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1.
Anticancer Res ; 40(1): 27-34, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31892550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Even though prostate cancer (PCa) has good prognosis, there is a discrepancy in the risk among ethnic groups, with high morbidity in African American men. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in interleukin 10 (IL-10) have been associated with inflammation and cancer risk. We investigated the association of five SNPs in the IL-10 promoter with clinical features such as Gleason score and smoking. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 413 DNA samples were obtained from a nested case-control study of African American males who were genotyped for 5 SNPs utilizing pyrosequencing. Multiple and binary logistic regression models were applied to analyze the clinical and genotypic data. RESULTS: rs12122923 and rs1800871 were associated with PCa risk. Smoking was also found to increase the risk of PCa by 1.6-fold. rs1800893 was found to be associated with lower grades for prostate cancer. CONCLUSION: IL-10 promoter polymorphisms might be a risk factor for PCa development in smoking subjects and PCa progression.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Neoplasias da Próstata/etiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Alelos , Biomarcadores , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gradação de Tumores , Neoplasias da Próstata/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
2.
Angiology ; 71(1): 17-26, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129986

RESUMO

The Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has a high burden of morbidity and mortality due to premature (≤55 years in men; ≤65 years in women) myocardial infarction (MI) and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Despite this, the prevalence of risk factors in patients presenting with premature MI or ACS is incompletely described. We compared lifestyle, clinical risk factors, and biomarkers associated with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region with selected non-MENA high-income countries. We identified English-language, peer-reviewed publications through PubMed (up to March 2018). We used the World Bank classification system to categorize countries. Patients with premature MI/ACS in the MENA region had a higher prevalence of smoking than older patients with MI/ACS but a lower prevalence of diabetes, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Men with premature MI/ACS had a higher prevalence of smoking than women but a lower prevalence of diabetes and hypertension. The MENA region had sparse data on lifestyle, diet, psychological stress, and physical activity. To address these knowledge gaps, we initiated the ongoing Gulf Population Risks and Epidemiology of Vascular Events and Treatment (Gulf PREVENT) case-control study to improve primary and secondary prevention of premature MI in the United Arab Emirates, a high-income country in the MENA region.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/prevenção & controle , África do Norte/epidemiologia , Idade de Início , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Dislipidemias/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Mortalidade Prematura , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Prevalência , Prevenção Primária , Prognóstico , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Risco , Prevenção Secundária , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
3.
JAMA ; 322(24): 2422-2434, 2019 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31860051

RESUMO

Importance: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic disease of the pancreas with a prevalence of 42 to 73 per 100 000 adults in the United States. Observations: Both genetic and environmental factors are thought to contribute to the pathogenesis of CP. Environmental factors associated with CP include alcohol abuse (odds ratio [OR], 3.1; 95% CI, 1.87-5.14) for 5 or more drinks per day vs abstainers and light drinkers as well as smoking (OR, 4.59; 95% CI, 2.91-7.25) for more than 35 pack-years in a case-control study involving 971 participants. Between 28% to 80% of patients are classified as having "idiopathic CP." Up to 50% of these individuals have mutations of the trypsin inhibitor gene (SPINK1) or the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. Approximately 1% of people diagnosed with CP may have hereditary pancreatitis, associated with cationic trypsinogen (PRSS1) gene mutations. Approximately 80% of people with CP present with recurrent or chronic upper abdominal pain. Long-term sequelae include diabetes in 38% to 40% and exocrine insufficiency in 30% to 48%. The diagnosis is based on pancreatic calcifications, ductal dilatation, and atrophy visualized by imaging with computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, or both. Endoscopic ultrasound can assist in making the diagnosis in patients with a high index of suspicion such as recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis when imaging is normal or equivocal. The first line of therapy consists of advice to discontinue use of alcohol and smoking and taking analgesic agents (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and weak opioids such as tramadol). A trial of pancreatic enzymes and antioxidants (a combination of multivitamins, selenium, and methionine) can control symptoms in up to 50% of patients. Patients with pancreatic ductal obstruction due to stones, stricture, or both may benefit from ductal drainage via endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) or surgical drainage procedures, such as pancreaticojejunostomy with or without pancreatic head resection, which may provide better pain relief among people who do not respond to endoscopic therapy. Conclusions and Relevance: Chronic pancreatitis often results in chronic abdominal pain and is most commonly caused by excessive alcohol use, smoking, or genetic mutations. Treatment consists primarily of alcohol and smoking cessation, pain control, replacement of pancreatic insufficiency, or mechanical drainage of obstructed pancreatic ducts for some patients.


Assuntos
Pâncreas/cirurgia , Pancreatite Crônica , Dor Abdominal/terapia , Alcoolismo/complicações , Diagnóstico por Imagem , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Pancreatite Crônica/diagnóstico , Pancreatite Crônica/etiologia , Pancreatite Crônica/fisiopatologia , Pancreatite Crônica/terapia , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
4.
Orv Hetil ; 160(45): 1767-1773, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680541

RESUMO

Electronic cigarettes are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. This has created an entirely new public health dilemma. The central issue in the debate is the disease risk imposed by e-cigarettes. It is generally acknowledged that e-cigarettes are unlikely to be as harmful as conventional cigarettes, but there are little data that quantify their relative harms. Experiments in cell cultures and animal studies show that e-cigarettes can have multiple negative effects. Scientific evidence regarding their human acute health effects is limited. The long term effects in humans are unknown, and there is no evidence that e-cigarettes are safer than tobacco in the long term. This review higlights the recent data regarding e-cigarettes toxicity impact on lung and cardiovascular system. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(45): 1767-1773.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Humanos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Saúde Pública
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17867, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689880

RESUMO

Glycogen storage disease (GSD) type IX, characterized by liver enlargement and elevated aminotransferase levels, is the most frequent type of GSD. The global incidence of GSD type IXa is only about 1/100,000 individuals. Case reports of GSD type IX are rare in China. We present the first case report of GSD type IXa in Northeast China caused by mutation of PHKA2.An 11-year-old boy was referred to our hospital because of liver enlargement with consistently elevated transaminase levels over 6 months.Histopathological results following an ultrasound-guided liver biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of GSD. Further genetic testing showed that the patient had GSD type IXa caused by the c.133C>T mutation in PHAK2.We placed the patient on a high-protein and high-starch diet and provided hepatoprotective and supportive therapy.The patient's transaminase levels decreased significantly and were nearly normal at 10-month follow-up.This is the first reported case of GSD type IXa in Northeast China. We hope that the detailed and complete report of this case will provide a reference for the diagnosis of liver enlargement of unknown etiology in future clinical practice.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Hepatite B Crônica/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Cirrose Hepática/virologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Hepatite B Crônica/complicações , Humanos , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Neoplasias Hepáticas/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação Puntual , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(41): e17523, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593125

RESUMO

Therapeutic drug monitoring has been employed in anti-tuberculosis (TB) drugs to assess optimal dose for maximum therapeutic effects and minimal toxicity. But the determinants of serum concentration need further evidences.In a retrospective case-control study, clinical and laboratory data were collected from 717 in-patients with TB at Xi'an Chest Hospital, China. Two hours serum concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide as well as ethambutol were obtained and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.The month 2 culture conversion group had lower concentration of isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol than month 1 group. Statistical analysis showed that serum concentrations of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol revealed a positive relationship with dose (mg/kg) (P < .001, P < .001, P < .001, and P = .003, respectively). Furthermore, isoniazid concentration was related to smoking (P = .009) and prior TB (P = .011), while rifampicin and pyrazinamide concentrations were correlated to sex (P = .004 and 0.025, respectively). Ethambutol concentration was associated with creatinine clearance (Ccr, P = .002).It is necessary to optimize drug doses using therapeutic drug monitoring while considering the following determinants: weight, smoking status, prior TB, sex, and Ccr. Furthermore, low 2 hours serum concentrations can be associated with longer culture conversion.


Assuntos
Etambutol/sangue , Isoniazida/sangue , Pirazinamida/sangue , Rifampina/sangue , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antituberculosos/sangue , Antituberculosos/metabolismo , Antituberculosos/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Cromatografia Líquida/instrumentação , Creatinina/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Monitoramento de Medicamentos/métodos , Etambutol/metabolismo , Etambutol/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Isoniazida/metabolismo , Isoniazida/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pirazinamida/metabolismo , Pirazinamida/uso terapêutico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rifampina/metabolismo , Rifampina/uso terapêutico , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tuberculose/sangue , Adulto Jovem
7.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 42(10): 760-764, 2019 Oct 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594110

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the difference of mRNA, protein expression levels and the indexes of peripheral blood antioxidant capacity in peripheral blood lymphocytes of different EPHX1 genotypes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Methods: A case-control study was conducted to collect peripheral blood samples of 220 stable chronic COPD patients with smoking history and 230 healthy smokers (control group) from October 2016 to February 2018 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University, and the genetic testing was carried out according to the operation instructions of BigDye Terminator v1.1 DNA Sequencing Kit. Based on their EPHX1 exon 3 and exon 4 polymorphism status, the EPHX1 was classified into 4 groups, i. e., normal activity, slow activity, extremely slow activity and fast activity. Then COPD patients were allocated to either a slow activity group (slow and very slow activity) or a fast activity group (normal and fast activity) according to EPHX1 genotype and gene activity. The expression of EPHX1 mRNA and protein in peripheral blood lymphocytes were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot, and indexes of serum antioxidant capacity was detected by corresponding kits. Results: (1)The 2(-ΔΔCt) of the control group was 1.000, and the 2(-ΔΔCt) of the COPD group was 1.052±0.023. There was no significant difference in the level of EPHX1 mRNA expression between the two groups (t=1.992 P=0.865). The level of EPHX1 mRNA expression in the slow activity group was not different significantly compared to that in the fast-active group (1.053±0.023 vs 1.048±0.021, t=1.133, P=0.260). (2)The level of EPHX1 protein expression by Western blot analysis showed that the EHPX1/GAPDH gray ratio was not different significantly between the COPD group and the control group (0.613±0.089 vs 0.602±0.075, t=0.805, P=0.422). The level of EPHX1 protein expression in the slow activity group was not significantly different compared to that in the fast activity group (0.606±0.088 vs 0.622±0.092, t=-0.786 P=0.434). (3)There were significant differences in indexes of antioxidant capacity between the control group and the COPD group (P<0.05). There were significant differences in indexes of antioxidant capacity between the slow activity group and the fast activity group of COPD patients (P<0.05). Conclusions: The different antioxidant capacity of COPD patients with different EPHX1 genotypes may be related to the polymorphism of EPHX1 gene affecting the activity of microsomal epoxidase, but not to the level of EPHX1 mRNA and protein expression.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Epóxido Hidrolases/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Western Blotting , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China/epidemiologia , Epóxido Hidrolases/metabolismo , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Gliceraldeído-3-Fosfato Desidrogenase (Fosforiladora)/metabolismo , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo Genético , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594118

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the incidence and rank of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis to the workers in different occupational positions in Jinchang Cohort. Methods: In January 2014, a cohort of follow-up population in jinchang city was taken as the research object, 17843 individuals among follow-up populations in Jinchang Cohort Study, removed the individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis before 2013, and counted the new incidence individuals diagnosed by the A-Class hospital in Grade III in Jinchang City, Gansu Province, as the investigation objects to investigate the incidence rate & rank of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis. The statistical significance was tested by chi-square test. Results: The 2-year incidence rate of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Pneumoconiosis in the population of Jinchang Cohort Study were 11.60‰, 13.51‰ for male and 8.46‰ for female. the ranks of 2-year incidence rates of chronic bronchitis, emphysema, pneumoconiosis and other phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were 7.06‰ã€3.42‰ã€0.84‰ã€0.34‰, respectively. Incidence rate of chronic bronchitis among administrators and executive staffs were 10.45‰; incidence rate of chronic bronchitis among service staffs were 10.45‰; incidence rate of pneumoconiosis among mining staffs were 3.44‰. Conclusion: The first incidence rank of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and pneumoconiosis in Jinchang cohort is chronic bronchitis, and the risk factors are smoking and occupational exposure.


Assuntos
Ocupações/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumoconiose/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Bronquite/epidemiologia , China , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Enfisema Pulmonar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos
9.
BMJ ; 367: l5367, 2019 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the risk of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or stroke in adults with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). DESIGN: Matched cohort study. SETTING: Population based, electronic primary healthcare databases before 31 December 2015 from four European countries: Italy (n=1 542 672), Netherlands (n=2 225 925), Spain (n=5 488 397), and UK (n=12 695 046). PARTICIPANTS: 120 795 adults with a recorded diagnosis of NAFLD or NASH and no other liver diseases, matched at time of NAFLD diagnosis (index date) by age, sex, practice site, and visit, recorded at six months before or after the date of diagnosis, with up to 100 patients without NAFLD or NASH in the same database. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was incident fatal or non-fatal AMI and ischaemic or unspecified stroke. Hazard ratios were estimated using Cox models and pooled across databases by random effect meta-analyses. RESULTS: 120 795 patients with recorded NAFLD or NASH diagnoses were identified with mean follow-up 2.1-5.5 years. After adjustment for age and smoking the pooled hazard ratio for AMI was 1.17 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.30; 1035 events in participants with NAFLD or NASH, 67 823 in matched controls). In a group with more complete data on risk factors (86 098 NAFLD and 4 664 988 matched controls), the hazard ratio for AMI after adjustment for systolic blood pressure, type 2 diabetes, total cholesterol level, statin use, and hypertension was 1.01 (0.91 to 1.12; 747 events in participants with NAFLD or NASH, 37 462 in matched controls). After adjustment for age and smoking status the pooled hazard ratio for stroke was 1.18 (1.11 to 1.24; 2187 events in participants with NAFLD or NASH, 134 001 in matched controls). In the group with more complete data on risk factors, the hazard ratio for stroke was 1.04 (0.99 to 1.09; 1666 events in participants with NAFLD, 83 882 in matched controls) after further adjustment for type 2 diabetes, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol level, statin use, and hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: The diagnosis of NAFLD in current routine care of 17.7 million patient appears not to be associated with AMI or stroke risk after adjustment for established cardiovascular risk factors. Cardiovascular risk assessment in adults with a diagnosis of NAFLD is important but should be done in the same way as for the general population.


Assuntos
Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Fígado/patologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/fisiopatologia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espanha/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia
10.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(38): e17267, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568004

RESUMO

Smoking is a substantial risk factor for many respiratory diseases. This study aimed to identify the gene and microRNA changes related to smoking in human airway epithelium by bioinformatics analysis.From the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, the mRNA datasets GSE11906, GSE22047, GSE63127, and microRNA dataset GSE14634 were downloaded, and were analyzed using GEO2R. Functional enrichment analysis of the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was enforced using DAVID. The protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs)- DEGs network were executed by Cytoscape.In total, 107 DEGs and 10 DEMs were determined. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that DEGs principally enriched in oxidation-reduction process, extracellular space and oxidoreductase activity. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway demonstrated that DEGs were principally enriched in metabolism of xenobiotics by cytochrome P450 and chemical carcinogenesis. The PPI network revealed 15 hub genes, including NQO1, CYP1B1, AKR1C1, CYP1A1, AKR1C3, CEACAM5, MUCL1, B3GNT6, MUC5AC, MUC12, PTGER4, CALCA, CBR1, TXNRD1, and CBR3. Cluster analysis showed that these hub genes were associated with adenocarcinoma in situ, squamous cell carcinoma, cell differentiation, inflammatory response, oxidative DNA damage, oxidative stress response and tumor necrosis factor. Hsa-miR-627-5p might have the most target genes, including ITLN1, TIMP3, PPP4R4, SLC1A2, NOVA1, RNFT2, CLDN10, TMCC3, EPHA7, SRPX2, PPP1R16B, GRM1, HS3ST3A1, SFRP2, SLC7A11, and KLHDC8A.We identified several molecular changes induced by smoking in human airway epithelium. This study may provide some candidate genes and microRNAs for assessing the risk of lung diseases caused by smoking.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Fumar/metabolismo
11.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180655, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576914

RESUMO

This study evaluated 24 patients with lung cancer (CA) and 23 individuals with no smoking history or cancer in the family and without respiratory disease in childhood (CO). Peripheral blood lymphocytes was used to perform alkaline comet assay and to assess DNA damage as well as to evaluate methyl methane sulfonate (MMS) DNA repair after one hour and three hours at 37 ºC. The percentage of residual damage (RD) after three hours of MMS treatment, for each patient was assessed. The majority of patients were in the CA group, male patients, former smokers, with a history of smoking for 15 years and without associated comorbidities. Alkaline and residual damages were higher in the CA group when compared to controls (alkaline damage P = 0.015 and RD P = 0.05). After one hour of MMS treatment the DNA damage of the CA increased indicating failure to repair it, compared to the controls, and after three hours DNA repair was observed in both groups. Patients with lung cancer are mostly men, former smokers and with more than 15 years of tobacco consumption, undergoing chemotherapy, have high rates of DNA damage and deficiency in their ability to repair against induced damage when compared to controls.


Assuntos
Dano ao DNA , Reparo do DNA , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Antineoplásicos Alquilantes/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio Cometa/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Metanossulfonato de Metila/farmacologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo
13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 86, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644769

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the co-occurrence of the major risk factors for chronic diseases in adults (18-59 years old) and older people (≥ 60 years old) living in Brazilian state capitals and the Federal District. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with population-based data from 35,448 adults and 18,726 older people collected in the Sistema de Vigilância de Fatores de Risco e Proteção para Doenças Crônicas por Inquérito Telefônico (System of Surveillance of Risk and Protective Factors for Chronic Diseases by Telephone Survey - Vigitel) in 2015. The prevalence of each of the five risk factors (smoking, overweight, physical inactivity, alcohol and unhealthy diet) was estimated, as well as their co-occurrence for the different possible combinations, according to socioeconomic and health self-assessment variables. The independent associations were verified via multinomial logistic regression to obtain the estimates of the odds ratio (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. RESULTS: At least two risk factors were present in 38.5% of the adults and 37.0% of the older participants. The male adults and older participants who did not have private health insurance and classified their health as average or poor/very poor were more likely to have two or more concurrent risk behaviors. The greater chance of co-occurrence of smoking and alcohol abuse in adults (adjusted OR = 3.52) and older people (adjusted OR = 2.94) stands out. CONCLUSIONS: The subgroups with increased risk of developing multiple unhealthy behaviors and the most prevalent behaviors were identified. These findings are expected to contribute to the better targeting of health promotion and preventive care. It is worth noting that, for the adoption of healthy lifestyle habits, macro-social and inter-sectoral policies are more effective.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sobrepeso/complicações , Sobrepeso/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Adulto Jovem
15.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495115

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the detection of thyroid nodules and related risk factors in nuclear power workers, and to provide scientific evidence for thyroid protection of nuclear power workers. Methods: In December 2018, select 295 workers of a nuclear power production enterprise and 238 administrative staff of it, and select 250 staff members of a thermal power generation enterprise 70 kilometers away from the nuclear power station to conduct thyroid ultrasound examination and questionnaire survey for single factor. Analysis and further multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to study the risk factors of thyroid nodules in the population. Results: Women and smoking history were independent risk factors for the increased incidence of thyroid nodules in the study population; three shifts work pattern was an independent risk factor for the increased prevalence of thyroid nodules in nuclear power workers (P<0.05) , and other factors such as the history of nuclear exposure had no significant correlation with thyroid nodules (P>0.05) . Conclusion: Nuclear exposure has little effect on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in nuclear power workers.


Assuntos
Centrais Nucleares , Exposição Ocupacional , Nódulo da Glândula Tireoide/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Jornada de Trabalho em Turnos , Fumar/efeitos adversos
16.
Hypertension ; 74(5): 1089-1095, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495278

RESUMO

We estimated changes in the prevalence of chronic hypertension among pregnant women and evaluated the extent to which changes in obesity and smoking were associated with these trends. We designed a population-based cross-sectional analysis of over 151 million women with delivery-related hospitalizations in the United States, 1970 to 2010. Maternal age, year of delivery (period), and maternal year of birth (birth cohort), as well as race, were examined as risk factors for chronic hypertension. Prevalence rates and rate ratios with 95% CIs of chronic hypertension in relation to age, period, and birth cohort were derived through age-period-cohort models. We also examined how changes in obesity and smoking rates influenced age-period-cohort effects. The overall prevalence of chronic hypertension was 0.63%, with black women (1.24%) having more than a 2-fold higher rate than white women (0.53%; rate ratio, 2.31; 95% CI, 2.30-2.32). In the age-period-cohort analysis, the rate of chronic hypertension increased sharply with advancing age and period from 0.11% in 1970 to 1.52% in 2010 (rate ratio, 13.41; 95% CI, 13.22-13.61). The rate of hypertension increased, on average, by 6% (95% CI, 5-6) per year, with the increase being slightly higher among white (7%; 95% CI, 6%-7%) than black (4%; 95% CI, 3%-4%) women. Adjustments for changes in rates of obesity and smoking were not associated with age and period effects. We observed a substantial increase in chronic hypertension rates by age and period and an over 2-fold race disparity in chronic hypertension rates.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/epidemiologia , Idade Materna , Obesidade/complicações , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Doença Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 313: 108821, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31525342

RESUMO

Decrease in the bioavailability of vasoactive nitric oxide (NO), derived from the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (NOS3), underlines vascular endothelial damage. Our expanding knowledge on mature red blood cells (RBCs) makes it supposable that RBCs might contribute to vascular function and integrity via their active NO synthetizing system (RBC-NOS3). This "rescue" mechanism of RBCs could be especially important during pregnancy with smoking habit, when smoking acts as an additional stressor and causes active change in the redox status. In this study RBC populations of 82 non-smoking (RBC-NS) and 75 smoking (RBC-S) pregnant women were examined. Morphological variants were followed by confocal microscopy and quantified by a microscopy based intelligent analysis software. Fluorescence activated cell sorting was used to examine the translational and posttranslational regulation of RBC-NOS, Arginase-1 and the formation of the major product of lipid peroxidation, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal. To survey the rheological parameters of RBCs like elasticity and plasticity atomic force microscopy-based measurement was applied. Significant morphological and functional differences of RBCs were found between the non-smoking and smoking groups. The phenotypic variations in RBC-S population, even the characteristic biconcave disc-shaped cells, could be connected to impaired NOS3 activation and are compromised in their physiological properties. Membrane lipid studies reveal an elevated lipid oxidation state well paralleled with the changed elastic and plastic activities. These features can form a basic tool in the prenatal health screening conditions; hence the compensatory mechanism of RBC-S population completely fails to sense and rescue the acute oxidative stress conditions.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Eritrócitos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Eritrócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Gravidez
18.
Life Sci ; 235: 116800, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472151

RESUMO

AIMS: It is well known that cigarette smoke (CS) is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accompanied by skeletal muscle atrophy. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) that remove acetyl groups from target proteins are necessary for the muscle atrophy associated with skeletal muscle disuse. However, the role of HDACs and trichostatin A (TSA), a HDAC inhibitor, in skeletal muscle atrophy caused by CS exposure remains poorly understood. MAIN METHODS: Female mice were exposed to CS twice daily for 40 days and TSA injected intraperitoneally into CS-exposed mice on alternate days. Skeletal muscles were weighed and gastrocnemius (Gas) muscle histomorphology examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Histone deacetylases 1 and 2 (HDAC1/2), and markers of ubiquitin degradation, muscle differentiation, apoptosis, pyroptosis, and the cytoskeletal proteins were assessed by western blot and immunohistochemistry in Gas. KEYFINDINGS: CS exposure decreased body and skeletal muscle weights and triggered an increase in the percentage of fiber with centralized nuclei in Gas. HDAC1/2 proteins were upregulated in the Gas of mice exposed to CS, while TSA effectively inhibited HDAC1/2 protein levels and attenuated the loss of body weight and skeletal muscle wet weight induced by CS exposure. Markers for ubiquitin degradation, muscle differentiation, cytoskeletal proteins, apoptosis and pyroptosis were all upregulated following CS exposure and effectively restored by TSA. SIGNIFICANCE: TSA may inhibit skeletal muscle atrophy and histomorphological alterations induced by CS exposure by downregulating markers of ubiquitin degradation, muscle fiber differentiation, cytoskeletal proteins, apoptosis and pyroptosis via HDAC1/2 inhibition.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Histona Desacetilase 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores de Histona Desacetilases/farmacologia , Ácidos Hidroxâmicos/farmacologia , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrofia Muscular/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Animais , Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/patologia , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/patologia
19.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 33(3 Suppl. 1): 145-151, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31538461

RESUMO

Nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate is the most common craniofacial anomaly affecting around 1 in 700 live births worldwide. Clefts of the human face can be classified anatomically as cleft palate only (CPO), cleft lip only (CLO), cleft lip and palate (CLP) or a combined group of cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P), based on different in embryologic development. These malformations have some genetic origin, in fact several association studies have been performed to obtain important information about the candidate genes; but more important are gene-environment interactions that play an increasing role in its etiology. Epidemiological studies have shown how environmental factors (alcohol, smoking, drugs), as well as possible gene-environment interactions, play an important role in the onset of the malformation. On the contrary, folic acid intake seems to have a protective effect. In this review, we analyze the role of environmental factors related to onset of cleft.


Assuntos
Fenda Labial/etiologia , Fissura Palatina/etiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Fenda Labial/genética , Fissura Palatina/genética , Ácido Fólico/administração & dosagem , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Humanos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações
20.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523755

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The German federal parliament is discussing the implementation of a comprehensive tobacco advertising ban and whether that ban should include alternative nicotine delivery systems (ANDSs), such as e­cigarettes and tobacco heaters. It would be important to know which outcome the general population, and in particular the users of tobacco/ANDSs, would prefer. OBJECTIVE: Assessing public support for a comprehensive advertising ban on ANDSs in the German population, and particularly in tobacco and ANDSs users. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The German Study on Tobacco Use ("Deutsche Befragung zum Rauchverhalten", DEBRA) is an ongoing, representative household survey of persons aged 14 years and older. Data from the June/July 2019 survey wave (n = 2019) were analysed. Participants were interviewed regarding their tobacco smoking status and ANDS use, sociodemographic factors, and their support of an advertising ban on ANDSs. Prevalence rates and associations (odds ratio, OR) between support and sociodemographic factors or use of tobacco/ANDSs are reported. RESULTS: Of the population, 57.0% (95% confidence interval (95%CI) = 54.7-59.1%) support a ban on ANDS advertising; 11.1% (95%CI = 9.8-12.6%) reject it. There is support for the ban from 46.0% (95%CI = 42.2-49.9%) of current tobacco smokers and 42.7% (95%CI = 35.9-49.6%) of ANDS users. Ex-smokers show the highest rates of support (64.8%, 95%CI = 58.9-70.3%). Acceptance among never- and ex-smokers is higher than among current smokers (adjusted OR 2.06, 95%CI = 1.64-2.59 and OR 1.65, 95%CI = 1.23-2.21). CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the German population supports a comprehensive advertising ban on ANDSs. Tobacco smokers and ANDS users are also more in favour of than against such a ban. Thus, only little resistance will be expected within the population if a comprehensive tobacco advertising ban, as currently discussed in parliament, includes e­cigarettes and heated tobacco products.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Legislação como Assunto , Opinião Pública , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Alemanha , Humanos , Política Antifumo , Inquéritos e Questionários , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco
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