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1.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0234938, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32877403

RESUMO

A body of literature suggests that states with independent courts are more likely to protect human rights. A recent article challenges this notion by arguing that when both the president and his or her justice minister share the same party-i.e., they are copartisans-that state is less likely to protect human rights, as justice ministers may value their loyalty to the president over their duty to enforce court decisions. In this article, I estimate government respect for human rights accounting for both copartisan justice ministers and an independent judiciary. In the end, I find copartisan justice ministers to be negatively associated with high government respect for human rights, even after controlling for judicial independence. Many constitutions already seek to ensure an independent judiciary, but if copartisan justice ministers increase the likelihood that governments repress, then perhaps constitutional engineers should also consider options that would reduce the likelihood that both the president and his or her justice minister share the same party.


Assuntos
Democracia , Direitos Humanos , Jurisprudência , Governo , Humanos , Função Jurisdicional , Política , Justiça Social
2.
S Afr Med J ; 110(2): 100-101, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32657677

RESUMO

The South African Constitution provides that children have the right to healthcare, as well as all other rights. Furthermore, in all matters affecting them, their best interests must be 'of paramount importance'. It seems common practice that, when parents refuse blood transfusions for their children solely on religious grounds, doctors and health authorities apply for a court order to overturn such refusals. However, since the implementation of the Children's Act of 2005, it may be that the onus is no longer on doctors and authorities to apply to court to reverse the decision of parents and guardians. It can be argued instead that the burden has shifted to the parents to apply to court for an order to overrule the decision of doctors, by proving to the court that alternative choices are available. Guidance is given for situations, particularly in the public sector, where alternative choices are not available.


Assuntos
Transfusão de Sangue/legislação & jurisprudência , Pais , Religião e Medicina , Recusa do Paciente ao Tratamento/legislação & jurisprudência , Criança , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Função Jurisdicional , África do Sul
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235894, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697775

RESUMO

States often seek to regulate the use of police force though citizen complaint systems. This paper examines these systems, specifically, whether patterns of bias found in other juridical contexts are mirrored in the adjudication of police assault. The analysis focuses on prosecutors as the first instance of adjudication who determine whether to move forward with investigation, effectively deciding the majority of cases. We ask whether prosecutor sex is associated with the probability that a police assault claim will be investigated. We leverage a natural experiment in Sweden where prosecutors are assigned through a modified lottery system, effectively randomizing appointment. Our findings suggest that prosecutor gender plays a role in judicial outcomes: women prosecutors are 16 percentage points more likely to investigate claims of police assault than their male counterparts. These findings have implications for scholars interested in state human rights abuses, democratic institutions, and judicial inequality.


Assuntos
Função Jurisdicional , Polícia/estatística & dados numéricos , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Direitos Humanos/legislação & jurisprudência , Direitos Humanos/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Suécia , Violência/legislação & jurisprudência
4.
Law Hum Behav ; 44(3): 209-222, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32496092

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Interested adults, such as parents and attorneys, may pose as safeguards against juveniles' vulnerabilities during custodial interrogations; yet, the trial-level ramifications of their presence are unknown. The current research examined mock jurors' perceptions and case decisions after they read about disputed juvenile confession evidence elicited in the presence of an interested adult. HYPOTHESES: We hypothesized that when reading about a voluntary confession (vs. coerced or none), participants would be more likely to convict, find the defendant vulnerable, and view his interrogation less negatively. When an interested adult (parent or attorney) was present, we anticipated an increase in convictions, lower vulnerability perceptions, and less negative views of the interrogation, and especially so when the adult encouraged the juvenile to speak. METHOD: Jury-eligible participants in Study 1 (N = 435) and Study 2 (N = 673) read a case about a 15-year-old male charged with murder and then completed a post case questionnaire. We manipulated confession type (coerced, voluntary, none) in both studies, interested adult's mere presence (parent, attorney, no adult) in Study 1, and adult advice (parent/attorney prompting the defendant to keep quiet or speak) in Study 2. RESULTS: Overall, findings demonstrated higher conviction rates when there was a voluntary confession (vs. coerced or none). Study 1 revealed that a parent's or attorney's presence inflated conviction rates, and Study 2 demonstrated that adults' advice did not affect convictions or perceptions. CONCLUSIONS: Interested adults' presence during juvenile interrogations seems to legitimize confession evidence instead of protecting juveniles at the trial level. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Julgamento , Função Jurisdicional , Delinquência Juvenil/legislação & jurisprudência , Advogados , Pais , Revelação da Verdade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Coerção , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
5.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(2): 49-55, abr.-jun. 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193990

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: Desde la entrada en vigor de la Ley 35/2015, los Institutos de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses realizan periciales extrajudiciales a petición de particulares para la resolución de las reclamaciones por accidentes de circulación. El objetivo es analizar los aspectos médico-legales más relevantes de estas periciales. MATERIAL Y MÉTODO: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de las periciales extrajudiciales en las divisiones de Barcelona y l'Hospitalet y Tarragona del Instituto de Medicina Legal y Ciencias Forenses de Cataluña durante los años 2016-2017. Los datos se obtuvieron de los registros de periciales extrajudiciales de ambas divisiones. RESULTADOS: Se realizaron 547 informes médico-forenses. Los accidentes fueron mayoritariamente causados por colisión por alcance entre turismos en trayectos urbanos. Las lesiones fueron en su mayoría de carácter leve, siendo la afectación cervical la más frecuente. En un alto porcentaje, se resolvió con tratamiento conservador en una media de 69 días, asociándose la aparición de secuelas leves en casi la mitad de los casos. El perjuicio estético se informó en el 14%. No hubo diferencias entre ambas divisiones. CONCLUSIÓN: Las periciales extrajudiciales resultan una fuente de información valiosa para la valoración de los perjuicios causados a las víctimas de accidentes de circulación. Como en otros estudios, la mayoría de lesiones son de carácter leve y se asocian a colisiones entre turismos, causando secuelas en la mitad de los casos. Parece que la vía extrajudicial es eficaz en las reclamaciones por accidentes de circulación, pero son necesarios más estudios para obtener una visión más completa


INTRODUCTION: Since the application of Law 35/2015, the Legal and Forensic Medicine Institutes provide extrajudicial expert advice at the request of individuals for the resolution of traffic accident claims. The objective is to analyze the most relevant medical-legal aspects of this expert advice. MATERIAL AND METHOD: This is a retrospective descriptive study of the extrajudicial expert advice in the divisions of Barcelona and l'Hospitalet, and Tarragona of the Catalonian Legal and Forensic Medicine Institute from 2016-2017. The data was obtained from the extrajudicial expert records of both divisions. RESULTS: 547 medical-forensic reports were made. The accidents were mainly caused by a rear collision between cars on urban routes. The injuries were mostly minor, with cervical involvement being the most frequent. A high percentage were resolved with conservative treatment in an average of 69 days, there were mild sequelae in almost half of the cases. Aesthetic damage was reported in 14%. There were no differences between the two divisions. CONCLUSION: Extrajudicial expert advice is a valuable source of information for assessing the damage caused to traffic accident victims. As in other studies, most injuries are mild and are associated with collisions between cars, causing sequelae in half of the cases. It seems that the extrajudicial route is effective in helping resolve traffic accident claims, but more studies are needed to obtain a more complete vision


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Função Jurisdicional , Acidentes de Trânsito/legislação & jurisprudência , Medicina Legal/tendências , Traumatismo Múltiplo/diagnóstico , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros/legislação & jurisprudência , Avaliação da Deficiência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Relatório de Pesquisa/legislação & jurisprudência , Estatísticas de Sequelas e Incapacidade , Traumatismos em Chicotada/epidemiologia
6.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 46(2): 71-74, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193993

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: La implantación de un Servicio de medicina legal hospitalaria, como asesor y consultor en aspectos médico-legales, éticos y deontológicos de la práctica asistencial, se ha consolidado en el Hospital Clínico de San Carlos de Madrid. Una cartera de servicios sencilla basada en la prevención de riesgos legales, ha permitido que los profesionales, la administración sanitaria y los propios pacientes confíen en él. RESULTADOS: En el período 2007-2017 se gestionaron 1.213 expedientes, aumentando de forma progresiva y destacando los años 2009 y 2017 con un 13,8 y 12,3% de la actividad total, respectivamente. Las unidades que más consultaron fueron el equipo directivo 158 (13%), el Instituto de la Mujer 144 (11,9%) y el Servicio de Atención al Paciente 116 (9,6%). DISCUSIÓN Y CONCLUSIONES: El servicio participa en múltiples comisiones y grupos de trabajo elaborando guías, documentos y protocolos, abordando conflictos, dudas normativas, deficiencias formativas, recomendando cursos de acción, e intermediando con pacientes y familiares para disminuir la incertidumbre del profesional


INTRODUCTION: A hospital legal medicine department, to advice and consult on the legal, ethical and deontological aspects of healthcare practice, has been implemented in our centre, Hospital Clínico San Carlos (Madrid Spain). A simple service portfolio based on the prevention of legal risks, has allowed professionals, health service and patients to place their trust in it. RESULTS: The number of cases over the period 2007-2017 reflects major activity, and 2009 and 2017 are highlighted with 13.8% and 12.3% of the total activity respectively. The units that consulted the most were the management team 158 (13%), the Institute for Women's Affairs 144 (11.9%) and the Patient Care Service 116 (9.6%). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The department participates in multiple committees and working groups preparing guidelines, documents and protocols, addressing conflicts, regulatory doubts, training deficiencies, recommending courses of action, and mediating with patients and family members to reduce professional uncertainty


Assuntos
Humanos , Medicina Legal/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Ciências Forenses/educação , Unidades Hospitalares/organização & administração , Função Jurisdicional , Aconselhamento Diretivo
7.
Cas Lek Cesk ; 159(1): 40-42, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32290674

RESUMO

The higher Czech courts in the three decisions recently examined the compulsory secret related to the health care providing. This article deals with the description of this decisions that relate to the provider debts enforcement and the requests of the police public bodies in which these bodies applies for the information that health care provider keeps.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Função Jurisdicional , Confidencialidade , República Tcheca , Assistência à Saúde , Humanos
8.
Psiquiatr. biol. (Internet) ; 27(1): 16-22, ene.-abr. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-193256

RESUMO

Menores procedentes de familias en conflicto, bien por ruptura, separación o divorcio de sus progenitores, bien por otras razones, con frecuencia acuden a los Centros de Salud Mental de Niños y Adolescentes. Los profesionales se ven entonces envueltos en situaciones muy cargadas emocionalmente y a veces fuertemente judicializadas, en las que pueden surgir dudas sobre cuál sería la actitud a seguir desde el punto de vista clínico, ético y legal. Este artículo de revisión pretende dar respuesta a algunas de estas dudas frecuentes en nuestra práctica clínica habitual, proporcionando una guía de asistencia al menor cuando dicha asistencia está mediatizada por un desacuerdo entre progenitores. Todo ello dentro del actual marco legal del Estado español


Minors that come from broken homes due to a break-up, legal separation, divorce, or for other reasons, frequently go to Child and Adolescent Mental Health Centres. Professionals can find themselves involved in very emotionally charged, and sometimes strongly legally contested situations, where doubts may arise about what procedure they should follow from an ethical, clinical and legal point of view. This review article, based on Spanish law, tries to answer some of the doubts frequently encountered in common clinical practice, and may provide a guide to assisting the child when there is a disagreement between the parents


Assuntos
Humanos , Serviços Comunitários de Saúde Mental , Relações Pais-Filho , Menores de Idade/legislação & jurisprudência , Menores de Idade/psicologia , Função Jurisdicional
9.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS5129, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31939526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Economic evaluation of a scientific advisory program with the Public Defenders Office to mitigate the impacts of the judicialization on health in the municipality, as well as the implementation of an active follow-up program to monitor health outcomes arising from court demands. METHODS: A two-step study, the first documental, retrospective, with data collection of lawsuits in the region of Barbalha (CE), Brazil, from 2013 to 2018, and the second stage, prospective and intervention, through mediation between the citizen and the Public Defenders Office, aiming to reduce the occurrence of the judicialization, and the monitoring of the health outcomes of the processes. The study adopted the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards protocol for economic health assessments. The data obtained from the processes were grouped and treated for characterization of the scenario. A comparison of the profile of the lawsuits in the period of 12 months before and after the installation of the program to delimit a complete fiscal cycle was carried out. RESULTS: The advisory service promoted a decrease of 40% (p=0.01) in lawsuits. There was a 31% reduction in court costs (p=0.003), with medicines accounting for 33% of this amount. There was a decrease in inputs outside the Sistema Único de Saúde lists (27%; p=0.003), however there was no statistical difference among several demanding groups, suggesting an equanimous approach. CONCLUSION: Data from the initial survey were comparable to those reported in Brazil regarding the profile of judicial demands. In view of the scenario, the proposal proved feasible as a means to mitigate the costs of the judicialization through mediation. Finally, the initiative can serve as a model for adoption by municipalities that have characteristics similar to those presented in this study.


Assuntos
Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional , Brasil , Cidades , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos
10.
Am J Public Health ; 110(3): 351-353, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944836

RESUMO

Objectives. To estimate the percentage of Texas judicial bypass petitions for abortion denied annually from 2001 to 2018, and to assess whether that fraction changed after the state's 2016 bypass process change.Methods. Because official statistics on Texas judicial bypass case counts and outcomes are only available for 2016 and later, we systematically reviewed monthly internal reports from Jane's Due Process (JDP), an organization providing legal representation to pregnant minors seeking bypass from 2001 to 2018. We report numbers and percentages of JDP cases denied for 2001 to 2018 and numbers and percentages of all cases denied from official Texas statistics for 2016 to 2018 (all available years).Results. At least 1 denial occurred in 11 out of 15 years observed before the bypass law changed in Texas (percentages = 0%-6.2%). After Texas made its bypass process more restrictive, the percentage denied increased (from 2.8% in 2015 to 10.3% in 2016 among JDP cases).Conclusions. We found the greatest percentages of judicial bypass for abortion petitions denied after the policy was implemented and after the bypass process changed. Judicial bypass for abortion may expose pregnant minors to judicial veto of their abortion decision.


Assuntos
Aborto Legal/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional , Menores de Idade/legislação & jurisprudência , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Consentimento dos Pais/legislação & jurisprudência , Gravidez , Texas
12.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS4442, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the legal demands of tiotropium bromide to treat chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. METHODS: We included secondary data from the pharmaceutical care management systems made available by the Paraná State Drug Center. RESULTS: Public interest civil action and ordinary procedures, among others, were the most common used by the patients to obtain the medicine. Two Health Centers in Paraná (Londrina and Umuarama) concentrated more than 50% of the actions. The most common specialty of physicians who prescribed (33.8%) was pulmonology. There is a small financial impact of tiotropium bromide on general costs with medicines of the Paraná State Drug Center. However, a significant individual financial impact was observed because one unit of the medicine represents 38% of the Brazilian minimum wage. CONCLUSION: Our study highlights the need of incorporating this medicine in the class of long-acting anticholinergic bronchodilator in the Brazilian public health system.


Assuntos
Broncodilatadores/economia , Medicamentos Essenciais/provisão & distribução , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/economia , Brometo de Tiotrópio/economia , Brasil , Medicamentos Essenciais/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/economia , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/economia , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/tendências , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Fatores de Tempo
13.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(5): 1509-1519, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30056502

RESUMO

Research suggests that autistic children can provide accurate and forensically useful eyewitness evidence. However, members of a jury also rely on non-verbal behaviours when judging the credibility of a witness, and this could determine the verdict of a case. We presented mock jurors with videos (from an experimental study) of one of two child witnesses on the autism spectrum being interviewed about a mock minor crime. Results demonstrated that providing jurors with generic information about autism and/or informing them of the child's diagnostic label differentially affected credibility ratings, but not for both children. Implications for how to present information about child witnesses with autism to a jury-highlighting the need for approaches tailored to individual children-are discussed.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Crime/psicologia , Direito Penal/métodos , Função Jurisdicional , Competência Mental/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Adulto Jovem
14.
J Law Health ; 33(1): 79-106, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841618

RESUMO

Alfie Evans was a terminally ill British child whose parents, clinging to hope, were desperately trying to save his life. Hospital authorities disagreed and petitioned the court to enjoin the parents from removing him and taking him elsewhere for treatment. The court stepped in and compelled the hospital to discontinue life support and claimed that further treatment was not in the child's best interest. This note discusses the heartbreaking stories of Alfie and two other children whose parents' medical decisions on their behalf were overridden by the court. It argues that courts should never decide that death is in a child's best interest and compel parents to withdraw life support from their children. Such a decision is outside the scope of the judiciary. Furthermore, it argues that even in those instances when the court may or must intervene, a new framework is necessary because the current framework used by the court to determine the best interest of the child ignores fundamental realities of child psychology. Too often, as a result of the court's mistaken framework, the court illegitimately trespasses into the parental domain. By adopting a new framework, the court will intervene only when actual abuse or neglect is suspected. In all other cases, judicial restraint will be practiced and the court will show greater deference to the parents' wishes.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Dissidências e Disputas , Função Jurisdicional , Pais , Adolescente , Adulto , Terapias Complementares/ética , Terapias Complementares/legislação & jurisprudência , Ética Institucional , Ética Médica , Feminino , Humanos , Identificação Psicológica , Lactente , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/ética , Cuidados para Prolongar a Vida/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Obrigações Morais , Autonomia Pessoal , Autonomia Profissional
15.
Rev. esp. med. legal ; 45(4): 143-146, oct.-dic. 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188618

RESUMO

Introducción: La mastopexia es uno de los actos más comunes en cirugía estética, constituyendo asimismo una de las causas de litigiosidad más creciente en los últimos años. Material y métodos: Se revisaron las sentencias de audiencias provinciales del periodo 2010-2018 y se analizaron las reclamaciones de la casuística del Consell de Col·legis de Metges de Catalunya entre el año 2009 al 2018 relativas a la mastopexia. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 50 sentencias en las que la mayoría de las reclamaciones se basaron en un defecto de información y/o mala praxis técnica. En 26 casos se desestimaron las pretensiones de la actora. La media del quantum indemnizatorio en las 24 resoluciones condenatorias fue de 22.583 euros. El análisis de casuística objetivó 28 reclamaciones relativas a mastopexia, siendo extrajudiciales en 17 casos, civiles en 7 y penales en 4. La media de cuantía reclamada en vía civil fue de 47.551,24 euros y la indemnizada fue de 30.734,32 euros. Discusión: El número de resoluciones se ha mantenido estable en el periodo estudiado. El defecto de información, así como la estimación jurídica de una obligación de medios o de resultados es clave en este tipo de reclamaciones. Existe una notable diferencia entre el quantum reclamado y el indemnizatorio en los casos de condena


Introduction: Mastopexy is one of the most common aesthetic procedures, and is also one of the causes of increased litigation in the past few years. Material and methods: 50 Provincial Court judgements were checked in the period between 2010 and 2018, as well as claims made to the Professional Liability Service of the Catalonian Colleges of Physicians between 2009 and 2018 regarding mastopexy. Results: Most of the 50 judgements were based on an information defect and/or technical malpractice. In 26 cases all claims were dismissed. The compensation average in the 24 condemnatory judgements was 22.583 Euros. The case study analysis revealed 28 complaints regarding mastopexy, 17 were out-of-court claims, 7 civil, and 4 criminal. The average amount claimed in civil proceedings was 47,551.24 Euros, while the average compensation was 30,734.32 Euros. Discussion: The number of resolutions remained stable over the studied period. The lack of information as well as the judicial recognition of an obligation of means or results is essential in these types of claims. There is a notable difference between the amount claimed and the compensation in the cases of conviction


Assuntos
Humanos , Mamoplastia/efeitos adversos , Mamoplastia/estatística & dados numéricos , Imperícia/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional , Estudos Retrospectivos
16.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 66(6): 1193-1202, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31679607

RESUMO

Juvenile drug treatment courts (JDTCs) were established in the 1990s to reduce the cycle of crime, drug use, and delinquency among youthful offenders. The principles and guidelines underlying JDTCs, roles of multidisciplinary team members, and procedures common to JDTCs are described. Youth served by JDTCs are frequently male, identify as racial or ethnic minorities, come from impoverished backgrounds, and experience significant psychiatric comorbidity. This article reviews the small number of clinical trials that have examined adjunctive treatments using family-based and individual behavioral treatment approaches designed to improve the overall efficacy of JDTCs. Considerations for future research on JDTCs are described.


Assuntos
Função Jurisdicional , Delinquência Juvenil/legislação & jurisprudência , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Humanos , Delinquência Juvenil/prevenção & controle , Delinquência Juvenil/psicologia , Delinquência Juvenil/reabilitação , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Estados Unidos
17.
J Nurs Manag ; 27(8): 1588-1603, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31559660

RESUMO

AIM: To synthesize knowledge in studies about nurses who had been disciplined by their professional regulatory bodies. BACKGROUND: Unprofessional conduct that violates patient safety, nursing standards or legislation can result in disciplinary action that affects nurse's professional rights to practice. However, research on disciplinary procedures in nursing is fragmented. METHODS: An integrative review was carried out with systematic searches between January 2006 and November 2018, using the CINAHL, PubMed, Scopus and Web of Science databases and manual searches. The quality of the 17 included studies was evaluated with the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool. RESULTS: The evidence in the included studies focused on various databases. Disciplined nurses were described in relation to their characteristics and disciplined because of numerous patients, practice and behaviour related violations. Similar disciplinary actions against nurses were reported. CONCLUSION: This review provides knowledge on contributory risk factors that can be used to develop professional standards and early interventions in nursing management. More systematic research is needed, together with clear definitions of disciplinary procedures. IMPLICATION FOR NURSING MANAGEMENT: This knowledge could strengthen the abilities of nurse managers to recognize and prevent events that seldom occur but seriously threaten the safety of patients and nurses when they do.


Assuntos
Função Jurisdicional , Licenciamento em Enfermagem/tendências , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/legislação & jurisprudência , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros/tendências , Processo de Enfermagem/legislação & jurisprudência , Processo de Enfermagem/normas
18.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 47(4): 493-503, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533992

RESUMO

Problem-solving courts have developed across the United states to offer specific offenders, including those with substance use or mental disorders, alternatives to incarceration that often involve community-based treatment services and judicial supervision. At the same time, dozens of states have legalized the use of cannabis for medical or recreational purposes, even as cannabis use remains illegal under federal law. State legalization of cannabis use has introduced legal and medical complexities for problem-solving courts, particularly concerning the management of offenders who use cannabis. This article reviews implications of cannabis use for defendants' eligibility and participation in problem-solving courts, with a focus on adult drug courts and mental health courts. This article also examines a range of policies, such as abstinence-based, tolerance-based, and adaptive approaches, that problem-solving courts may consider implementing. Further research is needed to characterize existing problem-solving court policies toward cannabis use and to develop evidence-based practices that courts may follow.


Assuntos
Cannabis , Criminosos/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Resolução de Problemas , Políticas de Controle Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
Trans Am Clin Climatol Assoc ; 130: 119-126, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516175

RESUMO

In 1955 three individuals converged to change the arc of history, Martin Luther King Jr., Rosa Parks, and arguably the most provocative but least known, Frank Minis Johnson Jr. Johnson served on the Federal District Court of the Middle District of Alabama from 1955 to 1979, during which time his numerous decisions revolutionized Civil Rights. His rulings ended the Montgomery Bus Boycott, integrated public transportation, reformed state prisons, and improved the care for the mentally ill.


Assuntos
Direitos Civis/história , Função Jurisdicional/história , História do Século XX , Estados Unidos
20.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 47(4): 467-475, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31527090

RESUMO

Patients admitted involuntarily to psychiatric hospitals may face waits of varying lengths before receiving civil commitment hearings. We aimed to assess the effects of the time spent awaiting a hearing on outcomes for such patients in a university health system, hypothesizing that patients with a longer prehearing length of stay (LOS) would also have increased LOS after their hearings. We included subjects who were admitted from January 1 through December 31, 2013, and had county court records of commitment hearings. Models for each outcome were constructed using generalized linear models to control for available confounding variables. 109 subjects were included in the analysis, 58 (53.2%) of whom had delayed commitment hearings (with prehearing LOS greater than seven days). The average posthearing LOS for the delayed group was 6.2 days greater. After controlling for covariates, prehearing LOS was statistically predictive of posthearing LOS, even after controlling for potential confounds. These results suggest that delays in involuntary civil commitment hearings for psychiatric inpatients are associated with extended posthearing LOS and extended total LOS, implying that LOS for involuntary patients could be improved by measures to increase the efficiency of commitment processes.


Assuntos
Internação Compulsória de Doente Mental/legislação & jurisprudência , Internação Involuntária/legislação & jurisprudência , Função Jurisdicional , Tempo de Internação , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais Psiquiátricos , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Estatísticos , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
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