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1.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4340, 2020 09 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895386

RESUMO

Healthy cognitive ageing is a societal and public health priority. Cerebrovascular risk factors increase the likelihood of dementia in older people but their impact on cognitive ageing in younger, healthy brains is less clear. The UK Biobank provides cognition and brain imaging measures in the largest population cohort studied to date. Here we show that cognitive abilities of healthy individuals (N = 22,059) in this sample are detrimentally affected by cerebrovascular risk factors. Structural equation modelling revealed that cerebrovascular risk is associated with reduced cerebral grey matter and white matter integrity within a fronto-parietal brain network underlying executive function. Notably, higher systolic blood pressure was associated with worse executive cognitive function in mid-life (44-69 years), but not in late-life (>70 years). During mid-life this association did not occur in the systolic range of 110-140 mmHg. These findings suggest cerebrovascular risk factors impact on brain structure and cognitive function in healthy people.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Envelhecimento Saudável , Adulto , Idoso , Pressão Sanguínea , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Córtex Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Estudos de Coortes , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Substância Cinzenta/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Substância Branca/fisiopatologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32748826

RESUMO

Endurance physical exercise is accompanied by subjective perceptions of exertion (reported perceived exertion, RPE), emotional valence, and arousal. These constructs have been hypothesized to serve as the basis for the exerciser to make decisions regarding when to stop, how to regulate pace, and whether or not to exercise again. In dual physical-cognitive tasks, the mental (executive) workload generated by the cognitive task has been shown to influence these perceptions, in ways that could also influence exercise-related decisions. In the present work, we intend to replicate and extend previous findings that manipulating the amount of executive load imposed by a mental task, performed concomitantly with a submaximal cycling session, influenced emotional states but not perceived exertion. Participants (experienced triathletes) were asked to perform a submaximal cycling task in two conditions with different executive demands (a two-back version of the n-back task vs. oddball) but equated in external physical load. Results showed that the higher executive load condition elicited more arousal and less positive valence than the lower load condition. However, both conditions did not differ in RPE. This experimental dissociation suggests that perceived exertion and its emotional correlates are not interchangeable, which opens the possibility that they could play different roles in exercise-related decision-making.


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Ciclismo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Afeto , Emoções , Humanos , Carga de Trabalho
3.
J Sports Sci ; 38(17): 1936-1942, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32731786

RESUMO

We performed a randomized, controlled trial to analyse the effects of resistance training (RT) on cognitive and physical function among older adults. Fifty participants (mean age 67 years, ~60% woman) were randomly assigned to an RT program or a control group. Participants allocated to RT performed three sets of 10-15RM in nine exercises, three times per week, for 12-weeks. Control group did not perform any exercise. Variables included cognitive (global and executive function) and physical function (gait, mobility and strength) outcomes. At completion of the intervention, RT was shown to have significantly mitigated the drop in selective attention and conflict resolution performance (Stroop test: -494.6; 95%CI: -883.1; -106.1) and promoted a significant improvement in working memory (digit span forward: -0.6; 95%CI: -1.0; -0.1 and forward minus backward: -0.9; 95% CI: -1.6; -0.2) and verbal fluency (animal naming: +1.4, 95%CI 0.3, 2.5). No significant between-group differences were observed for other cognitive outcomes. Regarding physical function, at completion of the intervention, the RT group demonstrated improved fast-pace gait performance (-0.3; 95% CI: -0.6; -0.0) and 1-RM (+21.4 kg; 95%CI: 16.6; 26.2). No significant between-group differences were observed for other mobility-related outcomes. In conclusion, RT improves cognitive and physical function of older adults.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Treinamento de Resistência , Idoso , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimento/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Treinamento de Resistência/métodos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854323

RESUMO

Background: Both physical exercise and cognitive training can effectively improve executive functions in older adults. However, whether physical activity combined with cognitive training is more effective than a single intervention remains controversial. The aim of this study was to perform a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of combined physical and cognitive interventions on executive functions in older adults aged 65-80 years old. Methods: Randomized controlled trials of combined physical and cognitive interventions on executive functions in older adults were searched using the Web of Science, Elsevier Science, PubMed, EBSCO, Springer-Link, and NATURE databases. Data extraction and quality evaluation were done by Comprehensive Meta-Analysis, V3. Results: A total of 21 studies were included. The results showed that the combined physical and cognitive interventions produced significantly larger gains in executive functions, compared to the control group (standardized mean difference (SMD) = 0.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.14, 0.39], p < 0.01). Furthermore, the effects of the combined physical and cognitive interventions were moderated by the study quality, intervention length, and intervention frequency. No significant differences were found between the combined interventions and the physical intervention alone (SMD = 0.13, 95% CI [-0.07, 0.33], p > 0.05) or the cognitive intervention alone (SMD = 0.13, 95% CI [-0.05, 0.30], p > 0.05). Conclusions: The combined physical and cognitive interventions effectively delayed the decrease of executive functions in older adults and this effect was influenced by the length and frequency of the intervention as well as the research quality. However, the effect of the combined physical and cognitive interventions was not significantly better than that of each intervention alone.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/terapia , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Exercício Físico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Transtornos Cognitivos/prevenção & controle , Terapia por Exercício , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Terapia Ocupacional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
5.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 209: 103089, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32629207

RESUMO

Self-directed learning (SDL) is a rapidly developing trend in schools, although its prerequisites, such as children's skills and abilities to plan and monitor their own learning, have not been investigated in detail. Due to additional cognitive load it induces, SDL has been in some cases found to be detrimental for learning, especially for students with a lower cognitive capacity. With this study, we explored some of the causes for the variability in learning gains. We examined 111 middle school students' self-directed category learning using an exploratory web-task for autonomous learning, focusing on their information search (browsing a taxonomy of unknown dinosaurs) and their memorization of respective category labels. We were interested to detect whether students' performance in a complex span task (Ospan) was also reflected in their search and learning behavior. Results revealed different learning gain trajectories in the latter task, where higher WMC students were more confident about their learning. Also, the students with lower WMC were found to search the taxonomy by repeatedly searching the same (basic type of) dinosaur exemplar. In line with prior findings about human mental capacity restrictions and cognitive load theory, the present work evidenced the important role of students' resistance to distraction, and its relation to differences in self-directed search and memorizing. The results imply the need to teach metacognitive skills and offer supportive scaffolding in order to avoid cognitive overload in SDL.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Aprendizagem , Memória de Longo Prazo/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
6.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 412-418, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Central nervous system changes associated to systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) are progressive and may cause negative effects on cognitive performance. The objective of this study was to investigate the relation between SAH and the components of executive functions (EF), inhibitory control (IC), updating and shifting, comparing a control group (without SAH) to patients with SAH, in two levels of severity. METHODS: The protocol included the following tests to evaluate EF components: T.O.V.A. Test (IC), Backward Digit Span from Wechsler Adults Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Phonemic and Semantic Verbal Fluency (updating), and Trail Making Test Part B (shifting). RESULTS: A total of 204 participants was included: 56 from the Control Group (CG), 87 SAH stage 1, and 61 SAH stage 2. The groups were not different for age (52.37±12.29) and education (10.98±4.06). As to controlled blood pressure (BP), duration of hypertension treatment and number of drugs, the SAH 2 group had a worse BP control, longer duration of hypertension treatment and use of more drugs when compared to the SAH 1. The findings revealed that patients with more severe hypertension presented worse performance in updating (Backward Digit Span, phonemic and semantics VF) and shifting (Trail Making Test Part B). CONCLUSION: The results suggest that patients with SAH have a significant impairment in EF, more specifically in updating and shifting. Besides that, such damage may be directly proportional to the severity of SAH. It is suggested that future studies include neuroimaging exams to exclude possible cerebrovascular diseases.


Assuntos
Transtornos Cognitivos/complicações , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Humanos , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Teste de Sequência Alfanumérica
7.
Psychol Aging ; 35(6): 831-849, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32658539

RESUMO

The diffusion decision model (DDM) has been used to investigate the effects of aging on information processing in simple response time (RT) tasks. These analyses have consistently shown that the age-related slowing of RTs can be accounted for by slower processing speed in sensorimotor systems and more cautious responding. However, previous DDM assessments of aging have ignored conflict tasks (e.g., the flanker task), the dominant paradigm for investigating age-related differences in executive control, as the DDM is unable to combine task-relevant and task-irrelevant stimulus information. Our study used two recently developed extensions of the DDM-the diffusion model for conflict tasks (DMC) and the shrinking spotlight diffusion model (SSP)-to provide the first model-based assessment of age-related differences in a flanker task featuring a manipulation of the spacing between target and flanking letters. Consistent with previous findings, older adults were globally slower than younger adults, and the magnitude of the flanker effect was larger for older than younger adults only when the spacing between the target and flanking letters was small. Fits of the models to data revealed a superiority of the DMC over the SSP. The DMC accounts for experimental findings with a 62-ms slowing of the nondecision component of RT for older compared to younger adults, a more cautious decision criterion, and enhanced processing of the target and flanking letters in the near periphery, suggesting a stronger attentional engagement in the task. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
8.
J Consult Clin Psychol ; 88(8): 738-756, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32700955

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Executive function deficits are well-established in ADHD. Unfortunately, replicated evidence indicates that executive function training for ADHD has been largely unsuccessful. We hypothesized that this may reflect insufficient targeting, such that extant protocols do not sufficiently and specifically target the neurocognitive systems associated with phenotypic ADHD behaviors/impairments. METHOD: Children with ADHD ages 8-12 (M = 10.41, SD = 1.46; 12 girls; 74% Caucasian/Non-Hispanic) were randomized with allocation concealment to either central executive training (CET; n = 25) or newly developed inhibitory control training (ICT; n = 29). Detailed data analytic plans were preregistered. RESULTS: Both treatments were feasible/acceptable based on training duration, child-reported ease of use, and parent-reported high satisfaction. CET was superior to ICT for improving its primary intervention targets: phonological and visuospatial working memory (d = 0.70-0.84). CET was also superior to ICT for improving go/no-go (d = 0.84) but not stop-signal inhibition. Mechanisms of change analyses indicated that CET-related working memory improvements produced significant reductions in the primary clinical endpoints (objectively assessed hyperactivity) during working memory and inhibition testing (indirect effects: ß ≥ -.11; 95% CIs exclude 0.0). CET was also superior to ICT on 3 of 4 secondary clinical endpoints (blinded teacher-rated ADHD symptoms; d = 0.46-0.70 vs. 0.16-0.42) and 2 of 4 feasibility/acceptability clinical endpoints (parent-reported ADHD symptoms; d = 0.96-1.42 vs. 0.45-0.65). CET-related gains were maintained at 2-4 month follow-up; ICT-related gains were maintained for attention problems but not hyperactivity/impulsivity per parent report. CONCLUSIONS: Results support the use of CET for treating executive function deficits and targeting ADHD behavioral symptoms in children with ADHD. Findings for ICT were mixed at best and indicate the need for continued development/study. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Remediação Cognitiva/métodos , Função Executiva , Inibição Psicológica , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Criança , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
9.
J Frailty Aging ; 9(3): 179-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588034

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical frailty and impaired executive function of the brain show similar pathophysiology. Both of these factors lead to dysfunction of neuromuscular and abilities in elderly. High-speed power training (HSPT) has been determined to have positive effects on neuromuscular function and gait performance, as well as executive function in the elderly. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 8-week HSPT on neuromuscular, gait and executive functions in frail elderly with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We performed a randomized controlled trial of frail elderly from community and medical center in republic of Korea. Forty-two physically frail elderly with MCI were randomly allocated to control (n=22, age=74.22±4.46) and intervention groups (n=18, age=73.77±4.64). The intervention group was subjected to HSPT, 3 times weekly for 8 weeks. MEASUREMENTS: Isometric contraction of knee extension and flexion with electromyography (EMG) was measured to determine the neuromuscular function such as knee extensor strength, rate of torque development, movement time, pre-motor time, motor time, rate of EMG rise, and hamstrings antagonist co-activation. Additionally, the 4.44-meter gait and timed up-and-go (TUG) test were administered to assess gait performance. A frontal assessment battery was measured in this study. RESULTS: The 8-week HSPT regimen improved the knee extensor strength from 1.13±0.08 to 1.25±0.07 (p<0.05), the 200-ms RTD from 3.01±0.3 to 3.55±0.24 (p<0.05) and the rate of EMG rise from 166.48±13.31 to 197.94±11.51 (p<0.05), whereas the movement time and motor time were statistically decreased from 921.69±40.10 to 799.51±72.84, and 271.40±19.29 to 181.15±38.08 (p<0.05), respectively. The 4.44-m gait speed and TUG significantly decreased from 6.39±0.25 to 5.5±0.24, and 11.05±0.53 to 9.17±0.43 respectively (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggest the favorable effects of 8-week HSPT on the neuromuscular function and the gait performance in the frail elderly with MCI without increase in the executive function.


Assuntos
Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício/métodos , Idoso Fragilizado/psicologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos do Sistema Nervoso , Idoso , Disfunção Cognitiva/epidemiologia , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234895, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579567

RESUMO

Executive functioning and self-regulation influence a range of outcomes across the life course including physical and mental health, educational success, and employment. Children prenatally exposed to alcohol or early life trauma (ELT) are at higher risk of impairment of these skills and may require intervention to address self-regulation deficits. Researchers partnered with the local Aboriginal health organization and schools to develop and pilot a manualized version of the Alert Program® in the Fitzroy Valley, north Western Australia, a region with documented high rates of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and ELT. This self-controlled cluster randomized trial evaluated the effect of an 8-week Alert Program® intervention on children's executive functioning and self-regulation skills. Following parent or caregiver consent (referred to hereafter as parent), 271 students were enrolled in the study. This reflects a 75% participation rate and indicates the strong community support that exists for the study. Teachers from 26 primary school classrooms across eight Fitzroy Valley schools received training to deliver eight, one-hour Alert Program® lessons over eight-weeks to students. Student outcomes were measured by parent and teacher ratings of children's behavioral, emotional, and cognitive regulation. The mean number of lessons attended by children was 4.2. Although no significant improvements to children's executive functioning skills or behavior were detected via the teacher-rated measures as hypothesized, statistically significant improvements were noted on parent-rated measures of executive functioning and behavior. The effectiveness of future self-regulation programs may be enhanced through multimodal delivery through home, school and community based settings to maximize children's exposure to the intervention. Despite mixed findings of effect, this study was an important first step in adapting and evaluating the Alert Program® for use in remote Australian Aboriginal community schools, where access to self-regulation interventions is limited.


Assuntos
Função Executiva/fisiologia , Serviços de Saúde do Indígena , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos , Serviços de Saúde Escolar , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autocontrole , Estudantes , Austrália , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Docentes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pais , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
J Vis Exp ; (160)2020 06 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32597840

RESUMO

Many children with attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) are known to have executive dysfunction, which weakens their abilities to learn and behave in daily living. This protocol describes the methodology that is required for the intervention (psychotherapy) based on planning, attention, successive, and simultaneous (PASS theory) cognitive processing and fear emotional processing. It provides guiding principles and practical recommendations. A disproportionately high level of fear (dysregulation) increases the vulnerability for dysfunction in learning and behavior. We explain the interplay between emotion and cognition at the neurological level. A go/no go task (The Adventures of Fundi), which involves decision making, is administered in a PC- mode to a sample of 66 ADHD subjects. The Adventures of Fundi, a computer program, was constructed to induce successive or simultaneous processing when involving the training of planning and selective attention. It aims to improve the executive function with planning and selective attention. If executive function improves, learning improves, and behavior ameliorates. After intervention over 6 months, remission was achieved in 70% of subjects. The instructor encourages the use of appropriate strategies and points out the ways in which the strategies can be useful in finding the solution to the problem (go/no go). The emphasis is not on rehearsing and adult instructed verbal sequence. The verbalization may reveal the conscious verbalized strategy to solve a task that is not really the strategy being unconsciously used in that case. A self-verbal report is unreliable. This is an inductive learning rather than deductive rule-learning approach central to cognitive PASS training. This inductive training has proved to produce not only near transfer but also far transfer. Noncognitive factors (emotional factors) must be considered to maximize the benefit of cognitive training. Indirect and metaphorical communication considers the emotional factor.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Adolescente , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento , Criança , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
12.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil ; 101(9): 1580-1589, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32540135

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare participants with Parkinson disease (PD) motor subtypes, postural instability and gait difficulty (PIGD) (n=46) and tremor dominant (TD) (n=28), in cognitive and motor-cognitive assessments with the purpose of identifying associations between subtype and visuospatial, whole-body spatial, inhibition and/or switching, and planning and/or organizational aspects of cognitive and motor-cognitive function. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. Fisher exact test was used for categorical variables, while 2-sample independent t tests were used to analyze continuous variables. SETTING: Assessments took place at Emory University. PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=72) were 40 years and older, had a clinical diagnosis of PD, exhibited 3 of the 4 cardinal signs of PD, had shown benefit from antiparkinsonian medications, and were in Hoehn and Yahr stages I-IV. Participants could walk 3 m or more with or without assistance. INTERVENTIONS: Not applicable. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Balance and mobility tests included Fullerton Advanced Balance Scale and the time needed to turn 360 degrees. Cognitive assessments included Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Brooks Spatial Memory Task, Color-Word Interference Test, Tower of London, Trail Making Test, Corsi Blocks, Serial 3s Subtraction, and Body Position Spatial Task. Motor-cognitive function measures included Four Square Step Test and Timed Up and Go. RESULTS: Participants with PIGD performed lower than those with TD symptoms on mental status (P=.005), spatial memory (P=.027), executive function (P=.0001-.034), and visuospatial ability (P=.048). CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that PIGD subtype is linked to greater deficits in spatial cognition, attentional flexibility and organizational planning, and whole-body spatial memory domains. These findings support the need for more personalized approaches to clinically managing PD.


Assuntos
Doença de Parkinson/classificação , Doença de Parkinson/fisiopatologia , Idoso , Agnosia/fisiopatologia , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Transtornos Cognitivos/fisiopatologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Transtornos Neurológicos da Marcha/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Doença de Parkinson/tratamento farmacológico , Equilíbrio Postural/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Navegação Espacial/fisiologia
13.
Int J Neural Syst ; 30(6): 2050028, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32498643

RESUMO

The cortical and subcortical circuit regulating both cognition and cardiac autonomic interactions are already well established. This circuit has mainly been analyzed from cortex to heart. Thus, the heart rate variability (HRV) is usually considered a reflection of cortical activity. In this paper, we investigate whether HRV changes affect cortical activity. Short-term local autonomic changes were induced by three breathing strategies: spontaneous (Control), normal (NB) and slow paced breathing (SB). We measured the performance in two cognition domains: executive functions and processing speed. Breathing maneuvres produced three clearly differentiated autonomic states, which preconditioned the cognitive tasks. We found that the SB significantly increased the HRV low frequency (LF) power and lowered the power spectral density (PSD) peak to 0.1[Formula: see text]Hz. Meanwhile, executive function was assessed by the working memory test, whose accuracy significantly improved after SB, with no significant changes in the response times. Processing speed was assessed by a multitasking test. Consistently, the proportion of correct answers (success rate) was the only dependent variable affected by short-term and long-term breath pacing. These findings suggest that accuracy, and not timing of these two cognitive domains would benefit from short-term SB in this study population.


Assuntos
Sistema Nervoso Autônomo/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Taxa Respiratória/fisiologia , Adulto , Humanos
14.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(12): 815-823, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599643

RESUMO

This study investigated the benefits of resistance training on cognition in patients with mild cognitive impairment. We searched the PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases, and seven randomized controlled trials were reviewed. We evaluated the risk of bias using the Cochrane Collaboration's bias assessment tool. Standard mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for statistical analysis. This meta-analysis assessed three variables: general cognitive function, executive function and working memory. The results indicate that general cognitive function improved significantly (standardized mean difference: 0.53, P=0.04), and further subgroup analyses on frequency and duration per session showed that the subgroups 'twice a week' (P=0.01) and 'duration per session >60 min' (P=0.0006) exhibited better performance than the subgroups 'three time a week' (P=0.47) and 'duration per session <60 min' (P=0.53). Additionally, a moderate effect size was found in executive function (standardized mean difference: 0.50, P=0.0003), and there was non-significant effect in working memory (P=0.14). In summary, resistance training may mitigate mild cognitive impairment by improving cognition. Larger-scale studies are recommended to demonstrate the relationship between resistance training and cognition in mild cognitive impairment.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Treinamento de Resistência , Disfunção Cognitiva/terapia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Terapia por Exercício , Humanos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560190

RESUMO

The current evidence for a relation between children's heart rate measures and their academic performance and executive functioning is infancy. Despite several studies observing dose-response effects of physical activity on academic performance and executive function in children, further research using objective measures of the relative intensity of physical activity (e.g., heart rate) is warranted. The present study aimed to inspect associations between heart rate response and various academic performance indicators and executive function domains. A total of 130 schoolchildren between the ages of 9 and 13 years (M = 10.69, SD 0.96 years old; 56.9% boys) participated in a cross-sectional study. Children's heart rate data were collected through participation in physical education classes using the polar TeamTM hardware and software. One week before heart rate measures, academic performance was obtained from the school records in maths, Spanish language, Catalan language, physical education, and Grade point average. Executive function was measured by two domains, cognitive flexibility with the Trail Making Test and inhibition with the Stroop test. Associations between children's heart rate data and academic performance and executive function were analyzed using regression models. Academic performance was found to be positively related to four heart rate measures (ß range, 0.191 to 0.275; all p < 0.040). Additionally, the hard heart rate intensity level was positively related to two academic indicators (ß range, 0.183 to 0.192; all p < 0.044). Three heart rate measures were associated with two cognitive flexibility subdomains (ß range, -0.248 to 0.195; all p < 0.043), and three heart rate measures were related to one inhibition subdomain (ß range, 0.198 to 0.278; all p < 0.028). The results showed slight associations of heart rate responses during physical education lessons with academic performance but did not clearly indicate associations with executive function. Future experimental studies testing associations between different bouts of intensity levels are needed to disentangle the relationship with brain function during childhood.


Assuntos
Desempenho Acadêmico , Função Executiva , Frequência Cardíaca , Educação Física e Treinamento , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Psychol Trauma ; 12(S1): S255-S257, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463284

RESUMO

In this commentary we discuss a downstream consequence of increases in stress and anxiety during the COVID-19 pandemic. Stress and anxiety can lead to mind wandering, which in turn competes for limited cognitive resources. We encourage researchers to be understanding and patient concerning the inevitable cognitive impact of the pandemic and subsequent reduced productivity levels from our students, colleagues, and ourselves. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade/fisiopatologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Psicoterapia , Estresse Psicológico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Eficiência , Humanos , Atenção Plena , Estudantes , Universidades , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Neurosci ; 40(24): 4715-4726, 2020 06 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376779

RESUMO

The ability to adjust behavior is an essential component of cognitive control. Much is known about frontal and striatal processes that support cognitive control, but few studies have investigated how motor signals change during reactive and proactive adjustments in motor output. To address this, we characterized neural signals in red nucleus (RN), a brain region linked to motor control, as male and female rats performed a novel variant of the stop-signal task. We found that activity in RN represented the direction of movement and was strongly correlated with movement speed. Additionally, we found that directional movement signals were amplified on STOP trials before completion of the response and that the strength of RN signals was modulated when rats exhibited cognitive control. These results provide the first evidence that neural signals in RN integrate cognitive control signals to reshape motor outcomes reactively within trials and proactivity across them.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Healthy human behavior requires the suppression or inhibition of errant or maladaptive motor responses, often called cognitive control. While much is known about how frontal brain regions facilitate cognitive control, less is known about how motor regions respond to rapid and unexpected changes in action selection. To address this, we recorded from neurons in the red nucleus, a motor region thought to be important for initiating movement in rats performing a cognitive control task. We show that red nucleus tracks motor plans and that selectivity was modulated on trials that required shifting from one motor response to another. Collectively, these findings suggest that red nucleus contributes to modulating motor behavior during cognitive control.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Núcleo Rubro/fisiologia , Animais , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Inibição Psicológica , Masculino , Movimento/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans
18.
Ann Hematol ; 99(9): 2057-2064, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458066

RESUMO

Sleep disturbance is common among children with sickle cell disease (SCD) and is related to neurocognitive difficulties. However, research on sleep disturbances and related variables among adults with SCD is extremely limited. The present study examined the relationship between sleep, executive functioning, and emotional functioning among 62 adults (29 females; M age = 32 years, SD = 7.79) with SCD preparing to undergo a stem cell transplant. Participants were administered a neurocognitive evaluation that included objective and subjective measures of executive functioning, and they completed PROMIS self-report measures of anxiety, depression, and pain intensity. Results showed that about 17% of participants endorsed clinically significant sleep disruptions, while 16.1% and 8% endorsed clinically significant symptoms of anxiety and depression, respectively. Sleep disturbance in these adults was not significantly correlated with objective or subjective measures of executive functioning. Moreover, anxiety, but not depression, was a significant mediator between self-reported sleep difficulties and both objective and subjective measures of executive functioning while controlling for pain intensity. Future research on sleep interventions will be essential for ameliorating the effects of sleep disturbance on executive functioning and anxiety among adults with SCD.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/psicologia , Emoções/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Adulto , Anemia Falciforme/diagnóstico , Anemia Falciforme/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/diagnóstico , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/diagnóstico , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
J Stud Alcohol Drugs ; 81(2): 164-172, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32359045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to examine the prospective effects of early adolescent marijuana use on late adolescent attentional and inhibitory control. Alcohol use, antisocial problems, and gender were included as statistical control variables. METHOD: The community sample of 387 adolescents and a caregiver was drawn from a longitudinal study of adolescent substance use that included nine annual assessments. Adolescents were eligible if they were between ages 11 and 12 at recruitment and did not have any disabilities that would preclude them from either understanding or completing the assessment. The sample was evenly split on gender (55% female) and was predominantly non-Hispanic White (83.16%) or African American (9.07%). Attentional and inhibitory control were assessed using parent and adolescent self-reports on the Early Adolescent Temperament Questionnaire-Revised and the Adult Temperament Questionnaire. RESULTS: Hypotheses were tested using structural equation modeling. High levels of early marijuana use at ages 12-14 significantly predicted low levels of adolescent attentional control at ages 18-21 (ß = -.20, p < .05), above and beyond early attentional control, early alcohol use, and antisocial problems. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that marijuana use may adversely affect cognitive development, especially during the sensitive period of early adolescence. Results emphasize the need for further prospective work to investigate relationships between early adolescent marijuana use and the development of executive functioning.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia , Atenção , Inibição Psicológica , Uso da Maconha/psicologia , Uso da Maconha/tendências , Adolescente , Comportamento do Adolescente/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pais/psicologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Autorrelato , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Abnorm Psychol ; 129(5): 517-527, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406696

RESUMO

Although autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in cognitive control, our previous work has shown that preparatory, goal-directed cognitive processing (proactive control) may be preserved in children with ASD. We investigated whether proactive control is intact in adolescents and young adults with ASD, as well as how symptoms of ASD (repetitive behaviors) and psychopathology (Depressive, Anxiety, and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems) are related to proactive control. Participants were adolescents and young adults with ASD (N = 44) and typical development (TD; N = 44). Proactive control was assessed using a picture-word Stroop paradigm where participants named animals depicted in drawings while ignoring a superimposed written animal word. Interference effects (reaction time (RT) differences between more difficult incongruent trials, where animal pictures and words prompted different responses, and simpler congruent trials, where animal pictures and words prompted the same response) were calculated for two versions of the Stroop Task: a mostly congruent (MC) block, where the majority of trials were congruent, and a mostly incongruent (MI) block, where most trials were incongruent. Proactive control was calculated as the reduction in interference in the MI block in comparison to the MC block. Proactive control did not differ between groups, indicating that proactive control is not impaired in adolescents and young adults with ASD. In ASD, depression symptoms were associated with reduced proactive control. Future research should investigate the effects of interventions targeting depression as well as interventions targeting proactive control processes in individuals with ASD and comorbid depression. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Adolescente , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Função Executiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Teste de Stroop , Adulto Jovem
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