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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242558, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33259522

RESUMO

Tobacco is well known as a risk factor for early morbidity and mortality worldwide. However, the relative risk of mortality and the effects of smoking vary among the countries. Indonesia, as one of the world's largest market for smoking tobacco, is significantly affected by tobacco-related illness. Previous research has shown that smoking causes several diseases, including stroke, neoplasm and coronary heart disease. There has to date been no research on the hazard risk of smoking for all-cause mortality in Indonesia. This study aimed to identify the association between smoking and all-cause mortality rates in Indonesia. Information from a total of 3,353 respondents aged 40 years and older was collected in this study. The data were taken from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) Wave 4 (2007) to collect personal information and determine smoking status and from Wave 5 (2015) to collect information about deaths. Current smokers make up 40.3% of Indonesia's population. Current smokers were more likely to have a higher risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio = 1.48, 95% confidence interval = 1.11 to 1.98) than non-current smokers. The number of smokers in Indonesia remains high and is expected to increase gradually every year. A firm government policy is needed to reduce the number of smokers in Indonesia which would automatically reduce the health problem of smoking-related illness in the future.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Causas de Morte , Doença das Coronárias/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Morbidade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente
2.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(12 Suppl 2): S93-S95, 2020 12 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320258

RESUMO

IMPLICATIONS: This commentary addresses the state of the evidence on tobacco products, nicotine, and COVID-19. The evidence of the effects of smoking on respiratory infections and the immune system in general are examined and the current understanding of tobacco products and risk for SARS-CoV-2 infection and the course of COVID-19 is addressed.


Assuntos
/complicações , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Humanos
3.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(11): 1549-1554, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33135438

RESUMO

AIMS: The impact of tobacco use on readmission and medical and surgical complications has been documented in hip and knee arthroplasty. However, there remains little information about the effect of smoking on the outcome after total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA). We hypothesized that active smokers are at an increased risk of poor medical and surgial outcomes after TSA. METHODS: Data for patients who underwent arthroplasty of the shoulder in the USA between January 2011 and December 2015 were obtained from the National Readmission Database, and 90-day readmissions and complications were documented using validated coding methods. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to quantify the risk of smoking on the outcome after TSA, while controlling for patient demographics, comorbidities, and hospital-level confounding factors. RESULTS: A total of 196,325 non-smokers (93.1%) and 14,461 smokers (6.9%) underwent TSA during the five-year study period. Smokers had significantly increased rates of 30- and 90-day readmission (p = 0.025 and 0.001, respectively), revision within 90 days (p < 0.001), infection (p < 0.001), wound complications (p < 0.001), and instability of the prosthesis (p < 0.001). They were also at significantly greater risk of suffering from pneumonia (p < 0.001), sepsis (p = 0.001), and myocardial infarction (p < 0.001), postoperatively. CONCLUSION: Smokers have an increased risk of readmission and medical and surgical complications after TSA. These risks are similar to those found for smokers after hip and knee arthroplasty. Many surgeons choose to avoid these elective procedures in patients who smoke. The increased risks should be considered when counselling patients who smoke before undertaking TSA. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(11):1549-1554.


Assuntos
Artroplastia do Ombro , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Artroplastia do Ombro/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol ; 319(6): H1234-H1239, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33006919

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is at all-time lows globally, but the use of electronic cigarettes has increased profoundly. Recent reports of electronic cigarette or vaping use-associated lung injury may lead individuals to explore novel methods of nicotine consumption, such as heat-not-burn devices. IQOS from Philip Morris, a heat-not-burn device, became available for purchase in the United States in October 2019. Philip Morris claims that 8.8 million people have abandoned traditional cigarettes in favor of IQOS; however, evidence suggests that it may act as a gateway or complement to cigarette smoking, rather than a replacement. Surveys indicate that 96% of Korean IQOS users also smoke cigarettes, and 45% of Italian users of IQOS had never smoked cigarettes. In the United States, Canada, and England, susceptibility of youth to trying IQOS was slightly lower than electronic cigarettes, but higher than cigarette smoking. Heat-not-burn products produce mainstream and second-hand emissions of harmful chemicals, including nicotine, particulate matter, benzene, acrolein, and tobacco-specific nitrosamines. The levels of these emissions, despite being less than those of traditional cigarettes, are potentially harmful to cardiovascular health. A study of current smokers showed similar acute effects of heat-not-burn tobacco products and traditional cigarettes on heart rate, blood pressure, and arterial stiffness. Rats exposed to IQOS had similar vascular endothelial function impairment to those exposed to cigarettes. Heat-not-burn aerosol exposure of cultured macrophages elicited increased oxidative stress, although less than that induced by cigarette smoke. Further studies are needed to better understand the cardiovascular effects of heat-not-burn tobacco products.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/induzido quimicamente , Sistema Cardiovascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Agonistas Nicotínicos/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Animais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Sistema Cardiovascular/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
6.
Am Heart J ; 230: 25-34, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32980363

RESUMO

Smoking is associated with incident heart failure (HF), yet limited data are available exploring the association between smoking status and long-term outcomes in HF with reduced vs. preserved ejection fraction (i.e., HFrEF vs. HFpEF). METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of HF patients undergoing coronary angiography from 1990-2010. Patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and HF were stratified by EF (< 50% vs. ≥50%), smoking status (prior/current vs. never smoker), and level of smoking (light/moderate vs. heavy). Time-from-catheterization-to-event was examined using Cox proportional hazard modeling for all-cause mortality (ACM), ACM/myocardial infarction/stroke (MACE), and ACM/HF hospitalization with testing for interaction by HF-type (HFrEF vs. HFpEF). RESULTS: Of 14,406 patients with CAD and HF, 85% (n = 12,326) had HFrEF and 15% (n = 2080) had HFpEF. At catheterization, 61% of HFrEF and 57% of HFpEF patients had a smoking history. After adjustment, there was a significant interaction between HF-type and the association between smoking status and MACE (interaction P = .009). Smoking history was associated with increased risk for MACE in patients with HFrEF (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.18 [1.12-1.24]), but not HFpEF (HR 1.01 [0.90-1.12]). Active smokers had increased mortality following adjustment compared to former smokers regardless of HF-type (HFrEF HR 1.19 [1.06-1.32], HFpEF HR 1.30 [1.02-1.64], interaction P = .50). Heavy smokers trended towards increased risk of adverse outcomes versus light/moderate smokers; these findings were consistent across HF-type (interaction P > .12). CONCLUSION: Smoking history was independently associated with worse outcomes in HFrEF but not HFpEF. Regardless of HF-type, current smokers had higher risk than former smokers.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/etiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/etiologia , Volume Sistólico , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Cateterismo Cardíaco , Causas de Morte , Angiografia Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/epidemiologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , North Carolina/epidemiologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/mortalidade , Fumar Tabaco/tendências , Universidades
7.
Acta Biomed ; 91(3): e2020062, 2020 08 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32921714

RESUMO

The emergency caused by Covid-19 pandemic raised interest in studying lifestyles and comorbidities as important determinants of poor Covid-19 prognosis. Data on tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and obesity are still limited, while no data are available on the role of e-cigarettes and heated tobacco products (HTP). To clarify the role of tobacco smoking and other lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity and progression, we designed a longitudinal observational study titled COvid19 and SMOking in ITaly (COSMO-IT). About 30 Italian hospitals in North, Centre and South of Italy joined the study. Its main aims are: 1) to quantify the role of tobacco smoking and smoking cessation on the severity and progression of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients; 2) to compare smoking prevalence and severity of the disease in relation to smoking in hospitalized COVID-19 patients versus patients treated at home; 3) to quantify the association between other lifestyle factors, such as e-cigarette and HTP use, alcohol and obesity and the risk of unfavourable COVID-19 outcomes. Socio-demographic, lifestyle and medical history information will be gathered for around 3000 hospitalized and 700-1000 home-isolated, laboratory-confirmed, COVID-19 patients. Given the current absence of a vaccine against SARS-COV-2 and the lack of a specific treatment for -COVID-19, prevention strategies are of extreme importance. This project, designed to highly contribute to the international scientific debate on the role of avoidable lifestyle habits on COVID-19 severity, will provide valuable epidemiological data in order to support important recommendations to prevent COVID-19 incidence, progression and mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estilo de Vida , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817636

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) poses a significant but heterogeneous burden to individuals and healthcare systems. Policymakers develop targeted policies to minimize this burden but need personalized tools to evaluate novel interventions and target them to subpopulations most likely to benefit. We developed a platform to identify subgroups that are at increased risk of emergency department visits, hospitalizations and mortality and to provide stratified patient input in economic evaluations of COPD interventions. We relied on administrative and survey data from Ontario, Canada and applied a combination of microsimulation and multi-state modeling methods. We illustrated the functionality of the platform by quantifying outcomes across smoking status (current, former, never smokers) and by estimating the effect of smoking cessation on resource use and survival, by comparing outcomes of hypothetical cohorts of smokers who quit at diagnosis and smokers that continued to smoke post diagnosis. The cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality was 37.9% (95% CI: 34.9, 41.4) for never smokers, 34.7% (95% CI: 32.1, 36.9) for current smokers, and 46.4% (95% CI: 43.6, 49.0) for former smokers, at 14 years. Over 14 years, smokers who did not quit at diagnosis had 16.3% (95% CI: 9.6, 38.4%) more COPD-related emergency department visits than smokers who quit at diagnosis. In summary, we combined methods from clinical and economic modeling to create a novel tool that policymakers and health economists can use to inform future COPD policy decisions and quantify the effect of modifying COPD risk factors on resource utilization and morality.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Formulação de Políticas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 257, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived dental health has shown to have a significant predictive effect on overall health perception and life satisfaction. Thus, it seems plausible that Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) measures are associated with Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL) dimensions in Nepalese context as well. The adverse effects of tobacco on oral health are reported worldwide including Nepal. However, evidence which can quantify effects of tobacco smoking on dental health perception is limited. Thus, a study was designed to find association of smoking and socio demographic characteristics with OHRQOl and to determine association between OHRQOL and HRQOL among dental patients in Nepal. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 125 current smokers and 125 non-smokers who attended oral surgery OPD of a teaching hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. The study participants were enrolled through consecutive sampling and data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of questions related to sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco history, Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP)-14 and World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief version (WHOQOL-Bref) to assess OHRQOl and HRQOL respectively. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated by using SPSS version 18.0. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Among the socio demographic characteristics, patients with education of more than Class 12 had significantly higher average OHRQOL scores (p = 0.013) compared to illiterate patients. Current smokers reported significantly poorer scores in sub scales of psychological disability (p = 0.001), social disability (p = 0.003), physical pain (p < 0.001), functional limitation (p = 0.007) and also overall perceived oral health compared to nonsmokers. OHRQOL was significantly correlated with overall HRQOL in physical (p = 0.015) and psychological (p = 0.04) domains in this study sample. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in OHRQOL may require a multidimensional approach with focus of social factors like education and behavioral factors like cigarette smoking. Also, improvement in OHRQOL might also lead to betterment of perceived overall health as they are interlinked.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238111, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a public health problem, and an unfavorable lifestyle has been suggested as a modifiable risk factor for CKD. Cigarette smoking is closely associated with cardiovascular disease and cancers; however, there is a lack of evidence to prove that smoking is harmful for kidney health. Therefore, we aimed to determine the relationship between cigarette smoking and CKD among healthy middle-aged adults. METHODS: Using the database from the Korean Genome and Epidemiology Study, we analyzed 8,661 participants after excluding those with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)<60 ml/min/1.72 m2 or proteinuria. Exposure of interest was smoking status: never-, former-, and current-smokers. Primary outcome was incident CKD defined as eGFR <60 ml/min/1.73 m2 or newly developed proteinuria. RESULTS: The mean age of the subjects was 52 years, and 47.6% of them were males. There were 551 (6.4%) and 1,255 (14.5%) subjects with diabetes and hypertension, respectively. The mean eGFR was 93.0 ml/min/1.73 m2. Among the participants, 5,140 (59.3%), 1,336 (15.4%), and 2,185 (25.2%) were never-smokers, former-smokers, and current-smokers, respectively. During a median follow-up of 11.6 years, incident CKD developed in 1,941 (22.4%) subjects with a crude incidence rate of 25.1 (24.0-26.2) per 1,000 person-years. The multivariable Cox regression analysis after adjustment of confounding factors showed hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of 1.13 (0.95-1.35) and 1.26 (1.07-1.48) for CKD development in the former- and current-smokers, compared with never-smokers. CONCLUSION: This study showed that smoking was associated with a higher risk of incident CKD among healthy middle-aged adults.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica/etiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236657, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760089

RESUMO

Crohn's disease is a pathological condition of the gastro-intestinal tract, causing severe transmural inflammation in the ileum and/or colon. Cigarette smoking is one of the best known environmental risk factors for the development of Crohn's disease. Nevertheless, very little is known about the effect of prolonged cigarette smoke exposure on inflammatory modulators in the gut. We examined the effect of cigarette smoke on cytokine profiles in the healthy and inflamed gut of human subjects and in the trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid mouse model, which mimics distal Crohn-like colitis. In addition, the effect of cigarette smoke on epithelial expression of transient receptor potential channels and their concurrent increase with cigarette smoke-augmented cytokine production was investigated. Active smoking was associated with increased IL-8 transcription in ileum of controls (p < 0,001; n = 18-20/group). In the ileum, TRPV1 mRNA levels were decreased in never smoking Crohn's disease patients compared to healthy subjects (p <0,001; n = 20/group). In the colon, TRPV1 mRNA levels were decreased (p = 0,046) in smoking healthy controls (n = 20/group). Likewise, healthy mice chronically exposed to cigarette smoke (n = 10/group) showed elevated ileal Cxcl2 (p = 0,0075) and colonic Kc mRNA levels (p = 0,0186), whereas TRPV1 mRNA and protein levels were elevated in the ileum (p = 0,0315). Although cigarette smoke exposure prior to trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid administration did not alter disease activity, increased pro-inflammatory cytokine production was observed in the distal colon (Kc: p = 0,0273; Cxcl2: p = 0,104; Il1-ß: p = 0,0796), in parallel with the increase of Trpv1 mRNA (p < 0,001). We infer that CS affects pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in healthy and inflamed gut, and that the simultaneous modulation of TRPV1 may point to a potential involvement of TRPV1 in cigarette smoke-induced production of inflammatory mediators.


Assuntos
Colo/metabolismo , Doença de Crohn/metabolismo , Íleo/metabolismo , Canais de Cátion TRPV/metabolismo , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Células CACO-2 , Colo/patologia , Doença de Crohn/induzido quimicamente , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células HT29 , Humanos , Íleo/patologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Médica Translacional , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236435, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760090

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity is a major health problem in low and middle income countries (LMICs) and is associated with miscarriage. This study aims to examine the association between obesity and miscarriage among reproductive age women (15-49 years) in Nepal. METHODS: The combined 19160 cross-sectional pregnancy data from the Nepal Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) for the years 2001, 2006, 2011 and 2016 was utilized. Miscarriage was defined as a spontaneous loss of pregnancy that occurred before the foetus reached 7 months of gestational age. Logistic regression analyses that adjusted for clustering, stratification and sampling weights were used to examine the association between obesity and miscarriage among women of reproductive age. RESULTS: The odds of miscarriage were 1.45 times higher (Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.45; 95%Cl: 1.06, 1.98, P = 0.021) among women with obesity. Women who did not use contraception, younger (15-19 years), and older women (35 years or more) were significantly more likely to have miscarriage. Women who smoked tobacco reported higher odds of miscarriage than women who did not smoke tobacco (AOR = 1.27; 95%Cl: 1.07,1.50, P = 0.006). Stratification of maternal smoking status by maternal Body Mass Index (BMI), after adjusting for contraception, mother age and year of survey revealed that tobacco smoking and obesity are associated with miscarriage (AOR = 1.46; 95%Cl: 1.05,2.04, P = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: Findings from this study show that obesity and tobacco smoking are associated with miscarriage. Smoking cessation, pregnancy planning and counselling on healthy weight for women of reproductive age in Nepal may help promote healthy behaviours and decrease the likelihood of miscarriage.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Obesidade , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Aborto Espontâneo/epidemiologia , Aborto Espontâneo/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Idade Materna , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal/epidemiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
13.
Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj ; 1864(11): 129699, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32738274

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Surfactant proteins (SP) A and D belong to collectin family proteins, which play important roles in innate immune response in the lung. We previously demonstrated that cigarette smoke (CS) increases the acrolein modification of SP-A, thereby impairing the innate immune abilities of this protein. In this study, we focused on the effects of CS and its component, acrolein, on the innate immunity role of another collectin, SP-D. METHODS: To determine whether aldehyde directly affects SP-D, we examined the lungs of mice exposed to CS for 1 week and detected aldehyde-modified SP-D using an aldehyde reactive probe. The structural changes in CS extract (CSE) or acrolein-exposed recombinant human (h)SP-D were determined by western blot, liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, and blue native-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses. Innate immune functions of SP-D were determined by bacteria growth and macrophage phagocytosis. RESULTS: Aldehyde-modified SP-D as well as SP-A was detected in the lungs of mice exposed to CS for 1 week. Exposure of hSP-D to CSE or acrolein induced an increased higher-molecular -weight of hSP-D and acrolein induced modification of five lysine residues in hSP-D. These modifications led to disruption of the multimer structure of SP-D and attenuated its ability to inhibit bacterial growth and activate macrophage phagocytosis. CONCLUSION: CS induced acrolein modification in SP-D, which in turn induced structural and functional defects in SP-D. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that CS-induced structural and functional defects in SP-D contribute to the dysfunction of innate immune responses in the lung following CS exposure.


Assuntos
Acroleína/efeitos adversos , Imunidade Inata , Pulmão/imunologia , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/imunologia , Fumaça/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Acroleína/análise , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes/análise , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Fumaça/análise , Tabaco/química , Fumar Tabaco/imunologia
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10960, 2020 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620875

RESUMO

It is unclear whether smoking interacts with different aspects of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection with regard to multiple sclerosis (MS) risk. We aimed to investigate whether smoking acts synergistically with elevated EBNA-1 antibody levels or infectious mononucleosis (IM) history regarding MS risk. Two Swedish population-based case-control studies were used (6,340 cases and 6,219 matched controls). Subjects with different smoking, EBNA-1 and IM status were compared regarding MS risk, by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) employing logistic regression. Potential interaction on the additive scale was evaluated by calculating the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP). Current and past smokers had higher EBNA-1 antibody levels than never smokers (p < 0.0001). There was an additive interaction between current smoking and high EBNA-1 antibody levels (AP 0.3, 95% CI 0.2-0.4), but not between past smoking and high EBNA-1 antibody levels (AP 0.01, 95% CI - 0.1 to 0.1), with regard to MS risk. An interaction also occurred between current smoking and IM history (AP 0.2, 95% CI 0.004-0.4), but not between past smoking and IM history (AP - 0.06, 95% CI - 0.4 to 0.3). Current smoking increases EBNA-1 antibody levels and acts synergistically with both aspects of EBV infection to increase MS risk, indicating that there is at least one pathway to disease in which both risk factors are involved.


Assuntos
Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/complicações , Esclerose Múltipla/etiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Antígenos Nucleares do Vírus Epstein-Barr/imunologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Humano 4/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Mononucleose Infecciosa/complicações , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Esclerose Múltipla/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Curr Opin Urol ; 30(5): 720-725, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701723

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the relationship between smoking and bladder cancer (BCa), especially with respect to treatment outcomes for muscle and nonmuscle-invasive BCa (MIBC/NMIBC). RECENT FINDINGS: PubMed/Medline databases were searched for recent reports investigating the association of smoking with BCa. Smoking is associated with an increased risk of recurrence in patients with NMIBC and may impair Bacillus Calmette-Guerin treatment efficacy. Moreover, smoking is associated with poor responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy, poor survival outcomes and high complication rates in patients undergoing radical cystectomy. Smoking cessation mitigates these negative effects, especially. However, the amount of patient counselling provided regarding this important matter and patient knowledge regarding smoking and BCa risk are inadequate. Currently, the impact of secondhand smoke on BCa risk remains uncertain. SUMMARY: Tobacco smoking is responsible for approximately half of BCa cases, and is associated with poor oncological outcomes for both NMIBC and MIBC. Despite smoking being a well known risk factor, counselling and knowledge in this area are insufficient. Appropriate smoking cessation interventions and patient information are required to improve patient health and optimize BCa survival.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células de Transição/diagnóstico , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/terapia , Cistectomia , Terapia Neoadjuvante , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/terapia , Carcinoma de Células de Transição/mortalidade , Humanos , Invasividade Neoplásica , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Taxa de Sobrevida , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Resultado do Tratamento , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/mortalidade
18.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234516, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559253

RESUMO

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increased worldwide. Tobacco smoking increases the risk of developing metabolic syndrome. Waterpipe tobacco smoking has become a global trend of tobacco consumption and is as common as cigarette smoking. In this study, the effect of waterpipe tobacco smoke (WTS) on the development of metabolic syndrome in rats was evaluated. Adult Wistar rats were exposed for 19 weeks to either fresh air (control) or WTS for 1 hour daily/ 5 days per week (WTS). Central obesity, systolic blood pressure, lipid profile, glucose hemostasis and levels of leptin and adiponectin were evaluated. The WTS exposure increased body weight, abdominal circumference, systolic blood pressure and fasting glucose compared to control animals (P<0.05), consistent with inducing metabolic syndrome. The retroperitoneal fat, lipid profile and levels of insulin, leptin and adiponectin were not affected by WTS exposure (P>0.05). In conclusion, exposure to WTS has detrimental health effects leading to the development of metabolic syndrome in experimental animals.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/metabolismo , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/metabolismo , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tabaco para Cachimbos de Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome Metabólica/induzido quimicamente , Síndrome Metabólica/fisiopatologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Ratos , Cachimbos de Água
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 10467, 2020 06 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32591636

RESUMO

Few studies have researched the gender-specific effects of electronic nicotine delivery systems on the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and/or its risk factors (central obesity, raised triglycerides, decreased HDL cholesterol, raised blood pressure, raised fasting plasma glucose). Thus, this study investigated the association between smoking behavior (cigarette type, smoking history) and MetS in a nationally representative sample of Korean men and women. Our study employed data for 5,462 cases of MetS and 12,194 controls from the Korea National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey (KNHANES) for the years 2014 to 2017. Logistic regression analysis was employed to determine the association between type of cigarette (non-smoker, ex-smoker, and current smoker-conventional only, current smoker-conventional and electronic) and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its risk factors. Smoking history was clinically quantified by pack-year. No association between cigarette type and MetS was found for men. For women, relative to non-smokers, smokers of conventional cigarettes (OR 1.80, 95% CI 1.02-3.18) and both conventional and electronic cigarettes (OR 4.02, 95% CI 1.48-10.93) had increased odds of MetS. While there was no association between smoking history and MetS for women, for men, conventional smoking history was associated with MetS for individuals with a smoking history of > 25 pack-years (> 25 to ≤ 37.5 OR 1.45, 95% CI 1.04-2.02; > 37.5 to ≤ 50 OR 1.53, 95% CI 1.08-2.18; > 50 OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.07-2.27). Sex differences were found in the association between smoking behavior and MetS. Such findings reveal sociodemographic differences that should be considered for interventions regarding conventional and/or e-cigarette users at risk of metabolic complications.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/etiologia , Prevalência , República da Coreia , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
Acta Biomed ; 91(2): 106-112, 2020 May 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-315320

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 pandemic burst onto the international scene as a new disease not affecting patients uniformly; hence it has risen many questions yet to be clarified. The aim of this study was to outline the main issues that led tobacco smoking being discussed as a potential risk factor associated with COVID-19. METHODS: articles from MEDLINE and pre-prints published from January to April 2020 were identified. RESULTS: data from China showed that men had more severe outcomes of COVID-19 than women. Since smoking prevalence is very high among Chinese men in comparison to women, it was hypothesized that smoking could be a risk factor for poor prognosis. This was also supported by the higher prevalence of comorbidities, many of which are tobacco-related diseases, in patients with severe COVID-19, who were also more likely to have a smoking history. A meta-analysis confirmed these results reporting an OR=2.25 (95% CI: 1.49-3.39) for developing severe Covid-19 among patients with a smoking history. Some authors, noticing that reported smoking prevalence among hospitalized patients was substantially below smoking prevalence in the corresponding populations, speculated a protective role of nicotine. However, it is likely that low prevalence among hospitalized patients are partially due to many smokers misclassified as nonsmokers. Tobacco smoking seems to cause a dose-dependent upregulation of the angiotensin-converting- enzyme-2 (ACE2), the virus cellular entry receptor, which could explain the higher risk of severe COVID-19 in smokers. CONCLUSIONS: There is need for further independent studies to clarify the role of smoking on COVID-19 incidence, progression and mortality.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etiologia , Prevalência , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
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