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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 134, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331528

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of adolescents and young adults who were victims of sexual violence at some point in their lives and to compare the presence of depressive and anxious symptoms, quality of life, and use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs among this population and those who were not abused. METHODS: Validated questionnaires and instruments were applied in a group of university students to assess: sexual profile and behavior, socioeconomic status, presence or not of sexual violence (Questionnaire on Exposure to Traumatizing Events), depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxious symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory), quality of life (World Health Organization's Quality of Life Assessment) and the use or abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs (Smoking, Alcohol, and Substance Involvement Screening Test). RESULTS: Out of the 858 students who participated, 71 (8.3%) were victims of sexual violence, 52 girls (73.2%). In the victims of violence group there were more students who already had the first sexual intercourse (p = 0.029), students who already had become pregnant (p = 0.001), students with higher scores for depressive (p < 0.001) and anxious symptoms (p = 0.001), students with worse quality of life (p < 0.001), and who used more tobacco (p = 0.008) and marijuana (p = 0.025) as well as abused hypnotics or sedatives (p = 0.048) than in the non-victim group. CONCLUSION: The abuses are presented in several forms and affect, even in long term, the survivors' life. The sexual violence theme should be addressed and widely discussed in all spheres of society in order to mobilize, to sensitize, and provide society with knowledge, demystifying this subject and drawing attention to this important social issue.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/psicologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adolescente , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Álcool/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Criança , Abuso Sexual na Infância/psicologia , Abuso Sexual na Infância/estatística & dados numéricos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Gravidez , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244218, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347476

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine the penetration of heated tobacco products (HTPs) into the youth market in Taiwan, with a particular focus on the correlation between IQOS use and the usage of other tobacco products. METHODS: Data from the 2018 Global Youth Tobacco Survey were used to assess previous experience with and current use (within 30 days prior to survey completion) of IQOS products by Taiwanese students aged 12-18 years. Independent variables included the usage patterns of conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes. The control variables included background information (gender, grade, monthly income/allowance, household educational level, smoking status at home and among close friends), access to free cigarettes, as well as exposure to cigarette advertisements and anti-tobacco courses. Logistic regression was used to identify tobacco usage patterns correlated with IQOS use. RESULTS: In 2018, 2.33% of Taiwan's adolescents were currently using IQOS and 4.17% had tried IQOS. The use of conventional cigarettes and e-cigarettes (individually and together) were associated with an elevated risk of the ever use and current use of IQOS. CONCLUSION: Despite the fact that HTP products are not sold legally in Taiwan, the use of IQOS products by young people is far from negligible. We recommend amending the "Tobacco Hazards Prevention Act" to include regulations pertaining to the sale and marketing of HTPs.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taiwan , Produtos do Tabaco/classificação , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia
3.
Ann Epidemiol ; 49: 61-67, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951805

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Nondaily smoking is increasing in the United States and common among Hispanic/Latino smokers. We characterized factors related to longitudinal smoking transitions in Hispanic/Latino nondaily smokers. METHODS: The Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos is a population-based cohort study of Hispanics/Latinos aged 18-74 years. Multinomial logistic regression assessed the baseline factors (2008-2011) associated with follow-up smoking status (2014-2017) in nondaily smokers (n = 573), accounting for complex survey design. RESULTS: After ∼6 years, 41% of nondaily smokers became former smokers, 22% became daily smokers, and 37% remained nondaily smokers. Factors related to follow-up smoking status were number of days smoked in the previous month, household smokers, education, income, and insurance. Those smoking 16 or more of the last 30 days had increased risk of becoming a daily smoker [vs. < 4 days; relative risk ratio (RRR) = 5.65, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.96-16.33]. Greater education was inversely associated with transitioning to daily smoking [>high school vs.

Assuntos
Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/etnologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Aculturação , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Ansiedade , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Tabagismo/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 257, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perceived dental health has shown to have a significant predictive effect on overall health perception and life satisfaction. Thus, it seems plausible that Health Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) measures are associated with Oral Health Related Quality of Life (OHRQOL) dimensions in Nepalese context as well. The adverse effects of tobacco on oral health are reported worldwide including Nepal. However, evidence which can quantify effects of tobacco smoking on dental health perception is limited. Thus, a study was designed to find association of smoking and socio demographic characteristics with OHRQOl and to determine association between OHRQOL and HRQOL among dental patients in Nepal. METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted among 125 current smokers and 125 non-smokers who attended oral surgery OPD of a teaching hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. The study participants were enrolled through consecutive sampling and data was collected through a semi-structured questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of questions related to sociodemographic characteristics, tobacco history, Oral Health Impacts Profile (OHIP)-14 and World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief version (WHOQOL-Bref) to assess OHRQOl and HRQOL respectively. Descriptive and inferential statistics were calculated by using SPSS version 18.0. The level of significance was set at 5%. RESULTS: Among the socio demographic characteristics, patients with education of more than Class 12 had significantly higher average OHRQOL scores (p = 0.013) compared to illiterate patients. Current smokers reported significantly poorer scores in sub scales of psychological disability (p = 0.001), social disability (p = 0.003), physical pain (p < 0.001), functional limitation (p = 0.007) and also overall perceived oral health compared to nonsmokers. OHRQOL was significantly correlated with overall HRQOL in physical (p = 0.015) and psychological (p = 0.04) domains in this study sample. CONCLUSIONS: Improvements in OHRQOL may require a multidimensional approach with focus of social factors like education and behavioral factors like cigarette smoking. Also, improvement in OHRQOL might also lead to betterment of perceived overall health as they are interlinked.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade de Vida , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nepal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 7391587, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32655649

RESUMO

Objectives: Our objective in this study was to identify the risk factors for cigarette, e-cigarette, and IQOS use among adolescents in Taiwan, with a particular focus on socioeconomic status, smoking status of parents and peers, cigarette promotions, and anti-tobacco campaigns. Methods: Data were obtained from the 2018 version of the annual cross-sectional Taiwan Global Youth Tobacco Survey, which is used to monitor tobacco use among Taiwanese adolescents in junior and senior high schools. The dependent variables in the study were "current cigarette smoking," "current use of e-cigarettes," and "current use of IQOS devices" (i.e., during the 30 days prior to survey completion). Independent variables included gender, school grade, monthly income/allowance, educational level of parents, smoking status of parents, smoking status of close friends, access to free cigarettes, exposure to cigarette advertisements, and attendance at anti-tobacco courses. Logistic regression was used in the identification of factors correlated with the current use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, or IQOS. Results: We determined that 5.65% of the adolescents in the study were currently using cigarettes, 2.74% were currently using e-cigarettes, and 2.33% were currently using IQOS. Our analysis revealed a number of factors that have a bearing on smoking behavior, including gender, monthly allowance, educational level of parents, smoking status of parents and close friends, access to free cigarettes, and exposure to cigarette advertisements. Conclusions: The tobacco product that was most widely used by adolescents was cigarettes, followed by e-cigarettes and IQOS. The socioeconomic status, smoking status of parents/close friends, and access to cigarettes were all identified as important factors related to the current use of cigarettes, e-cigarettes, and IQOS by adolescents.


Assuntos
Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Vaping/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia
6.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 748, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Graphic health warning labels (GHWLs) on tobacco products are more effective than text warnings for communicating the risk of smoking. The implementation of GHWLs can prevent adolescents from initiating smoking. Therefore, this study examined the association between GHWLs newly implemented on December 23, 2016, in South Korea and attitudes toward smoking among adolescents. METHODS: This post-implementation cross-sectional analysis examined the responses of 62,276 students (31,624 boys and 30,652 girls) who participated in the 2017 Web-based Korean Youth Risk Behavior Survey, which was completed anonymously as a self-administered questionnaire by middle and high school students. Multinomial logistic regression was applied to explore the attitudes toward smoking among the youth (13-18 years old) who have been exposed to GHWLs in order to identify relationship of exposure to the GHWLs with smoking initiation and awareness of the danger of smoking. RESULTS: Six months after implementation, 69.4% of adolescents reported having been exposed to GHWLs in the previous 30 days. Among those exposed to GHWLs both boys and girls in grade 7 were significantly more likely than grade 12 high school students to decide not to start smoking (boys: AOR = 3.96, 95% CI 3.31-4.75, p < 0.001; girls: AOR = 2.76, 95% CI 2.32-3.30, p < 0.001) and to think that smoking was dangerous to their health (boys: AOR = 3.01, 95% CI 2.52-3.58, p < 0.001; girls: AOR = 2.42, 95% CI 2.03-3.88, p < 0.001) after seeing GHWLs. These associations were greater for adolescents who had experienced smoking-prevention education or had been exposed to anti-tobacco advertisements. However, those who smoked, used e-cigarettes, or experienced secondhand smoking were significantly less likely to decide not to smoke and to view smoking as dangerous. CONCLUSIONS: To maintain the perception of the harm of tobacco from childhood through adolescence, the government should implement both comprehensive tobacco controls, including smoking-prevention education in schools, and measures to encourage a smoke-free environment in homes.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Produtos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Estudantes/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , República da Coreia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle
7.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 512, 2020 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32381050

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As of May 2016, pictorial health warnings (PHWs) showing the harms of smoking were implemented in the European Union. After one year they had to be fully implemented. We studied changes in awareness of the health risks of smoking after implementation of PHWs among smokers from the Netherlands, whether the trend before the implementation changed after the implementation, and whether there were differences between subgroups. METHODS: We used survey data from six yearly waves of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey from 2012 to 2017. The number of participating smokers ranged between 1236 and 1604 per wave. Data were analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) analyses. RESULTS: Indicators of awareness of the health risks of smoking that did not change between 2015 and 2017 were perceived susceptibility (ß = 0.043, p = 0.059) and perceived severity (ß = - 0.006, p = 0.679) regarding lung problems. Perceived susceptibility, however, was more pronounced between 2015 and 2017 than between 2012 and 2015(p value of interaction: p = 0.044). Noticing information about the dangers of smoking (ß = 0.119, p < 0.001) and knowledge about the health risks of smoking (ß = 0.184, p < 0.001) increased between 2015 and 2017. These increases were both more pronounced when compared to 2012-2015 (p values of interactions: p = 0.002 and p < 0.001 respectively). Compared to high educated smokers, low educated smokers (ß = - 1.137, p < 0.001) and moderate educated smokers (ß = - 0.894, p < 0.001) were less knowledgeable about the health risks of smoking in 2016 and 2017. CONCLUSIONS: Introducing PHWs coincided with an increase in smokers' knowledge about the health risks of smoking. Dutch tobacco control policy and campaigns should focus on improving Dutch smokers' awareness of the health risks of smoking even more, especially among low educated smokers.


Assuntos
Publicidade , Fumantes/psicologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/tendências , Fumar Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/tendências , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , União Europeia , Feminino , Previsões , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Política Pública , Fatores de Risco , Assunção de Riscos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0231095, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32348306

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Varenicline tartrate is superior for smoking cessation to other tobacco cessation therapies by 52 weeks, in the outpatient setting. We aimed to evaluate the long-term (104 week) efficacy following a standard course of inpatient-initiated varenicline tartrate plus Quitline-counselling compared to Quitline-counselling alone. METHODS: Adult patients (n = 392, 20-75 years) admitted with a smoking-related illnesses to one of three hospitals, were randomised to receive either 12-weeks of varenicline tartrate (titrated from 0.5mg daily to 1mg twice-daily) plus Quitline-counselling, (n = 196) or Quitline-counselling alone, (n = 196), with continuous abstinence from smoking assessed at 104 weeks. RESULTS: A total of 1959 potential participants were screened for eligibility between August 2008 and December 2011. The proportion of participants who remained continuously abstinent (intention-to-treat) at 104 weeks were significantly greater in the varenicline tartrate plus counselling arm (29.2% n = 56) compared to counselling alone (18.8% n = 36; p = 0.02; odds ratio 1.78; 95%CI 1.10 to 2.86, p = 0.02). Twenty-two deaths occurred during the 104 week study (n = 10 for varenicline tartrate plus counselling and n = 12 for Quitline-counselling alone). All of these participants had known or developed underlying co-morbidities. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine the efficacy and safety of varenicline tartrate over 104 weeks within any setting. Varenicline tartrate plus Quitline-counselling was found to be an effective opportunistic treatment when initiated for inpatient smokers who had been admitted with tobacco-related disease.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar Tabaco/tratamento farmacológico , Vareniclina/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 35, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco consumption is more life-threatening in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) than within the general population; therefore, people living with HIV (PLWH) should be highly motivated to take action towards quitting smoking at or after HIV diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review with meta-analysis was to investigate changes in smoking habits among PLWH over time. MAIN TEXT: We considered prospective and retrospective cohort studies including PLWH aged 15 years and above, which have measured the prevalence of tobacco smoking (current, former or never) at study initiation and completion, and published between January 1, 2000 and April 15, 2018 without language or geographical restriction. We searched PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Africa Journal Online, and Global Index Medicus. We used a random-effects model to pool data. Nine studies were included. The proportion of current and former smokers decreased slightly over time, around 2.5 and 3.8%, respectively. However, the proportion of never smokers decreased sharply by 22.5%, and there were 2.1 and 1.5% PLWH who shifted from never and former smoking to current smoking, respectively. On the other hand, 10.5% PLWH shifted from current to former smoking, 7.1% tried to quit tobacco consumption but failed, and 10.1% stayed in the "never smoking" category over time. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH seem not to change positively their smoking habits towards quitting tobacco consumption. There is urgent need to increase actions aimed at helping this vulnerable population to quit tobacco consumption, including individually tailored therapeutic education, psychosocial and pharmacologic supports.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Redução do Consumo de Tabaco/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
10.
BMC Womens Health ; 20(1): 63, 2020 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the number one cause of death and disability of women in the United States, and our women Veteran population is disproportionately affected. Despite revisions to the Veterans Affairs' approach to smoking cessation, women continue to smoke at equal or higher rates than men, are prescribed cessation medications less frequently, and are less likely to quit. In this qualitative pilot study, individual interviews with women Veterans revealed their experiences with smoking cessation attempts. METHODS: The lead author conducted semi-structured interviews with 14 women Veterans who were either current or former smokers. Participants gave a narrative account of recent quit smoking attempts. Inductive thematic analysis explored the underlying themes. RESULTS: Four main themes emerged as important: health and well-being, smoking as an addiction, optimism, and resilience. Health and well-being encompassed physical health, mental health, and financial stability. Women often felt that stability in these key areas made a successful attempt possible. Women with successful quit attempts were more likely to consider tobacco use as an addiction, as well as expressed optimism about their quit attempts. Women with successful quit attempts also demonstrated more resilience to lapses and relapses. CONCLUSIONS: Women Veterans' quit smoking attempts demonstrate four main themes: baseline health and wellbeing, acknowledging smoking as an addiction, the participant's optimism towards quitting, and resilience. Patterns were observed within themes with respect to whether the woman was currently quit or had experienced a prolonged quit attempt in the past. Further research is needed to help women Veterans quit smoking.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Resiliência Psicológica , Fumar , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Glob Health Epidemiol Genom ; 5: e1, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32180987

RESUMO

This study assessed the tobacco smoking-associated risk for tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) in India. Ninety-two patients with TPE and 184 controls were randomly selected and assessed regarding their tobacco-smoking status and type, quantity and duration of tobacco used. Odds ratios (ORs) for the association of smoking cigarette, beedi and cigarette or beedi with TPE were 19.22 (p < 0.0001), 2.89 (p = 0.0006) and 4.57 (p < 0.0001) respectively. ORs for developing TPE increased with an increase in beedi/cigarette consumption, duration and pack years of smoking (p < 0.001 each). TPE was significantly associated with confounding risk factors viz., regular alcohol use (OR = 1.89, p = 0.019), history of contact with tuberculosis (TB) patient (OR = 8.07, p < 0.0001), past history of TB (OR = 22.31, p < 0.0001), family history of TB (OR = 9.05, p = 0.0002) and underweight (OR = 3.73, p = 0.0009). Smoking (OR = 3.07, p < 0.001), regular alcohol use (OR = 2.10, p = 0.018), history of contact with TB patient (OR = 4.01, p = 0.040), family history of TB (OR = 10.80, p = 0.001) and underweight (OR = 5.04, p < 0.001) were independently associated with TPE. Thus, both cigarette- and beedi-smoking have a significant association with TPE. The risk for TPE in tobacco smokers is dose- and duration-dependent.


Assuntos
Derrame Pleural/etiologia , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Derrame Pleural/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Tuberculose/fisiopatologia
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033056

RESUMO

Health warnings are an effective strategy for communicating the health harms of smoking, encouraging quitting, and preventing smoking initiation. This study examines the effectiveness of existing text-only health warnings, identifies key predictors of warning effectiveness, and assesses support for pictorial warnings in Japan. Data are from the 2018 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Japan Survey, a cohort survey of adult cigarette smokers (n = 3306), dual users of cigarettes and heated tobacco products (n = 555), and non-cigarette smokers (n = 823). Weighted multivariable logistic regression models were used to assess predictors of warning effectiveness and support for pictorial warnings. Overall, 15.6% of respondents noticed warnings, and 7.9% read or looked closely at warnings. Overall, 10.3% of smokers and dual users said the warnings stopped them from having a cigarette, and 7.2% avoided warnings. Overall, 27.5% of respondents said the warnings made them think about health risks of smoking, but only 2.7% of smokers and dual users said the warnings made them more likely to quit. Overall, 57.6% of respondents supported pictorial warnings. The weak effectiveness of Japan's text-only warnings is consistent with that in other countries with similar warnings. There is majority support for pictorial warnings in Japan, although the level of support is lower than in other countries.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Produtos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes , Fumar , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31906522

RESUMO

Although there is a high prevalence of smoking among individuals with schizophrenia, no previous attempt has been made to explore experiences of tobacco use and cessation within a Chinese sample of this population. A qualitative descriptive study was conducted to explore through the use of individual and semi-structured interviews the experiences of tobacco use and quitting in a sample Chinese population with schizophrenia. Twenty-three eligible participants with schizophrenia who currently smoke were recruited from three community residential mental health service settings. Four main themes representing the experiences of the participants were uncovered in this study: (1) smoking and illness; (2) environment and culture; (3) reasons for smoking; and (4) beliefs about cessation methods. The findings indicated that the participants considered the disease to be far more harmful than smoking, and perceived many benefits to smoking. Although some thought of quitting at times, most gave up the idea or failed to quit due to internal factors such as disease-related suffering, the use of an avoidance coping strategy, and a lack of cessation support. The most notable finding concerns the use of avoidance coping by the participants, who relied on smoking as a way to avoid the suffering brought about by the disease.


Assuntos
Esquizofrenia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , China , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa
16.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(8): 1424-1427, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971595

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Verifying self-reports of smoking abstinence is challenging in studies that involve remote data collection. Resting heart rate (HR) decreases during smoking abstinence. This study assessed whether a decrease in resting HR measured using freely available smartphone apps could potentially be used to verify smoking abstinence. METHODS: This study involved a repeated measures experimental design, with data collection in natural setting. Participants were 18 adult, daily smokers. They recorded resting HR in beats per minute (bpm) using freely available smartphone apps during five timepoints (two in the morning and three postnoon) on each of 3 days. The outcome measure was the mean of the postnoon HR recordings. The experimental condition for each of the 3 days (counterbalanced order) was as follows: (1) smoking as usual, (2) not smoking without nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), or (3) not smoking but using NRT. Abstinence was verified using expired-air carbon monoxide (CO) concentration. RESULTS: Compared with the smoking as usual condition, mean HR was 13.4 bpm lower (95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.4 to 21.4, p = .001) in the not smoking without NRT condition and 10.4 bpm lower (95% CI = 3.1 to 17.8, p = 0.004) in the not smoking with NRT condition. There was no statistically significant difference in HR between the two not smoking conditions (p = .39). Abstinence during not smoking days without and with NRT was CO-verified in 18/18 and in 16/18 cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Self-recording of resting HR in natural setting using smartphone apps shows a reliable decrease in response to smoking abstinence and may provide a basis for remote verification in smoking cessation studies. IMPLICATIONS: Remote verification of self-reported abstinence in smoking cessation studies remains challenging. Smoking abstinence has been shown to decrease resting HR under laboratory conditions. This study demonstrated that self-recording using freely available smartphone apps shows reliable decreases in resting HR during smoking abstinence and may provide a basis for inexpensive remote verification of smoking abstinence.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental , Frequência Cardíaca , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Smartphone/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Dispositivos para o Abandono do Uso de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Fumar Tabaco/terapia
17.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 237(5): 1359-1369, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31996940

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The nicotine delivery rate is a key feature of tobacco product design, yet there have been limited human studies examining the effects of nicotine as a function of delivery rate. OBJECTIVE: We developed an intravenous nicotine infusion protocol to evaluate differential effects of nicotine delivery rate on subjective drug effects, smoking urges, abstinence symptoms, heart rate, and blood pressure. METHODS: Eighteen non-treatment seeking, overnight abstinent male and female smokers (18 to 30 years old), who smoked ≥ 5 cigarettes per day for the past year completed four sessions, in which they were randomly assigned to a saline infusion, or a 1 mg per 70-kg body weight dose of nicotine delivered over 1, 5, or 10 min at rates of 0.24, 0.048, or 0.024 µg/kg/s, respectively. RESULTS: Smoking urges, as assessed by the Brief Questionnaire of Smoking Urges, were reduced relative to placebo for the 1- and 5-min infusion, but not the 10-min infusion. Although the 1- and 5-min infusions reduced smoking urges to a similar extent, the 1-min infusion induced a greater heart rate and blood pressure increase. Changes to subjective drug effects, heart rate, and blood pressure delineate the differential effects of nicotine delivery rate for these outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We have characterized the delivery rate-response curve for a nicotine dose that is roughly the amount of nicotine (~ 1 mg) delivered by smoking a standard tobacco cigarette. Our findings reinforce the importance of nicotine delivery rate when evaluating the potential effects of nicotine from tobacco products.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/induzido quimicamente , Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Fumar Tabaco/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Res Notes ; 13(1): 32, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31941548

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study examined whether exposure to smoking and vaping cues the urge to smoke or vape. It extends previous studies on first-generation cigalikes (visually similar to cigarettes) and second-generation devices (visually similar to pens) by including third-generation tank system devices (larger bulky units). In an online experiment, participants were randomly assigned to view one of four videos, which included smoking, vaping (cigalike or tank system), or neutral cues. The primary outcome was urge to smoke. Secondary outcomes were urge to vape, desire to smoke and vape, and intention to quit or remain abstinent from smoking. RESULTS: UK adults varying in smoking (current or former) and vaping (user or non-user) status (n = 1120) completed the study: 184 (16%) failed study attention checks meaning 936 were included in the final analysis. Urges to smoke were similar across cue groups. Urges to vape were higher following exposure to vaping compared to neutral cues. There was no clear evidence of an interaction between cue group and smoking or vaping status. The lack of cueing effects on smoking urges is inconsistent with previous research, raising questions about the ability to assess craving in online settings.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Fissura , Sinais (Psicologia) , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/classificação , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/estatística & dados numéricos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 207: 107818, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Our study evaluated the short-term impact of introducing European Union's tobacco pictorial health warnings (PHWs). METHODS: Longitudinal data were collected at two time-points from adult smokers, participating in the International Tobacco Control (ITC) surveys, conducted in the Netherlands, Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. In the Netherlands, textual health warnings (THWs) were replaced by PHWs between both time-points. Health warning policies did not change in the other countries. Data from continuing smokers were used (N = 3,487) and analyzed using Generalized Estimating Equations. RESULTS: Between both time-points, only Dutch smokers showed increases in noticing health warnings (ß = 0.712, p < 0.001), self-reports of health warnings leading to a cognitive response such as thinking about smoking health-risks (SHRs) (OR = 1.834, p < 0.001), knowledge about SHRs (ß = 0.369, p < 0.001), and avoiding health warnings (OR = 9.869, p < 0.001). However, Dutch smokers showed no changes in attitude towards smoking (ß = 0.035, p = 0.518), intention to quit smoking (OR = 0.791, p = 0.157), self-efficacy to quit smoking (ß=-0.072, p = 0.286), or reporting that health warnings helped them to resist having a cigarette (OR = 1.091, p = 0.714). CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that introducing the European PHWs was effective in provoking changes closely related to health warnings, but there was no direct impact on variables more closely related to smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Rotulagem de Produtos/métodos , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Austrália/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Comportamento do Consumidor , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados não Aleatórios como Assunto , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 207: 107738, 2020 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816490

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recent findings suggest that overreliance on habit may be common in individuals diagnosed with addiction. To advance our understanding of habit in clinical samples and from behavioral measures, this study examines the interrelations between self-reported habit index for smoking and drinking as well as behavioral measures of intraindividual variability in smoking and drinking. METHODS: Treatment-seeking heavy drinking smokers (N = 416) completed the Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) adapted for both smoking and drinking. "Behavioral habitualness" was computed from the degree of intraindividual variability in patterns of smoking and drinking over the past month. Using the 28-day Timeline-Follow Back (TLFB) interview, we derived two measures of intraindividual variability: interclass correlation (ICC) and autocorrelation [AR(7) coefficients]. RESULTS: Self-report measures of habit were robustly associated with clinical severity of drinking and smoking with higher habit scores indicating greater severity of drinking and smoking, respectively. ICC and AR(7) coefficients, the behavioral measure of "patterness" and putative habit, were not associated with SRHI scores. While ICC for smoking was associated with higher nicotine dependence scores, this pattern was not found for drinking ICC and alcohol problem severity. CONCLUSIONS: These results support the construct validity of the self-report measures of habit for smoking and drinking, as well an initial evaluation of behavioral measure of smoking "patterness" as a potential proxy for habit smoking. Because habit represents a complex phenotype with limited clinical translation, additional studies capturing a wider range of substance use severity and coupled with brain-based validation methods are warranted.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Hábitos , Autorrelato/normas , Fumar/psicologia , Fumar Tabaco/psicologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/tendências , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/tendências , Fumar Tabaco/tendências
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