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1.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 26(1): 79, 2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388978

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suicidal behaviors are seriously social issues among adolescents in the world. Exposed to smoking and being bullied are risk factors of suicidal behaviors. The present study was aimed to examine the interaction of smoking and being bullied on suicidal behaviors among Chinese adolescents. METHODS: A total of 18,900 students were involved in the questionnaire study, in four cities of China from November 2017 to January 2018. Suicidal behaviors, smoking, and being bullied were measured by self-reported validated instruments. Chi-square tests and logistic regression were used to analyze the associations of suicidal ideation (SI)/suicidal plan (SP)/suicidal attempt (SA), smoking, and being bullied. RESULTS: The prevalence of smoking, being bullied, SI/SP/SA, were 3.1%, 20.6%, 26.4%, 13.2%, and 5.2% respectively. Interaction analysis indicated that being bullied was associated with a greater increase in the likelihood of suicidal behaviors for adolescents with smoking than for those without smoking. CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that smoking exacerbates the association between being bullied and suicidal behaviors. Future research should explore how and why smoking appears to more bully-victims than for those without smoking and how to mitigate it.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Bullying/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Adolescente , Criança , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(31): e26757, 2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397819

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The role of cognitive, social and biological factors in the etiology of chronic periodontitis has been reported.The aim of this study was to evaluate the salivary cortisol level and interleukin-1 B level in patients of Chronic periodontitis in smokers and stress and nonsmokers without stress.The design of study randomized, prospective, double-blinded, and prospective study.The total sample size was comprised of 600 subjects between the ages of 20 and 50 years. The sample size was divided into 300 males and 300 females. Out of 600 subjects, 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis with positive depression level with a history of smoking (Group I), 200 subjects comprised of subjects with chronic periodontitis without depression and without smoking (Group II), and 200 subjects who were taken as the control group comprised of healthy subjects without chronic periodontitis, without depression level, and no smoking history (Group III). Salivary cortisol levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).The result showed that there was a positive correlation between morning and evening salivary cortisol level in all the groups with correlation coefficient. There was significant higher value of salivary cortisol in Group I patients when compared with Group II and Group III. However, when the comparison of salivary cortisol levels was done between the Group II and Control group, the result showed nonsignificant P value.It is suggested that stress is positively correlated with the salivary cortisol levels in smokers and nonsmokers.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica/sangue , Hidrocortisona/análise , Interleucina-1beta/análise , Adulto , Biomarcadores/análise , Biomarcadores/sangue , Periodontite Crônica/diagnóstico , Periodontite Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Interleucina-1beta/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Saliva/enzimologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
3.
Health Psychol ; 40(6): 388-397, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34323541

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Racial/ethnic minorities face unique stressors, including perceived discrimination (PD), that may increase the difficulty of quitting smoking relative to the general population of smokers. The current study examines the impact of acute PD on smoking lapse during a quit attempt, as well as potential mechanisms linking PD to lapse among Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans. METHOD: Participants (N = 169) were Spanish-speaking Mexican Americans living in the United States who completed ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) multiple times per day for 21 days postquit. A multilevel structural equation model decomposed the effect of PD on smoking lapse into indirect effects through negative affect, positive affect, smoking urge, motivation to quit, and self-efficacy. RESULTS: Results indicated that PD operated indirectly through negative affect, positive affect, and urge to smoke, above and beyond other mechanisms, to increase risk for smoking lapse. CONCLUSIONS: Findings have direct implications for intervention development among this population, including the potential for developing strategies to buffer the impact of PD, as well as skills to directly manage increased negative affect and urge to smoke. Just-in-time adaptive interventions (JITAIs) might be particularly useful, given they are designed to deliver treatment in real-time (e.g., delivery of strategies to build resilience and implement coping strategies) that could counter the impact of PD on smoking lapse. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Americanos Mexicanos , Racismo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Avaliação Momentânea Ecológica , Humanos , Americanos Mexicanos/psicologia , Americanos Mexicanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Racismo/psicologia , Fumar/etnologia , Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/etnologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26179, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115000

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is an important modifiable risk factor for incident atrial fibrillation. However, the impact of smoking on postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains controversial. We performed this meta-analysis to explore the association of smoking with postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients with cardiac surgery. METHODS: We systematically searched 2 computer-based databases (PubMed and EMBASE) up to July 2019 for all relevant studies. A random-effects model was selected to pool the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). In this meta-analysis, the protocol and reporting of the results were based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. RESULTS: A total of 36 studies were included in this meta-analysis. Overall, smoking was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery (odds ratio [OR] = 0.89; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-1.02). The corresponding results were stable in the subgroup analyses. Specifically, smoking was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation regardless of the type of cardiac surgery: coronary artery bypass grafting (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.77-1.07), valve surgery (OR = 0.15; 95% CI 0.01-1.56), and coronary artery bypass grafting+valve surgery (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.70-1.18). CONCLUSIONS: Based on currently published studies, smoking was not associated with an increased risk of postoperative atrial fibrillation in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Fibrilação Atrial/fisiopatologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/psicologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Cardíacos/estatística & dados numéricos , Correlação de Dados , Humanos , Razão de Chances , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Medição de Risco/métodos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia
5.
Am J Addict ; 30(4): 316-329, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109688

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Extensive evidence links smoking and suicide independently of psychiatric diagnoses, but there are questions about the pathophysiology and specificity of this relationship. We examined characteristics of this linkage to identify potential transdiagnostic mechanisms in suicide and its prevention. METHODS: We reviewed literature that associated suicide with smoking and e-cigarettes, including the temporal sequence of smoking and suicide risk and their shared behavioral risk factors of sensitization and impulsivity. RESULTS: Smoking is associated with increased suicide across psychiatric diagnoses and in the general population, proportionately to the number of cigarettes smoked per day. Rapid nicotine uptake into the brain through inhalation of conventional cigarettes, electronic cigarettes (e-cigarette), or even second-hand smoke can facilitate long-term sensitization and short-term impulsivity. Both impair action regulation and predispose to negative affect, continued smoking, and suicidal behavior. Intermittent hypoxia, induced by cigarettes or e-cigarettes, synergistically promotes impulsivity and sensitization, exacerbating suicidality. Two other shared behavioral risks also develop negative urgency (combined impulsivity and negative affect) and cross-sensitization to stressors or to other addictive stimuli. Finally, early smoking onset, promoted by e-cigarettes in never-smokers, increases subsequent suicide risk. CONCLUSION AND SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: Prevention or cessation of nicotine inhalation can strategically prevent suicidality and other potentially lethal behavior regardless of psychiatric diagnoses. Medications for reducing smoking and suicidality, especially in younger smokers, should consider the neurobehavioral mechanisms for acute impulsivity and longer-term sensitization, potentially modulated more effectively through glutamate antagonism rather than nicotine substitution. (Am J Addict 2021;30:316-329).


Assuntos
Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Fumar/psicologia , Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração por Inalação , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco
6.
Balkan Med J ; 38(3): 165-170, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34142959

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nicotine addiction is associated with nicotine absorption from the buccal mucosa, and it is stated that the main factor that determines nicotine absorption is saliva pH. In the literature, the effects of changes in saliva pH values after eating and drinking on smoking desire in smokers were not questioned. AIM: To show the effect of saliva pH changes on smoking desire. The secondary aim was to show the impact of coffee and water drinking on saliva pH and smoking on oral-dental health (oral hygiene and gingival bleeding). STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered that included "Sociodemographic Data Form" and smoking history and Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence (FTND). Oral and dental examinations were performed with mirror sonds and using oral hygiene standard Silness and Leöe plaque index and DMFT Index (Index of Decayed Missing or Filled Teeth). Untreated saliva samples were taken, and baseline saliva flow rate and pH values were measured. To assess pH changes, saliva pH was remeasured after sugar-free instant coffee and water consumption. Smoking desire was evaluated with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). RESULTS: In this study, 24 (55.8%) females and 19 (44.2%) males were among the 43 smoking and 39 nonsmoking cases. Smoking was significantly associated with poor oral hygiene (in smokers 4.71 (±1.40), in non-smokers 2.30 (±1.59); P < .01). DMFT index was higher in smokers than in non-smokers (in smokers 6.45 (±3.69), in non-smokers 3.87 (±2.67); P < .01). Gingival bleeding was more prevalent in smokers (0.68 (±0.76)) than non-smokers (1.20 (±0.90); P = .009). Salivary flow rates were lower in smokers (in smokers 2.56 (±1.34), in non-smokers 3.00 (±1.22), P = .06). In both groups, pH values increased after coffee consumption and decreased after water; in smokers basal: 6.67 (±0.41), pH coffee: 6.93 (±0.36), pH water: 6.85 (±0.33); in non-smokers pH basal: 6.84 (±0.37), pH coffee: 7.02 (±0.37), pH water: 6.97 (±0.31), P < .01. The VAS values of smokers at basal 4.73 (±3.21); P < 0.01, after coffee consumption 4.91 (±3.08); P < .01, and after water 3.15 (±2.72); P < .01. CONCLUSION: The saliva pH increased after coffee consumption and decreased after drinking water. Besides, VAS values decreased significantly after drinking water. The results suggest that a simple behavior such as drinking water may be used in conjunction with behavioral and cognitive therapies to pursue smoking cessation.


Assuntos
Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Boca/química , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Boca/fisiopatologia , Saliva/química , Saliva/fisiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
J Occup Health ; 63(1): e12221, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aims to investigate if experience in smoking intervention training influences attitudes toward smoking, discuss the role of health management programs of small- and medium-sized enterprises, and analyze the current attitude of occupational health nurses regarding the hazards of smoking and responsibility to smokers to effectively facilitate smoking cessation support programs. METHODS: We conducted an anonymous self-administered cross-sectional survey of 108 nurses employed in occupational health services outsourcing specialized agency in Korea. We assessed the difference in attitude about smoking according to training experience in smoking interventions and perceived competence in counseling smokers using chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. RESULTS: Occupational health nurses with the training experience of smoking interventions tend to perceive the harmful effects of smoking more seriously, compared to occupational health nurses without the training experience (P = .024, Fisher's exact test) and the OHSO nurses with the training experience tend to have professional ethics as health care professionals (P = .017, Fisher's exact test). Occupational health nurses having expertise in smoking cessation counseling tended to have professional ethics (P = .047, Fisher's exact test) and social responsibility as health care professionals (P = .022, Fisher's exact test). CONCLUSION: The occupational health nurses with training experience and expertise in smoking cessation counseling perceive the harmful effects of smoking more strongly and can enhance their professional ethics and social responsibility as health care professionals.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Enfermeiras Especialistas/psicologia , Saúde do Trabalhador/educação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Serviços de Saúde do Trabalhador , República da Coreia , Responsabilidade Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
8.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(4): 391-401, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34014686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Guided by accounts of adjustment in daily life as a key indicator of health, the current study examined prospective changes in young adults' emotions and substance behaviors assessed during a normative baseline period and during the acute COVID-19 disruption period in late March/early April 2020. The COVID-19 assessment also collected psychosocial risk factors expected to moderate changes in adjustment across time. METHOD: Participants included 295 young adults (70.8% female; ages 18-21 at baseline), drawn from an ongoing study of daily behaviors and health in college life that oversampled for recent substance behaviors, who completed both the baseline and COVID-19 assessments. Hypotheses were tested using analyses of repeated-measures data that included covariates of length of time between assessments and sampling group status. RESULTS: Direct tests in support of hypotheses indicated an increase in negative affect (d = .67, p < .001), and greater alcohol use (d = .75, p < .001) and marijuana use (d = .58, p < .001), in daily life across time. Levels of positive affect (d = .08, p > .05), nicotine use (d = .01, p > .05), and prescription drug misuse (d = .003, p > .05) did not reliably change in tests of direct models. Moderation tests indicated several risk factors for experiencing steeper increases in negative affect, and increased likelihood of marijuana and nicotine use, in daily life across time. CONCLUSIONS: Findings offer implications for future research and clinical efforts to improve young adult adjustment in response to the pandemic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Afeto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , COVID-19 , Uso da Maconha/epidemiologia , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Adolescente , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nicotina , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/psicologia , Uso Indevido de Medicamentos sob Prescrição/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
10.
Epidemiol Health ; 43: e2021026, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872483

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the trends in health behaviors in Korean population using data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). METHODS: The subjects were 96,408 adults aged 19 years or older who participated in the first (1998) through seventh (2016-2018) KNHANES health interview. The prevalence of health behaviors (cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and physical activity) and annual percent change (APC) were estimated using SAS and the Joinpoint program. RESULTS: The prevalence of current cigarette smoking in men decreased by 2.8%p (APC= -2.8, p< 0.001) annually over the 20-year period, and the prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at home substantially decreased compared to 2005 (APC= -8.8, p< 0.001). Compared to 2005, the prevalence of current alcohol drinking in women, but not men, increased (APC= 2.0, p< 0.001), and the prevalence of binge drinking decreased in men (APC= -0.7, p< 0.001) and increased in women (APC= 2.4, p< 0.001). The prevalence of aerobic physical activity decreased from 2014 in both gendersd (p< 0.001). The prevalence of healthy behaviors practice (non-smoking, alcohol abstinence, and aerobic physical activity) was down-trending (APC= -5.3, p< 0.001), especially among women (APC= -6.4, p< 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Over the past 20 years, smoking behaviors improved. However, drinking behavior was unchanged and physical activity indicators markedly decreased. More active programs are necessary for improving health behaviors, which are major risk factors linked to chronic diseases.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Exercício Físico/psicologia , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(2): 137-144, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845534

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify factors associated with quitting smoking in Indonesia. METHODS: Data on 11 115 individuals from the fifth wave of the Indonesia Family Life Survey were analyzed. Quitting smoking was the main outcome, defined as smoking status based on the answer to the question "do you still habitually (smoke cigarettes/smoke a pipe/use chewing tobacco) or have you totally quit?" Logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with successful attempts to quit smoking. RESULTS: The prevalence of quitting smoking was 12.3%. The odds of successfully quitting smoking were higher among smokers who were female (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 2.69; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.08 to 3.33), were divorced (aOR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.82 to 3.29), did not chew tobacco (aOR, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.79 to 5.08), found it difficult to sacrifice smoking at other times than in the morning (aOR, 1.29; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.46), and not smoke when sick (aOR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.14 to 1.54). About 59% of variance in successful attempts to quit smoking could be explained using a model consisting of those variables. CONCLUSIONS: Female sex, being divorced, not chewing tobacco, and nicotine dependence increased the odds of quitting smoking and were associated with quitting smoking successfully. Regular and integrated attempts to quit smoking based on individuals' internal characteristics, tobacco use activity, and smoking behavior are needed to quit smoking.


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fumar/epidemiologia
12.
J Prev Med Public Health ; 54(2): 153-159, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845536

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Life course exposure to passive smoke may predict health, but there are few validated measures. We tested the reliability and validity of a retrospective life course passive smoking questionnaire. METHODS: Participants from the third follow-up of the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health study (2014-2019, ages 36-49 years) retrospectively reported mother/father/other household member smoking when living at home during childhood, including duration (years) and smoking location (never/sometimes/always inside house). The severity of exposure index (SEI; sum of mother/father/other years smoked multiplied by smoking location), cumulative years of exposure (CYE; sum of mother/father/other years), and total household smokers (THS) were derived. The reliability of retrospective passive smoking reports was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) using household smoking reported 34 years earlier in 1985 by participants when aged 7-15 years. Construct validity was examined by correlating retrospective passive smoking with participants' smoking in adulthood and lung function in childhood and adulthood. RESULTS: Among 2082 participants (mean±standard deviation [SD], 45.0±2.5 years; 55.2% females), THS ranged from 0 to 5 (mean± SD, 0.9±1.0), CYE ranged from 0 to 106 (mean±SD, 10.5±13.9), and SEI ranged from 0 to 318 (mean±SD, 24.4±36.0). Retrospective measures showed moderate agreement with total household smokers reported in childhood (ICC, 0.58 to 0.62). The retrospective measures were weakly but significantly (p<0.05) correlated with participants' smoking (r=0.13 to 0.15) and lung function (r= -0.05 to -0.06). CONCLUSIONS: The retrospective passive smoking questionnaire showed reasonable reliability and validity. This measure may be useful for epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Psicometria/normas , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Austrália/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psicometria/instrumentação , Psicometria/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 5536893, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860032

RESUMO

Objectives: This study was aimed at comparing the predictors of health-promoting lifestyle behaviors between smoking and nonsmoking medical students at An-Najah National University located in Palestine. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was performed during the academic year 2017/2018. Medical students were asked to complete a self-reported questionnaire that involved the predictors of Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II. With the use of a suitable available sample composed of a total of 430 medical students, 400 had successfully completed the questionnaire and were included in the study. The data was analyzed by using SPSS version 24 software. Results: The sample included 400 medical students with a mean age of 18.7 years, 311 (77.7%) were females, and 89 (22.3%) were males. The prevalence of smokers in the sample was 110 (27.5%). For the health status of over half the students, 211 (52.8%) were excellent. The total HPLP-II score for smoking students resulted to be significantly lower in comparison to nonsmoking students (131.2 versus 135.7). This significant difference was clear in the interpersonal relation subscale (25.6 versus 26.8) for smoking and nonsmoking students, respectively. The score differences in other subscales were generally lower in smoking students. However, these differences were not consistent with statistical significance. Conclusion: The significant lower total Health-Promoting Lifestyle Profile-II score in smoking students necessitates the urgent need for awareness programs, not only towards smoking but also on how to enhance student health-promoting lifestyle behaviors.


Assuntos
Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Promoção da Saúde , Estilo de Vida , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Adolescente , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição , Adulto Jovem
14.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(1): 49-58, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853305

RESUMO

Introduction: Tobacco-free college campuses refer to colleges and universities that have implemented policies prohibiting the use of tobacco products at all indoor and outdoor campus locations. We aimed to evaluate university students' smoking behaviors and their attitudes towards "Tobacco-Free Campus Policy". Materials and Methods: A total of 10,383 university students were included in this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire was sent via web-based student information system. Demographical variables, the frequency of tobacco use, the addiction levels of the smoker students, and their perspective on the Tobacco-Free Campus Policy were evaluated. Result: The study population consisted of 5461 (52.6%) males and their mean age was 22.1 ± 3.9 years. Among the students, 3992 (38.4%) were current smokers and the age of first smoking was 16.5 ± 2.78 years. According to FTND scores, 15.1% of participants have high dependence, and 7.5% of them have very high dependence. There was a significant difference among participants who finds unacceptable "Tobacco-Free Campus Policy" in terms of gender (70.7% males vs. 29.3% females, p<0.001) and smoking habit (7% never smoker, 4.1% ex-smoker, 88.9% current smoker, p<0.001). Conclusions: The Tobacco-Free Campus Policy is important to fight against the tobacco industry in order to protect the right to health of all tobacco users and those who do not use it and should be considered as a goal to be achieved in order to live in a healthy environment.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Fumantes/psicologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar/métodos , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
16.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 19(1): 123, 2021 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33858450

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The harm caused by tobacco use is primarily attributable to cigarette smoking. Switching completely to non-combustible products may reduce disease risks in adult cigarette smokers who are unable or unwilling to quit. Before a new tobacco product can enter the market or can be marketed as a modified risk tobacco product, the manufacturer must determine the impact that the product will have on the likelihood of changes in tobacco use behavior among both tobacco users and nonusers. One way to estimate change in tobacco use behavior is to assess tobacco users' and nonusers' behavioral intentions toward the product and its marketing, including intentions to try, use, dual use, and switch to the product from cigarettes. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate behavioral intention metrics appropriate for use with current, former, and never adult tobacco users. METHODS: Preliminary items were subjected to cognitive testing with adult (1) smokers planning to quit cigarettes in the next 30 days, (2) smokers not planning to quit cigarettes in the next 30 days, (3) e-vapor users, (4) former tobacco users, and (5) never tobacco users. Items were iteratively revised based on feedback during cognitive testing, and surviving items were administered to a large sample of adults (N = 2943) representing the aforementioned sub-groups. Rating scale functioning, reliability, validity, bias, and ability to detect change were evaluated. RESULTS: Examination of the response category thresholds generated by the Rasch model provided evidence that the rating scales were functioning appropriately. Results revealed good stability and excellent internal consistency and person reliability and provided evidence of unidimensionality and convergent validity. Estimates of reliability and validity were similar across sub-groups. A cross-validation sample generally confirmed findings from the validation sample. No items were discarded due to differential item function. Exploratory analyses provided support for ability to detect change. CONCLUSIONS: Results from this rigorous, empirical evaluation using large validation and cross-validation samples provide strong support for the psychometric properties of the Intention to Try, Use, Dual Use, and Switch scales with current, former, and never adult tobacco users.


Assuntos
Intenção , Psicometria/normas , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Korean Acad Nurs ; 51(1): 54-67, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Coreano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706331

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was threefold, to longitudinally examine the risk of habitual smoking onset in adolescents, to delineate the effects of neighborhood characteristics and friends' smoking status on the habitual smoking onset, and to investigate whether the association between friends' smoking status and habitual smoking onset was moderated by neighborhood characteristics. METHODS: This study conducted multilevel discrete-time survival analysis, using cohort data from the 3rd to 6th waves of the Korean Child and Youth Panel Survey, which excluded habitual smokers, matched with 2010 census data on respondents' residence. RESULTS: Habitual smoking onset risk increased from the 8th to the 11th grade, and then slightly decreased from the 11th to the 12th grade. Friends' smoking status (B = 0.60, p < .001), smoking rate (B = 0.06, p = .038), and the number of tobacco outlets in the respondents' neighborhood (B = 0.51, p = .003) were positively associated with habitual smoking onset risk. Furthermore, the association between friends' smoking status and habitual smoking onset risk was moderated by the number of tobacco outlets in the neighborhood. Specifically, the association was stronger in neighborhoods with more tobacco outlets (B = 0.58, p = .048). CONCLUSION: Friends' smoking status and living in neighborhoods that are more susceptible to smoking increase the risk of habitual smoking. The number of tobacco outlets in the neighborhood enhances the peer effect of adolescent's smoking behavior. Therefore, policies or interventions designed to reduce youth's tobacco use should focus on not only on reducing peer smoking, but also restricting smoking by adults and the number of neighborhood tobacco outlets.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Família , Feminino , Amigos , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação , Grupo Associado , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários
18.
J Epidemiol ; 31(6): 378-386, 2021 06 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33746148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In April 2020, the Japanese government declared a state of emergency due to the COVID-19 pandemic, and infection control measures, including requests to work from home and stay-at-home restrictions, were introduced. This study examined changes in smoking behavior during the COVID-19 state of emergency. METHODS: An online cross-sectional survey was conducted in Osaka, Japan. To assess differences in smoking behavior among 5,120 current smokers before and after the declaration of a state of emergency, prevalence ratios (PRs) for two outcomes, increased smoking and quitting smoking, were calculated using multivariable Poisson regression, adjusting for potential covariates. RESULTS: We found 32.1% increased the number of cigarettes smoked and 11.9% quit smoking. After adjustment for all variables, we found risk factors for COVID-19 (men and older age group) had both significantly higher PR for quitting smoking (men: PR 1.38; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.17-1.62) and participants aged ≥65 years: PR 2.45; 95% CI, 1.92-3.12) and significantly lower PR of increased smoking (men: PR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.78-0.93 and participants ≥65 years: PR 0.38; 95% CI, 0.29-0.49). Additionally, respondents working from home or living alone had significantly higher PR for increased smoking (working from home: PR 1.29; 95% CI, 1.17-1.41 and living alone: PR 1.23; 95% CI, 1.10-1.38) and respondents who changed from cigarettes to heated tobacco products (HTPs) had significantly lower PR for quitting smoking (PR 0.150; 95% CI, 0.039-0.582). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest people who have high-risk factors for COVID-19 might change their smoking behavior for the better, while people who work from home or live alone might change their smoking behavior for the worse, during the COVID-19 state of emergency. Additionally, changing from smoking cigarettes to using HTPs makes smokers less likely to quit.


Assuntos
COVID-19/psicologia , Distanciamento Físico , Quarentena/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Am J Addict ; 30(4): 382-388, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Persons with current or past major depressive disorder (MDD) vs those without have higher smoking rates. The nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR) represents variation in the rate of nicotine metabolism and has been associated with smoking behaviors and response to tobacco treatments. We compared NMR between smokers with current or past MDD (MDD+) vs smokers without MDD (MDD-). We also assessed correlates of NMR and compared withdrawal and craving between MDD+ and MDD- smokers. METHODS: Using baseline data from two clinical trials and propensity score weighting based on sex, race, body mass index, and smoking rate, we compared NMR between MDD+ (N = 279) and MDD- (N = 1575) smokers. We also compared groups on and nicotine withdrawal and craving. RESULTS: Mean NMR (ß = -.02, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.05 to 0.01, P = .13) and the distribution of smokers across NMR quartiles (odds ratio [OR] = 0.76, 95% CI: 0.50 to 1.16, P = .21) were similar between MDD+ and MDD- samples. This relationship was not affected by antidepressant medication. In the MDD+ sample, African Americans had significantly lower mean NMR, while older smokers and smokers with lower education had higher mean NMR (Ps < .05). MDD+ smokers had significantly higher withdrawal and craving than MDD- smokers (Ps < .05). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: While variability in NMR may not explain differences in smoking rates between MDD+ and MDD- smokers, MDD+ smokers report increased withdrawal and craving. SCIENTIFIC SIGNIFICANCE: In this first study to assess NMR among MDD+ smokers, the findings underscore the need to address withdrawal and craving within smoking cessation treatments for those with MDD. (Am J Addict 2021;00:00-00).


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Nicotina/metabolismo , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fissura , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/psicologia , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/epidemiologia
20.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 35(1): 52-61, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33719473

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence suggests that adults with chronic pain have poor smoking cessation outcomes, but the exact mechanisms are less understood. This study examined whether depression, anxiety, stress, and then, positive outcome expectancy for smoking mediated the association between pain and smoking relapse during a quit attempt. METHODS: This study is a secondary data analysis of a three-armed randomized clinical trial that compared in-person and smartphone-based smoking cessation interventions. Participants (N = 81) self-reported the amount of bodily pain they experienced in the past 4 weeks at baseline. Depression, anxiety, stress, and positive outcome expectancy for smoking were measured daily, via a smartphone app, throughout the first week of the quit attempt, and were aggregated to the week level for analyses. Biochemically verified smoking abstinence was assessed 4 weeks postquit date. RESULTS: Sequential mediation analyses showed that pain was indirectly associated with smoking relapse through greater feelings of stress and then higher expectations that smoking would improve mood (B = 0.22 [95% CI = 0.03, 0.65]). The pathways for depression and anxiety were not significant mediators of pain and smoking relapse. CONCLUSION: Findings from this study indicate that pain is indirectly associated with smoking relapse through feelings of stress and then positive outcome expectancy for smoking. Smoking cessation treatment for adults who experience high levels of bodily pain should include psychoeducation that teaches adaptive coping responses, such as mindfulness, to manage stress, and challenge expectations about the ability of smoking to improve mood. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Dor/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Autorrelato , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
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