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1.
Brain Nerve ; 71(10): 1091-1096, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588053

RESUMO

Various types of aberrant social behaviors may occur after brain injury. Some of these behaviors might be understood as direct consequences of brain injury; apathy, disinhibition, and executive dysfunction are the three major domains of aberrant social behaviors after injury of the prefrontal cortex. In addition, psychosis, pseudobulbar affect, depression, and fatigue are common symptoms that affect social behavior after brain injury. To evaluate behavioral symptoms, it is important to obtain information based on the context of patient's daily life. Individualized interventions such as pharmacotherapy, disease education and environmental control would improve the patient's social function.


Assuntos
Sintomas Comportamentais/etiologia , Lesões Encefálicas/complicações , Comportamento Problema , Comportamento Social , Apatia , Transtorno Depressivo , Função Executiva , Humanos
2.
Psychiatr Hung ; 34(3): 300-310, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570661

RESUMO

This paper aims to review previous findings on the developmental trajectory of core executive functions - attentional control, inhibition, mental shifting, cognitive flexibility, and working memory - in adolescence with special attention to age-related stress-sensitivity in this period. More simple abilities, like attentional control and inhibition, go through a dramatic maturation process between the ages of 10 and 11. This is followed by a final progress, and as a result, after age 13-15 years acute stress deteriorates attentional control performance less, or it may even improve it. Working memory matures later, around 14-15 years, and it reaches the adult level at 17 years. Concerning mental shifting and cognitive flexibility, more maturation points could be identified: word fluency usually reaches full maturation at the age of 13, semantic fluency between the ages of 17 and 18, and general flexibility around 18-19 years. Based on the reviewed papers we could see that acute stress affects executive functions differently during adolescence, depending on how these functions mature. Those functions which develop later, are more sensitive to stress during the entire period of adolescence, and reviewed studies show that acute stress has a deteriorating effect on these functions. At the same time, early matured inhibition and attentional control are enhanced by acute stress in the half of the studies. Other theories and methodological issues are also discussed. Keywords: attentional control; inhibition; shifting; working memory.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Infantil , Função Executiva , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estresse Psicológico , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Inibição (Psicologia) , Memória de Curto Prazo , Adulto Jovem
3.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46810

RESUMO

Executive functions represent a constellation of cognitive abilities that drive goal-oriented behavior and are critical to the ability to adapt to an ever-changing world. This article provides a clinically oriented approach to classifying, localizing, diagnosing, and treating disorders of executive function, which are pervasive in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Cognição
4.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46811

RESUMO

In many ways, ADHD and executive functioning issues go hand in hand. That’s because most of the symptoms of ADHD (also known as ADD) are actually problems with executive function. (You’ll see the signs of each are very similar!) There’s one big difference between the two, however.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Função Executiva
5.
Recurso na Internet em Inglês | LIS - Localizador de Informação em Saúde, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46814

RESUMO

Our mission is to educate, guide and inspire parents of children with learning disabilities or ADHD. Our aim is to help parents realize their children’s significant gifts and talents, and to show that with their love, guidance, and the right support, their children can live happy and productive lives.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Dislexia , Comunicação não Verbal , Função Executiva
6.
Orv Hetil ; 160(39): 1554-1562, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31544495

RESUMO

Introduction and aim: Earlier results in the literature suggest that overweight subjects show weaker performance in executive function tasks as compared to normal weight people. Dopaminergic system is strongly linked to executive functions, body mass regulation and ingestion. The aim of the present study was to examine the possible relationship between DRD4 VNTR 7-repeat allele, body mass index and Stroop performance in a healthy adult population, and to draw psychogenetic conclusions. Method: 152 subjects without diabetic or psychiatric history participated in the study. Along with non-invasive DNA sampling, demographic, weight and height data were collected. The participants also solved the computerized Stroop task. 11 subjects belonged to the underweight (mean body mass index = 17.9 kg/m2), 98 subjects to the normal (mean body mass index = 21.8 kg/m2), and 43 subjects to the overweight (mean body mass index = 28.9 kg/m2) category. After grouping participants according to their body mass index and DRD4 VNTR genotype, we compared their mean performance to investigate the possible psychogenetic associations. Results: Body mass index and stimuli type showed significant interaction on error number (p = 0.045): subjects with normal body mass index made significantly less error as compared to under- and overweight subjects in incongruent trials. The 7-repeat allele carriers made tendentiously more errors than non-carriers. Normal weight people made less error - independently from their genotype -, while subjects with either low or high BMI carrying the 7-repeat allele made more errors compared to non-carriers. Conclusion: Under- and overweight subjects perform weaker where inhibition is necessary in the task. This may reflect their reactions to food-related situations. Orv Hetil. 2019; 160(39): 1554-1562.


Assuntos
Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Dopamina D4/genética , Adulto , Genética Comportamental , Genótipo , Humanos , Repetições Minissatélites , Receptores de Dopamina D4/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptores de Dopamina D4/metabolismo
8.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(5): 7305205020p1-7305205020p10, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484026

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: There is a need for evidence-based occupational therapy interventions to enhance time management in people with time management difficulties. OBJECTIVE: To pilot test the first part of the Let's Get Organized (LGO) occupational therapy intervention in a Swedish context by exploring enhancements of time management skills, aspects of executive functioning, and satisfaction with daily occupations in people with time management difficulties because of neurodevelopmental or mental disorders. DESIGN: One-group pretest-posttest design with 3-mo follow-up. SETTING: Outpatient psychiatric and habilitation settings. PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five people with confirmed or suspected mental or neurodevelopmental disorder and self-reported difficulties with time management in daily life. INTERVENTION: Swedish version of Let's Get Organized (LGO-S) Part 1, with structured training in the use of cognitive assistive techniques and strategies using trial-and-error learning strategies in 10 weekly group sessions of 1.5 hr. OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Time management, organization and planning, and emotional regulation were measured with the Swedish version of the Assessment of Time Management Skills (ATMS-S). Executive functioning was measured with the Swedish version of the Weekly Calendar Planning Activity, and satisfaction with daily occupations was assessed with the Satisfaction With Daily Occupations measure. RESULTS: Participants displayed significantly improved time management, organization and planning skills, and emotional regulation, as well as satisfaction with daily occupations. Aspects of executive functioning were partly improved. ATMS-S results were sustained at 3-mo follow-up. CONCLUSION AND RELEVANCE: LGO-S Part 1 is a promising intervention for improving time management skills and satisfaction with daily occupations and should be investigated further. WHAT THIS ARTICLE ADDS: This study shows that LGO-S Part 1 is feasible for use in psychiatric and habilitation outpatient services. The results are promising for improved time management skills, organization and planning skills, and satisfaction with daily occupations and need to be confirmed in further studies.


Assuntos
Terapia Ocupacional , Gerenciamento do Tempo , Função Executiva , Humanos , Terapia Ocupacional/métodos , Projetos Piloto , Suécia , Gerenciamento do Tempo/métodos
9.
Am J Occup Ther ; 73(5): 7305205060p1-7305205060p9, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484030

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine how Parkinson's disease (PD) affects functional cognition as assessed by the Complex Task Performance Assessment (CTPA) and to examine the associations of CTPA performance with other indicators of executive function in people with PD. METHOD: Volunteers with PD without dementia (n = 20) and community control participants (n = 19) completed neuropsychological testing, patient-reported outcome measures, and the CTPA. RESULTS: There were no group differences for CTPA performance accuracy; however, the PD group took longer to complete the CTPA than did the control group. In the PD group, inefficient CTPA performance correlated with poorer cognitive flexibility and worse reported everyday shifting and task monitoring. CONCLUSION: Decreased executive function, namely cognitive flexibility and attentional control, may impair functional cognition in people with PD. Future studies with larger, more diverse samples are warranted to determine the discriminant validity and sensitivity of the CTPA. Use of performance-based assessments such as the CTPA may increase the understanding of functional cognition in people with PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Cognição , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
10.
Dev Neuropsychol ; 44(5): 397-408, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31394932

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to generate normative data on the M-WCST in a Lebanese adult population and to examine the relationship between performance on this task and demographic variables. The sample consisted of 220 healthy adults aged between 18 and 64 years. Regression-based strategy was applied to generate normative data. The results showed a statistically significant effect of age and level of education on the M-WCST measures, whereas gender was not significant. Demographically calibrated percentiles and scaled scores were created. Finally, this study was the first to provide normative-adjusted tables for the M-WCST scores in Lebanon.


Assuntos
Testes Neuropsicológicos/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Escolaridade , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valores de Referência , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Teste de Classificação de Cartas de Wisconsin , Adulto Jovem
11.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1155: 821-846, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31468450

RESUMO

Lead (Pb2+) is a developmental neurotoxicant that causes lifelong cognitive dysfunctions. In particular, Pb2+-induced frontoexecutive dysfunctions emerge later in life when the cortex is fully myelinated, thereby permitting the ability to assess the extent to which Pb2+ has developmentally impacted higher order cognitive and behavioral systems. The present study evaluated the effects of developmental Pb2+-exposure (150 ppm lead acetate in the drinking water) in Long Evans Hooded rats through the Attention Set-Shift Test (ASST) between postnatal days (PND) 60-90. Treatment groups were comprised of Control (0 ppm), Perinatal (150 ppm), and Perinatal+Taurine (150 ppm + 0.05% Taurine in the drinking water) rats (N = 36; n = 6 per treatment group for each sex). Frontoexecutive functions were evaluated based on trials-to-criterion (TTC) and errors-to-criterion (ETC) measures for simple and complex discriminations (SD & CD), intradimensional and extradimensional shifts (ID & ED), as well as reversals (Rev) of the CD, I-, and ED stages, respectively. Post-testing, the prelimbic (PrL), infralimbic (IL), orbital ventral frontal (OV), orbital ventro-lateral (OVL), and hippocampal (HP) brain regions were extracted and processed through Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrophotometry (LC/MS) for determining the GABA and Taurine ratios relative to Glutamate, Dopamine, Norepinephrine, Epinephrine, and Serotonin. The ASST data revealed that Perinatal rats are negatively impacted by developmental Pb2+-exposures evidenced by increased TTC and ETC to learn the SD, ID, and ID-Rev with unique sex-based differences in frontoexecutive dysfunctions. Moreover, Perinatal+Taurine co-treated rats exhibited a recovery of the frontoexecutive dysfunctions observed in Perinatal rats to levels equivalent to Control rats across both sexes. The LC/MS data revealed altered brain sub-region specific patterns across the PrL, IL, OV, OVL, and HP in response to developmental Pb2+-exposure that produced an altered neurochemical signaling profile in a sex-dependent manner, which may underlie the observed frontoexecutive dysfunctions, cognitive inflexibility, and associated motivation deficits. When taurine co-treatment was administered concurrently for the duration of developmental Pb2+-exposure, the observed frontoexecutive dysfunctions were significantly reduced in both ASST task performance and neurochemical ratios that were comparable to Control levels for both sexes. Altogether, the data suggest that taurine co-treatment may facilitate neuroprotection, mitigate neurotransmitter excitability balancing, and perhaps ameliorate against neurotoxicant exposures in early development as a potential psychopharmacotherapy.


Assuntos
Atenção , Função Executiva , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Exposição Materna/efeitos adversos , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Feminino , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Gravidez , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
12.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 44(4): 493-510, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256084

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual-task (simultaneous motor and cognitive task) (DT) training via virtual-reality exergaming is known to benefit balance control post-stroke. However, the efficacy of such training on DT balance control (volitional and reactive) and cognitive (executive function and attention) domains associated with fall risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the efficacy of cognitive-motor exergame training (CMT) (Wii-fit games in conjunction with cognitive tasks) for improving balance control (volitional and reactive) and cognition (executive function and attention) among people with chronic stroke (PwCS). METHODS: Hemiparetic, ambulatory PwCS were randomly assigned to either CMT (n = 12) or conventional training (CT) (n = 12) and underwent six weeks of high-intensity, tapered balance training. The CMT group performed Wii-fit games in conjunction with cognitive tasks, while CT group underwent customized, progressive balance training. Performance under DT conditions on Limits of Stability (volitional) and Slip-Perturbation (reactive) tests, and letter-number sequencing (cognition) determined the efficacy of CMT. RESULTS: Post-intervention, under DT reactive conditions, CMT group improved both motor and cognition, while the CT group improved motor alone. Under DT volitional conditions, motor performance improved only in CMT group. CONCLUSION: Cognitive-motor exergaming appears to be effective for improving balance control and cognition and could be implemented in clinical stroke rehabilitation settings.


Assuntos
Acidentes por Quedas/prevenção & controle , Cognição/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Jogos de Vídeo , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Doença Crônica , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/psicologia , Reabilitação do Acidente Vascular Cerebral/métodos , Jogos de Vídeo/psicologia
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(26): e16114, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment subjects exhibit high cortisol levels that are associated with low brain activity, but negative emotions with high cortisol are associated with high brain activity and reduced cognition. Emotion regulation, glucocorticoid hormones, and brain activity all interact with cognitive impairment. Therefore, we aimed to investigate cognitive impairment differences related to sex, morning salivary cortisol, emotion regulation, and brain activity in elderly people. METHODS: A total of 64 participants (19 males and 45 females) were tested by the Montreal cognitive assessment. Next, morning saliva was collected from each participant and analyzed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the brain activity of the participants was subsequently recorded. Finally, emotion regulation was assessed via the Brunel mood scale questionnaire. RESULTS: The results revealed that attention was significantly lower in elderly females than in elderly males. Depression and vigor were significantly higher in elderly females than in elderly males. Brain activity of the slow (delta and theta) and fast (beta and high beta) waves was significantly higher in elderly females than in elderly males. Moreover, attention was negatively correlated with the theta wave, whereas delayed recall was positively correlated with the theta wave and salivary cortisol. Depression was positively correlated with the high beta wave and language skill, whereas the high beta wave was negatively correlated with visuoconstructional skill. CONCLUSION: The brain activity, emotion, and cortisol were influenced by cognitive impairments, although the relation of brain activity with glucocorticoid hormones remains inconclusive. This finding may be useful to the brain aging process, promote healthy brain aging, and prevent neurodegenerative conditions.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Emoções , Hidrocortisona/metabolismo , Idoso , Atenção , Depressão/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Saliva/metabolismo , Autocontrole , Fatores Sexuais
15.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(28): e16445, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31305474

RESUMO

BACKOGROUND: Evidence available in the literature suggests that physical exercise increases the release of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in humans and may possibly be related to improvements in executive function. However, studies of this phenomenon in adolescents are still scarce. The objective of this work is to describe the protocol for a systematic review (SR) and meta-analysis of interventional studies aiming to determine the effect of physical exercise on BDNF levels and executive function in adolescents. METHODS: This protocol is guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Protocols (PRISMA-P) and by the Cochrane Handbook of Systematic Reviews of Interventions. The databases to be searched are PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), and CINAHL. Interventional studies conducted on adolescents with different exercise protocols and evaluations of BDNF levels and executive function in pre- and post-intervention periods will be included in the systematic review. The characteristics of the studies, participants, and main results will be described, then the evaluation of the risk of biases and the level of evidence obtained by the protocol will be assessed. The selection of studies, data extraction, and evaluation of the methodological quality will be performed by 2 experienced reviewers independently. CONCLUSION: The systematic review will present the effects of the practice of physical exercises on the BDNF and executive function levels. The results will strengthen the interventions with the focus on the brain health of adolescents through general orientations and the evidences described shall direct future research. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018110683.


Assuntos
Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/metabolismo , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício/fisiologia , Exercício/psicologia , Metanálise como Assunto , Revisão Sistemática como Assunto , Adolescente , Humanos
16.
Support Care Cancer ; 27(9): 3253-3279, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31147780

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Individuals with non-central nervous system (CNS) cancers can experience cancer-related cognitive dysfunction (CRCD), negatively impacting daily functioning and quality of life. This systematic review examined cognitive rehabilitation programs aimed at improving cognitive function. METHODS: PsychInfo and PubMed were searched in February 2019. Eligible studies evaluated a cognitive rehabilitation program for adults with non-CNS cancers and included at least one objective cognitive measure. Across studies, we assessed methodological quality using relevant criteria based on published intervention-related review guidelines and examined findings from performance-based and self-reported outcome measures. RESULTS: 19 studies met inclusion criteria, totalling 1124 participants altogether. These studies included randomized controlled trials (n = 12), partial, quasi or non-randomized controlled trials (n = 3) and single-arm pilot studies (n = 4). All studies found improvements on at least one cognitive measure (performance-based or self-reported). By cognitive domain, objective improvements in memory were most commonly reported, followed by executive functions and processing speed. In terms of methodological quality, studies generally provided clear descriptions of participants and interventions. However, limitations included lack of standardized terminology for interventions, discrepancies in outcome measures, and incomplete statistical reporting. CONCLUSIONS: The available evidence supports clinical implementation of cognitive rehabilitation to improve CRCD, with further work in program development, dissemination, and feasibility recommended. We provide specific recommendations to facilitate future research and integration in this field.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Disfunção Cognitiva/reabilitação , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Adulto , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/patologia , Avaliação de Resultados (Cuidados de Saúde) , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia
17.
Maturitas ; 126: 28-33, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239114

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of a 12-week multimodal physical exercise program on global cognition, executive function and mobility in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or Alzheimer's disease (AD). DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial (RCT) of two groups in parallel; single-blind. METHOD: Patients were allocated to a control group (CG; n = 28 comprising MCI = 14 and AD = 14) and an exercise group (EG; n = 28 comprising MCI = 14 and AD = 14). The participants' physical and cognitive abilities were evaluated before and three months after the intervention. The training consisted of a 1-hour supervised program of multimodal physical exercises (aerobic, strength, balance and flexibility) of moderate intensity, delivered twice a week. RESULTS: The independent t-test of the delta (Δ = post-intervention - pre-intervention) was used to compare the groups (CG x EG) for each diagnosis (MCI and AD). There was a significant difference only in the simple task mobility test (ΔCG: -0.18 ± 0.53; ΔEG: -1.05 ± 0.57; P = 0.03) and in the verbal fluency (ΔCG: -1.30 ± 2.49; ΔEG: 3.16 ± 1.72, P = 0.05) of the elderly with MCI, showing a beneficial effect of the multimodal exercise in this group. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that a 12-week multimodal physical exercise program contributed to improvements in the mobility and executive function of elderly individuals with MCI, but not of those with AD. Although more RCTs are needed, physical exercise should be recommended to those in the early stages of neurocognitive disorder.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Função Executiva , Terapia por Exercício , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Método Simples-Cego
18.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 44: 108-117, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220831

RESUMO

The representation of cognitive function in the cerebral cortex has a long and cherished history, but much evidence also supports a critical role of subcortical structures in the operations of cognition. The idea of subcortical dementia, first proposed in 1932 and substantially expanded in the 1970s, is the most prominent formulation intended to capture the phenomenology of cognitive impairment attributable to subcortical involvement. Despite criticism highlighting its imprecision, subcortical dementia has endured as a useful general concept assisting the classification of dementia syndromes based on the primary site(s) of neuropathology. As neuroscientific knowledge expanded with the advent of modern structural and functional neuroimaging, a more detailed understanding of the contributions of specific subcortical regions emerged, such that the cognitive affiliations of the basal ganglia, thalamus, cerebellum, brainstem, and white matter are all better defined. Important advances have been made by the study of both neurodegenerative diseases and focal lesions. Today, the complex admixture of cortical and subcortical foundations of cognition is increasingly well appreciated, and has been conceptually organized within the broadly inclusive notion of distributed neural networks. These networks are thought to integrate cortical and subcortical gray and white matter structures throughout the brain into functional neuronal ensembles subserving various domains of cognition. In this light, specific disorders of subcortical regions produce cognitive sequelae that can be usefully analyzed within the context of networks that involve key cortical regions as well. The study of subcortical contributions to cognition has been highly informative in expanding neurobehavioral thinking to include regions beyond the cerebral cortex, adding nuance and sophistication to the conceptualization of brain-behavior relationships.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/história , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/história , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/patologia , Encefalopatias/patologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/história , Vias Neurais/patologia
19.
Front Neurol Neurosci ; 44: 100-107, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220842

RESUMO

Elements of "frontal" syndromes and executive dysfunction have been pondered by humans since ancient times, perhaps because executive dysfunction often threatens the very characteristics that make us human. This chapter provides a historical account of scientific advancements related to frontal lobe functioning and how the term has transformed over time. From ancient Greek philosophy to early neuroscientific animal studies to the default mode network, knowledge about the neural underpinnings of executive functioning has blossomed, almost so broadly that the behemoth term comprising broad neuropsychological functions may struggle to be provide specificity on its own without further clarification.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/história , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Lobo Frontal , Síndrome , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Previsões , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos
20.
Klin Padiatr ; 231(4): 183-190, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31216577

RESUMO

Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at significant risk of psychomotor and cognitive developmental disorders, with negative effects on psychosocial and academic performance and quality of life. Innate characteristics such as genetic abnormalities, type and severity of CHD and socioeconomic factors are the most important risk factors. Prenatally, hypoperfusion or hypoxia can cause developmental and maturation disorders of the brain, thus promoting postpartum lesions of the more vulnerable brain substance and neurodevelopmental disorders. The high-risk group includes primarily infants requiring open heart surgery. Specific phenotypic characteristics of development emerge at different ages: in early childhood motor and linguistic articulation deficits; at school age impaired speech and language, attention, memory, visual-spatial, executive, and motor skills, often associated with academic deficits, and emotional or social issues; in adolescence executive, psychosocial and psychiatric disorders and impaired quality of life; in adulthood, neurocognitive, psychosocial and problems of self-management and professional perspective. Physical and social functioning, psychomotor development and mental health are key factors for quality of life. The German Society of Pediatric Cardiology demands detailed serial neuropsychological examinations at the age of 2 and 5 years, before puberty and before adulthood, for the high-risk group of children with CHD operated on in infant age in order to detect and to treat partial performance disorders at an early stage.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas , Qualidade de Vida , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos Cognitivos/etiologia , Feminino , Cardiopatias Congênitas/fisiopatologia , Cardiopatias Congênitas/psicologia , Humanos , Lactente , Testes Neuropsicológicos
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