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3.
Toxicol Lett ; 332: 82-87, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569803

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glycidol, a probable human carcinogen, is a reactive chemical released in the gastrointestinal tract from glycidyl fatty acid esters, which are heat-induced dietary contaminants. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the prenatal transfer of glycidol, a specific hemoglobin adduct was measured as a biomarker for internal glycidol exposure in paired cord and maternal blood samples. METHODS: In 100 mother-newborn pairs from the Belgian ENVIRONAGE (ENVIRonmental influence ON AGEing in early life) birth cohort, we studied the correlation between levels of the glycidol-derived hemoglobin adduct N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)-valine (2,3-diHOPr-Val) in paired cord and maternal blood samples. The adduct levels were determined after cleavage with a modified Edman degradation by using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry and an isotope-labeled reference standard. RESULTS: 2,3-DiHOPr-Val was detectable in all 100 maternal blood samples and in 96 cord blood samples (LOD =0.5 pmol 2,3-diHOPr-Val/g hemoglobin), with medians of 5.4 (range: 2.3-29.2) and 1.6 (range: LOD - 8.9) pmol/g hemoglobin), respectively. In blood samples of mothers who smoked during pregnancy and in the cord blood samples of their newborns (n = 6), the median 2,3-diHOPr-Val levels were 16.7 (range: 6.4-29.2) and 6.2 (range: LOD - 8.6) pmol/g hemoglobin, respectively. The median ratio of 2,3-diHOPr-Val levels of cord to maternal blood was 0.35 (range: 0.19-1.14) (n = 49). The Spearman correlation coefficient between 2,3-diHOPr-Val levels in cord and maternal blood samples was 0.63 (p < 0.001) among all mother-newborn pairs and 0.59 (p < 0.001) among mother-newborn pairs of non-smoking mothers. DISCUSSION: Maternal data confirm widespread exposure to glycidol, also in non-smokers. Neonatal levels indicate prenatal exposure to glycidol, due to an obviously relatively unhindered passive transfer through the placental barrier. Possible health effects of fetal (and postnatal) glycidol exposure in children may be addressed in epidemiological studies.


Assuntos
Compostos de Epóxi/metabolismo , Sangue Fetal/química , Hemoglobinas/metabolismo , Troca Materno-Fetal , Propanóis/metabolismo , Valina/análogos & derivados , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Estudos de Coortes , Eritrócitos/química , Feminino , Hemoglobinas/análise , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Fumar/sangue , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Valina/sangue
4.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234965, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32574193

RESUMO

There are limited data examining the consequences of environmental exposure to arsenic on the immune system in adults, particularly among smokers. Smoking has been shown to exacerbate or contribute to impaired immune function in men chronically exposed to arsenic. In contrast, vitamin D (VitD) is known to have a positive influence on innate and adaptive immune responses. The effect of circulating VitD on arsenic-associated immune dysfunction is not known. Here we examine the relationship of arsenic exposure and T cell proliferation (TCP), a measure of immune responsiveness, and circulating VitD among adult men and women in Bangladesh. Arsenic exposure was assessed using total urinary arsenic as well as urinary arsenic metabolites all adjusted for urinary creatinine. TCP was measured ex vivo in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 614 adult participants enrolled in the Bangladesh Health Effects of Arsenic Longitudinal Study; serum VitD was also evaluated. The influence of cigarette smoking on arsenic-induced TCP modulation was assessed only in males as there was an inadequate number of female smokers. These studies show that arsenic suppressed TCP in males. The association was significantly strong in male smokers and to a lesser extent in male non-smokers. Interestingly, we found a strong protective effect of high/sufficient serum VitD levels on TCP among non-smoking males. Furthermore, among male smokers with low serum VitD (⊔20 ng/ml), we found a strong suppression of TCP by arsenic. On the other hand, high VitD (>20 ng/ml) was found to attenuate effects of arsenic on TCP among male-smokers. Overall, we found a strong protective effect of VitD, when serum levels were >20 ng/ml, on arsenic-induced inhibition of TCP in men, irrespective of smoking status. To our knowledge this is the first large study of immune function in healthy adult males and females with a history of chronic arsenic exposure.


Assuntos
Arsênico/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Fumar/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Arsênico/urina , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vitamina D/imunologia
5.
Toxicol Lett ; 331: 57-64, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442718

RESUMO

Electrophilic compounds present in humans, originating from endogenous processes or pollutant exposures, pose a risk to health though their reaction with nucleophilic sites in protein and DNA. Among this chemical class, aldehydes are mainly present in indoor air and they can also be produced by endogenous lipid peroxidation arising from oxidative stress. Known to be very reactive, aldehydes have the ability to form exocyclic adducts to DNA that, for the most if not repaired correctly, are mutagenic and by consequence potential agents involved in carcinogenesis. The aim of this work was to establish profiles of exocyclic DNA adducts induced by aldehyde mixtures, which could ultimately be considered as a genotoxic marker of endogenous and environmental aldehyde exposure. Adducts were quantified by an accurate, sensitive and validated ultra high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization analytical method coupled to mass spectrometry in the tandem mode (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS). We simultaneously measured nine exocyclic DNA adducts generated during the exposure in vitro of calf thymus DNA to different concentrations of each aldehyde along, as well as, to an equimolar mixture of these aldehydes. This approach has enabled us to establish dose-response relationships that allowed displaying the specific reactivity of aldehydes towards corresponding adducts formation. Profiles of these adducts determined in DNA of current smokers and non-smokers blood samples supported these findings. These first results are encouraging to explore genotoxicity induced by aldehyde mixtures and can furthermore be used as future reference for adductomic approaches.


Assuntos
Aldeídos/toxicidade , Adutos de DNA/sangue , DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Mutagênicos/toxicidade , Fumar/sangue , Tabaco , DNA/genética , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Humanos , Tabaco/química
6.
Neurology ; 94(18): e1950-e1960, 2020 05 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32300060

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether vitamin D, smoking, and anti-Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody concentrations predict long-term cognitive status and neuroaxonal injury in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: This study was conducted among 278 patients with clinically isolated syndrome who participated in the clinical trial BENEFIT (Betaferon/Betaseron in Newly Emerging Multiple Sclerosis for Initial Treatment) and completed the 11-year assessment (BENEFIT-11). We measured serum 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D), cotinine (smoking biomarker), and anti-Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) at baseline and at months 6, 12, and 24 and examined whether these biomarkers contributed to predict Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)-3 scores and serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) concentrations at 11 years. Linear and logistic regression models were adjusted for sex, baseline age, treatment allocation, steroid treatment, multifocal symptoms, T2 lesions, and body mass index. RESULTS: Higher vitamin D predicted better, whereas smoking predicted worse cognitive performance. A 50-nmol/L higher mean 25(OH)D in the first 2 years was related to 65% lower odds of poorer PASAT performance at year 11 (95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]: 0.14-0.89). Standardized PASAT scores were lower in smokers and heavy smokers than nonsmokers (p trend = 0.026). Baseline anti-EBNA-1 IgG levels did not predict cognitive performance (p trend = 0.88). Associations with NfL concentrations at year 11 corroborated these findings-a 50-nmol/L higher mean 25(OH)D in the first 2 years was associated with 20% lower NfL (95% CI: -36% to 0%), whereas smokers had 20% higher NfL levels than nonsmokers (95% CI: 2%-40%). Anti-EBNA-1 antibodies were not associated with NfL. CONCLUSIONS: Lower vitamin D and smoking after clinical onset predicted worse long-term cognitive function and neuronal integrity in patients with MS.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Cognição , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/complicações , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Cotinina/sangue , Doenças Desmielinizantes/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Infecções por Vírus Epstein-Barr/sangue , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Interferon beta-1b/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/sangue , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/patologia , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/sangue , Tempo , Vitamina D/sangue
7.
BMC Med Genet ; 21(1): 55, 2020 03 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32188413

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Glutathione S-transferases play a key role in the detoxification of persistent oxidative stress products which are one of several risks factors that may be associated with many types of disease processes such as cancer, diabetes, and hypertension. In the present study, we characterize the null genotypes of GSTM1 and GSTT1 in order to investigate the association between them and the risk of developing essential hypertension. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study in Burkina Faso, including 245 subjects with essential hypertension as case and 269 control subjects with normal blood pressure. Presence of the GSTT1 and GSTM1 was determined using conventional multiplex polymerase chain reaction followed by gel electrophoresis analysis. Biochemical parameters were measured using chemistry analyzer CYANExpert 130. RESULTS: Chi-squared test shows that GSTT1-null (OR = 1.82; p = 0.001) and GSTM1-active/GSTT1-null genotypes (OR = 2.33; p <  0.001) were significantly higher in cases than controls; the differences were not significant for GSTM1-null, GSTM1-null/GSTT1-active and GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null (p > 0.05). Multinomial logistic regression revealed that age ≥ 50 years, central obesity, family history of hypertension, obesity, alcohol intake and GSTT1 deletion were in decreasing order independent risk factors for essential hypertension. Analysis by gender, BMI and alcohol showed that association of GSTT1-null with risk of essential hypertension seems to be significant when BMI < 30 Kg/m2, in non-smokers and in alcohol users (all OR ≥ 1.77; p ≤ 0.008). Concerning GSTT1, GSTM1 and cardiovascular risk markers levels in hypertensive group, we found that subjects with GSTT1-null genotype had higher waist circumference and higher HDL cholesterol level than those with GSTT1-active (all p <  0.005), subjects with GSTM1-null genotype had lower triglyceride than those with GSTM1-active (p = 0.02) and subjects with the double deletion GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null had higher body mass index, higher waist circumference and higher HDL cholesterol than those with GSTM1-active/GSTT1-active genotype (all p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Our results confirm that GSTT1-null genotype is significantly associated with risk of developing essential hypertension in Burkinabe, especially when BMI < 30 Kg/m2, in non-smokers and in alcohol users, and it showed that the double deletion GSTM1-null/GSTT1-null genotypes may influence body lipids repartition.


Assuntos
Hipertensão Essencial/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Deleção de Sequência , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Burkina Faso/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Hipertensão Essencial/sangue , Hipertensão Essencial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Lipídeos/sangue , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia
8.
Angiology ; 71(6): 552-558, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32208847

RESUMO

Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH), which is secreted by granulosa cells of late preantral and small antral follicles, is a marker of ovarian reserve. The association of ovarian reserve with subclinical atherosclerosis in women of reproductive age is currently unknown. We primary investigated whether AMH levels are associated with markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in healthy, normally menstruating women. In this cross-sectional study, vascular structure and function were assessed by measurement of carotid and femoral intima-media thickness (IMT), flow-mediated dilation, carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity and augmentation index. Lipid profile and serum AMH concentrations were also measured. Seventy premenopausal women, aged 32.7 ± 6.5 years, were included. Mean AMH levels were lower in smokers than in non-smokers and negatively associated with total cholesterol (TC) levels. An inverse association between mean AMH concentrations and femoral and carotid IMT in all segments was observed. No correlation with other markers of subclinical atherosclerosis or established cardiovascular (CV) risk factors was found. After multivariable adjustment, the association between AMH concentrations and combined carotid IMT or carotid bulb IMT remained significant. In conclusion, in healthy, normally ovulating women, AMH concentrations are negatively associated with subclinical atherosclerosis indices and TC levels, independently of established CV risk factors.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/sangue , Aterosclerose/sangue , Pré-Menopausa/sangue , Adulto , Doenças Assintomáticas , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Ovulação , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue
9.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227692, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31945095

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Life-style interventions, including smoking cessation and weight control are of importance for managing future escalating prevalence of obesity. Smoking habits and obesity have jointly great impact on mortality, however mechanisms behind the effect and variables involved in the obesity paradox is still unknown. OBJECTIVES: This study examines risk factors for all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in males and females with high cardiovascular risk, mediated by smoking habits, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2), and serum phosphate (S-P) levels. METHODS: Patients were admitted to the Vindeln Patient Education Center in groups of 30 for a four-week residential comprehensive program (114 hours) focusing on smoking cessation, stress reduction, food preferences and selections, and physical exercise. The follow-up, in years from 1984 to 2014 corresponds to 30 years. This study included 2,504 patients (1,408 females and 1,096 males). Cox regression analysis was used to assess mortality risk associated with smoking habits, low and high BMI, and low and high S-P levels. RESULTS: High BMI (>34,2 kg/m2), current smoking, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), high serum calcium (S-Ca), mmol/L and high systolic blood pressure (SBP, mmHg) were associated with all-cause mortality irrespective of sex. Former and current smoking females had a high all-cause mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.581; 95% CI 1.108-2.256, adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.935; 95% CI 1.461-2.562, respectively) while current smoking and high BMI increased risk for cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 3.505; 95% CI 2.140-5.740 and [HR] 1.536; 95% CI 1.058-2.231, respectively). Neither low nor high levels of S-P predicted all-cause, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer mortality in males or females while low levels of S-P predicted all-cause mortality in smokers (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 1.713; 95% CI 1.211-2.424). In non-smokers, low BMI (<27.6 kg/m2) was protecting and high BMI a risk for all-cause mortality. In males, ischemic heart disease (IHD), and low serum albumin (S-Alb) were associated with all-cause mortality. In females, an interaction between high BMI and smoking (HbmiSM) decreased the cardiovascular mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.410; 95% CI 0.179-0.937, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: High BMI and current smoking were associated with all-cause mortality in both males and females in the present high cardiovascular-risk cohort. In current smokers and non-smokers, T2DM and high S-Ca were associated with an increase in all-cause mortality, while low S-P was associated with all-cause mortality in smokers. Interaction between high BMI and smoking contribute to the obesity paradox by being protective for cardiovascular mortality in females.


Assuntos
Promoção da Saúde/métodos , Obesidade/mortalidade , Fosfatos/sangue , Fumar/mortalidade , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Obesidade/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/terapia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Suécia/epidemiologia , Programas de Redução de Peso
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(1): 751-760, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811606

RESUMO

According to the World Health Organization, in 2015, the Serbian population ranked among the highest ones in Europe in terms of smoking habit: 44.3% males and 36.2% females aged 18-64 smoked tobacco. In the last 7 years, 25% of total mortality in men and 9% in women from Serbia were associated with smoking. Tobacco smoking is one of the most important sources of exposure to many toxic substances in general population. Our study confirmed higher blood levels of two toxic metals, cadmium and lead, in the blood of smokers (3.5 and 1.5 times higher than in non-smokers, respectively). Furthermore, smoking habits, such as number of smoked cigarettes per day, smoking period and cigarette type, along with age, were shown to influence these metals' blood concentration. Higher blood levels of Cd and Pb were found in smokers consuming more than 10 cigarettes per day for more than 10 years. The present study also highlighted the importance of the controlled tobacco production, since it was shown that consumption of illicit tobacco could manifold the exposure to toxic metals that can subsequently increase the frequency of related diseases as well.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cádmio/análise , Feminino , Hábitos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Fumar/sangue , Produtos do Tabaco , Fumar Tabaco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Environ Pollut ; 256: 113361, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668955

RESUMO

Data (N = 10336) from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 2003-2016 for US adults aged ≥ 20 years were analyzed to evaluate the concentrations of blood and urine cadmium across the various stages of glomerular function. Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 was defined to be glomerular function stage 1 (GF-1), eGFR between 60 and 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 defined as GF-2, eGFR between 45 and 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 as GF-3A, and eGFR between 15 and 45 mL/min/1.73 m2 as GF-3B/4. Regression models stratified by GF-stages were fitted to estimate associations between the observed levels of blood and urine cadmium across stages of GF. Based on the results of stratified modes, there were consistent increases in adjusted geometric means (AGMSM) for both blood and urine cadmium from GF-1 to GF-3A although increases were not uniform from one GF stage to another. For the total population, AGMSM for blood and urine cadmium were GF-1 (0.47, 0.24), GF-2 (0.60, 0.37), GF-3A (0.72, 0.45), and GF-3B/4 (0.73, 0.45) µg/L. respectively. Although females had higher AGMSMs than males for both blood and urine cadmium, the difference in blood cadmium narrowed as kidney function deteriorated. Smokers had the steepest increases in AGMSMs for blood and urine cadmium across the stages of glomerular function and smoker-nonsmoker differences for blood cadmium narrowed as kidney function deteriorated but smoker-nonsmoker differences for urine cadmium widened as kidney function deteriorated. The important physiologic messages are that both blood and urine cadmium cease to increase from GF-3A to GF-3B/4, suggesting a new steady state based on renal failure. And, the narrowed difference in blood cadmium in smokers vs. nonsmokers suggests why this happens. Incremental exposures to cadmium are offset by excretion as renal failure progresses.


Assuntos
Cádmio/sangue , Cádmio/urina , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular , Rim/fisiologia , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/urina , Adulto , Cádmio/toxicidade , Feminino , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
12.
Clin Lab ; 65(12)2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31850711

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of studies have been conducted to investigate the association between serum surfactant protein D (SP-D) concentration and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk. However, the results are inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis aim to investigate whether serum SP-D concentration is a potential biomarker for COPD diagnosis. METHODS: We searched Web of Science, PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Database from inception through July 18, 2018. The standardized mean difference (SMD) with 95% confidence interval (CI) was used to investigate the effect sizes. RESULTS: Seventeen eligible studies from a total of 4,639 subjects were finally included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The results indicated that serum SP-D levels in COPD patients were significantly higher than those in controls (SMD = 1.01, 95% CI = 0.62 - 1.41, p < 0.001). We also found that serum SP-D concentration in acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) patients was significantly higher than that in stable COPD patients (SMD = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.92 - 2.08, p < 0.001), and serum SP-D concentration was higher in smokers than in nonsmokers in healthy population (SMD = 1.50, 95% CI = 0.35 - 2.64, p = 0.025). CONCLUSIONS: The current systematic review and meta-analysis indicates that serum SP-D levels may be a promising biomarker for COPD. In particular, increased serum SP-D levels appear to be associated with acute exacerbation of COPD and smoking in healthy population.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Proteína D Associada a Surfactante Pulmonar/sangue , Humanos , Fumar/sangue
13.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(5): 487-492, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695237

RESUMO

Introduction: The low-density lipoprotein (LDL)/high-density lipoprotein (HDL) index is a predictive factor for atherosclerosis, which is associated with oxidative modifications. Objective: To assess the association of the index with oxidative stress markers. Methods: 444 subjects were included and were clinically, anthropometrically and biochemically characterized; superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase 3 (GPx3), magnesium and oxidized LDL (oxLDL) index (oxLDL/HDL) were quantified. Results: A decrease of 1.014 units in the LDL/HDL index was associated with a superoxide dismutase increase of 1 unit/mL (p = 0.030), while a decrease of 0.023 units was associated with a GPx3 increase of 1 nmol/min/mL (p < 0.0005). An increase of one unit in the index was associated with an increase of 0.831 in the oxLDL/HDL index (p < 0.05). After controlling for the effect of gender, age, smoking, obesity and insulin resistance, a reduction of 0.001 per index unit was associated with an increase of 1 µg/g of magnesium in the nails (p = 0.020). Conclusions: The LDL/HDL index shows an inverse relationship with the antioxidant status and a direct relationship with oxidation status, regardless of other cardiovascular and oxidative stress risk factors.


Assuntos
Glutationa Peroxidase/sangue , Lipoproteínas HDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina , Magnésio/análise , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Análise de Regressão , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/sangue , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 38(2): 165-172, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679279

RESUMO

Donor blood is usually screened for some risk factors, such as hepatitis, HIV, and malarial parasites, but it is not routinely screened for heavy metals although their adverse effects on the human body have been proved by a number of studies. In this study, an attempt was made to determine the effect of smoking on concentration of cadmium, nickel, and lead in donor blood. A semistructured questionnaire was prepared and given to participants. It showed that 79% (two groups: 65 smokers and 65 nonsmokers) smoked at least one cigarette per day. Collected blood samples were then subjected to atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). In comparing blood levels between smoking and nonsmoking participants, we noted a high positive correlation between lead and nickel concentrations. There were statistically significant correlations between cadmium, lead, and nickel concentrations in the blood of smokers and nonsmokers. Moreover, because a substantial percentage of blood donors may be smokers and blood donation does not always meet demand, it would be difficult to completely exclude smokers from donating blood. Our findings indicate the need to screen for heavy metals when transfusing blood to the elderly, neonates, and infants, and to avoid transfusion of blood and blood products if levels are in the toxic range.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Cádmio/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Chumbo/sangue , Níquel/sangue , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 39(6): 561-566, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31688390

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The combination of olanzapine and valproic acid (VPA) is regularly prescribed in the treatment of bipolar or schizoaffective disorders. The VPA has been shown to reduce olanzapine concentration, but the mechanism behind this interaction remains unknown. We aimed to investigate the effect of VPA on olanzapine concentration during oral versus long-acting injectable (LAI) formulation in a real-life setting. METHODS: From a therapeutic drug monitoring service, prescribed doses and serum concentrations from 2791 olanzapine-treated patients (9433 measurements) were included. RESULTS: The number of patients on olanzapine-LAI treatment was 328, whereas 2463 were using oral olanzapine. The frequency of patients comedicated with VPA was 9.4% for olanzapine tablets and 5.8% for olanzapine-LAI. The VPA had no effect on olanzapine dose-adjusted concentrations in LAI users (1.6 vs 1.7 [ng/mL]/[mg/d]; P = 0.38), whereas in the oral group the dose-adjusted olanzapine concentration was lower in VPA users (2.2 vs 2.7 [ng/mL]/[mg/d]; P < 0.001). For smokers in the oral olanzapine group using VPA, 8.7% of the measurements were in the subtherapeutic range (<10 ng/mL) compared with 6.0% in nonusers (P = 0.003). IMPLICATIONS: These findings show that the VPA-olanzapine interaction involves a presystemic mechanism and is therefore restricted to oral olanzapine treatment. For oral treatment of olanzapine, comedication with VPA implies a risk of insufficient effect, which may be of clinical relevance in smokers in particular. Thus, it is important to be aware of the interaction potential with VPA during oral olanzapine use, whereas for LAI-treated patients fewer precautions are required from a pharmacokinetic point of view.


Assuntos
Antimaníacos/farmacologia , Antipsicóticos/administração & dosagem , Antipsicóticos/sangue , Transtorno Bipolar/tratamento farmacológico , Interações Medicamentosas , Olanzapina/administração & dosagem , Olanzapina/sangue , Transtornos Psicóticos/tratamento farmacológico , Fumar/sangue , Ácido Valproico/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
16.
Biomarkers ; 24(8): 757-763, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640434

RESUMO

Purpose: The objective of this study was to evaluate variabilities in the levels of urine cotinine and hydroxycotinine by age, gender, race/ethnicity and smoking status among US residents.Materials and methods: Data from NHANES (N = 3135) were analysed by fitting regression models with log10-transformed values of urine cotinine and hydroxycotinine as dependent variables. Separate models were fitted for children aged 6-11 years, adolescents aged 12-19 years, and adults aged ≥20 years. Models were stratified by smoking status. Those self-reporting using combustible and/or smokeless tobacco products during the last 5 days were classified as being smokers.Results: No gender differences were observed. Among non-smokers, non-Hispanic blacks had the highest levels of cotinine and hydroxycotinine and Hispanics had the lowest levels of cotinine and hydroxycotinine. Among smokers, non-Hispanic whites had the highest levels of cotinine and hydroxycotinine. Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke at home and other indoor environments was associated with as much as 500% higher levels of cotinine and hydroxycotinine.Conclusions: In addition to currently available data on cotinine in serum and NNAL in urine, availability of data on cotinine and hydroxycotinine in urine provides another tool to monitor the smoking health of the US population.


Assuntos
Cotinina/análogos & derivados , Cotinina/urina , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Biomarcadores/sangue , Criança , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Fatores Sexuais , Fumantes , Fumar/sangue , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
Vox Sang ; 114(8): 808-815, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625182

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Smokers currently have no defined restrictions for blood donation. However, cigarette smoke contains toxic substances such as carbon monoxide (CO) and trace elements that can affect the packed red blood cells (PRBCs) quality and safety of transfusion. This study evaluated the effects of smoking on the concentration of essential and trace elements and on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in PRBCs from smoker donors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A matched case-control study was conducted to compare COHb levels, determined by the CO-oximetry method, and levels of trace (Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, As and Hg) and essential (Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Se and Zn) elements evaluated by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, in PRBCs from smoker (n = 36) and non-smoker (n = 36) donors at Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, Brazil. RESULTS: Mean COHb level was 14 times higher in the PRBCs obtained from smoker donors (5·9 [4·0-9·1] vs. 0·4 [0·2-0·8]%). Cadmium (1·0 [1·0-1·8] µg/l vs. undetectable) and lead (27 [21-36] vs. 19 [14-26] µg/l) levels were significantly higher in the PRBCs from smokers. Moreover, except for molybdenum, levels of all essential elements were lower in smoker PRBCs. CONCLUSION: The PRBCs donated by smokers contain toxic elements that are probably not safe for transfusion in children. Our results might support changes in the current guidelines of blood banks to improve the transfusion safety through inclusion of inquiry about smoking in the clinical screening, labelling and reserve PRBCs from smoker donors for adults or less critical recipients.


Assuntos
Doadores de Sangue/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Reação Transfusional/epidemiologia , Adulto , Bancos de Sangue/normas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Eritrócitos/química , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fumar/epidemiologia
18.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31623110

RESUMO

Early identification of women at risk of developing pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) is very important. The involvement of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) in the oxidative balance suggests the possibility of their association with this disease, in which oxidative stress plays a key role. However, it has not been established so far whether the microelement levels in early pregnancy may be risk markers of the disease, as prospective studies are limited in number. In our innovative single-center study, we identified from a prospective cohort of healthy women in the 10-14th week of a single pregnancy: women subsequently developing pregnancy-induced hypertension (n = 121) and matched women remaining normotensive (n = 363). We measured the concentrations of microelements in the serum from 10-14 week, using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The odds ratios of the disease (and 95% confidence intervals) were assessed in logistic regression. In the whole cohort, the odds ratio (OR) of PIH was 1.52 (p = 0.174) for women in the lowest (Q1) quartile of Cu (≤1540.58 µg/L) compared with women in the highest (Q4) quartile (>1937.46 µg/L), but adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was 2.17 (p = 0.019) after adjusted for pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational age at recruitment. The higher levels of Cu in the subgroup of BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 compared to normal BMI were found (1847.64 vs. 1673.36 µg/L; p < 0.0001). In the subgroup of women with the normal pre-pregnancy BMI, the adjusted odds ratio of PIH was AOR = 2.95 (p = 0.040) for Q1 vs. Q4 quartile. Our results suggest that lower Cu levels in early pregnancy may be connected with higher risk of PIH, but BMI affected estimated odds ratios. Zinc levels had no effect on the risk.


Assuntos
Cobre/sangue , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/etiologia , Zinco/sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/sangue , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Primeiro Trimestre da Gravidez/sangue , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/sangue , Adulto Jovem
19.
Mymensingh Med J ; 28(4): 808-810, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599244

RESUMO

Cigarette smoking is a practice in which tobacco (leaf of Nicotina Tabacum) is burned and the smoke (heterogeneous aerosol) is tasted or inhaled. Smoking may be linked to insulin resistance that leads to impaired glucose and lipid metabolism. Aim of the study was to assess the levels of fasting serum glucose level in healthy male cigarette smokers in order to compare this parameter with healthy non smokers. This comparative study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2013 to June 2014. One hundred healthy male subjects (75 male were cigarette smokers as study group and 25 male were non smokers as control group) aged between 16 to 40 years were enrolled in this study. Fasting serum glucose was estimated by GOD-PAP Method. Data were expressed as mean±SD and statistical significance of difference among the group was calculated by unpaired students''t' test. The mean±SD fasting serum glucose (FSG) levels were higher in smoker group in comparison to the non smoker group. There were gradual increases in FSG levels in the smokers as the duration of smoking was increased and these were 4.75±0.88, 5.12±0.67, 5.29±0.47 and 5.58±2.05mmol/L in group I, IIA, IIB and IIC respectively. This study concludes cigarette smoking impair the carbohydrate metabolism and increase fasting serum glucose level in accordance with the duration of smoking.


Assuntos
Glicemia , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Bangladesh , Jejum , Glucose , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
20.
Nutrients ; 11(10)2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581552

RESUMO

Alcohol consumption is an important lifestyle factor that is associated with several health conditions and a behavioral link with smoking is well established. Metabolic alterations after alcohol consumption have yet to be comprehensively investigated. We studied the association of alcohol consumption with metabolite patterns (MPs) among 2433 individuals from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study, and a potential modification by smoking. Alcohol consumption was self-reported through dietary questionnaires and serum metabolites were measured by a targeted approach. The metabolites were summarized as MPs using the treelet transform analysis (TT). We fitted linear models with alcohol consumption continuously and in five categories. We stratified the continuously modelled alcohol consumption by smoking status. All models were adjusted for potential confounders. Among men, alcohol consumption was positively associated with six MPs and negatively associated with one MP. In women, alcohol consumption was inversely associated with one MP. Heavy consumers differed from other consumers with respect to the "Long and short chain acylcarnitines" MP. Our findings suggest that long and short chain acylcarnitines might play an important role in the adverse effects of heavy alcohol consumption on chronic diseases. The relations seem to depend on gender and smoking status.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/sangue , Metabolismo Energético , Fumantes , Fumar/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Concentração Alcoólica no Sangue , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia
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