Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.650
Filtrar
1.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(11): 1420-1425, 2019 Nov 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31838815

RESUMO

Objective: To understand the trends of smoking and passive smoking exposure in adults in Shaanxi province from 2007 to 2015. Methods: Data was from China Chronic Disease and Risk Factor Surveillance in 2007, 2010, 2013 and 2015 to calculate the rates of smoking, smoking cessation and passive smoking exposure, as well as the amount of smoking of smokers indicated by each surveillance. Cochran-Armitage test was used to assess the trends across survey periods. The weighting rate was calculated by using sampling weight and data from the 6(th) national census in 2010. Sensitivity analysis was done to test the trends as well. Results: The results of the surveillance indicated that the smoking rate in 2007 was 38.26%, highest in the results of four surveys, it decreased to 30.95% in 2013 and then increased to 34.11% in 2015 (Cochran-Armitage test: Z=2.46, P=0.014). The amount of smoking increased from 16.90 cigarettes per day in 2007 to 17.76 cigarettes per day in 2015. The overall rate of smoking cessation was 11.02% in 2007 and 16.95% in 2015 (Cochran- Armitage test: Z=-4.18, P<0.01). We observed the passive smoking exposure rate was 48.10% in 2010 and 63.88% in 2015 (Cochran-Armitage test: Z=-10.60, P<0.01). We found no difference in trends by sensitivity analysis. Conclusions: The smoking rate and amount of cigarettes smoked in adults in Shaanxi remained stable and at a high level. The rate of smoking cessation increased gradually, while the passive smoking exposure rate increased rapidly.


Assuntos
Vigilância da População/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/tendências , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/etnologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(40): e17113, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Periodontitis is a common disease with an unclear pathological mechanism. No precise consensus has been reached to evaluate the association between the IL-10 rs1800872 (- 592, -590, -597 C>A) polymorphism and periodontal disease. Thus, we performed this meta-analysis to collect more evidence-based information. METHODS: Four online databases, PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and China Biology Medicine disc (CBM), were searched in August 2018. An odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) was applied to evaluate the association of the rs1800872 with periodontitis susceptibility. RESULTS: Twenty three case-control studies with 2714 patients and 2373 healthy controls were evaluated. The overall analyses verified that the IL-10 rs1800872 polymorphism was significantly associated with an increased risk of periodontitis in the allelic model, homozygote model, dominant model, and recessive model (A vs C: OR = 1.28, 95%CI = 1.11-1.49, P = .00, I = 56.87%; AA vs CC: OR = 2.06, 95%CI = 1.32-3.23, P = .00, I = 73.3%; AA + AC vs CC: OR = 1.42, 95%CI = 1.03-1.96, P = .03, I = 76.2%; AA vs AC + CC: OR = 1.78, 95%CI = 1.26-2.56, P = .00, I = 76.7%). Moreover, the subgroup analysis based on ethnicity, periodontitis type, and smoking status showed significant differences. CONCLUSIONS: The results of our meta-analysis demonstrate that rs1800872 is associated with periodontitis susceptibility in Caucasians and Asians. Moreover, A allele, AA genotype, CC genotype may be closely associated with chronic periodontitis (CP), while A allele, AA genotype may be closely associated with aggressive periodontitis (AgP).


Assuntos
Interleucina-10/genética , Periodontite/etnologia , Periodontite/genética , Periodontite Agressiva/etnologia , Periodontite Agressiva/genética , Alelos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , China , Periodontite Crônica/etnologia , Periodontite Crônica/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/etnologia
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581468

RESUMO

Background: Although obesity may have a role as a risk factor for cerebrovascular mortality, less is known about how demographic and social groups differ in this regard. Aims: This study had two aims: first to investigate the predictive role of baseline obesity on long-term risk of mortality due to cerebrovascular disease, and second, to test racial variation in this effect. Methods: the Americans' Changing Lives Study (ACL) 1986-2011 is a state of the art 25-year longitudinal cohort study. ACL followed a nationally representative sample of Blacks (n = 1156) and Whites (n = 2205) for up to 25 years. Baseline obesity was the main predictor of interest, time to cerebrovascular death was the main outcome of interest. Demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (educational attainment and household income), health behaviors (exercise and smoking), and health (hypertension and depressive symptoms) at baseline were covariates. Cox proportional hazards models were used to test additive and multiplicative effects of obesity and race on the outcome. Results: From the total 3,361 individuals, 177 people died due to cerebrovascular causes (Whites and Blacks). In the pooled sample, baseline obesity did not predict cerebrovascular mortality (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.86, 0.49-1.51), independent of demographic, socioeconomic, health behaviors, and health factors at baseline. Race also interacted with baseline obesity on outcome (HR = 3.17, 1.09-9.21), suggesting a stronger predictive role of baseline obesity on cerebrovascular deaths for Black people compared to White individuals. According to the models that were run specific to each race, obesity predicted risk of cerebrovascular mortality for Blacks (HR = 2.51, 1.43-4.39) but not Whites (HR = 0.69, 0.31-1.53). Conclusions: Baseline obesity better predicts long-term risk of cerebrovascular death in Black individuals compared to White people. More research should explore factors that explain why racial differences exist in the effects of obesity on cerebrovascular outcome. Findings also have implications for personalized medicine.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Obesidade/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/mortalidade , Depressão/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/etnologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
4.
PLoS Med ; 16(7): e1002853, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335910

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We harmonized longitudinal data from 20 population-based cohorts from 15 countries over 5 continents, including 48,522 individuals (58.4% women) aged 54-105 (mean = 72.7) years and without dementia at baseline. Studies had 2-15 years of follow-up. The risk factors investigated were age, sex, education, alcohol consumption, anxiety, apolipoprotein E ε4 allele (APOE*4) status, atrial fibrillation, blood pressure and pulse pressure, body mass index, cardiovascular disease, depression, diabetes, self-rated health, high cholesterol, hypertension, peripheral vascular disease, physical activity, smoking, and history of stroke. Associations with risk factors were determined for a global cognitive composite outcome (memory, language, processing speed, and executive functioning tests) and Mini-Mental State Examination score. Individual participant data meta-analyses of multivariable linear mixed model results pooled across cohorts revealed that for at least 1 cognitive outcome, age (B = -0.1, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.31, SE = 0.11), depression (B = -0.11, SE = 0.06), diabetes (B = -0.23, SE = 0.10), current smoking (B = -0.20, SE = 0.08), and history of stroke (B = -0.22, SE = 0.09) were independently associated with poorer cognitive performance (p < 0.05 for all), and higher levels of education (B = 0.12, SE = 0.02) and vigorous physical activity (B = 0.17, SE = 0.06) were associated with better performance (p < 0.01 for both). Age (B = -0.07, SE = 0.01), APOE*4 carriage (B = -0.41, SE = 0.18), and diabetes (B = -0.18, SE = 0.10) were independently associated with faster cognitive decline (p < 0.05 for all). Different effects between Asian people and white people included stronger associations for Asian people between ever smoking and poorer cognition (group by risk factor interaction: B = -0.24, SE = 0.12), and between diabetes and cognitive decline (B = -0.66, SE = 0.27; p < 0.05 for both). Limitations of our study include a loss or distortion of risk factor data with harmonization, and not investigating factors at midlife. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that education, smoking, physical activity, diabetes, and stroke are all modifiable factors associated with cognitive decline. If these factors are determined to be causal, controlling them could minimize worldwide levels of cognitive decline. However, any global prevention strategy may need to consider ethno-regional differences.


Assuntos
Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Comorbidade , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Educação em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia
5.
Inquiry ; 56: 46958019864479, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328601

RESUMO

E-cigarette use among adolescents is well-documented, but less is known about adult users of e-cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between sociodemographic factors and e-cigarette use in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for years 2015-2016 were analyzed to assess e-cigarette use among 5989 adults aged ≥18 years. Multivariable logistic regression was conducted to examine associations between the sociodemographic exposures of age, sex, race, marital status, education level, employment status, and poverty-income ratio and the outcome of e-cigarette use. The weighted prevalence of ever use of e-cigarettes was 20%. Compared with adults aged ≥55 years, odds of e-cigarette use were 4.77 times (95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.63-6.27) higher among ages 18 to 34 years and 2.16 times (95% CI = 1.49-3.14) higher among ages 35 to 54 years. Higher odds of e-cigarette use were observed among widowed/divorced/separated participants compared with those who were married/living with a partner, among participants with less than high school (odds ratio [OR] = 1.47; 95% CI = 1.08-2.00) or high school/general educational development (GED) education (OR=1.41; 95% CI = 1.12-1.77) compared with those with college degrees/some college, and among those with incomes below the poverty level (OR=1.31; 95% CI = 1.01-1.69) compared with above the poverty level. For non-smokers of conventional cigarettes, higher odds of e-cigarette use were observed among males compared with females, Mexican Americans/Other Hispanics compared with non-Hispanic whites, and non-working participants compared with those who were working. Overall findings indicate that individuals who are widowed/divorced/separated, individuals with lower education, and with incomes below the poverty level are likely to report ever use of e-cigarettes. As increasing evidence demonstrates negative health consequences, e-cigarette initiation may ultimately contribute to additional smoking-related health inequalities even among non-smokers of conventional cigarettes.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , Fumar/etnologia , Produtos do Tabaco , Estados Unidos
6.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 19(9): 930-937, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309695

RESUMO

AIM: To quantify variations in health-related behaviors (HRB) clustering of older adults in Western and Eastern countries. METHODS: Using six aging cohorts from the USA, England, Europe, Japan, Korea and China, latent class analysis was applied to access the clustering of smoking, alcohol consumption, physical activity and social activity. RESULTS: A total of 104 552 participants (55% women) aged ≥50 years in 2010 were included. Despite a different number of clusters identified, three consistent cluster profiles emerged: "Multiple-HRB" (ex-/never smoking, moderate drinking, frequent physical and social activity); "Inactives" (socially and physically inactive without other risk behaviors); and "(ex-)Smokers with Risk Behaviors". Sex and cohort variations were shown. For men in Western cohorts, "Multiple-HRB" was the predominant cluster, whereas their Asian counterparts were more likely to be members of the "Smokers with risk behavior" and "Inactives" clusters. Most women, particularly those in Asian cohorts, were never smokers and non-drinkers, and most of them belonged to the socially "Inactives" cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We provide a person-centered understanding of HRB clustering of older adults over selected countries by sex, informing tailored health promotion for the target population. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2019; 19: 930-937.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Comportamento Sedentário/etnologia , Fumar , Idoso , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Comparação Transcultural , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Extremo Oriente/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2232-2241, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31178360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TIAregistry.org is an international cohort of patients with transient ischemic attack (TIA) or minor stroke within 7 days before enrollment in the registry. Main analyses of 1-year follow-up data have been reported.5 We conducted subanalysis on the baseline and 1-year follow-up data of Japanese patients. METHODS: The patients were classified into 2 groups based on Japanese ethnicity, Japanese (345) and non-Japanese (3238), and their baseline data and 1-year event rates were compared. We also determined risk factors and predictors of 1-year stroke. RESULTS: Current smoking, regular alcohol drinking, intracranial arterial stenosis, and small vessel occlusion; and hypertension, dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and extracranial arterial stenosis were more and less common among Japanese patients, respectively. Stroke risk was higher and TIA risk was lower at 1-year follow-up among Japanese patients. The baseline risk factors for recurrent stroke were diabetes, alcohol drinking, and large artery atherosclerosis. Independent predictors of 1-year stroke risk were prior congestive heart failure and alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: The two populations of patients featured differences in risk factors, stroke subtypes, and outcome events. Predictors of recurrent stroke among Japanese patients included congestive heart failure and regular alcohol drinking. Strategies to attenuate residual risk of stroke aside from adherence to current guidelines should take our Japanese-patient specific findings into account.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etnologia , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etnologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Fatores de Tempo
8.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002821, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: College affirmative action programs seek to expand socioeconomic opportunities for underrepresented minorities. Between 1996 and 2013, 9 US states-including California, Texas, and Michigan-banned race-based affirmative action in college admissions. Because economic opportunity is known to motivate health behavior, banning affirmative action policies may have important adverse spillover effects on health risk behaviors. We used a quasi-experimental research design to evaluate the association between college affirmative action bans and health risk behaviors among underrepresented minority (Black, Hispanic, and Native American) adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a difference-in-differences analysis using data from the 1991-2015 US national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). We compared changes in self-reported cigarette smoking and alcohol use in the 30 days prior to survey among underrepresented minority 11th and 12th graders in states implementing college affirmative action bans (Arizona, California, Florida, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Texas, and Washington) versus outcomes among those residing in states not implementing bans (n = 35 control states). We also assessed whether underrepresented minority adults surveyed in the 1992-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) who were exposed to affirmative action bans during their late high school years continued to smoke cigarettes between the ages of 19 and 30 years. Models adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, state and year fixed effects, and state-specific secular trends. In the YRBS (n = 34,988 to 36,268, depending on the outcome), cigarette smoking in the past 30 days among underrepresented minority 11th-12th graders increased by 3.8 percentage points after exposure to an affirmative action ban (95% CI: 2.0, 5.7; p < 0.001). In addition, there were also apparent increases in past-30-day alcohol use, by 5.9 percentage points (95% CI: 0.3, 12.2; p = 0.041), and past-30-day binge drinking, by 3.5 percentage points (95% CI: -0.1, 7.2, p = 0.058), among underrepresented minority 11th-12th graders, though in both cases adjustment for multiple comparisons resulted in failure to reject the null hypothesis (adjusted p = 0.083 for both outcomes). Underrepresented minority adults in the TUS-CPS (n = 71,575) exposed to bans during their late high school years were also 1.8 percentage points more likely to report current smoking (95% CI: 0.1, 3.6; p = 0.037). Event study analyses revealed a discrete break for all health behaviors timed with policy discussion and implementation. No substantive or statistically significant effects were found for non-Hispanic White adolescents, and the findings were robust to a number of additional specification checks. The limitations of the study include the continued potential for residual confounding from unmeasured time-varying factors and the potential for recall bias due to the self-reported nature of the health risk behavior outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found evidence that some health risk behaviors increased among underrepresented minority adolescents after exposure to state-level college affirmative action bans. These findings suggest that social policies that shift socioeconomic opportunities could have meaningful population health consequences.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/etnologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Grupos Minoritários/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Universidades/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
9.
BMC Public Health ; 19(Suppl 4): 579, 2019 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31196055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study focused on the associations between socioeconomic status (SES) and adolescent smoking among secondary school students (13 to 17 years) in the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Our objective was to evaluate the relationships between adolescent demographics, socioeconomic status and smoking status. METHODS: The survey data were based on baseline findings from a cross-sectional study (N = 422 adolescents). Chi-square test was used to assess the relationship between demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status (household monthly income and daily allowance) and adolescent smoking status. Exhaled carbon monoxide (CO) reading and the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC) were used to evaluate adolescent smoking status. A Multivariate Multinomial Logistic Regression (MMLR) was employed to test selected demographic and socioeconomic predictors of smoking status. RESULTS: Of the 422 adolescents (M age = 15.58, SD = 1.24), more than half of the participants initiated smoking between 13 to 17 years old (59.0%). A total of 308 (73.0%) were electronic cigarette users, with more than 50% comprising of single users. The mean CO reading was 2.14 ppm with 78.0% of adolescents scoring more than 0 on the Hooked on Nicotine Checklist (HONC). Males and participants aged 15 and 16 years were at increased risks of sole CC smoking. Meanwhile, males, those who are not hooked on smoking and with a non-smoker CO reading were at increased risks of sole EC smoking. Finally, Bumiputeras were at less risk of EC smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Demographic variables such as age, gender and ethnicity predicted smoking status predicted smoking risk, but not socioeconomic factors. The findings allow policy makers to target specific high-risk demographic groups when designing smoking cessation programs for adolescents.


Assuntos
Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Malásia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fumar/etnologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
Health Promot Chronic Dis Prev Can ; 39(6-7): 207-215, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês, Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31210046

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Ongoing surveillance of youth substance use is essential to quantify harms and to identify populations at higher risk. In the Canadian context, historical and structural injustices make monitoring excess risk among Indigenous youth particularly important. This study updated national prevalence rates of tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use among Indigenous and non-Indigenous students. METHODS: Differences in tobacco, alcohol, and marijuana use were examined, using logistic regression, among 1700 Indigenous and 22 800 non-Indigenous youth in Grades 9-12 who participated in the 2014/15 Canadian Student Tobacco, Alcohol and Drugs Survey. Differences by sex were also examined. Mean age of first alcohol and marijuana use was compared in the two populations using OLS regression. Results were compared to 2008/09 data. RESULTS: While smoking, alcohol, and marijuana rates have decreased compared to 2008/09 in both populations, the gap between the populations has mostly not. In 2014/15, Indigenous youth had higher odds of smoking (odds ratio [OR]: 5.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.54-7.81) and past-year drinking (OR: 1.43; 95% CI: 1.16- 1.76) than non-Indigenous youth. More Indigenous than non-Indigenous youth attempted quitting smoking. Non-Indigenous males were less likely to have had at least one drink in the past-year compared to non-Indigenous females. Indigenous males and females had higher odds of past-year marijuana use than non-Indigenous males (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.32-2.56) and females (OR: 2.87; 95% CI: 2.15-3.84). Indigenous youth, especially males, drank alcohol and used marijuana at younger ages. CONCLUSION: Additional policies and programs are required to help Indigenous youth be successful in their attempts to quit smoking, and to address high rates of alcohol and marijuana use.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índios Norte-Americanos , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Uso da Maconha/etnologia , Vigilância da População , Prevalência , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/etnologia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242661

RESUMO

Background: This article explores ethnic minority generational differences in smoking behavior, frequency of alcohol consumption, and dietary style in Britain, and whether these differences can be explained by generational differences in socioeconomic status and ethnic identity. Method: Multivariate analyses using wave 2 (2010-2012) and wave 5 (2013-2015) of the United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study on smoking behavior, frequency of alcohol consumption, and dietary style from 59,189 White British, 1690 Indians, 960 Pakistanis, 555 Bangladeshis, 1060 Black Caribbeans, and 1059 Black Africans, adjusted for demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status and ethnic identity. Results: While we find little evidence for generational differences in dietary style, second-generation Indians, Pakistanis, and Black Caribbeans have a significantly higher probability of smoking than the first-generation, and all second-generation minorities are significantly more likely to consume alcohol than their first-generation counterparts. Such generational differences in alcohol consumption are partly explained by second-generation minorities' weakened ethnic identity and higher socioeconomic status. Conclusions: This study facilitates a better understanding of minority generational differences in health behaviors and the role of socioeconomic status and ethnic identity, highlighting the need for future policy interventions to target certain second-generation ethnic minorities who have adopted certain host society unhealthy lifestyles.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Dieta , Grupos Étnicos , Grupos Minoritários , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Efeito de Coortes , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde das Minorias , Fumar/etnologia , Classe Social , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 615, 2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113480

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of social media to promote healthy behaviour among Indigenous Australians, including to reduce smoking. Social media has significant potential to stimulate interpersonal influence to quit, however an important knowledge gap is how and what content people choose to share with friends and family. This paper explores the decision making processes of community members for sharing tobacco control content with family and friends on Facebook. METHODS: Community researchers were paid to choose and share at least one tobacco control post per week for a period of 6 months on their personal Facebook page. They documented reasons for their choices, which were coded and analysed to determine features of messages most likely to be shared, and salient considerations in the decision-making process. RESULTS: Posts which are child-focused, feature Indigenous content, and are perceived as practical, relevant and credible, with a direct and unambiguous message, were most likely to be shared. Posts which included disgusting imagery about health impacts, were focused on the environment, or were ambiguous or sarcastic were less likely to be shared. Decisions were also based on whether content was perceived to contain new information, to be helpful for their friends, and to be consistent with the participant's online identity, as well as the perceived sensitivity of content. The potential impact on expensive mobile data for videos was also a factor. CONCLUSIONS: When designing tobacco control messages to be shared on social media, health promoters should take into account how information will align with positive self-image and can contribute to social capital among the intended audience, and generate interpersonal engagement. Content should complement, rather than attempt to replicate, some message features that are effective on traditional broadcast media. This study shows the potential for health services to incorporate a strategy of using paid local social media 'champions' or 'ambassadors' to disseminate tobacco control messages on Facebook through community networks.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/psicologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/etnologia , Mídias Sociais , Adulto , Austrália , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Teoria Fundamentada , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1611329, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116098

RESUMO

The urgency of the problem under study is determined by the high prevalence of arterial hypertension among the indigenous minorities of the North in modern socio-economic conditions. The following article is aimed to evaluate the prevalence of behavioural arterial hypertension risk factors according to the results of single-step epidemiological research of Evenk people in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), Russian Federation. The leading approach to the study of this problem was the questioning of the population using the international questionnaire for behavioural risk factors (CYNDI). As a result of research, widespread smoking was found among native population (52.0% of men and 23.7% of women). The frequency of alcohol consumption among the male Evenki is comparable to that in the Yakut population, and among the female, the number is much lower. Evenks including young men belong to the physically inactive population. The frequency of arterial hypertension (AH) cases along with the factors listed above are significantly influenced by: marital status, employment, education, and housing conditions. Article materials may be useful for a differentiated approach in the development of prevention and rehabilitation programs for the indigenous peoples of the North.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Hipertensão/etnologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1607703, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043136

RESUMO

Rapid social, economic, and environmental changes in the northern territories of Canada have raised concerns about potentially increasing levels of chronic disease. This concern prompted us to compare multimorbidity prevalence in Canada between the territories and provinces. We analyzed Canadian Community Health Survey data for 2013/14. We defined multimorbidity, the outcome, as having 3 or more chronic conditions and used survey-weighted multivariable logistic regression for comparisons between territories and provinces. We found a prevalence of multimorbidity in Canada of 14.0% (95% CI: 13.6, 14.3). We could not find significant difference in multimorbidity prevalence between the territories and provinces of Canada overall; however, the territories tended to have lower prevalence estimates than provinces for multimorbidity (adj-OR = 0.88; 95% CI: 0.74-1.04). Sensitivity analyses from propensity score analyses had similar conclusions. Effect modification analyses identified lower multimorbidity in territories versus provinces among households without a post-secondary graduate (adj-OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.34-0.61 for northern residence), males (adj-OR = 0.71; 95% CI: 0.54-0.93), and ages 12-29 years (adj-OR = 0.63; 95% CI: 0.39-0.99). Caution is needed in interpreting the results in light of representativeness of CCHS in northern populations of Canada.


Assuntos
Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Regiões Árticas/epidemiologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/etnologia , Prevalência , Pontuação de Propensão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Circumpolar Health ; 78(1): 1608139, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025610

RESUMO

Recent reports have found a rise in Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in reproductive age women in the USA. Surveillance data suggests one group that is at increased risk of HCV infection is the American Indian and Alaska Native population (AI/AN). Using the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) birth certificate and the Indian Health Services, Tribal, and Urban Indian (IHS) databases, we evaluated reported cases of HCV infection in pregnant women between 2003 and 2015. In the NCHS database, 38 regions consistently reported HCV infection. The percentage of mothers who were known to have HCV infection increased between 2011 and 2015 in both the AI/AN population (0.57% to 1.19%, p < 0.001) and the non-AI/AN population (0.21% to 0.36%, p < 0.001). The IHS database confirmed these results. Individuals with hepatitis B infection or intravenous drug use (IDU) had significantly higher odds of HCV infection (OR 16.4 and 17.6, respectively). In total, 62% of HCV-positive women did not have IDU recorded. This study demonstrates a significant increase in the proportion of pregnant women infected with HCV between 2003 and 2015. This increase was greater in AI/AN women than non-AI/AN women. This highlights the need for HCV screening and prevention in pregnant AI/AN women.


Assuntos
Nativos do Alasca/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/etnologia , Índios Norte-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Cuidado Pré-Natal/estatística & dados numéricos , Declaração de Nascimento , Feminino , Hepatite B/etnologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Abuso de Substâncias por Via Intravenosa/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Indian Health Service
16.
Public Health ; 170: 122-128, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31029834

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Mediation analyses were conducted to explore the contribution of lifestyle behaviours in the ethnic pattern of poor health outcomes in Leicester, England. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The study used data on 1959 participants from the Leicester Health and Well-being Survey (2015). Lifestyle behaviours were physical activity, diet, smoking and alcohol drinking. Poor health outcomes were the presence of long-term illness and poor self-reported health. RESULTS: Poor health outcomes were less common in Black and Minority Ethnic groups (BMEs) than Whites. Smoking was less common in BMEs than Whites. Poor health outcomes were more common in ex-smokers and current smokers than never smokers. Health outcomes were associated with smoking even after adjusting for ethnicity. The association of ethnicity and health outcomes reduced after adjusting for smoking, suggesting that the effect was mediated by smoking. CONCLUSIONS: In Leicester, Whites had poorer health outcomes than BMEs, which were not mediated by physical activity, diet and alcohol drinking but were mediated by smoking.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Estilo de Vida/etnologia , Grupos Minoritários/psicologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/etnologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/etnologia
17.
Mol Vis ; 25: 79-92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820144

RESUMO

Purpose: Smoking and the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been linked to an overactive complement system. Here, we examined in a retrospective cohort study whether AMD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), smoking, ethnicity, and disease status are correlated with blood complement levels. Methods: Population: The study involved 91 AMD patients and 133 controls, which included 73% Americans of European descent (EUR) and 27% Americans of African descent (AFR) in South Carolina. Readouts: Participants were genotyped for 10 SNPs and systemic levels of complement factor H (CFH) activity, and the complement activation products C3a, C5a, and Bb were assessed. Main Outcome Measures: Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between AMD status and distinct readouts. Results: AMD affects EUR individuals more than AFRs. EUR but not AFR AMD subjects revealed higher levels of Factors C3a and Bb. In all subjects, a 10-unit increase in C3a levels was associated with an approximately 10% increase in the odds of being AMD-positive, and C3a and Bb were associated with smoking. While CFH activity levels were not correlated with AMD, a significant interaction was evident between patient age and CFH activity. Finally, EURs had lower odds of AMD with enhanced copies of rs1536304 (VEGFA) and higher odds with more copy numbers of rs3766404 (CFH). Conclusions: Our results support previous studies of systemic complement components being potential biomarkers for AMD, but they suggest that smoking and disease do not synergistically affect complement levels. We also suggest a novel susceptibility and protective haplotypes in the South Carolinian AMD population. Our studies indicate that augmented complement activation associated with advanced AMD could be attributed to a decrease in CFH activity in younger patients.


Assuntos
Ativação do Complemento/genética , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complemento C3a/genética , Complemento C3a/imunologia , Complemento C5a/genética , Complemento C5a/imunologia , Fator B do Complemento/genética , Fator B do Complemento/imunologia , Fator H do Complemento/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Degeneração Macular/etnologia , Degeneração Macular/imunologia , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/imunologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , South Carolina , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia
18.
Drug Alcohol Rev ; 38(3): 244-253, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30860306

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: The national prevalence of daily smoking among the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander population is 39% but falling. We explore factors associated with starting and sustaining quit attempts, and reasons given for quitting. DESIGN AND METHODS: We analysed data from the nationally representative quota sample of 759 Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander adults who reported smoking at least weekly in the Talking About The Smokes baseline survey (April 2012-October 2013) who completed a follow-up survey a year later (August 2013-August 2014). RESULTS: Having made more quit attempts, more recent quit attempts in the past, motivational attitudes, having been encouraged to quit by a health professional and having noticed tobacco advertising were associated with making a quit attempt between surveys. Having made longer quit attempts in the past, non-daily smoking and quit self-efficacy were associated with sustaining abstinence. But neither having made more quit attempts in the past nor dependence was associated with sustaining abstinence. Health concerns, price and setting an example to children were the most common reasons given by smokers and ex-smokers for quitting. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: Different factors predict making and sustaining quit attempts among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers. We need to rethink current messages that just encourage Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander smokers to keep making quit attempts by increasing motivation to quit, as motivation and making more quit attempts does not predict eventual success. We could focus more on increasing smokers' confidence that they can successfully quit.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Adulto , Idoso , Austrália , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 19(1): 75, 2019 03 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925868

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Asians have disproportionately high rates of cardiovascular disease. Dyslipidemia, a contributing factor, may be influenced by lifestyle, which can vary by religious beliefs. Little is known about South Asian religions and associations with dyslipidemia. METHODS: Cross-sectional analyses of the MASALA study (n = 889). We examined the associations between religious affiliation and cholesterol levels using multivariate linear regression models. We determined whether smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, and dietary pattern mediated these associations. RESULTS: Mean LDL was 112 ± 32 mg/dL, median HDL was 48 mg/dL (IQR:40-57), and median triglycerides was 118 mg/dL (IQR:88-157). Muslims had higher LDL and triglycerides, and lower HDL, while participants with no religious affiliation had lower LDL and higher HDL. The difference in HDL between Muslims and those with no religious affiliation was partly explained by alcohol consumption. CONCLUSIONS: Religion-specific tailoring of interventions designed to promote healthy lifestyle to reduce cholesterol among South Asians may be useful.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Aterosclerose/etnologia , Colesterol/sangue , Dislipidemias/etnologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde/etnologia , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Religião , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Ásia/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/psicologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/psicologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(1): 24-31, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30927393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The poor health of Roma is well documented, but there is only limited data regarding the health of Roma children. The aim of this study was to describe the socioeconomic status, health related behaviour, and health of children living in segregated Roma settlements, and to compare the data with that of non-Roma children. METHODS: In March-April of 2011, a cross-sectional questionnaire-based survey among 11-year-old (211 boys and 252 girls) and 13-year-old (205 boys and 247 girls) children living in Roma settlements was performed (response rate: 91.5%). These data were compared with data from the Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey carried out in 2009/2010. RESULTS: The parents of Roma children were substantially less educated and less likely to be actively employed, and Roma children reported lower material welfare than non-Roma ones. The prevalence of consuming sweets and soft drinks at least 5 times per week was 1.5-2 times higher among Roma children. The prevalence of regular intense physical activity was higher at the age of 13 years among Roma boys, while physical inactivity was substantially higher in both age groups among Roma girls. Almost one quarter of Roma children and approximately 14% of non-Roma children had tried smoking at the age of 11. More Roma boys tried alcohol at the age of 11 than non-Roma ones. One in ten Roma children was obese in both age groups. The self-rated health status of Roma children was worse than that of non-Roma children. CONCLUSIONS: Children living in Roma settlements reported poorer socioeconomic conditions, higher consumption of sweets and soft drinks, earlier smoking and alcohol initiation, and worse self-rated health, but with some exceptions do not differ in fruit or vegetable consumption and BMI from general child population. To promote health of children living in Roma settlements, a multi-sector approach, special health education, plus social and health promotion programmes are needed.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde/etnologia , Nível de Saúde , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Roma/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Hungria/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Roma/etnologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/etnologia , Classe Social , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA