 0.988, p = 0.027), current living situation (p < 0.001), lower education (p = 0.015), and working situation related to COVID-19 (p = 0.018). Boredom, lack of social contacts, loss of daily structure, reward after a hard-working day, loneliness, and conviviality were the main reasons for consuming more of the various substances. CONCLUSIONS: During the lockdown, individuals consumed slightly more alcohol and smoked marginally more cigarettes compared to the period before the lockdown. Further research focussing on follow-up of individuals at risk may be useful to provide appropriate care in post-COVID times.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Tédio , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Solidão , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Características de Residência , Autorrelato , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237938, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877429

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: More smokers report using e-cigarettes to help them quit than FDA-approved pharmacotherapy. OBJECTIVE: To assess the association of e-cigarettes with future abstinence from cigarette and tobacco use. DESIGN: Cohort study of US sample, with annual follow-up. PARTICIPANTS: US adult (ages 18+) daily cigarette smokers identified at Wave 1 (W1; 2013-14) of the PATH Study, who reported a quit attempt before W2 and completed W3 (n = 2443). EXPOSURES: Use of e-cigarettes, pharmacotherapy (including nicotine replacement therapy), or no product for last quit attempt (LQA), and current daily e-cigarette use at W2. ANALYSIS: Propensity score matching (PSM) of groups using different methods to quit. OUTCOME MEASURES: 12+ months abstinence at W3 from cigarettes and from all tobacco (including e-cigarettes). 30+ days abstinence at W3 was a secondary outcome. RESULTS: Among daily smokers with an LQA, 23.5% used e-cigarettes, 19.3% used pharmacotherapy only (including NRT) and 57.2% used no product. Cigarette abstinence for 12+ months at W3 was ~10% in each group. Half of the cigarette abstainers in the e-cigarette group were using e-cigarettes at W3. Different methods to help quitting had statistically comparable 12+ month cigarette abstinence at W3 (e-cigarettes vs no product: Risk Difference (RD) = 0.01, 95% CI: -0.04 to 0.06; e-cigarettes vs pharmacotherapy: RD = 0.02, 95% CI:-0.04 to 0.09). Likewise, daily e-cigarette users at W2 did not show a cessation benefit over comparable no-e-cigarette users and this finding was robust to sensitivity analyses. Abstinence for 30+ days at W3 was also similar across products. LIMITATIONS: The frequency of e-cigarette use during the LQA was not assessed, nor was it possible to assess continuous abstinence from the LQA. CONCLUSION: Among US daily smokers who quit cigarettes in 2014-15, use of e-cigarettes in that attempt compared to approved cessation aids or no products showed similar abstinence rates 1-2 years later.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Tratamento Farmacológico/estatística & dados numéricos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/terapia , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fatores de Tempo , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/etiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 578-586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791026

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: With the increasing popularity of electronic cigarettes and legalization of recreational marijuana, messaging from websites and social media is shaping product perceptions and use. Quantitative research on the aesthetic appeal of these advertisements from the adolescent and young adult perspective is lacking. We evaluated (1) how adolescents and young adults perceived tobacco and marijuana messaging online and through social media platforms and (2) interactive behaviors related to these messages. METHODS: We interviewed 24 participants from the Tobacco Perceptions Study, a longitudinal study of adolescents' and young adults' (aged 17-21) tobacco-related perceptions and tobacco use. We collected qualitative data from October 2017 through February 2018, through individual semi-structured interviews, on participants' experiences and interactions with online tobacco and marijuana advertisements and the advertisements' appeal. Two analysts recorded, transcribed, and coded interviews. RESULTS: Themes that emerged from the interviews focused on the direct appeal of online messaging to adolescents and young adults; the value of trusting the source; the role of general attitudes and personal decision-making related to using tobacco and/or marijuana; the appeal of messaging that includes colors, interesting packaging, and appealing flavors; and the preference of messages communicated by young people and influencers rather than by industry. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest the need for increased regulation of social media messaging and marketing of tobacco and marijuana, with a particular focus on regulating social media, paid influencers, and marketing that appeals to adolescents and young adults. The findings also suggest the importance of prevention programs addressing the role of social media in influencing the use of tobacco and marijuana.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Publicidade , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fumar Maconha/psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Normas Sociais , Percepção Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychol Assess ; 32(10): 903-914, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658519

RESUMO

Schools are increasingly concerned with the well-being of the whole child - likely, more so since the COVID-19 pandemic - and goals here were to document the psychometric properties of a brief new measure of adolescent mental health, the Well-Being Index (WBI). The measure assesses 4 symptom areas, 2 each of internalizing and externalizing symptoms-Depression, Anxiety, Rule-Breaking, and Substance Use-and an optional scale on Isolation at School. A total of 2,444 students from 2 high schools completed the WBI, the Youth Self-Report (YSR), and other related measures. Alpha coefficients showed acceptable internal consistency, with values for the 5 WBI subscales at .83, .84, .78, .79, and .74, respectively. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses demonstrated consistent factorial validity. Correlations with corresponding YSR subscales indicated good convergent and discriminant validity. The WBI Substance Use and Isolation at School subscales, similarly, had high correlations with subscales from preexisting measures. Criterion-related validity was indicated in significant correlations between WBI subscales and conceptually related dimensions of close relationships. Also examined was the percentage of youth falling above clinical cutoffs on both the WBI and YSR, and findings demonstrated high concurrent validity. Collectively, results suggest the promise of the WBI as a brief, psychometrically sound measure to assess the adjustment of adolescents, along with perceptions of school climate that can be modified toward fostering their overall well-being. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Saúde do Adolescente , Ansiedade/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adolescente , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Depressão/diagnóstico , Análise Fatorial , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Estudantes/psicologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 815, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32473627

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few data were available on smoking and smokeless tobacco use in South Asian migrants in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). This study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of cigarette smoking and smokeless tobacco use in male South Asian migrants in the UAE. METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study to recruit a random representative sample of male South Asian migrants, including Indian (n = 433), Pakistani (n = 383) and Bangladeshi (n = 559) nationalities. We used multivariable logistic regression analysis to identify significant correlates of cigarettes smoking and smokeless tobacco use. RESULTS: 1375 South Asian migrant adult males participated in the study (response rate 76%) with a mean age of 34 years (SD ± 10). The overall prevalence of cigarette smoking was 28% (95%CI 25-30%) and smokeless tobacco use was 11% (95%CI 10-13%). The prevalence of current cigarette smoking was 21, 23, and 37% among participants from India, Pakistan and Bangladesh, respectively. The prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use was 6, 12, and 16% for Indian, Pakistani, and Bangladeshi participants, respectively. Among study participants, Bangladeshi nationality, hypertension, and alcohol use were significant correlates of current cigarette smoking. Significant correlates of smokeless tobacco use included increased age, less than college level education, alcohol use, and Pakistani or Bangladeshi nationality. CONCLUSIONS: Current smoking and smokeless tobacco use in South Asian migrants represent a significant public health burden in the UAE. Effective public health measures are needed to reduce tobacco use in this migrant population.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Uso de Tabaco/etnologia , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça/estatística & dados numéricos , Migrantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Bangladesh , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão , Prevalência , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Migrantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233414, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442205

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The effectiveness of repetitive transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) on reducing smoking behaviour has been studied with mixed results. Smoking behaviour is influenced by affect and context, therefore we choose to use mobile ecological momentary assessments (EMA) to measure changes in smoking behaviour after tDCS. METHODS: In a randomized, placebo-controlled, between subject study, we applied tDCS bilaterally with the anodal electrode targeting the right DLPFC (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03027687). Smokers were allocated to six sessions of either active tDCS (n = 35) or sham tDCS (n = 36) and received two sessions on three different days in one week. They were asked to keep track of their daily cigarette consumption, craving and affect in an application on their mobile phones for three months starting one week before the first tDCS session. RESULTS: Number of smoked cigarettes a day progressively decreased up to one week after the last tDCS session in both conditions. Active treatment had no additional effect on cigarette consumption, craving and affect. CONCLUSIONS: In this exploratory study, repetitive bilateral tDCS over the DLPFC had no effect on daily smoking behaviour. Future research needs to investigate how motivation to quit smoking and the number of tDCS sessions affect the efficacy of repetitive tDCS.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/métodos , Adulto , Fumar Cigarros/fisiopatologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fissura , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiopatologia , Estimulação Transcraniana por Corrente Contínua/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 180-189, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Low parental involvement and monitoring are risk factors for adolescent cigarette use. Assessments of parental involvement and monitoring by youth and parents may capture an additional source of risk: differences in perceptions of these parenting behaviors. This study tested for unique contributions of youth-reported parental involvement and monitoring and youth-parent discrepancies in reporting to first cigarette use in girls. METHOD: Data were drawn from interviews at ages 8-17 with 1,869 girls (57.3% Black, 42.7% White) and their primary caregivers (94% mothers) in the Pittsburgh Girls Study. Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were conducted to predict first cigarette use as a function of girls' reports of parental involvement and monitoring, magnitude and direction of youth-parent reporting discrepancies, and the interaction between them, adjusting for neighborhood, socioeconomic, and individual level factors. RESULTS: High magnitude of discrepancy in parental involvement reports (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.14, 95% confidence interval [CI] [1.03, 1.26]) and lower perceived parental involvement by girls (HR = 1.14, CI [1.03, 1.27]) were associated with an elevated risk for first cigarette use. Girls' reports of low parental monitoring also predicted first cigarette use (HR = 1.14, CI [1.06, 1.21]). CONCLUSIONS: Girls whose parents have limited awareness of their whereabouts and friends (i.e., low monitoring) are at an elevated risk for trying cigarettes, but parent-daughter differences in perceived awareness do not affect risk. By contrast, girls who perceive a lower degree of parental involvement than their parents do are at increased risk. Monitoring is one component of parenting that may reduce smoking risk; shared perspectives on the parent's level of involvement are similarly important.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Relações Pais-Filho , Pais/psicologia , População Urbana , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Criança , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Estudos de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Relações Pais-Filho/etnologia , Poder Familiar/etnologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Características de Residência , Fatores de Risco , População Urbana/tendências
12.
N Z Med J ; 133(1515): 46-53, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438376

RESUMO

AIM: Increasing cigarette prices is one of the most effective strategies to reduce smoking. This study examined changes in smoking intentions of university students following simulated price increases. METHOD: Data came from a 2018 cross-sectional survey of university students. The sample comprised 187 current smokers (47% aged <21 years, 53% ≥21 years; 60% male, 40% female; 10% Maori, 90% non-Maori and 18% current vapers). Students were asked how their smoking behaviour would change if the price of a packet of their regular cigarettes or RYO tobacco was increased by $5.00, $10.00, $15.00 or >$15.00. RESULTS: The proportion of students who would smoke the same amount declined substantially, while students who would switch to e-cigarettes increased by large margins at price increases of $5.00, $10.00 and $15.00. Quit intentions increased at all price levels, but were stronger among younger students and females. Males were almost twice as likely to switch to e-cigarettes as females. Overall, more students would quit than switch to e-cigarettes. CONCLUSION: Results show that increasing cigarette prices by ≥$15.00 per packet could lead to significant reductions in smoking among university students. Follow-up data is required to assess the differential effects of price increases on vaping.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/economia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Intenção , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Fatores Etários , Fumar Cigarros/prevenção & controle , Custos e Análise de Custo , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nova Zelândia , Fatores Sexuais , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Vaping , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232668, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421742

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption during pregnancy can have detrimental effects on the developing fetus, including fetal alcohol syndrome and low birth weight. Surprisingly little is known about the association of personality traits with smoking and alcohol consumption in the specific subpopulation of pregnant women. This study analyzed data from a geographically diverse sample of 603 pregnant women, aged 18 years and older, who provided information regarding their smoking and drinking habits before and during pregnancy. We compared women who consumed alcohol or smoked cigarettes before pregnancy with women who quit or continued smoking or drinking during pregnancy. Associations between personality and maladaptive behaviors prior to and during pregnancy were modeled using logistic regression. The study revealed that women who scored high on openness to experience were significantly more likely to continue alcohol consumption during pregnancy (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.01, 1.14, p = .02). This association was maintained after adjusting for potential confounds. This study demonstrated a significant relationship between personality traits and women's likelihood of continued alcohol consumption prior to and during pregnancy. Understanding personality-based determinants of health-detrimental behavior is important in order to design interventions that aim at decreasing rates of maladaptive health behaviors among pregnant women.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Personalidade , Complicações na Gravidez/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Gestantes , Adulto Jovem
14.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(8): 2353-2365, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399632

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Little is known about relapse among non-daily, intermittent smokers (ITS), who have difficulty quitting, despite a lack of dependence. OBJECTIVES: To analyze situations associated with temptations to smoke and smoking lapses among ITS trying to maintain abstinence. METHODS: Participants were 130 initially abstinent ITS in the placebo arm of a smoking cessation study. EMA data captured participants' situations and states in temptations (n = 976), including those that eventuated in lapses (n = 147), for up to 6 weeks. Randomly timed assessments assessed background states (n = 11,446). Participants also reported coping performed to prevent lapses. Multilevel analyses compared temptations to background situations, and lapse episodes to resolved temptations. RESULTS: Temptations were marked by exposure to smoking cues, including others smoking, lax smoking restrictions, and alcohol consumption, as well as more negative affect. Lapses did not differ from resolved temptations in craving intensity, but were more often associated with smoking cues and availability of cigarettes, alcohol consumption, and worse affect, and were more often attributed to good moods. Both behavioral and cognitive coping responses were associated with avoiding lapsing, but behavioral coping had much larger effects. The effects of affective distress on lapse risk were mediated by its effects on coping. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking cues play a major role in ITS' temptations and lapses, perhaps indicating a degree of behavioral dependence. Affective distress also played a role in ITS lapses, undermining the idea that the affective distress seen in daily smokers' lapses is due to nicotine withdrawal. The data reinforce the important role of coping in preventing lapses.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Adaptação Psicológica/fisiologia , Adulto , Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Fissura/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/fisiologia , Goma de Mascar de Nicotina , Recidiva , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
15.
Value Health ; 23(4): 495-505, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32327167

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To measure Australian population preferences for lung cancer screening and to explore whether these preferences are related to respondent characteristics and lung cancer risk. METHODS: An online ranking task was administered to a sample of 521 Australians between the ages of 50 and 80 with a history of cigarette smoking. Choice sets contained 2 alternative lungs screens and an opt-out, and respondents were asked to rank the 3 options. Both conditional logit and mixed logit analyses were conducted exploring both the forced choice between the 2 screens and identifying the types of respondent most likely to opt out of any screening. For this, respondent 6-year lung cancer risk was estimated and used as a covariate. RESULTS: Respondents valued tests that involved breath or blood tests in addition to computerized tomography (CT), locations that were close to home, receiving results quickly, and minimizing radiation from the CT scan. Willingness to pay differed between relatively higher and lower risk individuals; higher risk individuals placed greater emphasis on convenience, result timeliness, and radiation. Respondent characteristics that predicted opting out of any screening included being male, fewer years of smoking, and not having a previous cancer diagnosis. Lung cancer risk did not influence the likelihood of opting out. CONCLUSIONS: Uptake of lung cancer screening is likely to be changeable if different modalities of screening are provided, with effects likely differing across population subgroups.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/psicologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Programas de Rastreamento/psicologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Austrália , Comportamento de Escolha , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preferência do Paciente , Opinião Pública , Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
16.
Pediatrics ; 145(5)2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253264

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a dearth of evidence regarding the association of use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) with certain product characteristics and adolescent and young adult risk of unhealthy tobacco use patterns (eg, frequency of combustible cigarette smoking), which is needed to inform the regulation of e-cigarettes. METHODS: Data were collected via an online survey of participants in the Southern California Children's Health Study from 2015 to 2016 (baseline) and 2016 to 2017 (follow-up) (N = 1312). We evaluated the association of binary categories of 3 nonmutually exclusive characteristics of the e-cigarette used most frequently with the number of cigarettes smoked in the past 30 days at 1-year follow-up. Product characteristics included device (vape pen and/or modifiable electronic cigarette [mod]), use of nicotine in electronic liquid (e-liquid; yes or no), and use for dripping (directly dripping e-liquid onto the device; yes or no). RESULTS: Relative to never e-cigarette users, past-30-day e-cigarette use was associated with greater frequency of past-30-day cigarette smoking at follow-up. Among baseline past-30-day e-cigarette users, participants who used mods (versus vape pens) smoked >6 times as many cigarettes at follow-up (mean: 20.8 vs 1.3 cigarettes; rate ratio = 6.33; 95% confidence interval: 1.64-24.5) after adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, baseline frequency of cigarette smoking, and number of days of e-cigarette use. After adjustment for device, neither nicotine e-liquid nor dripping were associated with frequency of cigarette smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Baseline mod users (versus vape pen users) smoked more cigarettes in the past 30 days at follow-up. Regulation of e-cigarette device type warrants consideration as a strategy to reduce cigarette smoking among adolescents and young adults who vape.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Fumar Cigarros/tendências , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Vaping/epidemiologia , Vaping/tendências , Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(6): 1737-1744, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157328

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Nicotine patches may be less effective in female compared with male smokers. However, it is unknown if negative affect and physical symptoms influence transdermal nicotine patch-related effects on smoking behaviors. METHODS: Eighty-one acutely tobacco-abstinent premenopausal female smokers attended three counter-balanced experimental sessions across the menstrual cycle (early follicular, late follicular, and mid-luteal) and were randomized to patch condition (nicotine [21 mg] vs. placebo [0 mg] transdermal patch). Negative affect and physical symptoms were assessed prior to patch administration. The patch was removed 5 h post-administration, and participants completed a smoking reinstatement task. Multilevel linear models tested associations of patch condition, negative affect and physical symptoms, and their interaction on smoking behavior. RESULTS: There was a significant patch condition × Negative Affect and Pain symptoms interaction on the number of cigarettes smoked (p < 0.05). When Negative Affect and Pain were lower-than-usual, females administered a nicotine patch smoked significantly fewer cigarettes than females administered a placebo patch (p < .05), but there were no significant patch differences when Negative Affect and Pain were higher-than-usual. There was also a significant patch condition × Negative Affect interaction on time delay. The effects of patch condition on time delay to smoking were greater during sessions in which Negative Affect was higher-than-usual. CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that among female smokers transdermal nicotine patch effectiveness may interact with negative affect and pain. Understanding and considering female-specific factors that may impact the efficacy of one of the most commonly used cessation medications is important for improving smoking cessation in female smokers.


Assuntos
Afeto/fisiologia , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Pré-Menopausa/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco , Administração Cutânea , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar Cigarros/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Pré-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Menopausa/fisiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
Behav Processes ; 174: 104108, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198089

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study is aimed at comparing the relative reinforcing efficacy (RRE) of nicotine though CPT performance in function of alcohol and coffee consumption of treatment-seeking smokers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 88 treatment-seeking smokers (60.2 % female) completed the CPT. A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to compare alcohol (consumers and abstainers of alcohol) and coffee intake (high coffee consumers and low coffee consumers) on CPT indices. RESULTS: Univariate effects of coffee × alcohol use interaction were significant for elasticity [F (1, 83) = 4.9435, p = .038, η2 = .051] and intensity [F (1, 83) = 6.972, p = .01, η2 = .077]. CONCLUSIONS: Alcohol and coffee use is associated with an elevated cigarette demand among treatment-seeking smokers. This finding suggests the need for specific interventions to reduce alcohol and coffee use in order to increase the effectiveness of treatments for smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Viés de Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Café , Reforço Psicológico , Fumantes/psicologia , Adulto , Cafeína/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nicotina/farmacologia
19.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(6): 1885-1891, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221696

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The smallest difference in nicotine that can change a smoker's cigarette preference is not clearly known. OBJECTIVE: A procedure to efficiently identify the difference in nicotine needed to change cigarette preference could help inform research to gauge effects of a nicotine reduction policy. METHODS: Using a within-subject design, we assessed preference for research cigarettes varying in nicotine contents (NIC; 18.7, 10.8, 5.3, 2.3, and 1.3 mg/g of tobacco), relative to a very low nicotine cigarette (VLNC; 0.4 mg/g), in 17 adult-dependent non-menthol smokers abstinent overnight. Only one NIC was compared vs. the VLNC per session, with order of the five NIC contents randomized across sessions on five separate days. Preference for each NIC vs. VLNC was determined by validated forced choice procedure, with those NIC chosen more than VLNC indicating greater reinforcement due to greater nicotine per se. Secondarily, less preference for lower NIC (vs. VLNC), relative to choice for the highest NIC, 18.7 mg/g (vs. VLNC), indexed reduced reinforcement. RESULTS: Overall, NIC choices increased as their nicotine increased, as anticipated. Relative to the 0.4 mg/g VLNC, choice was greater for NIC ≥ 5.3 mg/g but not ≤ 2.3 mg/g. Correspondingly, relative to choice for 18.7 mg/g, choice was less for NIC ≤ 2.3 mg/g but not ≥ 5.3 mg/g. CONCLUSIONS: Although replication with larger samples and longer access is needed, results indicate that nicotine reduction to ≤ 2.3 mg/g in cigarettes would attenuate reinforcement. This choice procedure may efficiently inform future clinical trials to assess relative reinforcing effects of smoking reduced nicotine cigarettes.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Reforço Psicológico , Fumantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto , Comportamento de Escolha/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Fumar Cigarros/terapia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco
20.
Ann Epidemiol ; 43: 66-70, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32094041

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Although stroke survivors who continue smoking face increased risk for subsequent strokes, little is known about U.S. poststroke smoking patterns. We examined smoking prevalence in U.S. stroke survivors and what sociodemographic factors are associated with continuation of smoking in these individuals. METHODS: We determined the prevalence of smoking in U.S. stroke survivors (n = 56,523) using 2016-2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data. A logistic regression was created to identify associations between sociodemographic factors and poststroke smoking continuation. RESULTS: 20.4% of stroke survivors continued to smoke after their stroke (14.7% smokes every day, 5.7% smokes some days). Older age, being male (OR: 1.15, 95% CI: 1.05-1.27), Asian (OR: 2.79, 95% CI: 1.52-5.11) or Hispanic (OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.06-1.63) ethnicity, higher income, higher educational attainment, and access to health care (OR: 1.27, 95% CI: 1.02-1.59) and a personal doctor (one doctor OR: 1.51, 95% CI: 1.25-1.83; more than one doctor OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.27-1.99) corresponded with increased odds of smoking continuation after a stroke. CONCLUSIONS: A greater push for smoking cessation by clinicians and support programs to aid with cessation in U.S. stroke survivors is needed to decrease the high prevalence of poststroke smoking in this population.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Sobreviventes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde/etnologia , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Sobreviventes/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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