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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16596, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393359

RESUMO

We explored the effects of smoking and exercise on pulmonary function (PF) in young adults.This was a 2-year, prospective cross-sectional study on university students. We recorded age, gender, weight, height, pulmonary symptoms, smoking status, and sports habits. Spirometry was used to evaluate lung function; we recorded the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), the forced vital capacity (FVC), and the FEV1/FVC ratio.A total of 1014 (552 female, 464 male) subjects were included. Smokers reported significantly more wheezing and sputum production than nonsmokers, but exhibited better FVC and FEV1 values. Those who smoked less than half a pack/d had significantly poorer FVC and FEV1 levels than nonsmokers. Smokers exhibited significantly lower FEV1/FVC ratios than nonsmokers. Overall, those who exercised exhibited better FEV1 and FVC levels, but this was attributable entirely to females.The spirometric percentile data were adjusted for gender, age, and height, and used as indicators of health status (good: >90: average: 25-90, poor <25). ln males, PF was associated with regular exercise (good: 7.8, average: 6.5, poor: 14.2, P = .02). The smoking rate was higher in the "good" group (males: good: 31.3, average: 30, poor: 17.9, P = .02/females: good: 22.4, average: 17.9, poor: 10.4, P = .02).On multivariate regression analysis, above-average PF test results were associated with age (1.32 [1.04-1.69]) and exercising at least once per week (4.06 [1.16-14.20]) in males. In females, above-average results were associated with irregular exercise (2.88 [1.36-6.09]), age (1.85 [1.44-2.37]), and exercising until palpitations developed (0.18 [0.04-0.88]).Smoking improves lung function in young adults; these are "healthy smokers." Physical activity did not improve lung function, but the absence of physical activity significantly worsened lung function.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Testes de Função Respiratória/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Pesos e Medidas Corporais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Sons Respiratórios/fisiopatologia , Fatores Sexuais , Esportes/fisiologia , Escarro/metabolismo , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 690, 2019 Jun 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164109

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung function is lower in people with disadvantaged socio-economic position (SEP) and is associated with hazardous health behaviours and exposures. The associations are likely to be interactive, for example, exposure to socially patterned environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) in childhood is associated with an increased effect of smoking in adulthood. We hypothesise that disadvantaged childhood SEP increases susceptibility to the effects of hazards in adulthood for lung function. We test whether disadvantaged childhood SEP moderates smoking, physical activity, obesity, occupational exposures, ETS and air pollution's associations with lung function. METHODS: Data are from the Nurse Health Assessment (NHA) in waves two and three of the United Kingdom Household Longitudinal Study (UKHLS). Analysis is restricted to English residents aged at least 20 for women and 25 for men, producing a study population of 16,339. Lung function is measured with forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1) and standardised to the percentage of expected FEV1 for a healthy non-smoker of equivalent age, gender, height and ethnicity (FEV1%). Using STATA 14, a mixed linear model was fitted with interaction terms between childhood SEP and health behaviours and occupational exposures. Cross level interactions tested whether childhood SEP moderated household ETS and neighbourhood air pollution's associations with FEV1%. RESULTS: SEP, smoking, physical activity, obesity, occupational exposures and air pollution were associated with lung function. Interaction terms indicated a significantly stronger negative association between disadvantaged childhood SEP and currently smoking (coefficient -6.47 %, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 9.51 %, 3.42 %) as well as with formerly smoking and occupational exposures. Significant interactions were not found with physical activity, obesity, ETS and air pollution. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that disadvantaged SEP in childhood may make people's lung function more susceptible to the negative effects of smoking and occupational exposures in adulthood. This is important as those most likely to encounter these exposures are at greater risk to their effects. Policy to alleviate this inequality requires intervention in health behaviours through public health campaigns and in occupational health via health and safety legislation.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado/fisiologia , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
3.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 94, 2019 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967146

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Obesity, widely recognized as a serious health concern, is characterized by profoundly altered metabolism. However, the intermediate metabolites involved in this change remain largely unknown. OBJECTIVE: We conducted targeted metabolomics profiling to identify moieties associated with adult obesity. METHODS: In this case-control study of Iranian adults, 200 obese patients were compared with 100 controls based on 104 metabolites profiled by a targeted metabolomic approach using liquid chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The analysis comprised acylcarnitines, diacyl-phosphatidylcholines (PCaa), acyl-alkyl-phosphatidylcholines (PCae), sphingomyelins (SM), lyso-phospholipids (LPC) and amino acids. We performed multivariable linear regression to identify metabolites associated with obesity, adjusting for age, sex, total energy intake, total physical activity, smoking, and alcohol consumption. The Bonferroni correction was used to adjust for multiple testing. RESULTS: A pattern of 19 metabolites was significantly associated with obesity. Branched chain amino acids, alanine, glutamic acid, proline, tyrosine LPCa C16:1, PCaa C32:1, PCaa C32:2 and PCaa C38:3 were positively, while serine, asparagine, LPCa C18:1, LPCa C18:2, LPCe C18:0, PCae C34:3, PCae C38:4 and PCae C40:6 were negatively associated with obesity (all p < 0.00048). CONCLUSIONS: A metabolomic profile containing 9 amino acids and 10 polar lipids may serve as a potential biomarker of adult obesity. Further studies are warranted to replicate these findings as well as investigate potential changes in this profile after weight reduction.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/sangue , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Lisofosfolipídeos/sangue , Obesidade/sangue , Fosfatidilcolinas/sangue , Esfingomielinas/sangue , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Aminoácidos/classificação , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carnitina/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromatografia Líquida , Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Modelos Lineares , Lisofosfolipídeos/classificação , Masculino , Metaboloma , Metabolômica/métodos , Obesidade/diagnóstico , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Fosfatidilcolinas/classificação , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Esfingomielinas/classificação , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2019: 8189270, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30863458

RESUMO

This paper aims at investigating how the media coverage and smoking cessation treatment should be implemented, for a certain period, to reduce the numbers of smokers and patients caused by smoking while minimizing the total cost. To this end, we first propose a new mathematical model without any control strategies to investigate the dynamic behaviors of smoking. Furthermore, we calculate the basic reproduction number ℛ 0 and discuss the global asymptotic stabilities of the equilibria. Then, from the estimated parameter values, we know that the basic reproduction number ℛ 0 is more than 1, which reveals that smoking is one of the enduring problems of the society. Hence, we introduce two control measures (media coverage and smoking cessation treatment) into the model. Finally, in order to investigate their effects in smoking control and provide an analytical method for the strategic decision-makers, we apply a concrete example to calculate the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and analyze the cost-effectiveness of all possible combinations of the two control measures. The results indicate that the combination of media coverage and smoking cessation treatment is the most cost-effective strategy for tobacco control.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Tabagismo/economia , Tabagismo/terapia , Algoritmos , Número Básico de Reprodução , China/epidemiologia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Modelos Teóricos , Tabaco , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30880939

RESUMO

Background: There is a need to characterize the impact of the smoking status on the clinical course of asthmatics with incomplete reversibility of airway obstruction (IRAO). Objective: To compare longitudinal health care use, symptom control, and medication needs between smoking and non-smoking asthmatics with IRAO. Materials and methods: This was a 12-month follow-up of a cross-sectional study comparing asthmatics with IRAO according to their tobacco exposure. One group had a tobacco exposure ≥20 pack-years and was considered to have asthma-COPD overlap (ACO) and the second with a past tobacco exposure <5 pack-years was considered as non-smokers with IRAO (NS-IRAO). Study participants were contacted by telephone every 3 months to document exacerbation events and symptom control. Results: A total of 111 patients completed all follow-up telephone calls: 71 ACO and 40 NS-IRAO. The number of exacerbations per patient over the 12-month follow-up was similar in both groups. However, ACO reported worse symptom control throughout the follow-up as compared to NS-IRAO, although no significant variations within a group were observed over the study period. Conclusion: Although asthma control scores were poorer in ACO patients over 1 year compared to NS-IRAO, exacerbation rate was similar and low in both groups of asthmatics. These observations suggest that poorer asthma control in ACO was not driven by the number of exacerbations but may reflect the influence of chronic airway changes related to the COPD component.


Assuntos
Asma/etiologia , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , não Fumantes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Asma/diagnóstico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Progressão da Doença , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Admissão do Paciente , Prognóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo
6.
J UOEH ; 41(1): 15-24, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867396

RESUMO

Decreased respiratory function associated with aging leads to the onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and increased risk of death in the elderly. Prevention of a decline in respiratory function from a young age is important. This study aimed to clarify the factors that affect decreased forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC), an index of obstructive respiratory disorder caused by airway obstruction, by considering the influence of body composition and lifestyle. We recruited 262 employed adult men and determined their lifestyle-related factors, including smoking status, past or current secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, exposure to SHS outside the home, and physical activity (PA). Body composition and respiratory function were also measured. The data were then compared with those of non-smokers using logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age. We also investigated factors influencing FEV1/FVC using multiple regression analysis, adjusting for age, height, smoking status, and lifestyle. Current smokers and heavy smokers exhibited significantly lower amounts of PA and had a higher body fat%, visceral fat area, prevalence of cohabitation with smokers, and frequency of SHS exposure outside the home, and FEV1/FVC was significantly lower in heavy smokers. A multiple regression analysis revealed that FEV1/FVC was associated only with the frequency of SHS exposure outside the home. It is important for occupational health personnel of a company to advise both non-smokers and smokers to avoid SHS to prevent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease onset. This needs to be coupled with encouragement to quit smoking, especially for heavy smokers.


Assuntos
Volume Expiratório Forçado , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Saúde do Trabalhador , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Capacidade Vital , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Composição Corporal , Exercício , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/prevenção & controle , Análise de Regressão , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Span J Psychol ; 22: E9, 2019 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885283

RESUMO

Despite the substantial decrease in the prevalence of tobacco smoking and the availability of effective smoking cessation treatments, smoking relapse after formal treatments remains extremely high. Evidence regarding clinical predictors of relapse after quitting is essential to promote long-term abstinence among those who successfully quit. This study aimed to explore whether baseline delay discounting (DD) rates and other sociodemographic, psychological, and smoking-related variables predicted relapse to smoking at six-month follow-up. Participants were 188 adult smokers (mean age = 42.9, SD = 12.9; 64.4% females) who received one of three treatment conditions: 6-weeks of cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) alone; or combined with contingency management (CBT + CM); or combined with cue exposure treatment (CBT+CET). Smoking status was biochemically verified. Logistic regression was conducted to examine prospective predictors of smoking relapse at six months after an initial period of abstinence. Greater DD rates (OR: 0.18; 95% CI [0.03, 0.93]), being younger (OR: 0.96; 95% CI [0.94, 0.99]), high nicotine dependence (OR: 1.34; 95% CI [1.13, 1.60]), and a higher number of previous quit attempts (OR: 4.47; 95% CI [1.14, 17.44]) increased the likelihood of smoking relapse at six-month follow-up. Besides sociodemographic and smoking-related characteristics, greater DD predisposes successful quitters to relapse back to smoking. These results stress the relevance of incorporating specific treatment components for reducing impulsivity.


Assuntos
Terapia Comportamental/métodos , Desvalorização pelo Atraso/fisiologia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/terapia , Tabagismo/terapia , Adulto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Tabagismo/fisiopatologia
8.
Microvasc Res ; 124: 51-53, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877018

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is reportedly associated with coronary, cerebral, and peripheral vascular diseases. Nailfold videocapillaroscopy is a noninvasive imaging technique used to examine the microvasculature. In this study we aim to investigate the capillaroscopic abnormalities of asymptomatic chronic smokers (N = 30), and compare findings to those of healthy nonsmokers (N = 30). Nailfold videocapillaroscopy was performed with a videodermatoscope, with images recorded at 40× magnification. Capillary morphologies were assessed as normal, enlargement, tortuosity, and microhemorrhages. Capillaroscopic abnormalities were seen in 16 (53.3%) of subjects within the smoker group and seven (23.3%) within the nonsmoker group (p < 0.05). Six smokers had only capillary enlargement; another 10 had both capillary enlargement and microhemorrhages. In comparison, enlarged capillaries and both enlarged capillaries and microhemorrhages were observed in three and four nonsmokers, respectively. In conclusion, nailfold capillaroscopic abnormalities were more common among asymptomatic chronic smokers than healthy nonsmokers, with the enlargement of nailfold capillaries being the most common abnormality. Nailfold videocapillaroscopic examination may serve as an efficient tool in determining microvascular abnormalities in asymptomatic chronic smokers not only for risk stratification purposes, but also to take the measures needed to preclude future vascular events.


Assuntos
Capilares/patologia , Angioscopia Microscópica , Unhas/irrigação sanguínea , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Capilares/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Microcirculação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fluxo Sanguíneo Regional , Fatores de Tempo
9.
Mol Vis ; 25: 79-92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820144

RESUMO

Purpose: Smoking and the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been linked to an overactive complement system. Here, we examined in a retrospective cohort study whether AMD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), smoking, ethnicity, and disease status are correlated with blood complement levels. Methods: Population: The study involved 91 AMD patients and 133 controls, which included 73% Americans of European descent (EUR) and 27% Americans of African descent (AFR) in South Carolina. Readouts: Participants were genotyped for 10 SNPs and systemic levels of complement factor H (CFH) activity, and the complement activation products C3a, C5a, and Bb were assessed. Main Outcome Measures: Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between AMD status and distinct readouts. Results: AMD affects EUR individuals more than AFRs. EUR but not AFR AMD subjects revealed higher levels of Factors C3a and Bb. In all subjects, a 10-unit increase in C3a levels was associated with an approximately 10% increase in the odds of being AMD-positive, and C3a and Bb were associated with smoking. While CFH activity levels were not correlated with AMD, a significant interaction was evident between patient age and CFH activity. Finally, EURs had lower odds of AMD with enhanced copies of rs1536304 (VEGFA) and higher odds with more copy numbers of rs3766404 (CFH). Conclusions: Our results support previous studies of systemic complement components being potential biomarkers for AMD, but they suggest that smoking and disease do not synergistically affect complement levels. We also suggest a novel susceptibility and protective haplotypes in the South Carolinian AMD population. Our studies indicate that augmented complement activation associated with advanced AMD could be attributed to a decrease in CFH activity in younger patients.


Assuntos
Ativação do Complemento/genética , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complemento C3a/genética , Complemento C3a/imunologia , Complemento C5a/genética , Complemento C5a/imunologia , Fator B do Complemento/genética , Fator B do Complemento/imunologia , Fator H do Complemento/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Degeneração Macular/etnologia , Degeneração Macular/imunologia , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/imunologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , South Carolina , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718953

RESUMO

Background: Smoking is a major risk factor for COPD. However, there is low COPD awareness among smokers. We conducted a field survey to investigate COPD awareness, optimistic bias associated with COPD, and COPD prevalence (using handheld spirometry) among current male smokers. Subjects and methods: We enrolled currently smoking males aged over 40 years, who completed a self-administered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of six parts: 1) baseline demographics, 2) participants' awareness of COPD and pulmonary function tests, 3) presence of COPD-related respiratory symptoms and experience with pulmonary function testing, 4) optimistic bias about COPD, 5) willingness to change attitude toward respiratory health, and 6) preference of media for obtaining health-related information. Pulmonary function was assessed via handheld spirometry by two experienced pulmonary function laboratory technicians after completion of the questionnaire. Results: We enrolled 105 participants. Only 24.8% knew of COPD. Awareness of pulmonary function testing was reported by 41.9% of participants, and 30.5% had previously undertaken pulmonary function tests. Among the subjects who had not previously undergone pulmonary function tests, 47% were not aware of their existence. The mean optimistic bias scores were 3.9 and 4.0, respectively, reflecting the general perception, among participants, that they were about as likely to develop COPD as similarly aged smokers and friends, respectively. A total of 40.0% of participants perceived personal COPD risk to be lower than COPD risk among their friends. Abnormal handheld spirometry results were observed in 28.6% of participants. Among the subjects with abnormal handheld spirometry results, 36.7% had FEV1 values <50% of the predicted value. Conclusion: In conclusion, current male smokers had poor awareness of COPD. Participants perceived their risk of developing COPD to be no higher than their friends' COPD risk. Strategies to increase COPD awareness among high-risk groups should be developed.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Otimismo , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Comunicação em Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Relações Médico-Paciente , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Seul/epidemiologia , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/psicologia , Espirometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Televisão
11.
J Behav Addict ; 8(1): 35-47, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739462

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Internet addiction is a non-substance-related addiction disorder with progressively growing prevalence. Internet addiction, like substance-related addictions, has been linked with high impulsivity, low inhibitory control, and poor decision-making abilities. Cortical thickness measurements and trait impulsivity have been shown to have a distinct relationship in addicts compared to healthy controls. Thus, we test whether the cortical correlates of trait impulsivity are different in Internet addicts and healthy controls, using an impulsive control group (smokers). METHODS: Thirty Internet addicts (15 females) and 60 age- and gender-matched controls (30 smokers, all young adults aged 19-28 years) were scanned using a 3T MRI scanner and completed the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale. RESULTS: Internet addicts had a thinner left superior temporal cortex than controls. Impulsivity had a significant main effect on the left pars orbitalis and bilateral insula, regardless of group membership. We identified divergent relationships between trait impulsivity and thicknesses of the bilateral middle temporal, right superior temporal, left inferior temporal, and left transverse temporal cortices between Internet addicts and healthy controls. Further analysis with smokers revealed that the left middle temporal and left transverse temporal cortical thickness change might be exclusive to Internet addiction. DISCUSSION: The effects of impulsivity, combined with a long-term exposure to some specific substance or stimuli, might result in different natures of relationships between impulsivity and brain structure when compared to healthy controls. CONCLUSION: These results may indicate that Internet addiction is similar to substance-related addictions, such that inefficient self-control could result in maladaptive behavior and inability to resist Internet use.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/patologia , Comportamento Aditivo/fisiopatologia , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Internet , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Tabagismo/patologia , Tabagismo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Comportamento Aditivo/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Tabagismo/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto Jovem
12.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; 79(1-2): 58-64, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721633

RESUMO

Low-risk thresholds for alcohol use differ across various national guidelines. To assess the novel WHO risk drinking levels in light of alcohol-sensitive common laboratory tests, we analysed biomarkers of liver status, inflammation and lipid profiles from a population-based survey of individuals classified to abstainers and different WHO risk drinking levels defined in terms of mean alcohol consumption per day. The study included 22,327 participants aged 25-74 years from the National FINRISK Study. Data on alcohol use, health status, diet, body weight and lifestyle (smoking, coffee consumption and physical activity) were recorded from structured interviews. Alcohol data from self-reports covering the past 12 months were used to categorize the participants into subgroups of abstainers and WHO risk drinking categories representing low, moderate, high and very high risk drinkers. Serum liver enzymes (GGT, ALT), C-reactive protein (CRP) and lipid profiles were measured using standard laboratory techniques. Alcohol risk category was roughly linearly related with the occurrence of elevated values for GGT, ALT and CRP. Alcohol drinking also significantly influenced the incidence of abnormalities in serum lipids. Significantly higher odds for abnormal GGT, ALT and altered lipid profiles remained in alcohol drinkers even after adjustment for age, waist circumference, physical inactivity, smoking and coffee consumption. A more systematic use of laboratory tests during treatment of individuals classified to WHO risk drinking categories may improve the assessment of alcohol-related health risks. Follow-ups of biomarker responses may also prove to be useful in health interventions aimed at reducing alcohol consumption.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/sangue , Abstinência de Álcool/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Lipídeos/sangue , gama-Glutamiltransferase/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Peso Corporal , Café/efeitos adversos , Estudos Transversais , Dieta/métodos , Exercício , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde
13.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 21Suppl 02(Suppl 02): e180013, 2019 Feb 04.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726358

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The concomitance of smoking and poor dietary habits represents a worsened prognosis of health and quality of life for elderly. The aim of this study was to characterize the nutritional status of elderly who were smokers and former smokers and residents of São Paulo city. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2010 with a representative sample of 1,345 individuals aged 60 years and over, who were part of the elderly cohort monitored at the SABE Study. Sociodemographic, health, and nutritional aspects of the elderly were described, according to their tobacco use in life. RESULTS: The proportion of smokers and former smokers was 12.9 and 54.7%, 11.0 and 25.2%, and 11.8 and 37.2% for male, female, and total population, respectively. For both genders, increasing age decreased the proportion of smokers. The proportion of proper fruit intake was smaller for female smokers. Poorer nutritional status was observed in smokers, who had fewer meals per day and greater frequency of underweight compared with elderly nonsmokers. CONCLUSION: Considering the impact of inappropriate eating habits and smoking on health, elderly smokers deserve special attention on their nutritional status.


Assuntos
Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/fisiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Avaliação Geriátrica , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autorrelato , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30781849

RESUMO

(1) Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is defined as an inflammatory disorder that presents an increasingly prevalent health problem. Accelerated aging has been examined as a pathologic mechanism of many chronic diseases like COPD. We examined whether COPD is combined with accelerated aging, studying two hormones, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and growth hormone (GH), known to be characteristic biological markers of aging. (2) Methods: Data were collected from 119 participants, 70 (58.8%) COPD patients and 49 (41.2%) from a health control group over the period of 2014⁻2016 in a spirometry program. Information about their medical history, tobacco use, and blood tests was obtained. (3) Results: The average age of the health control patients was 73.5 years (SD = 5.5), and that of the COPD patients was 75.4 years (SD = 6.9). Both groups were similar in age and sex. A greater proportion of smokers were found in the COPD group (87.1%) versus the control group (36.7%). The majority of COPD patients were classified as STAGE II (51.4%) and STAGE III (37.1%) according to GOLD (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease). Levels of DHEA (SD = 17.1) and GH (SD = 0.37) were significantly lower in the COPD group (p < 0.001) compared to those in the controls (SD = 26.3, SD = 0.79). DHEA and GH were more significant and negatively correlated with age. The regression equation of DHEA with age produced a coefficient equal to 1.26. In this study, the difference in DHEA between COPD patients and controls was, on average, 30.2 µg/dL, indicating that the biological age of a COPD patient is on average about 24 years older than that of a control subject of the same age. Similarly, the difference in GH between COPD patients and controls was, on average, 0.42 ng/mL, indicating that the biological age of a COPD patient is on average about 13.1 years older than that of a control subject of the same age. (4) Conclusions: The findings of our study strongly suggest the presence of premature biological aging in COPD patients. Their biological age could actually vary from 13 to 23 years older than non-COPD controls according to DHEA and GH variation.


Assuntos
Senilidade Prematura/complicações , Desidroepiandrosterona/sangue , Hormônio do Crescimento/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Senilidade Prematura/sangue , Senilidade Prematura/epidemiologia , Senilidade Prematura/fisiopatologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Desidroepiandrosterona/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Espirometria
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 431, 2019 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683880

RESUMO

Quantifying the genetic correlation between cancers can provide important insights into the mechanisms driving cancer etiology. Using genome-wide association study summary statistics across six cancer types based on a total of 296,215 cases and 301,319 controls of European ancestry, here we estimate the pair-wise genetic correlations between breast, colorectal, head/neck, lung, ovary and prostate cancer, and between cancers and 38 other diseases. We observed statistically significant genetic correlations between lung and head/neck cancer (rg = 0.57, p = 4.6 × 10-8), breast and ovarian cancer (rg = 0.24, p = 7 × 10-5), breast and lung cancer (rg = 0.18, p =1.5 × 10-6) and breast and colorectal cancer (rg = 0.15, p = 1.1 × 10-4). We also found that multiple cancers are genetically correlated with non-cancer traits including smoking, psychiatric diseases and metabolic characteristics. Functional enrichment analysis revealed a significant excess contribution of conserved and regulatory regions to cancer heritability. Our comprehensive analysis of cross-cancer heritability suggests that solid tumors arising across tissues share in part a common germline genetic basis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/genética , Padrões de Herança , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Neoplasias da Próstata/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/etnologia , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/etnologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/diagnóstico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/etnologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etnologia , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Ovarianas/etnologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Neoplasias da Próstata/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Próstata/etnologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/fisiopatologia
16.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 5, 2019 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multi-factor disease. Complement component 3 (C3) plays an important role in the development of CAD. The present study investigated the association between DNA methylation status of C3 gene promoter and the risk of CAD. METHODS: One hundred CAD patients and 1 hundred age-and gender- matched controls were recruited in current study. Methylation levels in CpG island in C3 promoter were determined by the method of bisulfite amplicon sequencing. RESULTS: Methylation levels of four CpG sites in C3 promoter were measured. There were no significant difference in methylation level of each CpG site between CAD patients and controls. Average methylation rate was also calculated. No significant difference in average methylation rate was observed between CAD and control groups. Stratified analyses based on EH, DM and smoking status were carried out, no significant association between C3 promoter methylation levels and the susceptibility of CAD was observed. Furthermore, seven haplotypes were established and no significant difference in haplotypes was observed between CAD and control groups. However, our study showed that C3 DNA methylation levels were positively associated with LDL-C levels. CONCLUSION: The present study showed no association between methylation levels of C3 promoter and the risk of CAD. However, the methylation levels might be related to LDL-C levels.


Assuntos
Complemento C3/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Metilação de DNA , Epigênese Genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Complemento C3/imunologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/imunologia , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Ilhas de CpG , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Haplótipos , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/imunologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/imunologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Triglicerídeos/sangue
17.
Biosci Rep ; 39(1)2019 01 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30530864

RESUMO

Background: The association of tooth loss with mortality from all causes, cardiovascular diseases (CVD), and coronary heart disease (CHD) has been studied for many years; however, the results are inconsistent.Method: PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register databases were searched for papers published from 1966 to August 2018. We conducted dose-response meta-analysis to quantitatively evaluate the relation between tooth loss and risk of mortality from all causes, CVD, and CHD.Results: In the present study, 18 prospective studies conducted until August 2018 were considered eligible for analysis. In the analysis of linear association, the summarized relative risk (RR) values for each 10-, 20-, and 32-tooth loss for all-cause mortality were 1.15 (1.11-1.19), 1.33 (1.23-1.29), and 1.57 (1.39-1.51), respectively. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses showed consistent results. A linear relationship was found among all-cause mortality, with P nonlinearity = 0.306. The susceptibility to all-cause mortality increased by almost 1.48 times at very high tooth loss (28-32), and slight flattening of the curve was noted. However, the summarized RR values for increment for 10-, 20-, and 32-tooth loss were not or were marginally related to increased risk of mortality from CVD/CHD. Subgroup and sensitivity analyses revealed inconsistent results. Tooth loss showed linear association with CHD mortality but not with CVD mortality. The susceptibility to all-cause mortality increased by almost 1.48 and 1.70 times for CVD and CHD, respectively, at very high tooth loss (28-32). The curve exhibited slight flattening; however, no statistical significance was detected.Conclusion: In the meta-analysis, our findings confirmed the positive relationship between tooth loss and susceptibility to all-cause mortality, but not for circulatory mortality. However, the finding that tooth loss might play a harmful role in the development of all-cause mortality remains inconclusive. Tooth loss may be a potential risk marker for all-cause mortality: however, their association must be further validated through large prospective studies.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Perda de Dente/mortalidade , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Doenças Cardiovasculares/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estado Civil/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Classe Social , Análise de Sobrevida , Perda de Dente/complicações , Perda de Dente/patologia
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587962

RESUMO

Purpose: Strain measurement is frequently used to assess myocardial motion in cardiac imaging. This study aimed to apply strain measurement to pulmonary motion observed by four-dimensional dynamic-ventilation computed tomography (CT) and to clarify motion abnormality in COPD. Materials and methods: Thirty-two smokers, including ten with COPD, underwent dynamic-ventilation CT during spontaneous breathing. CT data were continuously reconstructed every 0.5 seconds. In the series of images obtained by dynamic-ventilation CT, five expiratory frames were identified starting from the peak inspiratory frame (first expiratory frame) and ending with the fifth expiratory frame. Strain measurement of the scanned lung was performed using research software that was originally developed for cardiac strain measurement and modified for assessing deformation of the lung. The measured strain values were divided by the change in mean lung density to adjust for the degree of expiration. Spearman's rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate associations between the adjusted strain measurements and various spirometric values. Results: The adjusted strain measurement was negatively correlated with FEV1/FVC (ρ=-0.52, P<0.01), maximum mid-expiratory flow (ρ=-0.59, P<0.001), and peak expiratory flow (ρ=-0.48, P<0.01), suggesting that abnormal deformation of lung motion is related to various patterns of expiratory airflow limitation. Conclusion: Abnormal deformation of lung motion exists in COPD patients and can be quantitatively assessed by strain measurement using dynamic-ventilation CT. This technique can be expanded to dynamic-ventilation CT in patients with various lung and airway diseases that cause abnormal pulmonary motion.


Assuntos
Tomografia Computadorizada Quadridimensional , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomografia Computadorizada Multidetectores , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico por imagem , Enfisema Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Ventilação Pulmonar , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimentos dos Órgãos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/fisiopatologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/etiologia , Enfisema Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Interpretação de Imagem Radiográfica Assistida por Computador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Espirometria , Fatores de Tempo , Capacidade Vital
19.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 24: 527-544, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30468671

RESUMO

In the United States, approximately 10% of newborn infants are exposed prenatally to alcohol and/or illicit substances. However, no studies have evaluated the compounding effects of multiple illicit substances exposure in utero as potential teratogen (s). The potential teratogenic effects of nicotine and illicit substances (e.g. cocaine, marijuana and heroin) have previously been studied but there has been no documentation of facial landmark dislocation (s). Our goal is to investigate whether morphometric analysis could differentiate facial landmark dislocations in neonates of African descent, when exposed to alcohol, nicotine and illicit substances, either singly or in combination. Craniofacial features from a cohort of 493 African-American neonates less than 48 hours of age were analyzed by Multivariate Hotelling's T2 analysis of 99 relevant facial landmark triangles. Morphometric analysis discriminated unique asymmetries in groups of certain illicit exposure(s). Neonates with multiple prenatal exposures had fewer facial landmark dislocation(s) compared to single exposures. Deviation from normal facial features has the potential to be used as a screening tool for prenatal exposure to some illicit substances.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/fisiopatologia , Face/anatomia & histologia , Complicações na Gravidez/fisiopatologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/fisiopatologia , Afro-Americanos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/etnologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/etnologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etnologia , Fumar/etnologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
Maturitas ; 120: 53-60, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583765

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Healthier lifestyle behaviours might be related to a lower cardiometabolic risk predisposed by menopause transition. The objectives of the study were: 1) to examine the association of sedentary time (ST) and physical fitness with "Ideal Cardiovascular Health" (ICH) in perimenopausal women, and 2) to determine the capacity of ST and physical fitness tests to discriminate between the presence or absence of ICH status in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Observational cross-sectional study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Sedentary time and different levels of physical activity were objectively assessed using triaxial accelerometry (on 7 consecutive days). Physical fitness was assessed with the Senior Fitness Test battery, handgrip strength, and sit-and-reach tests. ICH status was created from the cut-off values of several health behaviours (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and diet) and classical cardiometabolic markers (plasma total cholesterol and fasting glucose, and blood pressure). RESULTS: A total of 122 perimenopausal women (52.6 ± 4.2 years old) participated in this study. After adjusting for covariates, perimenopausal women with ICH status spent less time in sedentary behaviours and had higher scores on the 6-min-walk, 30-s-chair-stand, and back-scratch tests than women with a non-ICH status (all, P≤.03). Cut-off values of <460 min/day in ST and ≥-3 cm on the back-scratch test were associated with around threefold higher odds (95% confidence interval 0.14-0.71 and 1.47-7.01, respectively, all P <.01) of having ICH status. CONCLUSION: Reduced ST and greater cardiorespiratory fitness, upper-body flexibility, and lower-body muscular strength were associated with a better cardiovascular profile in perimenopausal women. Including ST and upper-body flexibility as complementary ICH metrics might facilitate early identification of perimenopausal women with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease. However, further studies evaluating the usefulness of these potential complementary diagnostic tools in perimenopausal women are warranted before they are implemented in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Aptidão Cardiorrespiratória , Exercício/fisiologia , Perimenopausa/fisiologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Acelerometria , Glicemia/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Dieta , Feminino , Força da Mão , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fatores de Tempo , Teste de Caminhada
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