Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 13.099
Filtrar
1.
J Surg Oncol ; 120(8): 1335-1340, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31674041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Negative consequences of tobacco use during cancer treatment are well-documented but more in-depth, patient-level data are needed to understand patient beliefs about continued smoking (vs cessation) during gastrointestinal (GI) cancer treatment. METHODS: We conducted semi-structured interviews with 10 patients who were active smokers being treated for GI cancers and 5 caregivers of such patients. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and uploaded to NVivo. We consensus coded data inductively using conventional content analysis and iteratively developed our codebook. We developed data matrices to categorize the themes regarding patient perspectives on smoking as well as presumed barriers to smoking cessation during active therapy. RESULTS: Our interviews revealed three consistent themes: (a) Smoking cessation is not necessarily desired by many patients who have received a cancer diagnosis; (b) Failure in past quit attempts may lead to feelings of hopeless about future attempts, especially during cancer treatment; (c) Patients perceived little to no access to smoking cessation treatment at the time of their cancer diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Well-designed systemic changes that promote the positive and efficacious effects of quitting smoking during cancer treatment, and that provide barrier-free access to such treatments may be helpful in promoting tobacco-free behavior during cancer treatment.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Neoplasias Gastrointestinais/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/psicologia
2.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1321, 2019 Oct 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638938

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most European countries have seen a decrease in the prevalence of adolescent smoking. This decrease has, however, been patterned by gender. Girls' smoking rates have now overtaken boys' in many European countries. The two genders may not, however, share the same smoking beliefs and this could explain differences between the genders in smoking prevalence. We describe gender differences in smoking beliefs and investigate variations between countries, along with their gender context. METHODS: In 2016, we conducted the SILNE R study (Smoking Inequalities Learning from Natural Experiments - Renew) in 55 schools located in seven European countries: Belgium, Italy, The Netherlands, Portugal, Finland, Ireland, and Germany. We surveyed 12,979 students aged 14-16 years (50% were girls). We classified smoking beliefs into four categories: positive individual, positive social, negative individual, and negative social beliefs. We expected girls to score higher on the last three of those categories and we hypothesized that countries with a more gender-equal culture would have less gender difference in beliefs about smoking. RESULTS: One out of two smoking beliefs differed significantly between genders. Negative social beliefs were more common in girls, while beliefs about the dating-related aspects of smoking were more common in boys. We identified Germany and Belgium as the only countries with no gender differences in any of the belief scales. No correlation was found, however, between these scales and the Gender Inequality Index. CONCLUSIONS: In some countries, gender-specific interventions might be implemented; however, two opposing strategies might be used, depending on whether such programs are aimed at boys or girls.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1409, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31664967

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People living with HIV (PLWH) have a high level of interest in quitting smoking, but only a small proportion have sustainable abstinence 6 months after cessation. Few investigations have focused on relapse to smoking among PLWH. In this investigation, we evaluated the prevalence of relapse after smoking cessation and the characteristics associated with smoking relapse using a retrospective, longitudinal cohort of PLWH during an eight-year observation. METHODS: All patients aged ≥19 years that reported current smoking during the study period and then reported not smoking on a subsequent tobacco use questionnaire (quitters) were eligible for the study. In addition, patients required at least one subsequent follow-up visit after quitting where smoking status was again reported to allow for assessment of relapse. A Cox proportional hazard model was fit to evaluate factors associated with smoking relapse in PLWH attending routine clinical care. RESULTS: Of the 473 patients who quit smoking in the study, 51% relapsed. In multivariable analysis, factors significantly associated with a higher likelihood of relapse were anxiety symptoms (HR = 1.55, 95% CI [1.11, 2.17]) and at-risk alcohol use (HR = 1.74, 95% CI [1.06, 2.85]), whereas antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence (HR = 0.65, 95% CI [0.49, 0.99]) and longer time in care (HR = 0.94, 95% CI [0.91, 0.98]) were associated with a reduced likelihood of relapse after cessation. CONCLUSION: Our study underscores the high prevalence of smoking relapse that exists among PLWH after they quit smoking. Successful engagement in mental health care may enhance efforts to reduce relapse in the underserved populations of PLWH.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Alabama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/terapia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Recidiva , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(8): 710-720, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657594

RESUMO

It is unclear whether nicotine and perceived nicotine exposure can influence automatic evaluations of cigarette stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nicotine dose and instructed dose on motivational responses to smoking cues. Forty overnight nicotine-deprived smokers completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) at each of the four laboratory sessions in a balanced-placebo design that crossed nicotine dose (Given-NIC [given nicotine] vs. Given-DENIC [given denicotinized]) with instructed dose expectancy (Told-NIC [told-nicotine] vs. Told-DENIC. [told-denicotinized]). We measured participants' behavioral performance, including reaction time (RT) and accuracy rate, and the early posterior negativity (EPN) component using the event-related potential (ERP) technique to the target pictures. During congruent trials when the categorization condition was smoking or unpleasant, smokers had greater classification accuracy, shorter RT latency, and greater EPN amplitudes compared to the incongruent trials when the categorization condition was smoking or pleasant. The Given-NIC condition was associated with increased classification accuracy, longer RT latency, and decreased EPN amplitudes compared to the Given-DENIC condition. Similarly, the Told-NIC condition was associated with increased accuracy and decreased EPN amplitudes compared to the Told-DENIC condition, but with shorter RT latency. Cigarette-related pictures produced greater EPN amplitudes than neutral pictures. Both behavioral and ERP results suggest that smokers have negative implicit attitudes toward smoking. While both nicotine dose and expected dose facilitated stimulus categorization, there was no evidence that either factor altered smokers' negative attitudes toward smoking cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Atitude , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Fumantes/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Afeto/fisiologia , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/psicologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614429

RESUMO

Appalachian Kentucky reports some of the highest rates of respiratory illness in the United States, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma. While smoking rates are high in the region, unexplained variation remains, and community-engaged research approaches are warranted to identify contributing factors. The Mountain Air Project's community advisory board recommended that investigators invite youth to provide their perspectives on possible contributing factors to respiratory illness, and we undertook an exploratory study to determine the utility of photovoice to elicit such perspectives with this population. While photovoice has been employed for other youth-focused health studies in Appalachia, to our knowledge, this work represents the region's first environmental study using photovoice among youth. Over eight weeks, ten participants (age 12-18) represented their perspectives through photographs and accompanying narratives. A brief thematic content analysis of the youth narratives that accompanied the photos revealed three primary themes of environmental determinants of respiratory illness. These themes included compromises community members make regarding respiratory health in order to secure a livelihood; tension between cultural legacies and respiratory health; and consequences of geographic forces. This study demonstrates the value of incorporating youth perspectives in environmental health research, and that photovoice was a valuable approach to elicit such perspectives.


Assuntos
Conscientização , Saúde Ambiental , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Inteligência , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pesquisa Participativa Baseada na Comunidade , Feminino , Humanos , Kentucky/epidemiologia , Masculino
6.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 27: e3199, 2019 Oct 14.
Artigo em Português, Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618392

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to evaluate self-esteem, the consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other substances in outsourced workers of a public university. METHOD: a descriptive-analytical, cross-sectional, quantitative study developed with 316 outsourced workers from a municipality in the Southeast of Brazil. Data was collected through a characterization tool, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and the Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test. For data analysis, we used descriptive statistics, Pearson's chi-square test, Fisher's exact test, odds ratio and logistic regression. RESULTS: the majority of workers had high self-esteem and some used alcohol, tobacco, marijuana and inhalants. A significant association between gender, age group and work shift with self-esteem; between the risk of developing problems related to alcohol consumption with sex, age group, marital status, religious belief and number of children; between the practice of physical activity and the risk of developing problems related to the consumption of tobacco products was found. CONCLUSION: this study contributes to the increase of knowledge due to the small number of researches involving this subject and to contribute to the nurses to have subsidies to work with this population using strategies to combat the triggers of psychic disorders.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Serviços Terceirizados/estatística & dados numéricos , Autoimagem , Fumar/epidemiologia , Uso de Tabaco/epidemiologia , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/psicologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Uso de Tabaco/psicologia
7.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(8): 721-729, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621342

RESUMO

Cigarette craving predicts relapse to smoking, which remains the leading cause of preventable death in the United States. Understanding why individuals smoke has important clinical implications and is a research priority. Nonlaboratory studies reveal that social factors, such as the presence of other people, are associated with self-reported craving, yet laboratory smoking research has largely ignored these factors by testing participants in isolation. In this study, a shared reality framework was used to evaluate social processes that may change when smokers experience craving while in the presence of a smoking friend versus in social isolation. Sixty pairs of smoking friends (n = 120) arrived together at the laboratory following a required 5 hr of smoking abstinence. One preselected (target) participant then underwent an in vivo smoking cue-exposure craving induction with their friend either present or in another room, completing an unrelated task. Target participants who were together with their friend while craving experienced a greater sense of similarity and felt closer to their friend than did those who were alone. Furthermore, in the together condition, shared Duchenne smiles (using the Facial Action Coding System) were associated with targets' ratings of perceived similarity to their friend. Though social context did not influence affect or urge to smoke, urge was associated with targets' ratings of similarity in the together, but not the alone condition. Results highlight the potential social utility of craving (satisfying epistemic and relational goals) and highlight the need for increased laboratory research on smoking that includes a social context. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fissura/fisiologia , Amigos/psicologia , Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Meio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Produtos do Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
8.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(6): 529-531, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617670

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Several studies have examined the characteristics of anti-smoking advertisements that are associated with quitting behaviour. Some studies use researchers or graduate students to code advertisement characteristics, while others recruit smokers or members of the general public. The aim of this study was to assist future campaign development by assessing whether anti-smoking advertisement characteristics are coded differently by smokers and 'experts' (individuals with knowledge of health promotion, public health or advertising). METHODS: A total of 49 smokers and 42 experts coded anti-smoking advertisements according to four key characteristics (emotional/cognitive approach, negative/positive tone, message frame, and main message) and the use of eight executional techniques. Chi-squared tests were used to measure differences in coding outcomes between smokers and experts. RESULTS: There were significant differences between smokers and experts in the coding of all key characteristics and four of the eight executional techniques. Compared with smokers, experts were more likely to perceive advertisements as negative in tone and as inducing fear. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers and experts perceived the characteristics of anti-smoking advertisements differently. Implications for public health: Differences between smokers and experts may need to be taken into account where studies use either of these groups to code advertisements for campaign development or evaluation purposes.


Assuntos
/estatística & dados numéricos , Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Fumantes/psicologia , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/psicologia , Televisão/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Saúde Pública , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/métodos
9.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(4): 752-761, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599237

RESUMO

Tobacco is an important public health problem of Bangladesh having both high production and consumption. Police are engaged in enforcement of the tobacco control law. For effective enforcement of national tobacco control law (NTCL), they should have sound knowledge of tobacco control law and their attitude to the tobacco control law must be a positive one. The objective of the study was to explore the status of knowledge and attitude regarding national tobacco control law and practice of tobacco smoking among Bangladesh Police. The descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among 440 members of Bangladesh Police during the period of March 2015 to November 2015. Police personnel of different ranks were interviewed randomly using a semi-structured questionnaire from the selected SP offices, police lines, police stations and police camps. Among the respondents 414(94.1%) were male and 26(5.9%) were female. About half (214, 48.6%) of the respondents never smoked in life, while 226(51.4%) smoked in life even one or two puffs. There was no female among the ever smokers. One quarter (114, 25.9%) of the respondents ever smoked but quitted and 112(25.4%) respondents were currently smoker. Among the current smokers 31(7.0%) were occasional, while 81 (18.4%) were daily smoker. It was observed that there was lack of knowledge among police personnel regarding various rules and clauses of national tobacco control law. Most of the respondents (434, 98.6%) showed positive attitude regarding rationality of prohibition of smoking in public places and public transports. The most of the respondents (418, 95.0%) agreed that there should not be any advertisement of tobacco products in cinema hall, radio and television channel. A highest majority (377, 85.7%) of the respondents gave their opinion that Government should increase taxes on tobacco products. Most of the respondents (433, 94.4%) opined against the selling of tobacco products to the minor. Almost every respondent (436, 99.1%) wanted proper implementation of tobacco control law. Nearly half of the respondents (213, 48.4%) thought that smoking among police was one of the obstacles in effective implementation of tobacco control law. An overwhelming majority of the respondents (435, 98.9%) agreed that police personnel should not smoke tobacco for keeping their health and fitness and thereby for better performance. Almost all respondents (436, 99.1%) gave a positive opinion that police personnel may be a role model for the public by not smoking tobacco. Most of the respondents (427, 97.1%) think that orientation or training program on tobacco control law should be arranged for police personnel. More than one fourth (25.5%) of the police personnel in Bangladesh are currently smokers and this should be intervened. Smoke-free police station initiative is started but not being 100% implemented. Lack of knowledge regarding various rules and clauses of NTCL was sufficient enough to draw intervention in this regard. Positive attitude of police personnel towards NTCL and smoke free police station initiative will help to implement tobacco control law properly.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Polícia , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Tabaco , Atitude , Bangladesh , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/psicologia
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569603

RESUMO

We used a two-part model for the estimation of the price elasticity of participation and consumption of cigarettes by the duration of the smoking habit and a continuous-time split-population model for the estimation of prevalence and duration of smoking onset and smoking addiction, allowing for covariates in the participation component of the model. Results: We computed the total price elasticity of consumption of cigarettes by quartiles of addiction and found that for the people located in the lowest quartile of addiction the total price elasticity is around -0.51; while for those located in the highest quartile of addiction this figure is only -0.19. Then, a 10% increase in cigarette prices, via taxes, reduces the consumption of those in the early stages of the addiction by 5% and for those with a longer history of addiction by only 1.9%. Estimating the continuous-time split-population model we found that, at the mean starting age of 15 years, an increase of 10% in real cigarette prices is expected to delay smoking onset by almost two and a half years. On the other hand, the same policy is less effective to reduce the duration of the habit because there is no meaningful relationship between the duration of the smoking habit and the real price of cigarettes.The policy of raising cigarette excise taxes, to increment prices, seems to be more effective to delay smoking onset. On the other hand, the same policy is less effective to reduce the duration of the habit. A policy recommendation that emerges from this evidence is that for people with a developed addiction a combination of increasing taxes and other public health policies, like cessation therapies, could prove more effective.


Assuntos
Comércio , Política de Saúde/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/economia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/economia , Fumar/psicologia , Produtos do Tabaco/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Argentina/epidemiologia , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Econômicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Impostos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Maturitas ; 128: 36-42, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) provides an accurate measure of the health status of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). However, few studies have examined the relationship between physical inactivity and HRQoL in CHD survivors. We evaluated this association in a cross-sectional study of 21,936 CHD participants in the 2015 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. METHODS: CHD diagnosis, HRQoL and physical activity were self-reported. Physical activity (PA) was categorized (1) based on intensity, into no PA, light to moderate PA and vigorous PA; and (2) based on duration and frequency, into no PA, insufficiently active and active. HRQoL was assessed by the CDC HRQoL questionnaire. Participants with 14+ physical or mental unhealthy days in a 30-day window were grouped into poor physical or mental HRQoL. We estimated the odd ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) of poor HRQoL associated with PA after adjusting for age, sex, education, income level, social support, smoking status, ethnicity/race, BMI, chronic conditions, and CHD groups. RESULTS: Compared with vigorous PA, adults with no PA had higher odds (95% CI) of poor physical HRQoL [1.82 (1.58, 2.10)] and poor mental HRQoL [1.28 (1.05, 1.55)]. When compared with active adults, AOR (95% CI) for adults with no PA were 1.80 (1.55, 2.01) and 1.17 (0.97, 1.42) for poor physical and mental HRQoL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We found an association between physical inactivity and poor physical and mental HRQoL among CHD survivors. There is a need for longitudinal studies to determine the temporality of this association.


Assuntos
Doença das Coronárias/psicologia , Exercício/psicologia , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Comportamento Sedentário , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Sistema de Vigilância de Fator de Risco Comportamental , Doença das Coronárias/fisiopatologia , Estudos Transversais , Exercício/fisiologia , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/psicologia , Apoio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
12.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(6): 561-566, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512887

RESUMO

While most tobacco users want to quit using tobacco, only a small minority succeed in quitting. Affective attitudes might influence health-related intentions and behavior. Emotional attachment to tobacco brands is an aspect of such affective attitudes. The aim of this study is to investigate emotional attachment to the personal snus or cigarette pack, as well as associations with quitting plans, among snus users and smokers. A sample of 1,450 smokers and 1,423 snus users (16-83 years, mean age 41 years, 41% women) was recruited from a web panel and weighted according to national statistics on smoking and snus use. Positive package-related feelings loaded on a single component in principal component analysis. Multinomial adjusted regressions were performed for smokers and snus users, with quitting plans as the dependent variable (no quitting plan, plan to quit within 6 months, plan to quit later) and emotional attachment as an independent variable. Smokers and snus users often endorsed statements expressing positive feelings related to buying and using their choice of tobacco brand, with endorsements ranging from 17% to 73%. Adjusted multinomial regressions showed that emotional attachment was associated with lower likelihood of planning to quit smoking within the next 6 months (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.68, p < .001) and lower likelihood of planning to quit snus use within the next 6 months (AOR = 0.54, p < .001) or later (AOR = 0.81, p < .01). Emotional attachment to tobacco brands is negatively associated with quitting plans among smokers and snus users. Policies to reduce brand attachment might lead to increased quitting plans and potentially increased quit attempts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Associação , Emoções , Motivação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Tabaco sem Fumaça , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Razão de Chances , Tabagismo/reabilitação , Adulto Jovem
13.
Health Psychol ; 38(12): 1049-1058, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31556660

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Most attempts at smoking cessation are unsuccessful, and stress is frequently characterized both as a momentary precipitant of smoking lapse and a predictor of subsequent changes in other key precipitants of lapse. The current study examined longitudinal associations among stress, multiple precipitants of lapse, and lapse among smokers attempting to quit. METHOD: Ecological momentary assessments (EMAs) were gathered from a multiethnic, gender-balanced sample of 370 adults enrolled in a smoking cessation program. EMAs (N = 32,563) assessed smoking lapse and precipitants of lapse, including stress, negative affect, smoking urge, abstinence self-efficacy, motivation to quit, difficulty concentrating, coping outcome expectancies, and smoking outcome expectancies. A multilevel structural equation model simultaneously estimated within-subject paths from stress to multiple precipitants and subsequent smoking lapse. Indirect effects of stress to smoking lapse through precipitants were computed. RESULTS: Results indicated that increased stress was significantly associated with all precipitants of lapse, consistent with a greater risk for lapse (i.e., increased negative affect, smoking urge, difficulty concentrating, and smoking outcome expectancies and reduced abstinence self-efficacy, motivation to quit, and coping outcome expectancies). All precipitants were significantly associated with subsequent lapse. Indirect effects indicated that stress was uniquely connected to lapse through negative affect, smoking urge, abstinence self-efficacy, coping outcome expectancies, and smoking outcome expectancies. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study highlight the broad importance of stress for smoking lapse during a quit attempt. Smoking cessation programs should pay close attention to the role of stress in exacerbating key precipitants of lapse to improve cessation success rates. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Estresse Fisiológico/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
14.
BMC Res Notes ; 12(1): 473, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Current literature suggests there may be a relationship between sex hormones, which dramatically increase during pregnancy, and nicotine use behaviors. We hypothesized that higher progesterone and progesterone:estradiol ratio (P/E2) would be associated with less smoking-related symptomatology (SRS), better mood and fewer cigarettes smoked per day (CPD) during ad libitum smoking and following overnight abstinence in pregnant women. Associations between SRS, mood, smoking behavior and sex hormones were estimated using multiple linear regression with adjustment for CPD and pregnancy trimester. RESULTS: There were 35 second trimester and 42 third trimester participants. Participants mean age was 26.2 (SD: 4.1), they smoked 11.3 CPD (SD: 4.4) and the mean nicotine dependence score was 4.94 (SD: 1.98). There were no statistically significant associations between progesterone levels, estradiol levels, or the P/E2 ratio and SRS or mood measures during ad libitum smoking or following overnight abstinence in this sample of pregnant women. Similarly, there were no associations between sex hormone levels and number of CPD smoked during the ad libitum period. Contrary to our hypothesis, we found no significant associations between sex hormones and SRS, mood or smoking behavior in this sample of pregnant women. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01811225), December 6, 2012.


Assuntos
Fumantes/psicologia , Fumar/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto/fisiologia , Estudos Transversais , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Gravidez , Segundo Trimestre da Gravidez , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez , Progesterona/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Tabagismo/sangue
15.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1117, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study examines how prevalence and behaviors of smoking differ by socioeconomic status among rural southwest Chinese adults. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted including 7743 adults aged ≥35 years in rural regions of Yunnan Province, China from 2016 to 2018. Information on individual socioeconomic status (SES), ethnicity, and self-reported smoking behaviors was collected utilizing a standardized questionnaire. The individual socioeconomic position (SEP) index was constructed using principal component analysis. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to analyze the association between individual SES variables and the prevalence and behaviors of smoking. RESULTS: In the study population, the overall prevalence rate of current smokers was 33.5%. Males had a markedly higher prevalence of current smokers than females (62.6% vs. 4.8%, P < 0.01). Of these smokers, 74.5% began smoking during adolescence, 88.8% had never attempted to quit smoking, and 81.1% reported smoking in public places. Ethnic minority participants and those with low levels of education and/or low SEP were more likely to use tobacco as well as more likely to start smoking, and regularly smoke, during adolescence (P < 0.01). Participants with poor access to medical services had a higher prevalence of current smoking than their counterparts (P < 0.01). Among current smokers, Han ethnicity, good access to medical services, and high SEP were positively associated with the probability of having attempted to quit smoking at least once, while a high level of education and high SEP were negatively associated with the probability of smoking in public places. CONCLUSIONS: Disparities in prevalence and behaviors of smoking exist across a diversity of indicators of individual SES in rural southwest China. Future tobacco cessation interventions should focus on men, ethnic minorities, and those with low education levels, poor access to medical services, and low SEP.


Assuntos
Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , População Rural , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 31(5): 443-453, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431057

RESUMO

We analyzed data from the Korean Youth Risk Behavior Web-based Survey (N = 68 043), a nationally representative survey, to examine the association between early initiation of smoking, alcohol drinking, and sexual activity and socioeconomic determinants among adolescents. The prevalence rates of early initiation of smoking (i.e, starting at age 12 years or younger), alcohol drinking, and sexual activity were 4.8%, 10.3%, and 1.4%, respectively. Adolescents with a low level of perceived household income, low level of father's education, and those living without family were more likely to start these risky behaviors early. Early initiation of smoking was significantly affected by affordability.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/psicologia , Classe Social , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Assunção de Riscos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 1182, 2019 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31462249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An adolescent's perceptions of their family's and friends' smoking attitudes and behaviour can influence their own uptake of smoking. There are two broad sources of such social influence: observing the behaviour directly, and assimilating attitudes. METHODS: We analysed data collected for the evaluation of Dead Cool, a school based smoking prevention intervention in Northern Ireland (n=480 in 20 clusters). The main analysis fits three nested logistic regression models predicting pre-intervention susceptibility to taking up smoking, as reflected in responses to three attitudinal questions. Model 1 includes only personal characteristics as explanatory factors. Model 2 adds the behaviour of friends and family that would provide an opportunity for social influence through observational learning. Model 3 adds the susceptibility of friends. RESULTS: Each additional group of variables improved the model fit (with reduced AIC and BIC). However, in the final model, only three variables were found to be statistically significant (p<0.05) in predicting susceptibility to smoking initiation: rebelliousness (OR [1.1,1.3]) from the personal characteristics group; and, in the observational learning group, being friends with a smoker (OR [1.0,2.9]) and frequency of being in the same room or car with someone smoking (OR [2.0,9.0] for most frequent). Adding the two measures of diffusion of susceptibility through the friendship network improved the model fit, but neither was found to be statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: The analysis provides additional evidence to support policies that could reduce children's exposure to smoking behaviour, and potential subsequent smoking initiation. No conclusions could be drawn about the diffusion of smoking attitudes through the school friendship networks of children.


Assuntos
Atitude , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar/psicologia , Meio Social , Adolescente , Família/psicologia , Feminino , Amigos/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Irlanda do Norte , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Serviços de Saúde Escolar
18.
J Youth Adolesc ; 48(10): 1899-1911, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446585

RESUMO

Schools are important contexts for adolescent health and health-risk behaviors, but how stable is this relationship? We develop a conceptual model based on Ecological Systems Theory describing the changing role of schools for adolescent health outcomes-in this case, teen e-cigarette use. To examine this change, we fit Bayesian multilevel regression models to two-year intervals of pooled cross-sectional data from the 2011-2017 U.S. National Youth Tobacco Survey, a school-based study of the nicotine use behaviors of roughly 65,000 middle and high school students (49.5% female; 41.1% nonwhite; x̄ age of 14.6 ranging from 9 to 18) from over 700 schools. We hypothesized that school-level associations with student e-cigarette use diminished over time as the broader popularity of e-cigarettes increased. Year-specific variance partitioning coefficients (VPC) derived from the multilevel models indicated a general decrease in the extent to which e-cigarette use clusters within specific schools, suggesting that students across schools became more uniform in their propensity to vape over the study period. This is above and beyond adjustments for personal characteristics and vicarious exposure to smoking via friends and family. Across all years, model coefficients indicate a positive association between attending schools where vaping is more versus less common and student-level odds of using e-cigarettes, suggesting that school contexts are still consequential to student vaping, but less so than when e-cigarettes were first introduced to the US market. These findings highlight how the health implications of multiply-embedded ecological systems like schools shift over time with concomitant changes in other ecological features including those related to policy, culture, and broader health practices within society. Though not uniformly reported in multilevel studies, variance partitioning coefficients could be used more thoughtfully to empirically illustrate how the influence of multiple developmentally-relevant contexts shift in their influence on teen health over time.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Vaping/psicologia , Adolescente , Teorema de Bayes , Estudos Transversais , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fumar/psicologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Vaping/epidemiologia
19.
Health Psychol ; 38(12): 1069-1074, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436440

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Given the number of annual interactions between people who smoke and health care providers, even low-efficacy interventions would be expected to have a large cumulative effect on smoking prevalence. Efforts to improve uptake of tobacco dependence treatment guidelines have had limited success. It remains unclear whether complex social motivations influence treatment decision-making among providers, despite widespread understanding of the condition's impact on morbidity. METHOD: Clinicians from across the United States participated in a computer-based survey of potential explicit tobacco treatment biases, relative to care of hypertension. Items corresponded to framework domains of Weiner's causal attribution theory of social motivation (Weiner, 1993). Single-word, open-response items were used to gain insight into the frequency of spontaneous perceptions regarding treatment of each condition. Implicit association testing (IAT) measured strength of association between images of smoking and evaluation of guilt versus innocence. RESULTS: Significant differences in agreement scores were identified within the causal attribution, emotional response, and help investment domains. Single-word answers confirmed a significant difference in emotional response to tobacco treatment (28.1% vs. 10.5%, p = .02), and suggested the difference was driven by the frequent perception of frustration (75% vs. 0%, p = .07). IAT revealed incompatibility between images of smoking and words conveying "innocence" compared with "guilt" (latency 1,846 ms vs. 1,113 ms, p < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Complex social motivations may be operational in the context of tobacco dependence treatment, limiting provider willingness to follow treatment guidelines. If confirmed, this represents a critical obstacle to sophisticated guideline implementation, and should be addressed in future implementation strategies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Fumar/psicologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA