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1.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929919

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the general hypothesis about executive deficits in language production in schizophrenia as well as more specific hypothesis that this deficit would be more pronounced in the case of higher demand on executive functions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients with schizophrenia and twenty-seven healthy controls were asked to tell a story based on a series of pictures and then to give an oral composition on the given topic. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Schizophrenia patients, compared to controls, demonstrated poorer programming as well as shorter text and phrase length in both tasks. Oral composition on the given topic in patients was characterized by the presence of agrammatism, need for leading questions due to the difficulties of story plot generation as well as higher variance in syntactic complexity and text length. Therefore, the authors revealed executive deficit in language production, more pronounced in the task with less numerous external cues for planning and sequential text explication, in schizophrenia patients.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Idioma , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4340, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895386

RESUMO

Healthy cognitive ageing is a societal and public health priority. Cerebrovascular risk factors increase the likelihood of dementia in older people but their impact on cognitive ageing in younger, healthy brains is less clear. The UK Biobank provides cognition and brain imaging measures in the largest population cohort studied to date. Here we show that cognitive abilities of healthy individuals (N = 22,059) in this sample are detrimentally affected by cerebrovascular risk factors. Structural equation modelling revealed that cerebrovascular risk is associated with reduced cerebral grey matter and white matter integrity within a fronto-parietal brain network underlying executive function. Notably, higher systolic blood pressure was associated with worse executive cognitive function in mid-life (44-69 years), but not in late-life (>70 years). During mid-life this association did not occur in the systolic range of 110-140 mmHg. These findings suggest cerebrovascular risk factors impact on brain structure and cognitive function in healthy people.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
3.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(5): 777-789, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773045

RESUMO

Geriatric assessment is a comprehensive, multifaceted, and interdisciplinary evaluation of medical, socioeconomic, environmental, and functional concerns unique to older adults; it can be focused or broadened according to the needs of the patient and the concerns of clinical providers. Herein, the authors present a high-yield framework that can be used to assess older adult patients across a variety of settings.


Assuntos
Função Executiva , Avaliação Geriátrica/métodos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Polimedicação , Idoso , Meio Ambiente , Humanos , Múltiplas Afecções Crônicas/tratamento farmacológico , Fatores Socioeconômicos
4.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(5): 807-825, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773047

RESUMO

Clinicians should use a systematic approach to evaluating patients presenting with a concern for cognitive impairment. This approach includes interviewing a knowledgeable informant and performing a thorough mental status examination in order to determine the presence of functional impairments and the domains of cognition that are impaired. The results of this interview and examination determine the next steps of the diagnostic work-up. The pattern of cognitive impairment shapes the differential diagnosis. Treatment should address symptoms, and environmental, psychological, and behavioral interventions are essential.


Assuntos
Transtornos Neurocognitivos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Idoso , Cognição , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Função Executiva , Humanos , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/classificação , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/diagnóstico
5.
Med Clin North Am ; 104(5): 909-917, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32773054

RESUMO

Advancing age is associated with increasing risk of activities important for independence, such as driving and living alone. Cognitive impairment is more common with older age; financial resources and social support may dwindle. Risk, cognitive impairment, and decisional capacity each change over time. Transparent decision making and harm reduction help balance risk and safety. When a patient lacks decisional capacity, an option that considers the patient's preferences and shows respect for the person is favored. Vulnerable patients making choices that are high risk, and patients for whom others are making such choices, may require state intervention.


Assuntos
Condução de Veículo , Disfunção Cognitiva , Vida Independente , Segurança , Populações Vulneráveis , Idoso , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva , Humanos , Vida Independente/ética , Vida Independente/psicologia , Risco , Populações Vulneráveis/legislação & jurisprudência , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia
6.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 100(31): 2446-2451, 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32819061

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the characteristics of executive function in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder comorbid with high functioning autism. Methods: A total of 165 children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD group), 65 children with attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder comorbid with high functioning autism (ADHD-HFA group), and 84 healthy controls (control group) (based on the criteria of DSM-5) were recruited from the Outpatient Clinic of Child Healthcare Department of Shen Zhen Children's Hospital. The Rey complex figure test (RCFT), trail making test (TMT), Stroop color-word test were used to assess working memory, shifting and inhibition. Results: ADHD group (2.1±1.9, 7±5, 2.1±2.0 and 7±5) and ADHD-HFA group (2.0±2.0, 7±6, 2.0±2.1 and 6±5) performed worse than control group (3.4±2.0, 10±5, 3.4±2.0 and 10±6) in Rey complex figure test (all P<0.05). ADHD group ((171±8) s, (27.40±0.82) s and (52.29±1.62) s) and ADHD-HFA group ((197±11) s, (29.7±1.1) s and (58.6±2.1) s) group took longer time on the TMT-2, Stroop2 and Stroop4 test than control group ((135±18) s, (22.4±1.9) s and (38.7±3.8) s) (all P<0.05). In children with low intelligence quotient (IQ), ADHD group ((30±8) s) and ADHD-HFA group ((34±9) s) performed worse on Stroop3 test than control group ((20±4) s) (all P<0.05). In children with average IQ, ADHD group ((19±5) s and (24±8) s) took longer time on the Stroop1 and Stroop3 test than control group ((16±3) s and (19±4) s) (all P<0.05). In children with high IQ, ADHD-HFA group ((20±8) s) spent more time on Stroop1 than control group ((15±4) s) (P<0.05). Inattention symptoms were associated with the time on TMT-2 of ADHD-HFA group (r=0.275 and 0.329, all P<0.05). The score of item 1 in autism spectrum screening questionnaire (ASSQ) was negatively correlated with immediate recall structure and detail scores as well as delay structure scores of Rey complex figure test (r=-0.358, -0.326 and -0.306, all P<0.05). The score of item 4 was positively correlated with errors of Stroop4 (r=0.296, P<0.05). The score of item 22 was positively correlated with time of color interference (r=0.279, P<0.05). Conclusions: Children with ADHD-HFA are likely to demonstrate the spatial working memory, shifting and inhibition deficits associated with ADHD alone. Some domains of executive function impairment in ADHD-HFA group are related with symptoms of inattention/hyperactivity and autism.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Transtorno Autístico , Criança , Comorbidade , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Testes Neuropsicológicos
7.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e20105, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756073

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a meta-analysis and subgroup analysis investigating the effects of exercise on mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients across specific cognitive domain outcomes. We also analyzed and identified the level of influence of exercise interventions on specific cognitive domains. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI, the Wan Fang Database, and CBM were searched from inception to April 2018. Randomized controlled trials of exercise interventions in MCI patients older than 55 years, with an outcome measure of cognitive function were included. RESULTS: Eleven studies with sufficient data met the inclusion criteria for the meta-analysis. Exercise interventions significantly improved general function (g mini-mental state examination Montreal cognitive assessment = 0.32, 95% the 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1 to 0.54, P = .005 and g Alzheimer disease assessment scale-cognition = -0.45, 95% CI -0.82 to -0.08, P = .02); executive functions (g digit span forward test, digit span backward test, digit span forward test -B, stroop test-A, stroop test-B = 0.66, 95% CI 0.17 to 1.15, P = .008); memory (g Wechsler memory scale immediate recall and Wechsler memory scale delayed recall = 0.37, 95% CI 0.15 to 0.60, P = .001); language ability (g category verbal fluency test and letter verbal fluency test = 0.55, 95% CI 0.22 to 0.89, P = .001); and visuospatial ability (g block design score = 0.38, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.72, P = .03). However, the improvement exercise conferred on the trail-making test part B-A was not statistically significant (g trail-making test part B-A  = -0.25, 95% CI -0.88 to 0.39, P = .45). The preliminary ranking of the effect on the overall effect was as follows: Z language ability > Z executive functions >   memory > Z visuospatial ability. CONCLUSION: Exercise improves performance in the 5 cognitive domains. Across cognitive domains, language ability was the domain most affected by exercise. Besides, the kind of ranking (Z value) provides a new perspective for community health care workers to prescribe targeted exercise interventions for MCI patients.PROSPERO registration number: CRD42018093902.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Idoso , Cognição , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Rememoração Mental , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
Healthc Manage Forum ; 33(5): 190-194, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815428

RESUMO

The inspiration for The American Nurse Project, Dr. Rhonda Collins, DNP, RN, FAAN, is Chief Nursing Officer for Vocera Communications. Every year around Nurses Week, Dr. Collins publishes a report examining important issues that impact the nursing profession worldwide. Her 2020 CNO report looks at many of the challenges impacting nurses before, during, and after COVID-19-highlighting the mental anguish and physical burdens that COVID-19 has placed on nurses and other frontline healthcare workers as they put themselves in harm's way to protect others. Dr. Collins examines the foundation of cognitive science and outlines a three-point strategy to guide hospital and nurse leaders moving forward as they strive to support staff members: lightening clinicians' cognitive load by addressing the difference between documentation and communication, relieving the burden of adapting to multiple systems by giving clinicians control over how they communicate, and providing clinicians with clear, contextual, just-in-time information-using software to enhance workflow, not distract from it. During these unprecedented times, health leaders can honour nurses by providing them with the tools to help strengthen resiliency and healing from this crisis.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/enfermagem , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/enfermagem , Adaptação Psicológica , Betacoronavirus , Esgotamento Profissional , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Função Executiva , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo , Enfermeiras Administradoras/psicologia , Diagnóstico de Enfermagem , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 120(7. Vyp. 2): 38-42, 2020.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844628

RESUMO

Cognitive dysfunction in multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disabling factor and extends to the processes of memory, attention, verbal and logical thinking, visual-spatial, and motor skills. 40-70% of patients have a decrease in the rate of information processing, dysfunction of executive functions, and decrease in the quality of training. Cognitive dysfunction is also often reduced quality of life with MS. The most common methods of non-drug cognitive function correction are cognitive rehabilitation and exercise. This article reviews current research on the positive effects of regular physical activity on the cognitive functions of adults and children with MS.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla , Adulto , Criança , Cognição , Função Executiva , Exercício Físico , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748826

RESUMO

Endurance physical exercise is accompanied by subjective perceptions of exertion (reported perceived exertion, RPE), emotional valence, and arousal. These constructs have been hypothesized to serve as the basis for the exerciser to make decisions regarding when to stop, how to regulate pace, and whether or not to exercise again. In dual physical-cognitive tasks, the mental (executive) workload generated by the cognitive task has been shown to influence these perceptions, in ways that could also influence exercise-related decisions. In the present work, we intend to replicate and extend previous findings that manipulating the amount of executive load imposed by a mental task, performed concomitantly with a submaximal cycling session, influenced emotional states but not perceived exertion. Participants (experienced triathletes) were asked to perform a submaximal cycling task in two conditions with different executive demands (a two-back version of the n-back task vs. oddball) but equated in external physical load. Results showed that the higher executive load condition elicited more arousal and less positive valence than the lower load condition. However, both conditions did not differ in RPE. This experimental dissociation suggests that perceived exertion and its emotional correlates are not interchangeable, which opens the possibility that they could play different roles in exercise-related decision-making.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Afeto , Emoções , Humanos , Carga de Trabalho
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237511, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785278

RESUMO

Eating disorder is highly associated with obesity and it is related to brain dysfunction as well. Still, the functional substrates of the brain associated with behavioral traits of eating disorder are underexplored. Existing neuroimaging studies have explored the association between eating disorder and brain function without using all the information provided by the eating disorder related questionnaire but by adopting summary factors. Here, we aimed to investigate the multivariate association between brain function and eating disorder at fine-grained question-level information. Our study is a retrospective secondary analysis that re-analyzed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging of 284 participants from the enhanced Nathan Kline Institute-Rockland Sample database. Leveraging sparse canonical correlation analysis, we associated the functional connectivity of all brain regions and all questions in the eating disorder questionnaires. We found that executive- and inhibitory control-related frontoparietal networks showed positive associations with questions of restraint eating, while brain regions involved in the reward system showed negative associations. Notably, inhibitory control-related brain regions showed a positive association with the degree of obesity. Findings were well replicated in the independent validation dataset (n = 34). The results of this study might contribute to a better understanding of brain function with respect to eating disorder.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/etiologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Neuroimagem/métodos , Adulto , Índice de Massa Corporal , Função Executiva , Comportamento Alimentar , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/patologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1936-1942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731786

RESUMO

We performed a randomized, controlled trial to analyse the effects of resistance training (RT) on cognitive and physical function among older adults. Fifty participants (mean age 67 years, ~60% woman) were randomly assigned to an RT program or a control group. Participants allocated to RT performed three sets of 10-15RM in nine exercises, three times per week, for 12-weeks. Control group did not perform any exercise. Variables included cognitive (global and executive function) and physical function (gait, mobility and strength) outcomes. At completion of the intervention, RT was shown to have significantly mitigated the drop in selective attention and conflict resolution performance (Stroop test: -494.6; 95%CI: -883.1; -106.1) and promoted a significant improvement in working memory (digit span forward: -0.6; 95%CI: -1.0; -0.1 and forward minus backward: -0.9; 95% CI: -1.6; -0.2) and verbal fluency (animal naming: +1.4, 95%CI 0.3, 2.5). No significant between-group differences were observed for other cognitive outcomes. Regarding physical function, at completion of the intervention, the RT group demonstrated improved fast-pace gait performance (-0.3; 95% CI: -0.6; -0.0) and 1-RM (+21.4 kg; 95%CI: 16.6; 26.2). No significant between-group differences were observed for other mobility-related outcomes. In conclusion, RT improves cognitive and physical function of older adults.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
14.
Percept Mot Skills ; 127(5): 960-979, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611226

RESUMO

As the Covid 19 crisis has revealed, the internet is a first-line tool for learning critical health-related information. However, internet searches are a complex and dynamic process that can be fraught with subtleties and potential error. The mechanics of searching for and using electronic health (eHealth) information is ostensibly cognitively demanding; yet we know little about the role of neurocognitive abilities in this regard. Fifty-six young adults completed two naturalistic eHealth search tasks: fact-finding (eHealth Fact) and symptom-diagnosis (eHealth Search). Participants also completed neurocognitive tests of attention, psychomotor speed, learning/memory, and executive functions. Shorter eHealth symptom-diagnosis search time was related to better executive functions, while better eHealth symptom-diagnosis search accuracy was related to better episodic and prospective memory. In contrast, neither eHealth Fact search time nor its accuracy were related to any of the neurocognitive measures. Our findings suggest a differential relationship between neurocognitive abilities and eHealth search behaviors among young adults such that higher-order abilities may be implicated in eHealth searches requiring greater synthesis of information. Future work should examine the cognitive architecture of eHealth search in persons with neurocognitive disorders, as well as that of other aspects of eHealth search behaviors (e.g., search term generation, website reliability, and decision-making).


Assuntos
Aptidão , Atenção , Cognição , Informação de Saúde ao Consumidor , Função Executiva , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Internet , Memória , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Desempenho Psicomotor , Telemedicina , Adulto Jovem
15.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(4): 289-304, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615896

RESUMO

School-based Mindfulness Programs for Children and Adolescents Mindfulness is a mental state achieved by focusing one's awareness on the present moment, while calmly acknowledging and accepting one's bodily sensations, sensory feedback, thoughts, and feelings. Mindfulness interventions can improve proprioception, direction of attention, and emotion regulation. An accepting attitude towards thoughts and feelings reduces the experience of stress so that it is easier to cope with stressful situations. The regular practice of mindfulness exercises affects neurobiological mechanisms, which can lead to an improvement of executive functions as well as psychological health. Metaanalyses provide evidence of small effects of mindfulness interventions in schools, both in cognitive areas (executive functions, concentration, memory) and in emotional areas (anxiety, depressivity, wellbeing). The focus of this review article is on German and English-language mindfulness programmes for children and adolescents in schools, which have already been the subject of initial evaluation studies. This study presents the programmes Paws b, Mind Up, and Mehr Ruhe for children, and .b, Mind Up, AISCHU, and 8sam for adolescents, together with their evaluation results. The conclusion discusses open questions concerning conceptual and methodological issues.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Atenção Plena , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Serviços de Saúde Mental Escolar , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Cognição , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/terapia , Emoções , Função Executiva , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
BMC Neurol ; 20(1): 264, 2020 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32611388

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The level of function of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) is crucial for a person's autonomy. A clear understanding of the nature of IADL and its limitations in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is lacking. Literature suggests numerous possible influencing factors, e.g. cognitive function, but has not considered other domains of human functioning, such as environmental factors. Our aim was to develop a comprehensive model of IADL functioning that depicts the relevant influencing factors. METHODS: We conducted a four-round online Delphi study with a sample of international IADL experts (N = 69). In the first round, panelists were asked to mention all possible relevant cognitive and physical function factors, as well as environmental and personal factors, that influence IADL functioning. In the subsequent rounds, panelists rated the relevance of these factors. Consensus was defined as: 1) ≥70% agreement between panelists on a factor, and 2) stability over two successive rounds. RESULTS: Response rates from the four rounds were high (83 to 100%). In the first round, 229 influencing factors were mentioned, whereof 13 factors reached consensus in the subsequent rounds. These consensual factors were used to build a model of IADL functioning. The final model included: five cognitive function factors (i.e. memory, attention, executive function, and two executive function subdomains -problem solving / reasoning and organization / planning); five physical function factors (i.e. seeing functions, hearing functions, balance, gait / mobility functions and functional mobility functions); two environmental factors (i.e. social network / environment and support of social network / environment); and one personal factor (i.e. education). CONCLUSIONS: This study proposes a comprehensive model of IADL functioning in people with MCI. The results from this Delphi study suggest that IADL functioning is not merely affected by cognitive function factors, but also by physical function factors, environmental factors and personal factors. The multiplicity of factors mentioned in the first round also underlines the individuality of IADL functioning in people with MCI. This model may serve as a basis for future research in IADL functioning in people with MCI.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Técnica Delfos , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Testes Neuropsicológicos
17.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 412-418, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system changes associated to systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) are progressive and may cause negative effects on cognitive performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between SAH and the components of executive functions (EF), inhibitory control (IC), updating and shifting, comparing a control group (without SAH) to patients with SAH, in two levels of severity. METHODS: The protocol included the following tests to evaluate EF components: T.O.V.A. Test (IC), Backward Digit Span from Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency (updating), and Trail Making Test Part B (shifting). RESULTS: A total of 204 participants was included: 56 from the Control Group (CG), 87 SAH stage 1, and 61 SAH stage 2. The groups were not different for age (52.37±12.29) and education (10.98±4.06). As to controlled blood pressure (BP), duration of hypertension treatment and number of drugs, the SAH 2 group had a worse BP control, longer duration of hypertension treatment and use of more drugs when compared to the SAH 1. The findings revealed that patients with more severe hypertension presented worse performance in updating (Backward Digit Span, phonemic and semantics VF) and shifting (Trail Making Test Part B). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that patients with SAH have a significant impairment in EF, more specifically in updating and shifting. Besides that, such damage may be directly proportional to the severity of SAH. It is suggested that future studies include neuroimaging exams to exclude possible cerebrovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235529, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701998

RESUMO

We explored factors associated with performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Test (RMET). 180 undergraduate students completed the human RMET requiring forced-choice mental state judgment; a control human Age Eyes Test (AET) requiring age judgment; a Cat Eyes Test (CET) requiring mental state judgment; and measures of executive function, empathy and psychopathology. Versions of the CET and AET were created that matched the RMET for difficulty (accuracy 71%). RMET and CET performance were strongly correlated after accounting for AET performance. Working memory, schizotypal personality and empathy predicted RMET accuracy but not CET scores. Liking dogs predicted higher accuracy on all eyes tasks, whereas liking cats predicted greater mentalizing but reduced emotional expression. Importantly, we replicated our core findings relating to accuracy and correlations between the CET and RMET in a second sample of 228 students. In conclusion, people can apply similar skills when interpreting cat and human expressions. As RMET and CET performance were found to be differentially affected by executive function and psychopathology, the use of social cognitive measures featuring non-human animals may be of particular use in future clinical research.


Assuntos
Olho , Processos Mentais , Adulto , Empatia , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
19.
Epidemiol Psychiatr Sci ; 29: e144, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32684190

RESUMO

AIMS: Establishing the minimum clinically important difference (MCID) in functioning and cognition is essential to the interpretation of the research and clinical work conducted in bipolar disorders (BD). The present study aimed to estimate the MCID for the Functioning Assessment Short Test (FAST) and a battery of neuropsychological tests in BD. METHODS: Anchor-based and distributive methods were used to estimate the MCID for the FAST and cognition using data from a large, multicentre, observational cohort of individuals with BD. The FAST and cognition were linked with the Clinical Global Impressions Scale-Severity (CGI-S) and Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) using an equipercentile method. The magnitude of the standard error measurement (s.e.m.) provided another estimate of the MCID. RESULTS: In total, 570 participants were followed for 2 years. Cross-sectional CGI-S and GAF scores were linked to a threshold ⩽7 on the FAST for functional remission. The MCID for the FAST equalled 8- or 9-points change from baseline using the CGI-S and GAF. One s.e.m. on the FAST corresponded to 7.6-points change from baseline. Cognitive variables insufficiently correlated with anchor variables (all ρ <0.3). One s.e.m. for cognitive variables corresponded to a range of 0.45 to 0.93-s.d. change from baseline. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the value of the estimated MCID for the FAST and cognition and may be a useful tool to evaluate cognitive and functional remediation effects and improve patient functional outcomes in BD. The CGI-S and GAF were inappropriate anchors for cognition. Further studies may use performance-based measures of functioning instead.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/diagnóstico , Transtornos Cognitivos/diagnóstico , Cognição/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtorno Bipolar/psicologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Tempo de Reação , Comportamento Social
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 209: 103089, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629207

RESUMO

Self-directed learning (SDL) is a rapidly developing trend in schools, although its prerequisites, such as children's skills and abilities to plan and monitor their own learning, have not been investigated in detail. Due to additional cognitive load it induces, SDL has been in some cases found to be detrimental for learning, especially for students with a lower cognitive capacity. With this study, we explored some of the causes for the variability in learning gains. We examined 111 middle school students' self-directed category learning using an exploratory web-task for autonomous learning, focusing on their information search (browsing a taxonomy of unknown dinosaurs) and their memorization of respective category labels. We were interested to detect whether students' performance in a complex span task (Ospan) was also reflected in their search and learning behavior. Results revealed different learning gain trajectories in the latter task, where higher WMC students were more confident about their learning. Also, the students with lower WMC were found to search the taxonomy by repeatedly searching the same (basic type of) dinosaur exemplar. In line with prior findings about human mental capacity restrictions and cognitive load theory, the present work evidenced the important role of students' resistance to distraction, and its relation to differences in self-directed search and memorizing. The results imply the need to teach metacognitive skills and offer supportive scaffolding in order to avoid cognitive overload in SDL.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
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