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1.
J Environ Public Health ; 2019: 1823636, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641360

RESUMO

Objective: This study documents the extent of tobacco ads in retail stores and evaluates its association with the comprehensiveness of local tobacco control policies in the state of Massachusetts, US. Methods: Using a two-stage cluster sampling method, we sampled 419 retail stores across 42 municipalities to assess the presence and count of nine mutually exclusive tobacco ad categories. Tobacco ads by store type and municipality were analyzed using summary statistics and contingency tables. Regression models tested the association between the extent of tobacco ads and local tobacco control policy comprehensiveness. Results: Overall, 86.6% (n = 363) of all the retail stores had tobacco ads. On average, there were 6.7 ads per retail store (SD = 6.61) and 2804 ads across all the retail stores (range = 0 : 32). Retail stores had an average of three different categories of tobacco ads (mean = 2.98, SD = 1.84). Across all retail stores, the most frequent ad categories were power walls (80.0%) and e-cigarette ads (55.8%). Retail stores in municipalities with more comprehensive local tobacco control policies were more likely to have fewer tobacco ads (IRR = 0.92, p < 0.01) and a lower number of tobacco ad categories (OR = 0.88, p < 0.05). Conclusion: Municipalities can adopt more comprehensive tobacco control policies to help limit the extent of tobacco retail advertising. This can ultimately reduce smoking in their jurisdiction.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Cidades , Humanos , Massachusetts , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência
2.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(4): 752-761, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599237

RESUMO

Tobacco is an important public health problem of Bangladesh having both high production and consumption. Police are engaged in enforcement of the tobacco control law. For effective enforcement of national tobacco control law (NTCL), they should have sound knowledge of tobacco control law and their attitude to the tobacco control law must be a positive one. The objective of the study was to explore the status of knowledge and attitude regarding national tobacco control law and practice of tobacco smoking among Bangladesh Police. The descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 440 members of Bangladesh Police during the period of March 2015 to November 2015. Police personnel of different ranks were interviewed randomly using a semi-structured questionnaire from the selected SP offices, police lines, police stations and police camps. Among the respondents 414(94.1%) were male and 26(5.9%) were female. About half (214, 48.6%) of the respondents never smoked in life, while 226(51.4%) smoked in life even one or two puffs. There was no female among the ever smokers. One quarter (114, 25.9%) of the respondents ever smoked but quitted and 112(25.4%) respondents were currently smoker. Among the current smokers 31(7.0%) were occasional, while 81 (18.4%) were daily smoker. It was observed that there was lack of knowledge among police personnel regarding various rules and clauses of national tobacco control law. Most of the respondents (434, 98.6%) showed positive attitude regarding rationality of prohibition of smoking in public places and public transports. The most of the respondents (418, 95.0%) agreed that there should not be any advertisement of tobacco products in cinema hall, radio and television channel. A highest majority (377, 85.7%) of the respondents gave their opinion that Government should increase taxes on tobacco products. Most of the respondents (433, 94.4%) opined against the selling of tobacco products to the minor. Almost every respondent (436, 99.1%) wanted proper implementation of tobacco control law. Nearly half of the respondents (213, 48.4%) thought that smoking among police was one of the obstacles in effective implementation of tobacco control law. An overwhelming majority of the respondents (435, 98.9%) agreed that police personnel should not smoke tobacco for keeping their health and fitness and thereby for better performance. Almost all respondents (436, 99.1%) gave a positive opinion that police personnel may be a role model for the public by not smoking tobacco. Most of the respondents (427, 97.1%) think that orientation or training program on tobacco control law should be arranged for police personnel. More than one fourth (25.5%) of the police personnel in Bangladesh are currently smokers and this should be intervened. Smoke-free police station initiative is started but not being 100% implemented. Lack of knowledge regarding various rules and clauses of NTCL was sufficient enough to draw intervention in this regard. Positive attitude of police personnel towards NTCL and smoke free police station initiative will help to implement tobacco control law properly.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Polícia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Tabaco , Atitude , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/psicologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1269, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533693

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several studies have demonstrated that smoke-free legislation is associated with a reduced risk of mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI). This study aimed to examine and quantify the potential effect of smoke-free legislation on AMI mortality rate in different countries. METHODS: Studies were identified using a systematic search of the scientific literature from electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, ScienceDirect, Embase, Google Scholar, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), from their inception through September 30, 2017. A random effects model was employed to estimate the overall effects of smoke-free legislation on the AMI mortality rate. Subgroup analysis was performed to explore the possible causes of heterogeneity in risk estimates based on sex and age. The results of meta-analysis after excluding the studies with a high risk of bias were reported in this study. RESULTS: A total of 10 eligible studies with 16 estimates of effect size were included in this meta-analysis. Significant heterogeneity in the risk estimates was identified (overall I2 = 94.6%, p < 0.001). Therefore, a random effects model was utilized to estimate the overall effect of smoke-free legislation. There was an 8% decline in AMI mortality after introducing smoke-free legislation (RR = 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.90-0.94). The results of subgroup analyses showed that smoke-free legislation was significantly associated with lower rates of mortality for the following 5 diagnostic subgroups: smoke-free in workplaces, restaurants and bars (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.90-0.95), smaller sample size (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.95), study location in Europe (RR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.85-0.94), regional study area (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.94), and no previous local smoke-free legislation (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.90-0.93). However, there was not much difference in AMI mortality rates after the legislation between the longer (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.86-0.98) and shorter follow-up duration subgroups (RR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.89-0.94). CONCLUSION: Smoke-free legislation could significantly reduce the AMI mortality rate by 8%. The reduction in the AMI mortality rate was more significant in studies with more comprehensive laws, without prior smoke-free bans, with a smaller sample size, at the regional level, and with a location in Europe.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Logradouros Públicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Antifumo/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , China , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Restaurantes/legislação & jurisprudência , Fatores de Tempo , Local de Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547234

RESUMO

There has been a large increase in the adoption of tobacco advertising restrictions worldwide over the last two decades. Much of the literature studies their direct effect on cigarette demand. This paper investigates the indirect effect of advertising restrictions by evaluating the effect of the policies on the degree of concentration in the tobacco market. By using the variation between countries in timing of adoption of advertising restrictions, I estimate difference-in-difference models to examine the effect of an advertising ban on market-concentration, as measured by HHI. I find that advertising bans lead to an increase in market-concentration: HHI increased by 0.06 points for countries that adopted a ban between 2001 and 2017 conditional on trade and socio-economic characteristics, representing a 13% increase with respect to the mean (0.44). The effect is higher in developing countries (0.08 points increase). Further, I find that 'comprehensive' restrictions have a stronger impact on concentration, and 'limited' restrictions have little or no impact. These findings point to an important trade-off for policymakers: on one hand, advertising restrictions are likely to reduce consumption of cigarettes; on the other hand, due to an increase in market-concentration, they may be giving more power to tobacco companies.


Assuntos
/legislação & jurisprudência , Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Marketing/normas , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/normas , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/normas , Países em Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Marketing/estatística & dados numéricos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416256

RESUMO

This study examined to what extent e-cigarette users noticed the European Union's new legislation regarding e-cigarettes, and whether this may have influenced perceptions regarding addictiveness and toxicity. Data were obtained from yearly surveys (2015-2017) of the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Netherlands Survey. Descriptive statistics and Generalized Estimating Equations were applied. About a third of the e-cigarette users noticed the text warning (28%) and the leaflet (32%). When compared to tobacco-only smokers, e-cigarette users showed greater increases in perceptions regarding addictiveness (ß = 0.457, p = 0.045 vs. ß = 0.135, p < 0.001) and toxicity (ß = 0.246, p = 0.055 vs. ß = 0.071, p = 0.010). In conclusion, the new legislation's noticeability should be increased.


Assuntos
Comportamento Aditivo/psicologia , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Rotulagem de Produtos/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , União Europeia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Medição de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31407675

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The Tobacco Products Directive (2014/40/EU) obliges manufacturers and importers of tobacco products and related to notify Member States the commercialization of these products through the EU Common Entry Portal (EU-CEG). The objective of this study is to describe the main data available in EU-CEG in Spain and analyze its implications for smoking control policies. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of the data obtained in EU-CEG for Spain. The access is done through .xml or .pdf files, downloaded from the portal or consulted through its interface. It describes the distribution of products, manufacturers, presence of priority ingredients, Slim cigarettes and concentration of nicotine in liquids. RESULTS: In the EU-CEG portal for Spain there are currently 42,736 records. 83.7% corresponds to the devices susceptible to nicotine release (67% of refill liquids, mainly with concentrations of 3, 6, 12 and 18 mg). In tobacco products, cigarettes (5%), cigars (5.9%) and water pipe tobacco (2.8%) stand out. Herbal products for smoking account for 0.1%. 5 of the priority ingredients for surveillance are present in more than 75% of cigarettes and rolling tobacco. There are 44 records of Slim cigarettes and 9 novel tobacco products. CONCLUSIONS: The EU-CEG portal has become a powerful tool in tobacco control. We highlight challenges that require a joint and comprehensive approach in aspects such as labeling and ingredients, Slim cigarettes and new forms of consumption.


Assuntos
Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Vaping/efeitos adversos , Vaping/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudos Transversais , União Europeia , Humanos , Nicotina , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Espanha/epidemiologia , Tabaco/efeitos adversos
7.
East Mediterr Health J ; 25(5): 297-298, 2019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364753

RESUMO

Tobacco use is a fatal habit that causes harm to almost all organs of the human body and kills up to half of its users. Studies have shown that tobacco contains a poisonous mix of more than 7000 chemicals that have major consequences, including heart attacks and strokes , and are considered major risk factors for many types of cancer (4) and the leading cause of lung cancer. Moreover, tobacco use dramatically affects the respiratory system, damaging its airways and alveoli, and leading to chronic obstructive lung diseases1 including emphysema and chronic bronchitis.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Enfisema Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Política Antifumo , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Região do Mediterrâneo , Fatores de Risco
8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 15.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31298227

RESUMO

This paper presents a strategic analysis of the prevention of smoking in Spain. After a review of the situation of the epidemic and of the current prevention policies with the data available in 2019, it identifies the main problems to improve the prevention of smoking, while proposing strategies and key actions for the future. Considering as major objectives reducing the initiation of smoking and helping smokers quit, the different strategies of action and the key actions to be developed. In addition to helping smokers to stop smoking from the health services, key preventive actions include several public policies including taxation, banning advertising and other forms of promotion, the regulation of tobacco packaging, the expansion of smoke-free spaces, and information to the public on its effects. Some of them have followed a positive path for prevention in Spain but for others there is wide room for improvement. The MPOWER strategy of the WHO offers a guide for the development of the most effective tobacco control policies. In its light it is recommended to put emphasis on actions related to expanding smoke-free areas, to develop distance support services to stop smoking, to periodically carry out advertising campaigns of wide coverage to encourage quitting, to reinforce support for quitting in health care services, to finance pharmacological treatments, to expand the advertising ban to electronic devices that release nicotine, and to increase the tax burden on tobacco and other products delivering nicotine.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Promoção da Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Política Pública , Fumar/economia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Espanha/epidemiologia , Organização Mundial da Saúde
9.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(7): 2701-2714, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31340287

RESUMO

This research aimed to analyze the National Committee for the Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (CONICQ). The study covered the period from 2003 to 2015 and built on the referential analysis of public policies, considering structure and political process and Committee's agenda and performing capacity. Methodological strategies were documentary analysis, including Committee's minutes of meetings, direct observation of events and interviews with key stakeholders. The regular functioning and gradual expansion of the Committee was observed in the period, permeated by technical and political aspects that influence its structuring and the establishment of the agenda. Conflicts have been identified among CONICQ members and between these and external stakeholders, especially from the clashing opinions on economic and health-related viewpoints. Its capacity for action was limited by internal (from some government agencies) and external (from organizations linked to the tobacco industry and tobacco growers) resistance. CONICQ is a strategic instance to the Brazilian tobacco control policy. However, its activity as an intersectoral coordination mechanism is complex, given the different interests, stances and levels of engagement of agencies involved in tobacco control.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Brasil , Governo , Humanos , Política
10.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Jul 24.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337747

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To know the support of tobacco regulation is a very important issue to advance in the tobacco control policies and reduce the passive exposure to tobacco. The aim of this study was to describe the attitudes towards forbidding smoking in private vehicles and public outdoor spaces. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of a representative sample (n=736) of the adult population (24+ years old) from Barcelona, Spain in 2013-2014. We calculated the percentages of individuals who had a favourable attitude towards smoking regulation in private vehicles and public outdoor spaces, their adjusted Odds ratios (aOR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) according to sex, age, educational level and smoking status through logistic regression. We used weighted data for all analyses in order to keep the representativeness of the population of Barcelona in 2013-2014. RESULTS: 61.7% of participants supported forbidding smoking in private vehicles and 89.5% supported forbidding it only in the presence of minors. The support to smoking regulation in public outdoor spaces varied from 42.5% to 84.7% in different settings. Smokers showed a less favourable attitude towards an extension of the smoking regulation to other settings: outdoor areas of university centres, outdoor areas of shopping centres and beaches and outdoor pools. CONCLUSIONS: A wide support exists to extend the smoking regulation to private vehicles, especially in the presence of children, and public outdoor spaces. This wide support could favour the extension of smoking regulation to these places to improve the population's health and to contribute to denormalise tobacco use among the population.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Veículos Automotores/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Espanha
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 40(7): 775-778, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357797

RESUMO

Objective: To evaluate the implementation effect of the Beijing Tobacco Control Regulation. Methods: An observational study was conducted in a multi-stage randomly selected sample of 93 restaurants in Dongcheng and Chaoyang districts, Beijing. Undercover visits to the restaurants were paid by investigators at lunch or dinner time. The incidence of smoking behavior and the posters of no-smoking signs were observed, waiters were interviewed about awareness of the regulation, and comparisons with the baseline data of 6 months before and 1 month after regulation implementation were made. Results: The pasting rate of no-smoking signs was 76.3%. The awareness of the regulation in the waiters surveyed was high. The incidence rate of smoking in restaurants (29.0%) was lower than that before the regulation implementation (36.7%), but it was significantly higher than that one month after regulation implementation (14.8%). No active interventions from the restaurant staff were observed when smoking occurred. The incidence of smoking in restaurants within commercial buildings (3.3%) was significantly lower than that in non-commercial buildings (41.3%), the difference was significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: The effect of the regulation weakened 3 years after implementation compared with that in 1 month after the implementation. The enforcement degree of the regulation was conflicted with pasting rate of no-smoking signs and the regulation awareness level in waiters in restaurants in Dongcheng and Chaoyang districts.


Assuntos
Restaurantes/organização & administração , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/organização & administração , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Conscientização , Pequim/epidemiologia , Humanos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
12.
PLoS Med ; 16(6): e1002821, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31211777

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: College affirmative action programs seek to expand socioeconomic opportunities for underrepresented minorities. Between 1996 and 2013, 9 US states-including California, Texas, and Michigan-banned race-based affirmative action in college admissions. Because economic opportunity is known to motivate health behavior, banning affirmative action policies may have important adverse spillover effects on health risk behaviors. We used a quasi-experimental research design to evaluate the association between college affirmative action bans and health risk behaviors among underrepresented minority (Black, Hispanic, and Native American) adolescents. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a difference-in-differences analysis using data from the 1991-2015 US national Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS). We compared changes in self-reported cigarette smoking and alcohol use in the 30 days prior to survey among underrepresented minority 11th and 12th graders in states implementing college affirmative action bans (Arizona, California, Florida, Michigan, Nebraska, New Hampshire, Oklahoma, Texas, and Washington) versus outcomes among those residing in states not implementing bans (n = 35 control states). We also assessed whether underrepresented minority adults surveyed in the 1992-2015 Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) who were exposed to affirmative action bans during their late high school years continued to smoke cigarettes between the ages of 19 and 30 years. Models adjusted for individual demographic characteristics, state and year fixed effects, and state-specific secular trends. In the YRBS (n = 34,988 to 36,268, depending on the outcome), cigarette smoking in the past 30 days among underrepresented minority 11th-12th graders increased by 3.8 percentage points after exposure to an affirmative action ban (95% CI: 2.0, 5.7; p < 0.001). In addition, there were also apparent increases in past-30-day alcohol use, by 5.9 percentage points (95% CI: 0.3, 12.2; p = 0.041), and past-30-day binge drinking, by 3.5 percentage points (95% CI: -0.1, 7.2, p = 0.058), among underrepresented minority 11th-12th graders, though in both cases adjustment for multiple comparisons resulted in failure to reject the null hypothesis (adjusted p = 0.083 for both outcomes). Underrepresented minority adults in the TUS-CPS (n = 71,575) exposed to bans during their late high school years were also 1.8 percentage points more likely to report current smoking (95% CI: 0.1, 3.6; p = 0.037). Event study analyses revealed a discrete break for all health behaviors timed with policy discussion and implementation. No substantive or statistically significant effects were found for non-Hispanic White adolescents, and the findings were robust to a number of additional specification checks. The limitations of the study include the continued potential for residual confounding from unmeasured time-varying factors and the potential for recall bias due to the self-reported nature of the health risk behavior outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we found evidence that some health risk behaviors increased among underrepresented minority adolescents after exposure to state-level college affirmative action bans. These findings suggest that social policies that shift socioeconomic opportunities could have meaningful population health consequences.


Assuntos
Consumo de Álcool na Faculdade/etnologia , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Grupos Minoritários/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Universidades/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31159492

RESUMO

This article provides the first comprehensive picture and independent estimates of both illicit cigarette consumption and the resulting government tax revenue loss in Vietnam using data from a representative survey of cigarette smokers in 12 Vietnamese provinces. The survey consisted of face-to-face interviews and on-site cigarette pack examinations. We find that more than 720 million illicit cigarette packs, or 20.7% of total cigarette consumption, circulated in Vietnam in 2012. Consequently, government tax revenue loss due to illicit trade ranged from US $223 to 295 million. Our estimates also indicate that 1) the most popular illicit brands were Jet and Hero, both were sold at higher prices than the average legal brand; 2) the average price of illicit cigarettes was 51% higher than the average price of legal cigarettes; and 3) majority of illicit cigarettes were sold at convenience stores, which were registered and licensed businesses. Our findings suggest that prices are not a driver of illicit cigarette consumption in Vietnam, and this illicit trade is at least partially a consequence of weak market control enforcement.


Assuntos
Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados , Governo , Humanos , Linguagem , Exame Físico , Vietnã
14.
Cent Eur J Public Health ; 27(2): 115-126, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241286

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: While some countries of the WHO European Region are global leaders in tobacco control, the Newly Independent States (NIS) have the highest tobacco-smoking prevalence globally and a relatively low overall level of the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (WHO FCTC) implementation. An abridged version of the SimSmoke tobacco control policy simulation model has been developed to project the health impact of implementing tobacco-control policies in line with the WHO FCTC. METHODS: Data on population size, smoking prevalence, policy-specific effect sizes and formulas were applied in 11 NIS - Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. The aim was to project the relative reduction in smoking prevalence, number of smokers and number of smoking-attributable deaths resulting from implementing six individual and/or combined WHO FCTC measures. RESULTS: An increase in excise cigarette taxes to 75% of price yields the largest relative reduction in smoking prevalence (range 12.1-44%) for all countries. The projections show that when all six tobacco control measures are fully implemented in line with the WHO FCTC, smoking prevalence in each of the NIS countries can be reduced by at least 39% by the year 2033 (baseline 2015). CONCLUSION: The projections show that the NIS countries can expect a large number of smoking-attributable deaths just among those smokers alive today, but large reductions in smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable deaths can be achieved if the WHO FCTC demand reduction policies are implemented. The results can be used as an advocacy tool for accelerating enforcement of tobacco control laws in NIS.


Assuntos
Política de Saúde , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Uso de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Comércio , Humanos , Prevalência , República de Belarus/epidemiologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia , Impostos/legislação & jurisprudência , Ucrânia/epidemiologia
15.
Prev Chronic Dis ; 16: E43, 2019 04 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30950786

RESUMO

In 2015, the tobacco industry spent $8.24 billion to market tobacco products in convenience stores, supermarkets, pharmacies, and other retail or point-of-sale settings. Community tobacco control partnerships have numerous evidence-based policies (eg, tobacco retailer licensing and compliance, tobacco-free-school buffer zones, eliminating price discounts) to counter point-of-sale tobacco marketing. However, deciding which point-of-sale policies to implement - and when and in what order to implement them - is challenging. The objective of this article was to describe tools and other resources that local-level tobacco use prevention and control leaders can use to assemble the data they need to formulate point-of-sale tobacco policies that fit the needs of their communities, have potential for public health impact, and are feasible in the local policy environment. We were guided by Kingdon's theory of policy change, which contends that windows of policy opportunity open when 3 streams align: a clear problem, a solution to the problem, and the political will to work for change. Community partnerships can draw on 7 data "springs" to activate Kingdon's streams: 1) epidemiologic and surveillance data, 2) macro retail environment data, 3) micro retail environment data, 4) the current policy context, 5) local legal feasibility of policy options, 6) the potential for public health impact, and 7) political will.


Assuntos
Marketing/legislação & jurisprudência , Política Pública , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Marketing/economia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústria do Tabaco/métodos , Produtos do Tabaco/economia
16.
Rev Epidemiol Sante Publique ; 67(3): 181-187, 2019 May.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30954324

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prohibition of tobacco sales to minors is a provision of the World Health Organization Framework Convention on tobacco control. This measure is effective to reduce youth tobacco use, if the legislation adopted is properly implemented and enforced. Through the examples of France and Quebec, the objective of this study is to compare legislative frameworks prohibiting tobacco sales to minors, their enforcement, and possible impact on underage smoking. METHODS: Identification of legislative instruments, reports from public health authorities, and articles addressing the focused question was performed trough Medline and Google. RESULTS: Selling tobacco products to minors under 18 years of age has been banned by the law since 1998 in Quebec and 2009 in France. In 2011, in France for individuals aged 17, compliance with the law was 15%. In 2017 in France, 94% of 17-year-old daily smokers regularly bought their cigarettes in a tobacco store. Law enforcement controls and sanctions are non-existent. In 2013 in Quebec, 23% of underage smoking students usually bought their own cigarettes in a business. The compliance rate with the prohibition law rose from 37% in 2003 to 92.6% in 2017. An approach of underage "mystery shoppers" attempting to purchase tobacco products and dedicated inspectors has been implemented, and progressive sanctions are applied in case of non-compliance. In 2013, 12.2% of Quebec high school students and, in 2017, 34.1% of French 17 year olds reported using tobacco products in the last 30 days. CONCLUSION: Only an improved law enforcement, through the training of tobacco retailer's, inspections and effective deterrent penalties for non-compliance, leads to an effective legislative measure in terms of public health.


Assuntos
Comércio/legislação & jurisprudência , Aplicação da Lei , Menores de Idade/legislação & jurisprudência , Saúde Pública/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente , Criança , Comércio/estatística & dados numéricos , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei/métodos , Legislação Médica , Menores de Idade/estatística & dados numéricos , Política Pública , Quebeque/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/organização & administração , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/normas , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Indústria do Tabaco/economia , Indústria do Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Tabagismo/economia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30634452

RESUMO

The interactive associations of socioeconomic status (SES) and smoking with chronic disease were investigated with a view to expanding the evidence to inform tobacco policies and interventions in Northern China. The fifth NHSS (National Health Service Survey) 2013 in Inner Mongolia was a population-based survey of national residents, aged 15 years and older, in which multi-stage stratified cluster sampling methods were used to survey 13,554 residents. The SES was measured by scores derived from levels of education level and household annual income. Multivariate logistic regression models were performed to determine the association between SES, smoking, and chronic disease adjusted by confounders. Three thousand nine hundred and thirty-seven residents (32.29%) were identified as current smokers and 3520 residents (26.01%) had been diagnosed with chronic diseases. In the males, former smoking with low SES had the highest risk of one chronic disease, with an odds ratio (OR) of 2.505 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] (OR = 2.505, 95% CI: 1.635⁻3.837) or multiple chronic diseases (OR = 2.631, 95% CI: 1.321⁻5.243). In the females, current smoking with low SES had the highest risk of one chronic disease (OR = 3.044, 95% CI: 2.158⁻4.292). The conclusion of this study was that residents with combined ever-smoking and low SES deserved more attention in the prevention and control of chronic disease.


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Classe Social , Adulto , Idoso , China , Doença Crônica/legislação & jurisprudência , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Política Pública , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 91, 2019 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30660180

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2014, the Ethiopian government passed a new smoking legislation that banned smoking in public and workplaces including health care facilities. However, data's on level of non-compliance and associated factors with non-compliance towards smoke-free legislation in hospital settings of the country has not been studied yet. METHODS: Hospital-based Cross-sectional study design triangulated with observational study was conducted in five hospitals. Data were collected through direct observation and interviews using checklist, structured and pre-tested questionnaires for observational study and survey of hospital employee respectively. Nine data collectors and one supervisor were involved in data collection. Three hundred fifty (350) health care staffs were interviewed. Fifteen (15) buildings were purposively observed for observational non-compliance in the selected hospitals. Data were entered by Epi Info and analyzed using SPSS version 21 software. Logistic regression was used to compute the crude and adjusted odds ratios for the factors affecting employee non-compliance with the legislation. A p-value of < 0.05 at 95% CI was considered to be statistically significant. RESULTS: Anti-smoking signs were absent from a high proportion of hospital areas (97% overall) although visible cigarette butts were generally not observed in most areas of the hospitals. Non-compliance level among health care staffs was 50(10.3%).Associated factors affecting to the non-compliance level of the staff were: being male (AOR = 5.89, p value = 0.001), having poor knowledge (AOR = 2.71, p-value = 0.022) and having Unfavorable attitudes (AOR = 6.15, p-value = 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Non-compliance level was high and needs careful implementation for 100% smoke-free legislation in addressing knowledge and attitudes of health care staffs.


Assuntos
Hospitais Públicos/legislação & jurisprudência , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Política Antifumo , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Etiópia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
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