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1.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2949, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270314

RESUMO

Recent analyses have shown educational attainment to be associated with a number of health outcomes. This association may, in part, be due to an effect of educational attainment on smoking behaviour. In this study, we apply a multivariable Mendelian randomisation design to determine whether the effect of educational attainment on smoking behaviour is due to educational attainment or general cognitive ability. We use individual data from the UK Biobank study (N = 120,050) and summary data from large GWA studies of educational attainment, cognitive ability and smoking behaviour. Our results show that more years of education are associated with a reduced likelihood of smoking that is not due to an effect of general cognitive ability on smoking behaviour. Given the considerable physical harms associated with smoking, the effect of educational attainment on smoking is likely to contribute to the health inequalities associated with differences in educational attainment.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Escolaridade , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Fumar/genética , Viés , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Razão de Chances
2.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1066-1074, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209380

RESUMO

Cannabis is the most frequently used illicit psychoactive substance worldwide; around one in ten users become dependent. The risk for cannabis use disorder (CUD) has a strong genetic component, with twin heritability estimates ranging from 51 to 70%. Here we performed a genome-wide association study of CUD in 2,387 cases and 48,985 controls, followed by replication in 5,501 cases and 301,041 controls. We report a genome-wide significant risk locus for CUD (P = 9.31 × 10-12) that replicates in an independent population (Preplication = 3.27 × 10-3, Pmeta-analysis = 9.09 × 10-12). The index variant (rs56372821) is a strong expression quantitative trait locus for cholinergic receptor nicotinic α2 subunit (CHRNA2); analyses of the genetically regulated gene expression identified a significant association of CHRNA2 expression with CUD in brain tissue. At the polygenic level, analyses revealed a significant decrease in the risk of CUD with increased load of variants associated with cognitive performance. The results provide biological insights and inform on the genetic architecture of CUD.


Assuntos
Abuso de Maconha/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/fisiologia , Receptores Nicotínicos/fisiologia , Idade de Início , Alelos , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8/genética , Cognição/fisiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Fatores de Confusão (Epidemiologia) , Dinamarca , Escolaridade , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Islândia , Masculino , Herança Multifatorial , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/biossíntese , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Receptores Nicotínicos/biossíntese , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Fumar/genética , Transcriptoma
3.
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi ; 22(5): 280-288, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31109437

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer is a malignant tumor disease with high morbidity and high mortality. The non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common type, among them, lung squamous cell carcinoma own special pathological type and specific treatment, is a subtype of non-small cell lung cancer and can be divided into peripheral type and central type according to clinical phenotype. This study explores the differences in gene levels and their potential values based on clinical differences between central and peripheral in lung squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: The lung squamous cell carcinoma dataset was collected from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database, clinical information and the corresponding gene expression profiles were downloaded. Then we further sort and analyze all these data. RESULTS: In clinical characteristics analysis, result showed that central lung squamous cell carcinoma was more likely to metastasis with lymph node than peripheral lung squamous cell carcinoma (46.2%, 67/145 vs 28.9%, 26/90; P=0.019), while there were no significant differences in gender, age, tumor size, distant metastasis, tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage, and EGFR mutation. Gene expression analysis showed 1,031 differentially expressed genes between central and peripheral lung squamous cell carcinoma, of which 629 genes were up-regulated and 402 genes were down-regulated (peripheral vs central). Further enrichment analysis showed differentially expressed genes were mainly riched in 6 signaling pathways. Among them, the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway was the main enrichment pathway of differentially expressed genes, and other differential expressed genes were mainly involved in lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism. The analysis of interaction network showed that hepatocyte nuclear factor 1 homeobox A (HNF1A) and cytochrome p450 family, Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) own widely effect in up-regulated genes, while ALB and APOA1 at the key positions of the network in down-regulated genes were CONCLUSIONS: Central and peripheral lung squamous cell carcinoma showed clinical phenotype difference not only reflected in the incidence of lymph node metastasis, but also in gene expression profiles. Among them, HNF1A, CYP3A4, ALB, APOA1 at the key position of the differential gene interaction network and maybe as regulatory factors in the phenotypic difference.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Idoso , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/genética
4.
Gene ; 707: 30-35, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31055022

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol intake and tobacco smoking have significant negative health consequences and both are influenced by genetic predispositions. Some studies suggest that the FTO gene is associated with alcohol consumption. We investigated whether a tagging variant (rs17817449) within the FTO gene is associated with alcohol intake, problem drinking and smoking behaviour. METHODS: We analysed data from 26,792 Caucasian adults (47.2% of males; mean age 58.9 (±7.3) years), examined through the prospective cohort HAPIEE study. The primary outcomes were daily alcohol consumption, binge drinking, problem drinking (CAGE score 2+) and smoking status in relation to tagging variants within the FTO and ADH1B genes. RESULTS: We found no significant association of the FTO polymorphism with smoking status in either sex. The associations of the FTO polymorphism with drinking pattern were inconsistent and differed by gender. In men, GG homozygote carriers had lower odds of problem drinking (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.75-0.96, p = 0.03). In women, the combination of the FTO/ADH1B GG/+A genotypes doubled the risk of binge drinking (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.19-3.71, p < 0.05), and the risk was further increased among smoking women (OR 4.10, 95% CI 1.64-10.24, p = 0.008). CONCLUSIONS: In this large population study, the FTO gene appeared associated with binge and problem drinking, and the associations were modified by sex, smoking status and the ADH1B polymorphism.


Assuntos
Álcool Desidrogenase/genética , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Alcoolismo/genética , Bebedeira/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Idoso , Dioxigenase FTO Dependente de alfa-Cetoglutarato/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Interação Gene-Ambiente , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/genética
5.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 9585964, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065235

RESUMO

Genetic variations contribute to the susceptibility in the development of periodontitis. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of IL18, IL12, and MMP9 polymorphisms in the chronic periodontitis. This case-control study involved 381 individuals matched by gender and age. Genotyping of IL18 (rs187238 and rs1946518) and IL12B (rs3212227) was performed by PCR-SSP and PCR-RFLP was used for MMP9 (rs3918242). IL-18 and MMP-9 were quantified in the serum by ELISA. SNPStats and OpenEpi software were used for statistical analysis and, in order to eliminate smoking as a confounding factor, the analyses were also performed in nonsmoking subjects. The IL18-137G/C genotype was associated with the risk of chronic periodontitis in nonsmokers (P c = 0.03; OR = 1.99; overdominant inherence model). In the multivariate analyses, homozygous IL18-137G/G and IL18-607C/C were more frequent in males compared to women with these same genotypes (OR = 2.51 and OR = 3.30, respectively). The serum levels of the IL-18 in patients were higher than those in healthy controls (P = 0.005). IL12B and MMP9 polymorphisms and MMP-9 serum concentration were similar in patients and controls. In this study, IL18 was associated with chronic periodontitis susceptibility. Men had greater risk than women for developing the disease when IL18 polymorphism was considered and the susceptibility was independent of the smoking status.


Assuntos
Subunidade p40 da Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-18/genética , Metaloproteinase 9 da Matriz/genética , Periodontite/genética , Fumar/genética , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Fragmento de Restrição/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1893, 2019 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31015461

RESUMO

Birthweight is associated with health outcomes across the life course, DNA methylation may be an underlying mechanism. In this meta-analysis of epigenome-wide association studies of 8,825 neonates from 24 birth cohorts in the Pregnancy And Childhood Epigenetics Consortium, we find that DNA methylation in neonatal blood is associated with birthweight at 914 sites, with a difference in birthweight ranging from -183 to 178 grams per 10% increase in methylation (PBonferroni < 1.06 x 10-7). In additional analyses in 7,278 participants, <1.3% of birthweight-associated differential methylation is also observed in childhood and adolescence, but not adulthood. Birthweight-related CpGs overlap with some Bonferroni-significant CpGs that were previously reported to be related to maternal smoking (55/914, p = 6.12 x 10-74) and BMI in pregnancy (3/914, p = 1.13x10-3), but not with those related to folate levels in pregnancy. Whether the associations that we observe are causal or explained by confounding or fetal growth influencing DNA methylation (i.e. reverse causality) requires further research.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , DNA/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Genoma Humano , Adolescente , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Criança , Ilhas de CpG , DNA/genética , Metilação de DNA , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/genética , Feto , Ácido Fólico/sangue , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/etiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/genética , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/fisiopatologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética
7.
Mol Vis ; 25: 79-92, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820144

RESUMO

Purpose: Smoking and the incidence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have been linked to an overactive complement system. Here, we examined in a retrospective cohort study whether AMD-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), smoking, ethnicity, and disease status are correlated with blood complement levels. Methods: Population: The study involved 91 AMD patients and 133 controls, which included 73% Americans of European descent (EUR) and 27% Americans of African descent (AFR) in South Carolina. Readouts: Participants were genotyped for 10 SNPs and systemic levels of complement factor H (CFH) activity, and the complement activation products C3a, C5a, and Bb were assessed. Main Outcome Measures: Univariate and multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations between AMD status and distinct readouts. Results: AMD affects EUR individuals more than AFRs. EUR but not AFR AMD subjects revealed higher levels of Factors C3a and Bb. In all subjects, a 10-unit increase in C3a levels was associated with an approximately 10% increase in the odds of being AMD-positive, and C3a and Bb were associated with smoking. While CFH activity levels were not correlated with AMD, a significant interaction was evident between patient age and CFH activity. Finally, EURs had lower odds of AMD with enhanced copies of rs1536304 (VEGFA) and higher odds with more copy numbers of rs3766404 (CFH). Conclusions: Our results support previous studies of systemic complement components being potential biomarkers for AMD, but they suggest that smoking and disease do not synergistically affect complement levels. We also suggest a novel susceptibility and protective haplotypes in the South Carolinian AMD population. Our studies indicate that augmented complement activation associated with advanced AMD could be attributed to a decrease in CFH activity in younger patients.


Assuntos
Ativação do Complemento/genética , Fator H do Complemento/genética , Degeneração Macular/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Complemento C3a/genética , Complemento C3a/imunologia , Complemento C5a/genética , Complemento C5a/imunologia , Fator B do Complemento/genética , Fator B do Complemento/imunologia , Fator H do Complemento/imunologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Degeneração Macular/etnologia , Degeneração Macular/imunologia , Degeneração Macular/patologia , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/imunologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , South Carolina , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/imunologia
8.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 68, 2019 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30885219

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hypertriglyceridemia (HTG) is one of the most common etiologies of acute pancreatitis (AP). Variants in five genes involved in the regulation of plasma lipid metabolism, namely LPL, APOA5, APOC2, GPIHBP1 and LMF1, have been frequently reported to cause or predispose to HTG. METHODS: A Han Chinese patient with HTG-induced AP was assessed for genetic variants by Sanger sequencing of the entire coding and flanking sequences of the above five genes. RESULTS: The patient was a 32-year-old man with severe obesity (Body Mass Index = 35) and heavy smoking (ten cigarettes per day for more than ten years). At the onset of AP, his serum triglyceride concentration was elevated to 1450.52 mg/dL. We sequenced the entire coding and flanking sequences of the LPL, APOC2, APOA5, GBIHBP1 and LMF1 genes in the patient. We found no putative deleterious variants, with the exception of a novel and heterozygous nonsense variant, c.1024C > T (p.Arg342*; rs776584760), in exon 7 of the LMF1 gene. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first time that a heterozygous LMF1 nonsense variant was found in a HTG-AP patient with severe obesity and heavy smoking, highlighting an important interplay between genetic and lifestyle factors in the etiology of HTG.


Assuntos
Códon sem Sentido , Hipertrigliceridemia/complicações , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Obesidade Mórbida/genética , Pancreatite/genética , Fumar/genética , Adulto , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Hipertrigliceridemia/genética , Estilo de Vida , Masculino , Pancreatite/etiologia
9.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 197: 271-279, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875648

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Co-morbid substance use is very common. Despite a historical focus using genetic epidemiology to investigate comorbid substance use and misuse, few studies have examined substance-substance associations using polygenic risk score (PRS) methods. METHODS: Using summary statistics from the largest substance use GWAS to date (258,797- 632,802 subjects), GWAS and Sequencing Consortium of Alcohol and Nicotine use (GSCAN), we constructed PRSs for smoking initiation (PRS-SI), age of initiation of regular smoking (PRS-AI), cigarettes per day (PRS-CPD), smoking cessation (PRS-SC), and drinks per week (PRS-DPW). We then estimated the fixed effect of individual PRSs on 22 lifetime substance use and substance use disorder phenotypes collected in an independent sample of 2463 young Australian adults using genetic restricted maximal likelihood (GREML) in Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA), separately in females, males and both sexes together. RESULTS: After accounting for multiple testing, PRS-SI significantly explained variation in the risk of cocaine (0.67%), amphetamine (1.54%), hallucinogens (0.72%), ecstasy (1.66%) and cannabis initiation (0.97%), as well as DSM-5 alcohol use disorder (0.72%). PRS-DPW explained 0.75%, 0.59% and 0.90% of the variation of cocaine, amphetamine and ecstasy initiation respectively. None of the 22 phenotypes including emergent classes of substance use were significantly predicted by PRS-AI, PRS-CPD, and PRS-SC. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to report significant genetic overlap between the polygenic risks for smoking initiation and alcohol consumption and the risk of initiating major classes of illicit substances. PRSs constructed from large discovery GWASs allows the detection of novel genetic associations.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Herança Multifatorial , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/genética , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/genética , Austrália/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/genética , Uso de Tabaco/genética , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 3: CD004705, 2019 03 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912847

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A possible strategy for increasing smoking cessation rates could be to provide smokers with feedback on the current or potential future biomedical effects of smoking using, for example, measurement of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), lung function, or genetic susceptibility to lung cancer or other diseases. OBJECTIVES: The main objective was to determine the efficacy of providing smokers with feedback on their exhaled CO measurement, spirometry results, atherosclerotic plaque imaging, and genetic susceptibility to smoking-related diseases in helping them to quit smoking. SEARCH METHODS: For the most recent update, we searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register in March 2018 and ClinicalTrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP in September 2018 for studies added since the last update in 2012. SELECTION CRITERIA: Inclusion criteria for the review were: a randomised controlled trial design; participants being current smokers; interventions based on a biomedical test to increase smoking cessation rates; control groups receiving all other components of intervention; and an outcome of smoking cessation rate at least six months after the start of the intervention. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We expressed results as a risk ratio (RR) for smoking cessation with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Where appropriate, we pooled studies using a Mantel-Haenszel random-effects method. MAIN RESULTS: We included 20 trials using a variety of biomedical tests interventions; one trial included two interventions, for a total of 21 interventions. We included a total of 9262 participants, all of whom were adult smokers. All studies included both men and women adult smokers at different stages of change and motivation for smoking cessation. We judged all but three studies to be at high or unclear risk of bias in at least one domain. We pooled trials in three categories according to the type of biofeedback provided: feedback on risk exposure (five studies); feedback on smoking-related disease risk (five studies); and feedback on smoking-related harm (11 studies). There was no evidence of increased cessation rates from feedback on risk exposure, consisting mainly of feedback on CO measurement, in five pooled trials (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.21; I2 = 0%; n = 2368). Feedback on smoking-related disease risk, including four studies testing feedback on genetic markers for cancer risk and one study with feedback on genetic markers for risk of Crohn's disease, did not show a benefit in smoking cessation (RR 0.80, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.01; I2 = 0%; n = 2064). Feedback on smoking-related harm, including nine studies testing spirometry with or without feedback on lung age and two studies on feedback on carotid ultrasound, also did not show a benefit (RR 1.26, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.61; I2 = 34%; n = 3314). Only one study directly compared multiple forms of measurement with a single form of measurement, and did not detect a significant difference in effect between measurement of CO plus genetic susceptibility to lung cancer and measurement of CO only (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.43 to 1.56; n = 189). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is little evidence about the effects of biomedical risk assessment as an aid for smoking cessation. The most promising results relate to spirometry and carotid ultrasound, where moderate-certainty evidence, limited by imprecision and risk of bias, did not detect a statistically significant benefit, but confidence intervals very narrowly missed one, and the point estimate favoured the intervention. A sensitivity analysis removing those studies at high risk of bias did detect a benefit. Moderate-certainty evidence limited by risk of bias did not detect an effect of feedback on smoking exposure by CO monitoring. Low-certainty evidence, limited by risk of bias and imprecision, did not detect a benefit from feedback on smoking-related risk by genetic marker testing. There is insufficient evidence with which to evaluate the hypothesis that multiple types of assessment are more effective than single forms of assessment.


Assuntos
Biorretroalimentação Psicológica/métodos , Monóxido de Carbono/análise , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Testes Respiratórios , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fumar/genética , Fumar/metabolismo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Espirometria
11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(15): 7419-7424, 2019 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30910980

RESUMO

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease in which genetic risk has been mapped to HLA, but precise allelic associations have been difficult to infer due to limitations in genotyping methodology. Mapping PD risk at highest possible resolution, we performed sequencing of 11 HLA genes in 1,597 PD cases and 1,606 controls. We found that susceptibility to PD can be explained by a specific combination of amino acids at positions 70-74 on the HLA-DRB1 molecule. Previously identified as the primary risk factor in rheumatoid arthritis and referred to as the "shared epitope" (SE), the residues Q/R-K/R-R-A-A at positions 70-74 in combination with valine at position 11 (11-V) is highly protective in PD, while risk is attributable to the identical epitope in the absence of 11-V. Notably, these effects are modified by history of cigarette smoking, with a strong protective effect mediated by a positive history of smoking in combination with the SE and 11-V (P = 10-4; odds ratio, 0.51; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-0.72) and risk attributable to never smoking in combination with the SE without 11-V (P = 0.01; odds ratio, 1.51; 95% confidence interval, 1.08-2.12). The association of specific combinations of amino acids that participate in critical peptide-binding pockets of the HLA class II molecule implicates antigen presentation in PD pathogenesis and provides further support for genetic control of neuroinflammation in disease. The interaction of HLA-DRB1 with smoking history in disease predisposition, along with predicted patterns of peptide binding to HLA, provide a molecular model that explains the unique epidemiology of smoking in PD.


Assuntos
Genótipo , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/química , Cadeias HLA-DRB1/genética , Modelos Moleculares , Doença de Parkinson/genética , Fumar/genética , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Feminino , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco
12.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 636-648, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30926973

RESUMO

The concentrations of high- and low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides are influenced by smoking, but it is unknown whether genetic associations with lipids may be modified by smoking. We conducted a multi-ancestry genome-wide gene-smoking interaction study in 133,805 individuals with follow-up in an additional 253,467 individuals. Combined meta-analyses identified 13 new loci associated with lipids, some of which were detected only because association differed by smoking status. Additionally, we demonstrate the importance of including diverse populations, particularly in studies of interactions with lifestyle factors, where genomic and lifestyle differences by ancestry may contribute to novel findings.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Lipídeos/genética , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Estilo de Vida , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 55, 2019 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30819158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: HOTTIP, a long non-coding RNA located in the HOXA cluster, plays a role in the patterning of tissues with mesodermal components, including the lung. Overexpression of HOXA genes, including HOTTIP, has been associated with a more aggressive phenotype in several cancers. However, the prognostic impact of HOTTIP has not yet been explored in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We have correlated HOTTIP expression with time to relapse (TTR) and overall survival (OS) in early-stage NSCLC patients. METHODS: Ninety-nine early-stage NSCLC patients who underwent surgical resection in our center from June 2007 to November 2013 were included in the study. Mean age was 66; 77.8% were males; 73.7% had stage I disease; and 55.5% had adenocarcinoma. A validation data set comprised stage I-II patients from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network. RESULTS: HOTTIP was expressed in all tumor samples and was overexpressed in squamous cell carcinoma (p = 0.007) and in smokers (p = 0.018). Patients with high levels of HOTTIP had shorter TTR (78.3 vs 58 months; p = 0.048) and shorter OS (81.2 vs 61 months; p = 0.023) than those with low levels. In the multivariate analysis, HOTTIP emerged as an independent prognostic marker for TTR (OR: 2.05, 95%CI: 1-4.2; p = 0.05), and for OS (OR: 2.31, 95%CI: 1.04-5.1; p = 0.04). HOTTIP was validated as a prognostic marker for OS in the TCGA adenocarcinoma cohort (p = 0.025). Moreover, we identified a 1203-mRNA and a 61-miRNA signature that correlated with HOTTIP expression. CONCLUSIONS: The lncRNA HOTTIP can be considered a prognostic biomarker in early-stage NSCLC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/genética , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airflow obstruction is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is defined as either the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% or < lower limit of normal (LLN). This study aimed to assess the overlap between genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on airflow obstruction using these two definitions in the same population stratified by smoking. METHODS: GWASes were performed in the LifeLines Cohort Study for both airflow obstruction definitions in never-smokers (NS = 5071) and ever-smokers (ES = 4855). The FEV1/FVC < 70% models were adjusted for sex, age, and height; FEV1/FVC < LLN models were not adjusted. Ever-smokers models were additionally adjusted for pack-years and current-smoking. The overlap in significantly associated SNPs between the two definitions and never/ever-smokers was assessed using several p-value thresholds. To quantify the agreement, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the p-values and ORs. Replication was performed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study (NS = 432, ES = 823). The overlapping SNPs with p < 10- 4 were validated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen and Rotterdam Study cohorts (NS = 1966, ES = 3134) and analysed for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue (n = 1087). RESULTS: In the LifeLines cohort, 96% and 93% of the never- and ever-smokers were classified concordantly based on the two definitions. 26 and 29% of the investigated SNPs were overlapping at p < 0.05 in never- and ever-smokers, respectively. At p < 10- 4 the overlap was 4% and 6% respectively, which could be change findings as shown by simulation studies. The effect estimates of the SNPs of the two definitions correlated strongly, but the p-values showed more variation and correlated only moderately. Similar observations were made in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study. Two overlapping SNPs in never-smokers (NFYC and FABP7) had the same direction of effect in the validation cohorts and the NFYC SNP was an eQTL for NFYC-AS1. NFYC is a transcription factor that binds to several known COPD genes, and FABP7 may be involved in abnormal pulmonary development. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of airflow obstruction and the population under study may be important determinants of which SNPs are associated with airflow obstruction. The genes FABP7 and NFYC(-AS1) could play a role in airflow obstruction in never-smokers specifically.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína 7 de Ligação a Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Homologia de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
15.
Can J Physiol Pharmacol ; 97(4): 328-334, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874445

RESUMO

Short telomere length (TL) is associated with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and other age-related diseases. It is unclear whether these associations originate from having inherently short TL or a faster TL attrition before or during disease development. We proposed the blood-and-muscle model to assess TL dynamics throughout life course. Our objective was to measure TL in leukocytes (LTL) and in skeletal muscle (MTL), which served as a proxy of TL at birth. The delta (MTL-LTL) represented life-long telomere attrition. Blood draws and skeletal muscle biopsies were performed on 35 Lebanese individuals undergoing surgery. Following DNA extraction, LTL and MTL were measured by Southern blot. In every individual aged between 30 and 85 years, MTL was longer than LTL. With age, MTL and LTL decreased, but the delta (MTL-LTL) increased by 14 bp/year. We validated the blood-and-muscle model that allowed us to identify TL, TL at birth, and lifelong TL attrition in a cross-sectional study. This model can be used in larger cross-sectional studies to evaluate the association of telomere dynamics with age-related diseases onset and progression.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/genética , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Telômero/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/genética
16.
Rev Invest Clin ; 71(1): 36-54, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30810540

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Although cigarette smoking is the major risk factor, only 10-20% of smokers develop COPD. The extent of cigarette smoking (pack-years and smoking duration) accounts for only 15% of the variation in lung function, indicating that differences in susceptibility to COPD must exist. We provide an overview of the complexity of nicotine addiction and COPD, with special attention to the involvement of genetic factors. The following aspects are discussed in the present article: (1) epidemiology in Mexico and (2) a review of the published literature on genetic association studies using the National Center for Biotechnology Information database of the United States as a search tool. COPD is unique among complex genetic diseases where an environmental risk factor is known and the level of exposure can be documented with some precision. The high morbidity and mortality associated with COPD and its chronic and progressive nature has prompted the use of molecular genetic studies to identify susceptibility factors for the disease. Biomedical research has a remarkable set of tools to aid in the discovery of genes and polymorphisms. We present a review of the most relevant genetic associations in nicotine addiction and COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Tabagismo/genética , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , México/epidemiologia , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Nicotina/efeitos adversos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética , Tabagismo/complicações , Tabagismo/epidemiologia
17.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 481-493, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804560

RESUMO

Reduced lung function predicts mortality and is key to the diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In a genome-wide association study in 400,102 individuals of European ancestry, we define 279 lung function signals, 139 of which are new. In combination, these variants strongly predict COPD in independent populations. Furthermore, the combined effect of these variants showed generalizability across smokers and never smokers, and across ancestral groups. We highlight biological pathways, known and potential drug targets for COPD and, in phenome-wide association studies, autoimmune-related and other pleiotropic effects of lung function-associated variants. This new genetic evidence has potential to improve future preventive and therapeutic strategies for COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/genética
18.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
19.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 1, 2019 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30611298

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation alteration extensively associates with smoking and is a plausible link between smoking and adverse health. We examined the association between epigenome-wide DNA methylation and serum cotinine levels as a proxy of nicotine exposure and smoking quantity, assessed the role of SNPs in these associations, and evaluated molecular mediation by methylation in a sample of biochemically verified current smokers (N = 310). RESULTS: DNA methylation at 50 CpG sites was associated (FDR < 0.05) with cotinine levels, 17 of which are novel associations. As cotinine levels are influenced not only by nicotine intake but also by CYP2A6-mediated nicotine metabolism rate, we performed secondary analyses adjusting for genetic risk score of nicotine metabolism rate and identified five additional novel associations. We further assessed the potential role of genetic variants in the detected association between methylation and cotinine levels observing 124 cis and 3898 trans methylation quantitative trait loci (meQTLs). Nineteen of these SNPs were also associated with cotinine levels (FDR < 0.05). Further, at seven CpG sites, we observed a trend (P < 0.05) that altered DNA methylation mediates the effect of SNPs on nicotine exposure rather than a direct consequence of smoking. Finally, we performed replication of our findings in two independent cohorts of biochemically verified smokers (N = 450 and N = 79). CONCLUSIONS: Using cotinine, a biomarker of nicotine exposure, we replicated and extended identification of novel epigenetic associations in smoking-related genes. We also demonstrated that DNA methylation in some of the identified loci is driven by the underlying genotype and may mediate the causal effect of genotype on cotinine levels.


Assuntos
Cotinina/sangue , Metilação de DNA , Epigenômica/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Fumar/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Ilhas de CpG , Citocromo P-450 CYP2A6/genética , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/sangue , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 19, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30658596

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major symptoms of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are chronic bronchitis and emphysema leading from lung tissue destruction, that is an effect of an imbalance between metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors activity. As potential factor involved in this COPD pathogenesis, MMP-12 is considered. We investigated the role of genetic polymorphism and protein level of MMP-12 in the COPD development among Poles. METHODS: We analyzed - 82 A > G SNP in the promoter region of MMP-12 gene (rs2276109) among 335 smoked COPD patients and 309 healthy individuals, including 110 smokers. Additionally, 60 COPD patients and 61 controls (23 smokers) were tested for serum levels of MMP-12 using ELISA. All subjects were analyzed for lung function using spirometry (FEV1% and FEV1/FVC parameters). RESULTS: We observed that -82G allele and -82GG homozygous genotype frequencies of the SNP rs2276109 were significantly lower in COPD patients than in controls (12.5% vs 16.9%, respectively; χ2 = 4.742, p = 0.02 for allele and 0.5% vs 3.9%, respectively; χ2 = 9.0331, p = 0.01 for genotype). Moreover, -82G allele was more frequent in controls smokers than in non-smokers (22.3% vs 14.1%, χ2 = 6.7588, p = 0.01). Serum level of MMP-12 was significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls groups (6.8 ng/ml vs 3.3 ng/ml, respectively; F = 7.433, p < 0.0001), although independently of analyzed gene polymorphisms. Additionally, no correlation between parameters of lung function (FEV1% and FEV1/FVC) and protein level was found. CONCLUSIONS: We found that -82G allele of SNP rs2276109 was associated with reduced risk of COPD, and COPD patients released more MMP-12 than healthy individuals, but independently on this SNP.


Assuntos
Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/sangue , Metaloproteinase 12 da Matriz/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Masculino , Polônia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Fumar/efeitos adversos
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