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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 234: 17-24, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213268

RESUMO

The horse's respiratory tract daily encounters a plethora of respirable hazards including air pollutants, mycotoxins and airborne pathogens. To date, the precise effect of air pollution and mycotoxins on respiratory epithelial integrity and subsequent pathogen invasion in the horse has not been studied. Here, diesel exhaust particles (DEP) and three major mycotoxins (deoxynivalenol [DON], aflatoxin B1 [AFB1] and fumonisin B1 [FB1]) were applied to the apical surfaces of both ex vivo respiratory mucosal explants and in vitro primary equine respiratory epithelial cells (EREC) cultivated at the air-liquid interface, prior to inoculation with equine herpesvirus type 1 (EHV1). DON, but not AFB1, FB1 and DEP affected epithelial integrity in both ex vivo and in vitro systems, as demonstrated by histological changes in respiratory epithelial morphology and a drop in transepithelial electrical resistance across the EREC monolayer. Further, DON-pretreated explants showed on average 6.5 ± 4.5-fold more EHV1 plaques and produced on average 1 log10 more extracellular virus particles compared to control diluent- and FB1-pretreated respiratory mucosal explants. Similarly, EHV1 infection was greatly enhanced in EREC upon pretreatment with DON. Based on our findings, we propose that inhalation of DON predisposes horses for EHV1 infection by affecting respiratory epithelial integrity.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/efeitos adversos , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Herpesviridae/veterinária , Mucosa Respiratória/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricotecenos/efeitos adversos , Emissões de Veículos , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Gasolina , Herpesvirus Equídeo 1 , Cavalos , Mucosa Respiratória/patologia
2.
Food Res Int ; 103: 478-491, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29389638

RESUMO

Wine is a significant contributor to the economies of many countries. However, the commodity can become contaminated with mycotoxins produced by certain fungi. Most information on mycotoxins in wine is from Spain, Italy and France. Grapes can be infected by mycotoxigenic fungi, of which Aspergillus carbonarius producing ochratoxin A (OTA) is of highest concern. Climate is the most important factor in determining contamination once the fungi are established, with high temperatures being a major factor for OTA contamination: OTA in wine is at higher concentrations in warmer southern Europe than northern. Contamination by fumonisins is a particular concern, related to Aspergillus niger producing these compounds and the fungus being isolated frequently from grapes. Aflatoxins can be present in wine, but patulin is seldom detected. Alternaria mycotoxins (e.g. alternariol) have been frequently observed. There are indications that T-2 toxin may be common. Also, the combined effects of mycotoxins in wine require consideration. No other mycotoxins are currently of concern. Accurate fungal identifications and mycotoxin detection from the fungi are important and a consideration of practical methods are required. There is a diversity of wines that can be contaminated (e.g. red, white, sweet, dry and fortified). The occurrence of OTA is higher in red and sweet than white wines. Steps to control mycotoxins in wine involve good agriculture practices. The effect of climate change on vines and mycotoxins in wine needs urgent consideration by well-constructed modelling studies and expert interpretation of existing data. Reliable models of the effect of climate change on vines is a priority: the health of vines affects mycotoxin contamination. A modelling study of OTA in grapes at higher temperatures over 100years is required. Progress has been made in reducing OTA in wine. The other mycotoxins require consideration and the effects of climate change will become crucial.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/metabolismo , Mudança Climática , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Vitis/microbiologia , Vinho/microbiologia , Aflatoxinas/efeitos adversos , Aflatoxinas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Fumonisinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Ocratoxinas/efeitos adversos , Ocratoxinas/metabolismo , Medição de Risco , Vitis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vinho/efeitos adversos
3.
Poult Sci ; 97(3): 845-854, 2018 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29272444

RESUMO

The present study was carried out to investigate the effects of stocking density, fumonisin B1 (FB), and mycotoxin binder (TB) on growth performance, bone quality, physiological stress indicators, and gut health in broiler chickens. Day-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks (n = 1,440/experiment) were randomly allocated to 72 floor pens in a 3 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, using 3 stocking densities (12.5 birds/m2 [HSD], 10 birds/m2 [MSD], or 7.5 birds/m2 [LSD]), 2 levels of purified FB (0 or 10 ppm), and 2 levels of TB (0 or 0.2%). Each treatment had 6 replicates (n = 6/treatment) and experiments lasted 34 days. All data were analyzed using 3-way ANOVA with stocking density level, FB, and TB as main factors. Body weight gain and feed intake were lower (P < 0.05) in broilers kept at HSD and MSD compared to LSD-housed counterparts. Birds fed an FB-contaminated diet exhibited a higher feed-to-gain ratio compared with those fed an FB-free diet (P < 0.05). None of the treatments affected intestinal morphology or ileal secretory immunoglobulin A levels. Stocking density affected tibia breaking strength (P < 0.05), which was lower in chickens housed at HSD compared with LSD-housed chickens. The heterophil/lymphocyte ratio (H/L ratio) was elevated (P < 0.05) in HSD and MSD groups compared with the LSD group. Serum nitric oxide (NO) levels were elevated (P < 0.05) in chickens fed the FB-contaminated diet compared with the control diet-fed counterparts. Significant interaction (P < 0.05) between FB and TB on serum NO levels was noted. In summary, increasing stocking density lowered growth performance and bone quality, but increased the H/L ratio. Dietary TB did not affect FB-induced increases in the feed-to-gain ratio. No interaction was observed between stocking density and FB for the measured variables.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Tíbia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Densidade Demográfica , Tíbia/química
4.
Rev. Col. Méd. Cir. Guatem ; 156(2): 54-60, nov. 2017. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-986501

RESUMO

Antecedentes: Las anomalías del tubo neural son frecuentes en Guatemala. Una mayor frecuencia se observa en el antiplano guatemalteco, con mayor concentración de población indígena y con mayor depauperación económica. Observaciones de especialistas indican que en el primer semestre del año son mucho más frecuentes que en el segundo. Estas observaciones señalan que algo existe en el ambiente, probablemente en el ambiente alimentario, relacionado con el consumo de maíz, base dietética del guatemalteco. En el grano de este cereal, existe, fumomisinas (micotoxinas producidas por hongos) en gran cantidad, que tienen un efecto inhibidor de la captación celular de ácido fólico, micronutriente íntimamente relacionado con el cierre temprano del tubo neural. Objetivo: Demostrar si es cierto que existe mayor frecuencia de anomalías del tubo neural en Guatemala en el primer semestre del año que en el segundo, principalmente en los denominados meses de verano. Sugerir hipótesis futuras que expliquen este comportamiento epidemiológico. Metodología: Estudio descriptivo-analítico retrospectivo en la Unidad de Espina Bífida del Hospital General San Juan de Dios y en las 8 áreas geoeconómicas de Guatemala, analizando una sola variable: La fecha de nacimiento de niños y niñas que presentaron anomalías del tubo neural de diferente tipo. Resultados: Se demuestra que en efecto las anomalías del tubo neural son más frecuentes en el primer semestre del año que en el segundo. Principalmente en los meses de marzo-abril. Y que ocurren con menos frecuencia en el segundo semestre. Estos datos se podrían vincular con el consumo dietético de maíz, grano que también tiene diferencias estacionales en cuanto a su producción, almacenamiento, preparación y consumo (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Recém-Nascido , Disrafismo Espinal/complicações , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Desnutrição/complicações , Grupos Populacionais , Deficiência de Ácido Fólico/diagnóstico , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/complicações , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Epidemiologia Descritiva , Guatemala/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28636450

RESUMO

There is an increasing awareness of the deleterious effects attributed to mycotoxins during their fate within the gut, particularly for deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), and patulin (PAT). Evidence indicates that disruption of the epithelial barrier is well established. However, intestinal barrier function on its luminal side involves two other partners, mucus and microbiota, which have rarely been considered in the context of mycotoxin exposure. The current review aimed at providing a summary of DON, ZEN, OTA, FB1, AFB1, and PAT effects on intestinal barrier function, with special focus on mucus and microbiota. DON, ZEN, OTA, FB1, AFB1, and PAT are known to markedly affect epithelial cell integrity and functions. Regarding mucus, DON is the most documentated mycotoxin. In vivo, toxicological impact of DON generally has only been assessed through goblet cell number. Evaluation of the mycotoxins/mucus interplay considering other indicators such as composition, thickness, and penetrability of mucus, mucin O-glycosylation thus warrants further attention. With respect to microbiota, few short-term studies to date have been reported indicating deleterious effects. However, long-term exposure to mycotoxins may also produce significant changes in microbiota composition and metabolic activity, which requires further experimentation. In conclusion, mucus and microbiota are key targets for dietary mycotoxins although assessment of induced effects is preliminary. A significant research effort is now underway to determine the adverse consequences of mycotoxins on mucus and microbiota considered as individual but also as tightly connected gut players.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Aflatoxina B1/efeitos adversos , Animais , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Ocratoxinas/efeitos adversos , Patulina/efeitos adversos , Tricotecenos/efeitos adversos , Zearalenona/efeitos adversos
6.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(4): 350-359, dic. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-843141

RESUMO

Con el objeto de caracterizar las poblaciones fúngicas, en particular las especies potencialmente micotoxigénicas, que pueden contaminar los granos de maíz almacenados en silos bolsa con un contenido de humedad superior al recomendado como seguro, se evaluaron 270 muestras extraídas al inicio, a los 90 días y al final de un período de almacenamiento de 5 meses. En dichas muestras se cuantificó e identificó la biota fúngica y se determinó la contaminación con fumonisinas y aflatoxinas. Asimismo, se evaluó el efecto de factores extrínsecos (ambiente), intrínsecos (granos) y tecnológicos (ubicación de los granos en el perfil del silo bolsa) sobre las poblaciones totales y micotoxigénicas. El pH de los granos y el nivel de O2 se redujeron significativamente a los 5 meses, mientras que la concentración de CO2 se incrementó en igual período. Los recuentos totales de la micobiota fueron significativamente mayores en los granos ubicados en el estrato superior del silo bolsa. Se identificaron especies micotoxigénicas de Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium y Eurotium. La frecuencia de aislamiento de Fusarium verticillioides se redujo al final del almacenamiento y Aspergillus flavus solo se aisló en el inicio del almacenamiento. Los recuentos de Penicillium spp. y Eurotium spp. se incrementaron al final del almacenamiento. El 100 % de las muestras presentaron contaminación con fumonisinas, con niveles máximos de 5,707 mg/kg, mientras que las aflatoxinas contaminaron el 40 % de las muestras con niveles máximos de 0,0008 mg/kg. Las condiciones ambientales y de sustrato generadas durante el almacenamiento produjeron cambios en la composición de las poblaciones fúngicas y limitaron el desarrollo de hongos micotoxigénicos y la producción de micotoxinas.


In order to determine the behavior of mycotoxin-producing fungal populations linked with silobags stored corn grains with a moisture content greater at the recommended as safe, 270 samples taken in three times (beginning, 90 days, final) over a five month period of storage were evaluated. The fungal biota was quantified and identified and the contamination with fumonisin and aflatoxin was determined. Extrinsic factors (environment), intrinsic factors (grains) and technological factors (location of the grains in the profile of silobag) were taken into account to evaluate the presence and quantity of total and mycotoxigenic fungal populations. The pH of grains and O2 levels were significantly reduced after five months, while CO2 concentration increased in the same period. The total counts of mycobiota were significantly higher in grains located in the top layer of silobag. Mycotoxigenic species of Fusarium, Aspergillus, Penicillium and Eurotium were identified. The frequency of isolation of Fusarium verticillioides decreased at the end of storage and Aspergillus flavus was isolated only at the beginning of storage. The counts of the Penicillium spp. and Eurotium spp. were increased at the end of storage. Fumonisin contamination was found in all the samples (100 %) with maximum levels of 5.707 mg/kg whereas aflatoxin contaminated only 40 % with maximum levels of 0.0008 mg/kg. The environmental and substrate conditions generated during the storage limited the development of mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin production.


Assuntos
Zea mays , Aflatoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Aflatoxinas/efeitos adversos , Fumonisinas/isolamento & purificação , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Bióticos/análise , Eurotium/isolamento & purificação , Biota , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos
7.
PLoS One ; 10(7): e0133644, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26225823

RESUMO

Maize is one of the most important crops and Poland is the fifth largest producing country in Europe. Diseases caused by Fusarium spp. can affect the yield and grain quality of maize because of contamination with numerous mycotoxins produced by these fungi. The present study was performed to identify the prevailing Fusarium species and the environmental factors affecting their frequencies and the contamination of grain with the main mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZON) and fumonisin B1 (FB1). Thirty kernel samples were collected in three locations in 2011 and in seven locations in 2012 from three hybrids. On average, 25.24% kernels were colonized by Fusarium spp. (424 strains were isolated). Fusarium verticillioides and F. temperatum were the most prevalent species, F. subglutinans, F. proliferatum and F. graminearum were in minor abundance. In total, 272 isolates of F. verticillioides and 81 isolates of F. temperatum were identified. Fusarium temperatum frequency ranged from 1.70% to 28.57% and differences between locations were significant. Fumonisin B1 was found in all tested samples. DON was found in 66.67% and ZON in 43.33% of samples. Rainfall amount positively affected F. temperatum and F. subglutinans frequency in opposite to mean temperatures in July. On the other hand, relationships between frequency of these species and historical data from 1950-2000 for annual temperature range were negative in contrast to the coldest quarter temperatures.


Assuntos
Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Meio Ambiente , Europa (Continente) , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fusariose/microbiologia , Polônia , Temperatura , Tricotecenos/efeitos adversos , Zearalenona/efeitos adversos
8.
J Anim Sci ; 92(9): 3878-86, 2014 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24987084

RESUMO

The ability of spray dried plasma protein (SDPP) to reduce the negative effects of multiple mycotoxins from naturally contaminated corn on weaned pig performance and health was investigated (n = 180; 6.84 ± 0.11 kg). For 12 d after weaning, pigs were fed phase 1 nursery diets with either 0% SDPP (PP0) or 6% SDPP (PP6). After 12 d, pigs were fed phase 2 diets for 3 wk. Pigs fed PP0 in phase 1 continued to be fed a phase 2 diet with no SDPP (PP0/PP0) or were fed a diet including corn naturally contaminated with multiple mycotoxins (M), labeled PP0/PP0M. Pigs fed SDPP in phase 1 were fed either a diet with no SDPP (PP6/PP0), a diet with M and no SDPP (PP6/PP0M), a diet with M and 3% SDPP (PP6/PP3M), or a diet with M and 6% SDPP (PP6/PP6M). During phase 1, pigs fed PP6 had increased (P < 0.05) ADG, ADFI, and G:F, whereas immunological parameters were not altered. During phase 2, pigs consuming PP0/PP0M had reduced ADG (P < 0.01) and ADFI (P < 0.05) in contrast to pigs fed PP0/PP0, whereas the performance of pigs fed PP6/PP0M was intermediate to pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0. The ADG and ADFI did not differ for pigs fed PP0/PP0M and PP6/PP0M during phase 2. Performance of pigs fed PP6/PP3M in contrast to pigs fed PP6/PP0M during phase 2 did not differ; however, these pigs had lower (P < 0.05) tumor necrosis factor α and tended (P = 0.094) to have lower DNA damage. During phase 2, ADG and ADFI of pigs fed PP6/PP6M did not differ from pigs fed PP6/PP0M, but G:F tended (P = 0.067) to be increased in pigs fed PP6/PP6M. Over the entire study period, pigs fed PP0/PP0M had reduced (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P = 0.067) to have reduced ADFI. During this time, pigs fed PP6/PP0M tended to have greater ADG and ADFI (P = 0.093 and P = 0.067, respectively) compared with pigs fed PP0/PP0M. Overall, feeding a diet with SDPP improved growth performance and feed intake of young pigs directly after weaning. Feeding multiple M had a negative impact on growth performance of pigs during this trial. This response was more significant when pigs were not fed SDPP in phase 1. Overall, when combining phase 1 and 2 performance data, daily gain and feed intake tended to be reduced when pigs were not fed 6% SDPP in phase 1. This study indicates that the composition of diets fed immediately after weaning may be important for pigs that subsequently are under a M challenge.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/microbiologia , Proteínas Sanguíneas/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ergotismo/prevenção & controle , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Suínos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/microbiologia , Aflatoxinas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dano ao DNA , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Dieta/veterinária , Ergotismo/sangue , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Suínos/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
9.
Toxicol Sci ; 141(2): 387-97, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24980263

RESUMO

The differential risk of exposure to fumonisin (FB), deoxynivalenol (DON), and zearalenone (ZEA) mycotoxins to the South African population, residing in the nine Provinces was assessed during a cross-sectional grain consumer survey. The relative per capita maize intake (g/day) was stratified by gender, ethnicity, and Province and the probable daily intake (PDI) for each mycotoxin (ng/kg body weight/day) calculated utilizing SPECIAL and SUPER dry milled maize fractions representing different exposure scenarios. Men consumed on an average more maize (173 g/day) than women (142 g/day) whereas the black African ethnic group had the highest intake (279 g/day) followed by the Colored group (169 g/day) with the Asian/Indian and White groups consuming lower quantities of 101 and 80 g/day, respectively. The estimated mean PDIs for the various subgroups and Provinces, utilizing the different dry milled maize fractions, were below the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) for each mycotoxin. A distinct and more sensitive mycotoxin risk assessment model (MYCORAM) for exposure, stratified by Province and ethnicity were developed utilizing specific maize intake increments (g/kg body weight/day) that provides information on the percentage of the population exposed above the PMTDI for each mycotoxin. Evaluation of the MYCORAM utilizing commercial and EXPERIMENTALLY DERIVED: SPECIAL milling fractions, containing predefined mycotoxins levels, predicts the percentage of maize consumers exposed above the respective PMTDI. Safety modeling using the MYCORAM could also predict a maximum tolerated level adequate to safeguard all South African maize consumers including the most vulnerable groups.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Tricotecenos/efeitos adversos , Zea mays/microbiologia , Zearalenona/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Peso Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Ingestão de Alimentos/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Comportamento Alimentar/etnologia , Feminino , Manipulação de Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Características de Residência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , América do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Animal ; 8(10): 1667-76, 2014 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24923532

RESUMO

The aim of this trial was to assess the effects of the administration of different combinations of mycotoxins in naturally contaminated maize grains on dairy heifer growth, blood measurements and puberty onset. A total of 35 Friesian female heifers were randomly allotted to three experimental groups from 18-21 to 42-45 weeks of age. During the 24-week experimental period (EP), heifers were fed the same diet, but with maize meal derived from three differently contaminated lots: very low contamination, as control (C); medium-low aflatoxin-contaminated (A); and mixed aflatoxin-fumonisin contaminated (A-F). At the end of the EP, they returned to a common diet without contaminated maize, and they were monitored for an additional period of 12 weeks (post-experimental period, PEP). BW, wither height, hip height, body length and heart girth were measured every 4 weeks from the beginning of EP to the end of PEP. At the same time, body condition score was evaluated and blood samples were taken from the jugular vein to be analysed for haematological, serum protein and metabolic profiles. Age at puberty was assessed by measuring weekly plasma progesterone levels from 40 to 52 weeks of age. Body growth measurements were processed both by ANOVA of average daily gain of EP and PEP separately, and by the analysis of growth curve parameters. Haematological, serum protein and metabolic profile were evaluated using a mixed model, taking into account the repeated measurements in time on each animal. Heifers' growth was delayed both in A and A-F groups during EP, as evidenced by the different linear coefficients of the BW growth curve in the three groups. Differently contaminated diets did not affect the haematological profile, so that it can be concluded that these levels of mycotoxin contamination do not determine any specific effect on haematopoiesis and immunity in growing heifers. The main blood marker of mycotoxin chronic toxicity was the γ-glutamyl transferase activity level in plasma, which appeared to be altered even after the removal of mycotoxins. During EP, plasma glucose was lower in the groups fed contaminated diet compared with C. The joint actions of an altered nutritional status and a long-lasting liver damage were probably the causes of the delay in puberty attainment in A and, particularly, in the A-F group. The results from this trial evidenced that a chronic aflatoxin-fumonisin contamination in diets of dairy heifers can determine an important delay in the reproductive career of these animals.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/efeitos adversos , Bovinos , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Zea mays/química , Ração Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Grão Comestível/química , Feminino , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Maturidade Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
Birth Defects Res A Clin Mol Teratol ; 94(10): 790-803, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22991331

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is a mycotoxin produced by a common fungal contaminant of corn. Ingestion of FB(1)-contaminated food is associated with increased risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). FB(1) induces NTDs in inbred LM/Bc mice. FB(1) inhibits ceramide synthase in de novo sphingolipid biosynthesis, resulting in accumulation of sphinganine and sphinganine-1-phosphate (Sa1P). Sa1P functions as a ligand for a family of G protein-coupled S1P receptors. METHODS: Pregnant SWV and LM/Bc mice were treated with FB(1) (20 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally on embryonic day (ED) 7.5-8.5) or the known S1P receptor agonist FTY720 (10 mg/kg/day oral gavage on ED 6.5-8.5). LC/MS was used to detect sphingoid base-1-phosphates in maternal blood spots, plasma, and embryonic tissue. Strain-specific SWV and LM/Bc mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and serum free mouse embryo (SFME) neural progenitor cells were treated with FB(1) (40 µM for 24 hr) and LC/MS was used to detect sphingoid base-1-phosphates. RESULTS: FTY720 induced NTDs in both the SWV and the LM/Bc strains of mice. Sphinganine-1-P (Sa1P) and FTY720-P were elevated in the blood spots and plasma of mice treated with FB(1) or FTY720, respectively. FTY720-P was elevated in ED 9.5 exencephalic embryos. Sa1P was elevated in SFME and MEF cells treated with FB(1), and Sa1P was higher in MEFs generated from the FB(1)-NTD-susceptible LM/Bc strain. CONCLUSIONS: Elevated sphingoid base-1-P after FB(1) or FTY720 suggest a potential role for these bioactive lipid ligands and activation of S1P receptor signaling pathways in the failure of neural tube closure after FB(1) or FTY720. Sa1P may represent a biomarker for FB(1)-NTD risk assessment.


Assuntos
Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/induzido quimicamente , Propilenoglicóis/efeitos adversos , Esfingosina/análogos & derivados , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Embrião de Mamíferos , Feminino , Cloridrato de Fingolimode , Fumonisinas/farmacologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Modelos Biológicos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/patologia , Gravidez , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/sangue , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Propilenoglicóis/farmacologia , Esfingosina/efeitos adversos , Esfingosina/sangue , Esfingosina/farmacologia , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Br J Nutr ; 107(12): 1776-86, 2012 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21936967

RESUMO

Deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisins (FB) are mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, which naturally co-occur in animal diets. The gastrointestinal tract represents the first barrier met by exogenous food/feed compounds. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of DON and FB, alone and in combination, on some intestinal parameters, including morphology, histology, expression of cytokines and junction proteins. A total of twenty-four 5-week-old piglets were randomly assigned to four different groups, receiving separate diets for 5 weeks: a control diet; a diet contaminated with either DON (3 mg/kg) or FB (6 mg/kg); or both toxins. Chronic ingestion of these contaminated diets induced morphological and histological changes, as shown by the atrophy and fusion of villi, the decreased villi height and cell proliferation in the jejunum, and by the reduced number of goblet cells and lymphocytes. At the end of the experiment, the expression levels of several cytokines were measured by RT-PCR and some of them (TNF-α, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-6 and IL-10) were significantly up-regulated in the ileum or the jejunum. In addition, the ingestion of contaminated diets reduced the expression of the adherent junction protein E-cadherin and the tight junction protein occludin in the intestine. When animals were fed with a co-contaminated diet (DON+FB), several types of interactions were observed depending on the parameters and segments assessed: synergistic (immune cells); additive (cytokines and junction protein expression); less than additive (histological lesions and cytokine expression); antagonistic (immune cells and cytokine expression). Taken together, the present data provide strong evidence that chronic ingestion of low doses of mycotoxins alters the intestine, and thus may predispose animals to infections by enteric pathogens.


Assuntos
Dieta , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Fusarium/química , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricotecenos/efeitos adversos , Animais , Caderinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Células Caliciformes/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções/etiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Intestino Delgado/imunologia , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Ocludina , Distribuição Aleatória , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Suínos , Regulação para Cima
13.
Matern Child Nutr ; 8(4): 503-11, 2012 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22044455

RESUMO

Feeding infants with maize can expose them to fumonisin mycotoxins. We assessed fumonisin exposure from complementary foods in rural Tanzania and determined strategies to reduce the exposure. We conducted a cross-sectional study in four villages of Tarakea division, Northern Tanzania. We used a repeat 24-hour dietary recall to collect data of maize consumption as complementary food for 254 infants aged 6-8 months. Fumonisin concentrations in the maize were also estimated. Fumonisin exposure was assessed using @risk analysis software. With the software, several maximum fumonisin contamination and maize consumption patterns were combined in order to determine effective strategies for minimizing fumonisin exposure. Of the infants, 89% consumed maize at amounts up to 158g/person/day (mean; 43g/person/day±28). The maize was contaminated with fumonisins at levels up to 3201µgkg(-1) . Risk of fumonisin intake above the provisional maximum tolerable daily limit of 2µgkg(-1) body weight was 15% (95% confidence interval; 10-19). The risk was minimized when the maximum contamination was set at 150µgkg(-1) . The risk was also minimized when the maximum consumption was set at 20g/child/day while keeping the maximum contamination at the European Union (EU) maximum tolerated limit (MTL) of 1000µgkg(-1) . Considering the economical and technological limitations of adopting good agricultural practices in rural Tanzania, it is practically difficult to reduce contamination in maize to 150µgkg(-1) . We suggest adoption of the EU MTL of 1000µgkg(-1) for fumonisins in maize and reduction, by replacement with another cereal, of the maize component in complementary foods to a maximum intake of 20g/child/day.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Infantis/efeitos adversos , Zea mays/química , Feminino , Contaminação de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Fumonisinas/análise , Humanos , Lactente , Alimentos Infantis/análise , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Saúde da População Rural , Tanzânia , Desmame
14.
Can J Vet Res ; 75(3): 176-82, 2011 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22210993

RESUMO

The interaction of Bordetella bronchiseptica, toxigenic Pasteurella multocida serotype D, and the mycotoxin fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) was studied. On day 0 of the experiment, 28 artificially reared 3-day-old piglets were divided into 4 groups (n = 7 each): a control group (A), a group fed FB(1) toxin (B), a group infected with the 2 pathogens (C), and a group infected with the 2 pathogens and fed FB(1) toxin (D). The B. bronchiseptica infection [with 10(6) colony-forming units (CFU)/mL] was performed on day 4 and the P. multocida infection (with 10(8) CFU/mL) on day 16. From day 16 a Fusarium verticillioides fungal culture (dietary FB(1) toxin content 10 mg/kg) was mixed into the feed of groups B and D. In groups C and D, clinical signs including mild serous nasal discharge, sneezing, panting, and hoarseness appeared from day 4, and then from day 16 some piglets had coughing and dyspnea as well. Computed tomography (CT) performed on day 16 demonstrated lung lesions attributable to colonization by B. bronchiseptica in the infected groups. By day 25 the number of piglets exhibiting lesions had increased, and the lesions appeared as well-circumscribed, focal changes characterized by a strong density increase in the affected areas of the lungs. The gross pathological findings confirmed the results obtained by CT. These results indicate that, when combined with dual infection by B. bronchiseptica and P. multocida, dietary exposure of pigs to FB(1) toxin raises the risk of pneumonia and increases the extent and severity of the pathological changes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bordetella/veterinária , Bordetella bronchiseptica , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Pasteurella/veterinária , Pasteurella multocida , Pneumonia Bacteriana/veterinária , Doenças dos Suínos/microbiologia , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Infecções por Bordetella/complicações , Infecções por Bordetella/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Feminino , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/administração & dosagem , Fusarium , Pulmão/patologia , Infecções por Pasteurella/complicações , Infecções por Pasteurella/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Suínos , Doenças dos Suínos/diagnóstico , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
15.
Salud Publica Mex ; 52(5): 461-7, 2010.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21031253

RESUMO

Fumonisins are mycotoxins that contaminate maize, disrupt the folate and sphingolipid metabolism, are associated with neural tube defects, and are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as possible human carcinogens. Since maize-based foods are significant components of the Mexican diet and there is a high prevalence of genetic susceptibility for folate deficiency among Mexicans, this essay presents international and national evidence of fumonisin exposure and the relevance that such exposure represents for Mexico.


Assuntos
Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/etiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Carcinógenos Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Equidae , Feminino , Receptor 2 de Folato/antagonistas & inibidores , Fumonisinas/química , Fumonisinas/farmacocinética , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Homocistinúria/epidemiologia , Homocistinúria/genética , Humanos , Necrose Tubular Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Leucoencefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Leucoencefalopatias/veterinária , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/deficiência , Metilenotetra-Hidrofolato Redutase (NADPH2)/genética , México , Camundongos , Espasticidade Muscular/epidemiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/genética , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/induzido quimicamente , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Gravidez , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Ratos , Esfingolipídeos/química , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Suínos , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem , Zea mays/microbiologia
16.
Salud pública Méx ; 52(5): 461-467, sept.-oct. 2010. ilus, graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-562210

RESUMO

Las fumonisinas son una familia de micotoxinas que contaminan al maíz, alteran el metabolismo de los esfingolípidos y del folato, se asocian con defectos del tubo neural y están catalogadas por la Agencia Internacional de Investigación en Cáncer (IARC por sus siglas en inglés) como posibles carcinógenos humanos. Debido a que en México los derivados de maíz constituyen una parte importante de la dieta y existe alta prevalencia de población genéticamente susceptible a la deficiencia de folato, en este ensayo se presentan las evidencias mundiales y nacionales de la exposición a fumonisinas y la relevancia que para México representa la evaluación de esta exposición.


Fumonisins are mycotoxins that contaminate maize, disrupt the folate and sphingolipid metabolism, are associated with neural tube defects, and are considered by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) as possible human carcinogens. Since maize-based foods are significant components of the Mexican diet and there is a high prevalence of genetic susceptibility for folate deficiency among Mexicans, this essay presents international and national evidence of fumonisin exposure and the relevance that such exposure represents for Mexico.


Assuntos
Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Gravidez , Ratos , Adulto Jovem , Contaminação de Alimentos , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/etiologia , Carcinógenos Ambientais/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Sistema Digestório/epidemiologia , Equidae , /antagonistas & inibidores , Fumonisinas/química , Fumonisinas/farmacocinética , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Homocistinúria/epidemiologia , Homocistinúria/genética , Necrose Tubular Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Leucoencefalopatias/induzido quimicamente , Leucoencefalopatias/veterinária , México , Proteínas de Membrana Transportadoras/metabolismo , /deficiência , /genética , Espasticidade Muscular/epidemiologia , Espasticidade Muscular/genética , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/induzido quimicamente , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/epidemiologia , Defeitos do Tubo Neural/genética , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Suínos , Esfingolipídeos/química , Esfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Teratogênios/toxicidade , Adulto Jovem , Zea mays/microbiologia
17.
Chem Biol Interact ; 182(2-3): 239-44, 2009 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19559689

RESUMO

Toxicity and persistence of fumonisin B1 (FB1) in liver, kidney and muscle were investigated in ducks fed 5, 10 and 20mg FB1+FB2/kg feed during force-feeding. Mortality and signs of toxicity were only obtained with 20mg/kg, whereas an increased Sa/So ratio was observed from 5mg/kg on. Persistence of FB1 was only found in liver (16 and 20 microg FB1/kg liver in ducks fed 10 and 20 mg FB1+FB2/kg feed, respectively). Toxicokinetic studies were conducted by the intravenous route (IV, single dose: 10mg FB1/kg body weight) and the oral route (single dose: 100mg FB1/kg body weight), in growing ducks and in ducks during force-feeding. After IV administration, serum concentration-time curves were described by a two-compartment open model. Elimination half-life and mean residence time of FB1 were 26 and 24 min, respectively, clearance was 19.3 ml/min/kg. After oral administration, bioavailability, elimination half-life, mean residence time and clearance varied during force-feeding and growth from 2-2.3%, 71-80 min, 200-188 min, 16.7-17 ml/min/kg, respectively. Taken together these results demonstrate that the risk of persistence of FB1 in ducks after force-feeding is very low, Sa/So being a good biomarker which increases before signs of toxicity and risk of persistence of FB1 in tissue (limit of detection 13 microg/kg).


Assuntos
Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Patos/metabolismo , Fumonisinas/farmacocinética , Animais , Fumonisinas/administração & dosagem , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Fusarium/química , Masculino
18.
Mycopathologia ; 167(1): 31-6, 2009 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18636342

RESUMO

Fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)) is the most abundant of the fumonisin mycotoxins, mainly produced in maize by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum. A total of 282 corn samples harvested in 2005 from six provinces, the main corn-producing areas of China, were analyzed for FB(1) using high-performance liquid chromatography. All samples except one were (99.6%) positive for FB(1) at levels varying from 3 to 71,121 ng/g with mean and median levels for all samples of 6,662 and 1,569 ng/g, respectively. During an analysis of the distribution pattern for FB(1), it became apparent that 43.6% of tested samples had FB(1) concentrations below 1,000 ng/g, while 25.2% contained in excess of 5,000 ng/g. The average exposure to FB(1) (1.1 microg/kg body weight/day) is within the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake of 2 microg/kg body weight/day set by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/análise , Fumonisinas/análise , Zea mays/química , Carcinógenos Ambientais/efeitos adversos , China , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Neoplasias Esofágicas/etiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Fusarium/metabolismo , Humanos , Zea mays/microbiologia
19.
J Nutr ; 137(12): 2723-9, 2007 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18029490

RESUMO

Fumonisin mycotoxins contaminate maize worldwide. Analysis of maize samples (n = 396) collected from fields in Guatemala from 2000 to 2003 found that lowland maize (<360 m) had significantly more fumonisin B1 than highland maize (>1200 m). For example, 78% of the lowland samples collected at harvest in 2002 contained >0.3 microg/g of fumonisin B1, whereas only 2% of the highland samples contained >0.3 microg/g. Maize from the 2002 crop collected from storage in the highlands just before the 2003 harvest contained significantly more fumonisin B1 compared with levels at harvest in 2002. All Fusarium-infected kernels analyzed from 9 random lowland locations in 2001 were infected with fumonisin-producing Fusarium verticillioides and no other Fusarium species, whereas in samples from the highlands, only 5% of the Fusarium-positive kernels were F. verticillioides. In 2005, maize samples (n = 236) from the 2004 crop were collected from local markets in 20 Departments across Guatemala. The analysis showed that maize from lowland locations was often highly contaminated with fumonisin and was frequently transported to and sold in highland markets. Thus, fumonisin exposure in the highlands will be greatest in groups that obtain their maize in the market place from commercial vendors. Based on a recall study and published consumption data, a preliminary assessment of daily intake of total fumonisins was estimated. Consumption of nixtamalized maize products made from >50% of the maize from commercial vendors in 2005 could result in exposure exceeding the recommended WHO provisional maximal tolerable daily intake.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Zea mays/microbiologia , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Guatemala , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Br J Nutr ; 95(6): 1185-92, 2006 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16768843

RESUMO

Fumonisin B1 (FB1) is a mycotoxin produced by Fusarium verticillioides, a fungus that commonly contaminates maize. Sex-related effects of FB1 have been observed with respect to carcinogenicity in rodents, to performances in pigs and immunosuppression in mice. In the present study the sex-related effect of FB1 on the pig immune response was determined. Female and castrated male piglets received for 28 d either control feed or feed contaminated with 8 mg FB1/kg feed in the form of F. verticillioides culture material. At day 7 and day 21, animals were immunised subcutaneously with a Mycoplasma agalactiae vaccine. Ingestion of FB1-contaminated feed significantly decreased weight gain in males but had no effect in females. No sex-related difference was observed in biochemical parameters, but a higher level of creatinine was noted in toxin-treated animals. FB1 also altered the pig immune response in a sex-specific manner. In males, ingestion of FB1-contaminated feed significantly decreased specific antibody levels after vaccination as well as the mRNA expression level of IL-10. In females, the toxin has no effect on specific antibodies or on cytokine mRNA levels. The results of the present study indicate that FB1 is immunosuppressive in pigs. The magnitude of this FB1-induced immunosuppression is highly dependent on sex, with males being more susceptible than females.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fumonisinas/efeitos adversos , Micotoxinas/efeitos adversos , Suínos/imunologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antibacterianos/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Feminino , Imunossupressão , Masculino , Mycoplasma agalactiae/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Fatores Sexuais , Suínos/metabolismo , Vacinação , Zea mays/microbiologia
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