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2.
Respir Res ; 21(1): 252, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993656

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is causing a pandemic with currently > 29 million confirmed cases and > 900,000 deaths worldwide. The locations and mechanisms of virus entry into the human respiratory tract are incompletely characterized. We analyzed publicly available RNA microarray datasets for SARS-CoV-2 entry receptors and cofactors ACE2, TMPRSS2, BSG (CD147) and FURIN. We found that ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are upregulated in the airways of smokers. In asthmatics, ACE2 tended to be downregulated in nasal epithelium, and TMPRSS2 was upregulated in the bronchi. Furthermore, respiratory epithelia were negative for ACE-2 and TMPRSS2 protein expression while positive for BSG and furin, suggesting a possible alternative entry route for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Asma/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Serina Endopeptidases/genética , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Asma/fisiopatologia , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Pandemias , Receptores Virais/genética , Valores de Referência , Sistema Respiratório/metabolismo , Sistema Respiratório/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/metabolismo , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Internalização do Vírus
3.
Surg Clin North Am ; 100(4): 695-705, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681870

RESUMO

Wound healing is affected by several factors. Preexisting diagnoses may significantly alter, delay, or inhibit normal wound healing. This is most commonly seen with chronic disorders, such as diabetes and renal failure, but also occurs secondary to aging and substance abuse. Less commonly, genetic or inflammatory disorders are the cause of delayed wound healing. In some cases, it is not the illness, but the treatment that can inhibit wound healing. This is seen in patients getting chemotherapy, radiation, steroids, methotrexate, and a host of other medications. Understanding these processes may help treat or avoid wound healing problems.


Assuntos
Falência Renal Crônica/fisiopatologia , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/fisiopatologia , Fatores Etários , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Autoimunes/complicações , Doenças Autoimunes/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Infecções/complicações , Infecções/fisiopatologia , Falência Renal Crônica/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/complicações , Transtornos Nutricionais/fisiopatologia , Lesões por Radiação/complicações , Lesões por Radiação/fisiopatologia , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Dermatopatias/complicações , Dermatopatias/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Ferimentos e Lesões/complicações
5.
Stroke ; 51(6): 1865-1867, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390546

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- This study aimed to develop and validate a nomogram for predicting the risk of stroke recurrence among young adults after ischemic stroke. Methods- Patients aged between 18 and 49 years with first-ever ischemic stroke were selected from the Nanjing Stroke Registry Program. A stepwise Cox proportional hazards regression model was employed to develop the best-fit nomogram. The discrimination and calibration in the training and validation cohorts were used to evaluate the nomogram. All patients were classified into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups based on the risk scores generated from the nomogram. Results- A total of 604 patients were enrolled in this study. Hypertension (hazard ratio [HR], 2.038 [95% CI, 1.504-3.942]; P=0.034), diabetes mellitus (HR, 3.224 [95% CI, 1.848-5.624]; P<0.001), smoking status (current smokers versus nonsmokers; HR, 2.491 [95% CI, 1.304-4.759]; P=0.006), and stroke cause (small-vessel occlusion versus large-artery atherosclerosis; HR, 0.325 [95% CI, 0.109-0.976]; P=0.045) were associated with recurrent stroke. Educational years (>12 versus 0-6; HR, 0.070 [95% CI, 0.015-0.319]; P=0.001) were inversely correlated with recurrent stroke. The nomogram was composed of these factors, and successfully stratified patients into low-, intermediate-, and high-risk groups (P<0.001). Conclusions- The nomogram composed of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking status, stroke cause, and education years may predict the risk of stroke recurrence among young adults after ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Nomogramas , Sistema de Registros , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Adulto , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Infarto Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Complicações do Diabetes/diagnóstico , Complicações do Diabetes/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 22(9): 1653-1656, 2020 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32399563

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking depresses pulmonary immune function and is a risk factor contracting other infectious diseases and more serious outcomes among people who become infected. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the association between smoking and progression of the infectious disease COVID-19. METHODS: PubMed was searched on April 28, 2020, with search terms "smoking", "smoker*", "characteristics", "risk factors", "outcomes", and "COVID-19", "COVID", "coronavirus", "sar cov-2", "sar cov 2". Studies reporting smoking behavior of COVID-19 patients and progression of disease were selected for the final analysis. The study outcome was progression of COVID-19 among people who already had the disease. A random effects meta-analysis was applied. RESULTS: We identified 19 peer-reviewed papers with a total of 11,590 COVID-19 patients, 2,133 (18.4%) with severe disease and 731 (6.3%) with a history of smoking. A total of 218 patients with a history of smoking (29.8%) experienced disease progression, compared with 17.6% of non-smoking patients. The meta-analysis showed a significant association between smoking and progression of COVID-19 (OR 1.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.42-2.59, p = 0.001). Limitations in the 19 papers suggest that the actual risk of smoking may be higher. CONCLUSIONS: Smoking is a risk factor for progression of COVID-19, with smokers having higher odds of COVID-19 progression than never smokers. IMPLICATIONS: Physicians and public health professionals should collect data on smoking as part of clinical management and add smoking cessation to the list of practices to blunt the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Fumar , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia
8.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108409, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-50980

RESUMO

It is an ugly fact that a significant amount of the world's population will contract SARS-CoV-II infection with the current spreading. While a specific treatment is not yet coming soon, individual risk assessment and management strategies are crucial. The individual preventive and protective measures drive the personal risk of getting the disease. Among the virus-contracted hosts, their different metabolic status, as determined by their diet, nutrition, age, sex, medical conditions, lifestyle, and environmental factors, govern the personal fate toward different clinical severity of COVID-19, from asymptomatic, mild, moderate, to death. The careful individual assessment for the possible dietary, nutritional, medical, lifestyle, and environmental risks, together with the proper relevant risk management strategies, is the sensible way to deal with the pandemic of SARS-CoV-II.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Fatores Etários , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Higiene/educação , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Distância Social
9.
Clin Immunol ; 215: 108409, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32276137

RESUMO

It is an ugly fact that a significant amount of the world's population will contract SARS-CoV-II infection with the current spreading. While a specific treatment is not yet coming soon, individual risk assessment and management strategies are crucial. The individual preventive and protective measures drive the personal risk of getting the disease. Among the virus-contracted hosts, their different metabolic status, as determined by their diet, nutrition, age, sex, medical conditions, lifestyle, and environmental factors, govern the personal fate toward different clinical severity of COVID-19, from asymptomatic, mild, moderate, to death. The careful individual assessment for the possible dietary, nutritional, medical, lifestyle, and environmental risks, together with the proper relevant risk management strategies, is the sensible way to deal with the pandemic of SARS-CoV-II.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Gestão de Riscos/métodos , Fatores Etários , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Infecções por Coronavirus/metabolismo , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Dieta/métodos , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos , Higiene/educação , Imunização Passiva/métodos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/metabolismo , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/fisiopatologia
10.
BMC Cardiovasc Disord ; 20(1): 66, 2020 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028900

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tobacco smoke is one of the most significant risk factors for cardiovascular diseases and damages in the myocardial tissue directly. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) has been used and is a promising tool to evaluate morphometry and cardiac function in humans. The objective of this study was to evaluate associations of smoking with morphometry and cardiac function by CMR technique in young adult smokers. METHODS: Altogether, 49 volunteers (22 smokers and 27 non-smokers) were included in the study. The comparisons between groups were performed by multiple linear regression adjusting for body mass index and gender. RESULTS: In the morphometric and functional evaluation of the left ventricle, we observed statistical significant lower values of end-diastolic volume (EDV) (p = 0.02), ejection volume (EV) (p = 0.001) and indexed ejection volume (IEV) (p = 0.007) in smokers when compared to no-smoker group. Right ventricle showed statistical significant lower values of EDV (p = < 0.001), end-systolic volume (p = 0.01), EV (p = < 0.001), IEV (p = 0.001), indexed end-diastolic volume (p = 0.001) and major axis (p = 0.01) in smokers when compared to non-smokers group. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strongly association of smoking in young adult and cardiac function decline, even adjusted by cofounders, which compromises the proper functioning of the heart. Evidence confirms that smoking can directly influence the cardiac function, even without atherosclerosis or other chronic comorbidities, associated with increased risk of cardiovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , não Fumantes , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Volume Sistólico , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Função Ventricular Direita , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Ventrículos do Coração/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fumar/fisiopatologia
11.
J Clin Neurosci ; 72: 169-173, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911108

RESUMO

To investigate the differences in the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) treated at our institution over the last few decades. Two chronological cohorts with ten-year-interval were established and epidemiological and clinical data were retrospectively collected from patients with ICH, and data were analyzed using SPSS 13.0. The time windows for the two cohorts were from January 1, 2010 to December 31, 2014 (2010-2014 cohort) and January 1, 2000 to December 31, 2004 (2000-2004 cohort). 1598 patients with ICH were enrolled: 360 patients in the 2000-2004 cohort and 1238 patients in the 2010-2014 cohort. ICH often occurred in patients aged from 45 to 75 years, without a sex bias, accounting for 69.6% of patients. Hypertension (60.7%) was still the main risk factors. Meanwhile, the risk factors of smoking (28.9%) and drinking (23.3%) were often present in male patients but not female patients (p ≤ 0.001). The incidence of pulmonary infection, the main complication during hospitalization, was 40.8% in the 2000-2004 cohort and 61.8% in the 2010-2014 cohort (p ≤ 0.001). Moreover, the incidence of gastrointestinal hemorrhage was 12.5% in the 2000-2004 cohort and 6.0% in the 2010-2014 cohort (p ≤ 0.001). The epidemiological and clinical features have changed over the past 10 years. The mortality was reduced but still high, as evidenced by the increased hospitalization rate of patients with ICH. Current preventions and therapeutic strategies for ICH are effective, but more strategies must be developed to improve the outcome of ICH and decrease the incidence of pulmonary infection.


Assuntos
Hemorragia Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Hemorragia Cerebral/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Hemorragia Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Hospitalização/tendências , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico por imagem , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia
13.
Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol ; 62(2): 217-230, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461300

RESUMO

Skeletal muscle dysfunction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease negatively impacts quality of life and survival. Cigarette smoking (CS) is the major risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and skeletal muscle dysfunction; however, how CS affects skeletal muscle function remains enigmatic. To examine the impact of CS on skeletal muscle inflammation and regeneration, male BALB/c mice were exposed to CS for 8 weeks before muscle injury was induced by barium chloride injection, and were maintained on the CS protocol for up to 21 days after injury. Barium chloride injection resulted in architectural damage to the tibialis anterior muscle, resulting in a decrease contractile function, which was worsened by CS exposure. CS exposure caused muscle atrophy (reduction in gross weight and myofiber cross-sectional area) and altered fiber type composition (31% reduction of oxidative fibers). Both contractile function and loss in myofiber cross-sectional area by CS exposure gradually recovered over time. Satellite cells are muscle stem cells that confer skeletal muscle the plasticity to adapt to changing demands. CS exposure blunted Pax7+ centralized nuclei within satellite cells and thus prevented the activation of these muscle stem cells. Finally, CS triggered muscle inflammation; in particular, there was an exacerbated recruitment of F4/80+ monocytic cells to the site of injury along with enhanced proinflammatory cytokine expression. In conclusion, CS exposure amplified the local inflammatory response at the site of skeletal muscle injury, and this was associated with impaired satellite cell activation, leading to a worsened muscle injury and contractile function without detectable impacts on the recovery outcomes.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Regeneração/fisiologia , Animais , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Contração Muscular/fisiologia , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/metabolismo , Doenças Musculares/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição PAX7/metabolismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/metabolismo , Qualidade de Vida , Fumar/fisiopatologia
14.
Int J Behav Med ; 26(6): 600-607, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732904

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention difficulties are often reported by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, limited research exists using objective tests designed specifically to measure attention in this population. This study aimed to (1) identify specific attention deficits in COPD and (2) determine which demographic/clinical characteristics are associated with reduced attention. METHODS: Eighty-four former smokers (53 COPD, 31 no COPD) completed questionnaires, pulmonary function testing, and the Conner's Continuous Performance Test II (CPT-II). Participants with and without COPD were compared on CPT-II measures of inattention, impulsivity, and vigilance. CPT-II measures that differed significantly between the two groups were further examined using hierarchical regression modeling. Demographic/clinical characteristics were entered into models with attention as the dependent variable. RESULTS: Participants with COPD performed worse than those without COPD on CPT measures of inattention and impulsivity (i.e., detectability [discrimination of target from non-target stimuli], perseverations [reaction time under 100 ms], omissions [target stimuli response failures], and commissions [responses to non-target stimuli]). More severe COPD (measured by greater airflow limitation) was associated with poorer ability to detect targets vs. foils and perseverative responding after adjusting for age and other covariates in the model. CONCLUSION: Former smokers with COPD experience problems with attention that go beyond slowed processing speed, including aspects of inattention and impulsivity. Clinicians should be aware that greater airflow limitation and older age are associated with attention difficulties, as this may impact functioning.


Assuntos
Atenção , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/fisiopatologia
15.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(8): 710-720, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657594

RESUMO

It is unclear whether nicotine and perceived nicotine exposure can influence automatic evaluations of cigarette stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nicotine dose and instructed dose on motivational responses to smoking cues. Forty overnight nicotine-deprived smokers completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) at each of the four laboratory sessions in a balanced-placebo design that crossed nicotine dose (Given-NIC [given nicotine] vs. Given-DENIC [given denicotinized]) with instructed dose expectancy (Told-NIC [told-nicotine] vs. Told-DENIC. [told-denicotinized]). We measured participants' behavioral performance, including reaction time (RT) and accuracy rate, and the early posterior negativity (EPN) component using the event-related potential (ERP) technique to the target pictures. During congruent trials when the categorization condition was smoking or unpleasant, smokers had greater classification accuracy, shorter RT latency, and greater EPN amplitudes compared to the incongruent trials when the categorization condition was smoking or pleasant. The Given-NIC condition was associated with increased classification accuracy, longer RT latency, and decreased EPN amplitudes compared to the Given-DENIC condition. Similarly, the Told-NIC condition was associated with increased accuracy and decreased EPN amplitudes compared to the Told-DENIC condition, but with shorter RT latency. Cigarette-related pictures produced greater EPN amplitudes than neutral pictures. Both behavioral and ERP results suggest that smokers have negative implicit attitudes toward smoking. While both nicotine dose and expected dose facilitated stimulus categorization, there was no evidence that either factor altered smokers' negative attitudes toward smoking cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Atitude , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Fumantes/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Afeto/fisiologia , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/psicologia
16.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 180, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relation between monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) and coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains controversial. The present study aims to assess the prognostic value of MHR in patients with CAD who underwent PCI. METHODS: A total of 673 CAD patients were retrospectively enrolled and divided into four groups according to MHR values. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to study the effects of different variables to clinical outcomes reported as major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM). RESULTS: In a multivariate Cox analysis, after adjustment of other confounders, MHR was found to be an independent predictor of ACM (HR: 3.655; 95% CI: 1.170-11.419, P = 0.026) and MACE (HR =2.390, 95% CI 1.379-4.143, p < 0.002). Having a MHR in the third and fourth quartile were associated with a 2.83-fold and 3.26 -flod increased risk of MACE. CONCLUSIONS: MHR is an independent predictor of ACM and MACE in CAD patients undergoing PCI.


Assuntos
Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Monócitos/patologia , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/mortalidade , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/metabolismo , Análise Multivariada , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Análise de Sobrevida
17.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 668, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639048

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: For the past 10 years, refugees from Eritrea represented the majority of asylum seekers in Switzerland. However, data on their health status remains limited. In this cross-sectional survey followed by a 1-year cohort study, we screened newly arrived Eritrean refugees for cardiovascular risk factors at arrival and 1-year post registration. RESULTS: Among 107 participants (88.8% male; median age 25, 9 (9%) had a body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2, one (1%) had elevated blood pressure, one (1%) had diabetes, 19% smoked and two (2%) had a low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ≥ 4.1 mmol/l. Among the 48 participants (5 females, 43 males) followed, there were no significant changes in cardiovascular risk profile 1 year post-arrival.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Refugiados , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Eritreia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Fatores de Risco , Suíça/epidemiologia
18.
Dis Markers ; 2019: 3890906, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31583027

RESUMO

Objectives: Defining precisely the normal range of HE4 protein is crucial for the proper interpretation of tumor marker results and for a more efficient diagnosis of ovarian malignancy. The aim of our study was to evaluate a reference limit of HE4 protein in a population to promote and facilitate the common use of HE4 protein assays. We also tried to identify potential association of HE4 levels with other conditions such as smoking, age, BMI, and creatinine levels. Methods: Blood samples were collected from 617 patients divided into three groups: healthy, pregnant, and with benign ovarian tumors. Serum HE4 concentrations were measured following a standard procedure. HE4 reference ranges for each group and association of HE4 levels with BMI, creatinine, and smoking were investigated. Results: HE4 reference limit for healthy patients equals 85 pmol/l, which becomes 73 pmol/l and 93 pmol/l for pre and postmenopausal subgroups, respectively. There is a statistically significant correlation between HE4 serum level and smoking (p = 0.000001) and there is no correlation with creatinine. But if we take into account age and smoking, in multivariate analysis, there is a correlation. For pregnant, the upper limit values of normal HE4 levels are 55 pmol/l (median = 40 pmol/l), 80 pmol/l (median = 43 pmol/l), and 106 pmol/l (median = 53 pmol/l) for the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Conclusions: HE4 protein value strongly depends on the patient's age and smoking. The serum concentration of HE4 marker increases with the duration of pregnancy. Understanding the normal range of HE4 protein enables the correct interpretation of marker measurements. This may result in an earlier and more effective diagnosis of ovarian cancer.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Proteína 2 do Domínio Central WAP de Quatro Dissulfetos/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/sangue , Carcinoma Epitelial do Ovário/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Creatinina/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/sangue , Neoplasias/patologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Polônia , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Gravidez , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/fisiopatologia
19.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 173, 2019 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511003

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Wheezes and crackles are well-known signs of lung diseases, but can also be heard in apparently healthy adults. However, their prevalence in a general population has been sparsely described. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of wheezes and crackles in a large general adult population and explore associations with self-reported disease, smoking status and lung function. METHODS: We recorded lung sounds in 4033 individuals 40 years or older and collected information on self-reported disease. Pulse oximetry and spirometry were carried out. We estimated age-standardized prevalence of wheezes and crackles and associations between wheezes and crackles and variables of interest were analyzed with univariable and multivariable logistic regressions. RESULTS: Twenty-eight percent of individuals had wheezes or crackles. The age-standardized prevalence of wheezes was 18.6% in women and 15.3% in men, and of crackles, 10.8 and 9.4%, respectively. Wheezes were mostly found during expiration and crackles during inspiration. Significant predictors of expiratory wheezes in multivariable analyses were age (10 years increase - OR 1.18, 95%CI 1.09-1.30), female gender (1.45, 1.2-1.8), self-reported asthma (1.36, 1.00-1.83), and current smoking (1.70, 1.28-2.23). The most important predictors of inspiratory crackles were age (1.76, 1.57-1.99), current smoking, (1.94, 1.40-2.69), mMRC ≥2 (1.79, 1.18-2.65), SpO2 (0.88, 0.81-0.96), and FEV1 Z-score (0.86, 0.77-0.95). CONCLUSIONS: Nearly over a quarter of adults present adventitious lung sounds on auscultation. Age was the most important predictor of adventitious sounds, particularly crackles. The adventitious sounds were also associated with self-reported disease, current smoking and measures of lung function. The presence of findings in two or more auscultation sites was associated with a higher risk of decreased lung function than solitary findings.


Assuntos
Expiração , Inalação , Sons Respiratórios , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Auscultação , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pneumopatias/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/fisiopatologia
20.
Rocz Panstw Zakl Hig ; 70(3): 253-258, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515984

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is frequently a way to control appetite and weight. The data concerning the body mass gain after quitting among the users of electronic cigarettes who have no prior history of smoking traditional cigarettes is inconsistent. Objective: In our study we have compared smoking and vaping impact on weight gain and glycaemia. Material and methods: 3 groups of rats were used. The group A was exposed to vapour and group B were exposed to smoke. Rats in the group C constituted the control group without nicotine exposition. Results: During 6 weeks of experiment weight gain of rats in the A and B groups was comparable, while animals from group C had gained signifi0cantly more. During 2 weeks after cessation of exposition to nicotine animals from group B gained more weight than rats of A and C group. Blood glucose was higher in group B than in groups A and C 24 h after last exposure to nicotine and 2 weeks after nicotine exposure cessation. Conclusion: Effects of vaping on weight increase is similar to smoking, but after vaping cassation weight gain is lower and comparable with nicotine nonusers.


Assuntos
Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Vaping/fisiopatologia , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Ratos
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