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1.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 22(12): 4051-4056, 2021 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoking and health-related quality of life among Saudi secondary vocational students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A convenience sample of 328 answered a web-based self-administered questionnaire based on the Youth Risky Behavior Monitoring System (YRBSS) plus the Short Form 12 (SF-12) were included in the study. The target population included all Saudi students enrolled at the Secondary Industrial Institute in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during December 2020 and February 2021. RESULTS: Out of the total of 328 male participants, representing a response rate of 38.59%, the highest percentage of respondents were in the first year (45.4%), the mean age of the participants was 17.73 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 1.85 years. The prevalence of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 30.2%, 21.3%, and 48.5%, respectively. First-year students reported relatively high levels of smoking prevalence and low physical scores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The overall mean of HRQoL of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 58.60, 58.38, and 63.66, respectively. In addition, current smokers reported a relatively low physical score of HRQoL 55.73. CONCLUSION: This is the first report to explore the impact of smoking on HRQoL of Secondary Industrial Institute students in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicate that smoking has a negative impact on the quality of life of vocational students. Therefore, a health strategies plan may be developed to improve the quality of life for vocational students in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of cigarette smoking and health-related quality of life among Saudi secondary vocational students during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A convenience sample of 328 answered a web-based self-administered questionnaire based on the Youth Risky Behavior Monitoring System (YRBSS) plus the Short Form 12 (SF-12) were included in the study. The target population included all Saudi students enrolled at the Secondary Industrial Institute in Dammam, Saudi Arabia, during December 2020 and February 2021. RESULTS: Out of the total of 328 male participants, representing a response rate of 38.59%, the highest percentage of respondents were in the first year (45.4%), the mean age of the participants was 17.73 years with a standard deviation (SD) of 1.85 years. The prevalence of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 30.2%, 21.3%, and 48.5%, respectively. First-year students reported relatively high levels of smoking prevalence and low physical scores of health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The overall mean of HRQoL of current smokers, past smokers, and never smokers accounted for 58.60, 58.38, and 63.66, respectively. In addition, current smokers reported a relatively low physical score of HRQoL 55.73. CONCLUSION: This is the first report to explore the impact of smoking on HRQoL of Secondary Industrial Institute students in Saudi Arabia during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results indicate that smoking has a negative impact on the quality of life of vocational students. Therefore, a health strategies plan may be developed to improve the quality of life for vocational students in Saudi Arabia.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , COVID-19 , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Prevalência , Assunção de Riscos , Arábia Saudita , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1082, 2021 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34620148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption and smoking are the leading risk factors for laryngeal cancer (LC). Understanding the variations in disease burden of LC attributable to alcohol use and smoking is critical for LC prevention. METHODS: Disease burden data of LC were retrieved from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019. We used estimated average percentage change (EAPC) to measure the temporal trends of the age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of LC. RESULTS: Globally, while the ASMR of LC decreased by 1.49% (95% CI, 1.41-1.57%) per year between 1990 and 2019, the number of deaths from LC has increased 41.0% to 123.4 thousand in 2019. In 2019, 19.4 and 63.5% of total LC-related deaths were attributable to alcohol use and smoking worldwide, respectively. The ASMR of alcohol- and smoking-related LC decreased by 1.78 and 1.93% per year, whereas the corresponding death number has increased 29.2 and 25.1% during this period, respectively. The decreasing trend was more pronounced in developed countries. In some developing countries, such as Guinea and Mongolia, the LC mortality has shown an unfavorable trend. CONCLUSION: The ubiquitous decrease in LC mortality was largely attributed to the smoking control and highlighted the importance of smoking control policies. However, the disease burden of LC remained in increase and more effective strategies are needed to combat the global increase of alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/mortalidade , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/mortalidade , Fumar/mortalidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Causas de Morte , Intervalos de Confiança , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Laríngeas/etiologia , Masculino , Mortalidade/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
3.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 1071, 2021 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34592954

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) in the French West Indies (FWI) is relatively high, despite a low prevalence of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking. Little is known about other risk factors in the FWI. We assessed associations between several factors and HNSCC risk, their population attributable fractions (PAF) in the FWI, and compared these PAFs by subsite, sex and age. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study (145 cases and 405 controls). We used logistic regression models to estimate adjusted odds-ratios (OR), PAFs and their 95% confidence intervals (CI). RESULTS: Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, high-risk HPV, family history of HNC, low BMI and several occupations and industries were significantly associated to the occurrence of HNSCC. The majority of HNSCC cases were attributable to tobacco smoking (65.7%) and alcohol (44.3%). The PAF for the combined consumption of tobacco and/or alcohol was 78.2% and was considerably larger in men (85%) than in women (33%). The PAFs for the remaining risk factors were 9% for family history of HNSCC, 9% for low BMI, 15% for high-risk HPV, and 25% for occupations. The overall PAF for all risk factors combined was 89.0% (95% CI = 82.0-93.2). The combined PAFs by sex were significantly greater in men (93.4%, 95% CI = 87.5-96.5) than in women (56.4%, 95% CI = 18.7-76.6). CONCLUSION: Tobacco and alcohol appeared to have the greatest impact on HNSCC incidence among the studied risk factors, especially among men. Prevention programs for HNSCC in the FWI should target tobacco and alcohol cessation, particularly in men. Future research should emphasise on the role of occupational factors to better understand this disease.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/etiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alphapapillomavirus/genética , Alphapapillomavirus/isolamento & purificação , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Intervalos de Confiança , Feminino , Guadalupe/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Martinica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258669, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34714847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: High prevalence of tobacco smoking among young students remains a serious health concern given the positive association between smoking and NCDs. More recently, some studies also noted young smokers were more likely to get infected with COVID-19 compared to non-smokers. This study aims to assess the factors that influence smoking uptake among young students in Samoa. Findings from this study will provide valuable insight to policymakers and health authorities on policies and strategies to combat smoking among youth in Samoa and the Pacific Island Countries (PICs). METHODS: The 2017 Global Youth Tobacco Survey data of Samoa, available from the World Health Organization is used in the analysis. We use the multinominal logistic model to investigate the effects of socio-economic and demographics factors on young students' uptake of smoking in Samoa. RESULT: The main findings of this study indicate that sex, age, friendship, parental smoking, family discussion, outside influence, pocket money, and mother's education are important determinants of tobacco smoking initiation among youths in Samoa. CONCLUSION: Our findings contribute towards the evidence of the imperative health impact of friends, parents, and public smoking on students in Samoa. This warrants strategies that are effective in discouraging parents from smoking and implement measures that prevent smoking in public places. Moreover, educational efforts, particularly those that encourage more discussion at home settings on the harmful effects of smoking are strongly recommended. Parents are strongly encouraged to regularly monitor children's spending behaviour.


Assuntos
Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Samoa/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 84(24): 1004-1019, 2021 12 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459362

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Although tobacco smoking-induced genotoxicity has been well established, there is apparent lack of abundance functional epigenetic effects reported On cigarette smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine effects of intratracheal administration of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) utilizing target gene expression DNA methylation patterns in lung tissues of mice following twice weekly for 8 weeks treatment. An unbiased approach where genomic regions was undertaken to assess early methylation changes within mouse pulmonary tissues. A methylated-CpG island recovery assay (MIRA) was performed to map the DNA methylome in lung tissues, with the position of methylated DNA determined using a Genome Analyzer (MIRA-SEQ). Alterations in epigenetic-regulated target genes were confirmed with quantitative reverse transcription-PCR, which revealed 35 differentially hypermethylated genes including Cdkn1C, Hsf4, Hnf1a, Cdx1, and Hoxa5 and 30 differentially hypomethylated genes including Ddx4, Piwi1, Mdm2, and Pce1 in NNK-exposed lung tissue compared with controls. The main pathway of these genes for mediating biological information was analyzed using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database. Among them, Rssf1 and Mdm2 were closely associated with NNK-induced lung carcinogenesis. Taken together, our data provide valuable resources for detecting cigarette smoke-induced lung carcinogenesis.


Assuntos
Carcinogênese/induzido quimicamente , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Epigênese Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrosaminas/toxicidade , Animais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinogênese/genética , Carcinogênese/metabolismo , Carcinogênese/patologia , Carcinógenos/análise , Metilação de DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Epigenoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Camundongos , Nitrosaminas/análise , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
6.
Afr Health Sci ; 21(1): 112-122, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34394288

RESUMO

Background: Evidence suggests that people who live in regions affected by the armed conflict are more likely to smoke. Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess factors associated with smoking status in a sample of students in the northern Kosovo province. Materials and methods: A total of 514 students enrolled in University in Kosovska Mitrovica, Kosovo, were recruited between April to June 2015 at Student Public Health Center during mandatory health checks. Participants filled in socio-demographic and behavioral questionnaire and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Based on responses about smoking, students were categorized in non-smokers, former smokers, light smokers (1-13 cigarettes/day) and heavy smokers (> 13 cigarettes/day). Results: Of 514 students, 116 (22.6%) classified themselves as smokers. Higher education level of fathers (Odds ratio [OR]=2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30-6.44, p=0.009), not living with smokers (OR=0.42, 95%CI 0.15-0.97, p=0.017) and longer exposure to second hand smoke (OR=1.07, 95%CI 1.01-1.13, p=0.036) was associated with former smoking. Studying medical and natural sciences (OR=2.07, 95%CI 1.05-4.18, p=0.040), consuming alcohol (OR=2.98, 95%CI 1.19-10.03, p=0.020), living with smokers (OR=2.88, 95%CI 1.49-5.56, p=0.002), longer exposure to second hand smoke (OR=1.06, 95%CI 1.01-1.11, p=0.019) and having a more intense depressive symptoms (OR=1.08, 95%CI 1.03-1.13, p=0.002) was associated with light smoking. Being male (OR=0.22, 95%CI 0.07-0.41, p=0.001), older (OR=1.47, 95%CI 1.21-1.78, p=0.001), living with smokers (OR=3.78, 95%CI 1.69-8.07, p=0.001), longer daily exposure to second-hand smoke (OR=1.10, 95%CI 1.04-1.16, p=0.001), and having more severe depressive symptoms (OR=1.12, 95%CI 1.07-1.18, p=0.001) were associated with heavy smoking. Conclusion: Smoking prevention and cessation programs should include the entire community, because exposure to environmental second hand smoke may facilitate initiation and more intense smoking. Screening of student smokers for depression should be prioritized in the process of rebuilding the framework for primary and secondary prevention in the post-conflict period.


Assuntos
Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
7.
Curr Issues Mol Biol ; 43(2): 887-899, 2021 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34449539

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease characterized by airflow obstruction, commonly present in smokers and subjects exposed to noxious particles product of biomass-burning smoke (BBS). Several association studies have identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in coding genes related to the heat shock proteins family-genes that codify the heat shock proteins (Hsp). Hsp accomplishes critical roles in regulating immune response, antigen-processing, eliminating protein aggregates and co-activating receptors. The presence of SNPs in these genes can lead to alterations in immune responses. We aimed to evaluate the association of SNPs in the HSP90 gene complex and COPD. METHODS: We enrolled 1549 participants, divided into two comparison groups; 919 tobacco-smoking subjects (cases COPD-TS n = 294 and, controls SWOC n = 625) and 630 chronic exposed to BBS (cases COPD-BBS n = 186 and controls BBES n = 444). We genotyped 2 SNPs: the rs13296 in HSP90AB1 and rs2070908 in HSP90B1. RESULTS: Through the dominant model (GC + CC), the rs2070908 is associated with decreased risk (p < 0.01, OR = 0.6) to suffer COPD among chronic exposed BBS subjects. We found an association between rs13296 GG genotype and lower risk (p = 0.01, OR = 0.22) to suffer severe COPD-TS forms in the severity analysis. CONCLUSIONS: single-nucleotide variants in the HSP90AB1 and HSP90B1 genes are associated with decreased COPD risk in subjects exposed to BBS and the most severe forms of COPD in tobacco-smoking subjects.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP90/genética , Pulmão/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia
8.
Clin Immunol ; 229: 108798, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280578

RESUMO

Inflammatory response in patients with COPD secondary to organic dust exposure (OD-COPD) is poorly understood. We therefore aimed to characterize inflammatory and immune profile from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in a group of patients with mild-to-moderate COPD secondary to organic dust exposure (OD-COPD), tobacco smoking (T-COPD), or both. We compared T, B and NK cells distribution and inflammatory (TNF-α, Il-1ß, IL-6), type 1 (IFN-γ), type 2 (IL-4, IL-13) and type 3 (IL-17) immunity related cytokines at baseline, and after stimulation with LPS, flagellin and CD3/CD28 beads in all COPD groups. OD-COPD displayed significantly lower NK cells and CD8+ T cells compared with controls. After flagellin stimulation, T-COPD had significantly lower IL-13 levels than OD-COPD and controls (p < 0.05) whereas IFN-γ tended to be lower in OD-COPD. All COPD groups displayed higher IL-1ß and IL-17 than controls after CD3/CD28 stimulation. Inflammatory responses in OD-COPD were different from T-COPD. OD-COPD displayed higher levels of type 2 immunity related cytokines.


Assuntos
Poeira/imunologia , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/imunologia , Idoso , Agricultura , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Linfócitos B/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Citocinas/biossíntese , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/patologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Matadoras Naturais/patologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
9.
Surg Endosc ; 35(11): 5936-5952, 2021 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34319440

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association between smoking and surgical complications after bariatric surgery has been well-established. However, given that this patient population is inherently weight-concerned, understanding the effects of tobacco use on postoperative weight loss is essential to guiding clinicians in counseling patients. We aimed to summarize the current literature examining the effects of preoperative and postoperative smoking, as well as changes in smoking status, on bariatric surgery weight loss outcomes. METHODS: Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, and SCOPUS databases were queried to identify relevant published studies. RESULTS: Overall, 20 studies were included. Preoperative and postoperative smoking rates varied widely across studies, as did requirements for smoking cessation prior to bariatric surgery. Reported preoperative smoking prevalence ranged from 1 to 62%, and postoperative smoking prevalence ranged from 6 to 43%. The majority of studies which examined preoperative and/or postoperative smoking habits found no association between smoking habits and postoperative weight loss outcomes. A minority of studies found relatively small differences in postoperative weight loss between smokers and nonsmokers; these often became nonsignificant with longer follow-up. No studies found significant associations between changes in smoking status and weight loss outcomes. CONCLUSION: While smoking has been associated with weight loss in the general population, most current evidence demonstrates that smoking habits are not associated with weight loss outcomes after bariatric surgery. However, due to the heterogeneity in study design and analysis, no definitive conclusions can be made, and more robust studies are needed to investigate any relationship between smoking and long-term weight loss outcomes. Given the established increased risk of surgical complications and mortality in smokers, smoking cessation should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Cirurgia Bariátrica , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Perda de Peso , Humanos
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298890

RESUMO

Despite extensive efforts to combat cigarette smoking/tobacco use, it still remains a leading cause of global morbidity and mortality, killing more than eight million people each year. While tobacco smoking is a major risk factor for non-communicable diseases related to the four main groups-cardiovascular disease, cancer, chronic lung disease, and diabetes-its impact on neuropsychiatric risk is rather elusive. The aim of this review article is to emphasize the importance of smoking as a potential risk factor for neuropsychiatric disease and to identify central pathophysiological mechanisms that may contribute to this relationship. There is strong evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies indicating that smoking may increase the risk of various neuropsychiatric diseases, such as dementia/cognitive decline, schizophrenia/psychosis, depression, anxiety disorder, and suicidal behavior induced by structural and functional alterations of the central nervous system, mainly centered on inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways. From a public health perspective, preventive measures and policies designed to counteract the global epidemic of smoking should necessarily include warnings and actions that address the risk of neuropsychiatric disease.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade/induzido quimicamente , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Animais , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255285, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329345

RESUMO

Unhealthy lifestyles are damaging to the brain. Previous studies have indicated that body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake, short sleep, smoking, and lack of exercise are negatively associated with gray matter volume (GMV). Living alone has also been found to be related to GMV through lowered subjective happiness. However, to our knowledge, no GMV study has dealt with these unhealthy lifestyles simultaneously. By our analyses based on 142 healthy Japanese participants, BMI, alcohol intake, living alone, and short sleep were negatively associated with the gray-matter brain healthcare quotient (GM-BHQ), an MRI-based normalized GMV, after controlling for age, sex, and facility, not only individually but also when they were entered into a single regression model. Moreover, there were small but significant differences in the proportion of the variance for GM-BHQ explained by variables in a regression model (measured by R squared) between when these unhealthy variables were entered in an equation at the same time and when they were entered separately, with the former larger than the latter. However, smoking and lack of exercise were not significantly associated with GM-BHQ. Results indicate that some kinds of unhealthy lifestyles are somewhat harmful on their own, but may become more noxious to brain condition if practiced simultaneously, although its difference may not be large. To our knowledge, this study is the first to show that overlapping unhealthy lifestyles affects the brains of healthy adults.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Córtex Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Exercício Físico , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Estilo de Vida , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Sono , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(12): 6822-6827, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314045

RESUMO

Information gathered so far from published studies attest the existence of a complex relationship between tobacco smoking and the severity of COVID-19. We investigated the association between smoking habits and the severity of COVID-19 in patients hospitalized in university-affiliated hospitals in Lyon, France. Baseline sociodemographic, clinical and biological characteristics of adult COVID-19 hospitalized patients presenting from the community were prospectively collected and analyzed. Tobacco exposure was documented at admission. Characteristics of patients hospitalized in medical wards to those admitted or transferred to intensive care units (ICUs) were compared using Mann-Whitney and Χ2 or Fisher's exact test. A composite endpoint including admission or transfer to ICU or death was created as a proxy for severe outcome. Adjusted odds ratio (aOR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were calculated to identify variables independently associated with a severe outcome. Of the 645 patients with documented information on smoking habits, 62.6% were never-smokers, 32.1% ex-smokers, and 5.3% active smokers. Past tobacco use was independently associated with an increased risk of severe outcome (aOR: 1.71; 95% CI: 1.12-2.63), whereas a nonsignificant protective trend was found for active smoking. The results suggest that past smoking is associated with enhanced risk of progressing toward severe COVID-19 disease in hospitalized patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , França , Hospitalização , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos
13.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021046, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34265892

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Tobacco smoking is classified as carcinogenic to humans (International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1). We aimed to estimate the percentage and number of incident cancer cases diagnosed in Texas in 2015 that were attributable to tobacco smoking, and we examined differences in the proportions of smoking-attributable cancers between the major racial/ethnic subgroups of the population. METHODS: We calculated population-attributable fractions for cancers attributable to tobacco smoking using prevalence data from the Texas Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and relative risks associated with smoking status from pooled analyses of cohort studies or meta-analyses. Cancer incidence data were collected from the Texas Cancer Registry. RESULTS: We estimated that 19,000 excess cancer cases or 18.4% of all cancers diagnosed in 2015 in Texans aged ≥ 25 years were caused by tobacco smoking. Males had a higher overall proportion of cancers attributable to tobacco smoking than females (male, 23.3%, 11,993 excess cases; female, 13.5%, 7,006 cases). Approximately 20% of cancer cases in non-Hispanic Whites and non-Hispanic Blacks were attributable to tobacco smoking compared to 12.8% among Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Despite ongoing public health campaigns combatting tobacco use, this preventable behavior still contributes significantly to cancer incidence in Texas. Racial/ethnic differences in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable cancer incidence should be considered when designing cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/etnologia , Fumar Tabaco/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Texas/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13980, 2021 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34234189

RESUMO

Previous observational studies have identified correlations between Parkinson's disease (PD) risk and lifestyle factors. However, whether or not those associations are causal remains unclear. To infer causality between PD risk and smoking or alcohol intake, we conducted a two-sample Mendelian randomization study using genome-wide association study summary statistics from the GWAS & Sequencing Consortium of Alcohol and Nicotine use study (1.2 million participants) and the latest meta-analysis from the International Parkinson's Disease Genomics Consortium (37,688 PD cases and 18,618 proxy-cases). We performed sensitivity analyses, including testing for pleiotropy with MR-Egger and MR-PRESSO, and multivariable MR modeling to account for the genetic effects of competing substance use traits on PD risk. Our results revealed causal associations of alcohol intake (OR 0.79; 95% CI 0.65-0.96; p = 0.021) and smoking continuation (which compares current vs. former smokers) (OR 0.64; 95% CI 0.46-0.89; p = 0.008) with lower PD risk. Multivariable MR analyses showed that the causal association between drinks per week and PD is unlikely due to confounding by smoking behavior. Finally, frailty analyses suggested that the causal effects of both alcohol intake and smoking continuation on PD risk estimated from MR analysis are not explained by the presence of survival bias alone. Our findings support the role of smoking as a protective factor against PD, but only when comparing current vs. former smokers. Similarly, increased alcohol intake had a protective effect over PD risk, with the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B (ADH1B) locus as a potential candidate for further investigation of the mechanisms underlying this association.


Assuntos
Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Comportamento de Ingestão de Líquido , Doença de Parkinson/etiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Algoritmos , Alelos , Análise de Dados , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco
15.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254772, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283871

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Melanocytic nevi have a complex evolution influenced by several endogenous and exogenous factors and are known risk factors for malignant melanoma. Interestingly, tobacco use seems to be inversely associated with melanoma risk. However, the association between tobacco use and nevi and lentigines has not yet been evaluated. METHODS: We investigated the prevalence of nevi, atypical nevi, and lentigines in relation to tobacco smoking in a cohort of 59 smokers and 60 age- and sex-matched nonsmokers, using a questionnaire and performing a total body skin examination by experts. RESULTS: No significant differences were detected between smokers and nonsmokers in the numbers of nevi, atypical nevi, and lentigines in sun-exposed areas (p = 0.966, 0.326, and 0.241, respectively) and in non-sun-exposed areas (p = 0.095, 0.351, and 0.546, respectively). CONCLUSION: Our results revealed no significant differences in the prevalence of nevi, atypical nevi, and lentigines between smokers and nonsmokers in sun-exposed and non-sun-exposed areas.


Assuntos
Lentigo/epidemiologia , Nevo Pigmentado/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Áustria , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Lentigo/metabolismo , Masculino , Melanoma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nevo/epidemiologia , Nevo/metabolismo , Nevo Pigmentado/metabolismo , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Neoplasias Cutâneas/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco/metabolismo , Fumar Tabaco/fisiopatologia
16.
Elife ; 102021 07 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34227468

RESUMO

Background: To understand a causal role of modifiable lifestyle factors in angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression (a putative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2] receptor) across 44 human tissues/organs, and in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility and severity, we conducted a phenome-wide two-sample Mendelian randomization (MR) study. Methods: More than 500 genetic variants were used as instrumental variables to predict smoking and alcohol consumption. Inverse-variance weighted approach was adopted as the primary method to estimate a causal association, while MR-Egger regression, weighted median, and MR pleiotropy residual sum and outlier (MR-PRESSO) were performed to identify potential horizontal pleiotropy. Results: We found that genetically predicted smoking intensity significantly increased ACE2 expression in thyroid (ß=1.468, p=1.8×10-8), and increased ACE2 expression in adipose, brain, colon, and liver with nominal significance. Additionally, genetically predicted smoking initiation significantly increased the risk of COVID-19 onset (odds ratio=1.14, p=8.7×10-5). No statistically significant result was observed for alcohol consumption. Conclusions: Our work demonstrates an important role of smoking, measured by both status and intensity, in the susceptibility to COVID-19. Funding: XJ is supported by research grants from the Swedish Research Council (VR-2018-02247) and Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare (FORTE-2020-00884).


Assuntos
Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , COVID-19/patologia , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , COVID-19/virologia , Causalidade , Colo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Fígado/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo
17.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 691, 2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with Philadelphia-negative Myeloproliferative Neoplasms (MPN) suffer from numerous symptoms and decreased quality of life. Smoking is associated with an increased symptom burden in several malignancies. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between smoking and MPN-related symptom burden and explore MPN patients' opinions on smoking. METHODS: A total of 435 patients with MPN participated in a cross-sectional internet-based survey developed by the Mayo Clinic and the Myeloproliferative Neoplasm Quality of Life Group. Patients reported their demographics, disease characteristics, tobacco use, and opinions on tobacco use. In addition, MPN-related symptoms were reported via the validated 10-item version of the Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Symptom Assessment Form. RESULTS: Current/former smokers reported worse fatigue (mean severity 5.6 vs. 5.0, p = 0.02) and inactivity (mean severity 4.0 vs. 3.4, p = 0.03) than never smokers. Moreover, current/former smokers more frequently experienced early satiety (68.5% vs. 58.3%, p = 0.03), inactivity (79.9% vs. 71.1%, p = 0.04), and concentration difficulties (82.1% vs. 73.1%, p = 0.04). Although not significant, a higher total symptom burden was observed for current/former smokers (mean 30.4 vs. 27.0, p = 0.07). Accordingly, overall quality of life was significantly better among never smokers than current/former smokers (mean 3.5 vs. 3.9, p = 0.03). Only 43.2% of the current/former smokers reported having discussed tobacco use with their physician, and 17.5% did not believe smoking increased the risk of thrombosis. CONCLUSION: The current study suggests that smoking may be associated with increased prevalence and severity of MPN symptoms and underscores the need to enhance patient education and address tobacco use in the care of MPN patients.


Assuntos
Fadiga/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/complicações , Qualidade de Vida , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fadiga/epidemiologia , Fadiga/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internet/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/psicologia , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12953, 2021 06 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34155245

RESUMO

We evaluated whether the association between cigarette smoking and dementia risk is modified by genetic predisposition including apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype and polygenic risk (excluding the APOE region). We included 193,198 UK Biobank participants aged 60-73 years without dementia at baseline. Of non-APOE-ε4 carriers, 0.89% (95% CI 0.73-1.08%) current smokers developed dementia compared with 0.49% (95% CI 0.44-0.55%) of never smokers (adjusted HR 1.78; 95% CI 1.39-2.29). In contrast, of one APOE-ε4 allele carriers, 1.69% (95% CI 1.31-2.12%) current smokers developed dementia compared with 1.40% (95% CI 1.25-1.55%) of never smokers (adjusted HR 1.06; 95% CI 0.77-1.45); of two APOE-ε4 alleles carriers, 4.90% (95% CI 2.92-7.61%) current smokers developed dementia compared with 3.87% (95% CI 3.11-4.74%) of never smokers (adjusted HR 0.94; 95% CI 0.49-1.79). Of participants with high polygenic risk, 1.77% (95% CI 1.35-2.27%) current smokers developed dementia compared with 1.05% (95% CI 0.91-1.21%) of never smokers (adjusted HR 1.63; 95% CI 1.16-2.28). A significant interaction was found between APOE genotype and smoking status (P = 0.002) while no significant interaction was identified between polygenic risk and smoking status (P = 0.25). APOE genotype but not polygenic risk modified the effect of smoking on dementia risk.


Assuntos
Demência/epidemiologia , Demência/etiologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Alelos , Demência/diagnóstico , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Vigilância da População , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos
19.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251888, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014988

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The smoking-paradox of a better outcome in ischemic stroke patients who smoke may be due to increased efficacy of thrombolysis. We investigated the effect of smoking on outcome following endovascular therapy (EVT) with mechanical thrombectomy alone versus in combination with intra-arterial (IA-) thrombolysis. METHODS: The primary endpoint was defined by three-month modified Rankin Scale (mRS). We performed a generalized linear model and reported relative risks (RR) for smoking (adjustment for age, sex, hypertension, atrial fibrillation, stroke severity, time to EVT) in patient data stemming from the Virtual International Stroke Trials Archive-Endovascular database. RESULTS: Among 1,497 patients, 740(49.4%) were randomized to EVT; among EVT patients, 524(35.0%) received mechanical thrombectomy alone and 216(14.4%) received it in combination with IA-thrombolysis. Smokers (N = 396) had lower mRS scores (mean 2.9 vs. 3.2; p = 0.02) and mortality rates (10% vs. 17.3%; p<0.001) in univariate analysis. In all patients and in patients treated with mechanical thrombectomy alone, smoking had no effect on outcome in regression analyses. In patients who received IA-thrombolysis (N = 216;14%), smoking had an adjusted RR of 1.65 for an mRS≤1 (95%CI 0.77-3.55). Treatment with IA-thrombolysis itself led to reduced RR for favorable outcome (adjusted RR 0.30); interaction analysis of IA-thrombolysis and smoking revealed that non-smokers with IA-thrombolysis had mRS≤2 in 47 cases (30%, adjusted RR 0.53 [0.41-0.69]) while smokers with IA-thrombolysis had mRS≤2 in 23 cases (38%, adjusted RR 0.61 [0.42-0.87]). CONCLUSIONS: Smokers had no clear clinical benefit from EVT that incorporates IA-thrombolysis.


Assuntos
AVC Isquêmico/terapia , Trombólise Mecânica/métodos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Terapia Trombolítica/métodos , Idoso , Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , AVC Isquêmico/fisiopatologia , AVC Isquêmico/reabilitação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Trombectomia/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251099, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33983989

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between current cigarette smoking patterns and three established risk factors for suicide using nationally representative data of high school students in the United States. METHODS: We analyzed cross-sectional data from the national Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS)-United States, 2017. Multivariable, logistic regressions examined the association between 3 cigarette smoking behaviors [i.e., past 30-day cigarette (n = 13,731), frequent (n = 1,093) and heavy (n = 880) smoking] and 3 risk factors for suicidal outcomes [feeling sad or hopeless, suicidal ideation, suicide plan] assessed over the previous year. RESULTS: Among high school cigarette smokers, smoking 11 or more cigarettes per day (i.e., heavy smoking) was associated with 3.43 (95% CI: 1.69, 6.94) greater odds of reporting feeling sad or hopeless, 2.97 (95% CI: 1.60, 5.51) greater odds of reporting suicidal ideations, and 2.11 (95% CI: 1.34, 3.32) greater odds of reporting having ever planned a suicide attempt, controlling for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Our study shows that it is not simply cigarette smoking, but heavy cigarette smoking that is a risk factor for suicidal outcomes among adolescents. PUBLIC HEALTH IMPLICATIONS: A comprehensive plan is needed to accommodate heavy adolescent smokers who are at increased suicidal risk.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Suicídio/psicologia , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Fumar Cigarros/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autoimagem , Autorrelato , Fumar/epidemiologia , Ideação Suicida , Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estados Unidos
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