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1.
Phytochemistry ; 178: 112462, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32888671

RESUMO

Five undescribed 12-membered macrolides containing thioethers, thiocladospolides F-J, together with the known biogenetic related analogues, were isolated from a mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Cladosporium oxysporum. The absolute configuration of thiocladospolide F was deduced by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and those of thiocladospolides G-J were determined based on specific optical rotation and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data, as well as the biogenetic considerations. Thiocladospolide G display the best antimicrobial activity against the aquatic pathogen Edwardsiella tarda with minimal inhibit concentration (MIC) value of 4 µg/mL.


Assuntos
Cladosporium , Macrolídeos , Antibacterianos , Fungos , Estrutura Molecular , Enxofre
2.
Acta amaz ; 50(3): 273-277, jul. - set. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1118861

RESUMO

Three species of the Ascomycetes genus Camillea were recorded in a fragment of Amazon rainforest in the region of Santarém, Pará state, Brazil. The occurrence of C. leprieurii, C. cyclops and C. bilabiata expand the range of distribution of these species in the state. Camillea leprieurii has previous records in the regions of Marabá, Oriximiná, Itaituba and Novo Progresso, while C. cyclops had been recorded in the west of the state. This is the first record of C. bilabiata for Pará. We provide a morphological description of the specimens and an identification key for Camillea species found in Pará. (AU)


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Xylariales , Fungos , Ecossistema Amazônico
3.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140249, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806340

RESUMO

Environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding and metagenomics analyses can improve taxonomic resolution in biodiversity studies. Only recently, these techniques have been applied in aerobiology, to target bacteria, fungi and plants in airborne samples. Here, we present a nine-month aerobiological study applying eDNA metabarcoding in which we analyzed simultaneously airborne diversity and variation of fungi and plants across five locations in North and Central Italy. We correlated species composition with the ecological characteristics of the sites and the seasons. The most abundant taxa among all sites and seasons were the fungal genera Cladosporium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum and the plant genera Brassica, Corylus, Cupressus and Linum, the latter being much more variable among sites. PERMANOVA and indicator species analyses showed that the plant diversity from air samples is significantly correlated with seasons, while that of fungi varied according to the interaction between seasons and sites. The results consolidate the performance of a new eDNA metabarcoding pipeline for the simultaneous amplification and analysis of airborne plant and fungal particles. They also highlight the promising complementarity of this approach with more traditional biomonitoring frameworks and routine reports of air quality provided by environmental agencies.


Assuntos
Código de Barras de DNA Taxonômico , DNA Ambiental , Fungos/genética , Itália , Estações do Ano
4.
Environ Pollut ; 265(Pt A): 115106, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806403

RESUMO

The conversion of natural forests to tea plantations largely affects soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions and soil microbial communities. However, the impacts of this conversion on the contribution of fungi to N2O emission and on fungal community structure remain unclear. In this study, we determined the soil N2O emission rate, N2O production by fungi, associated fungal community diversity, and related ecological factors in chronological changes of tea crop systems (3, 36 and 105 years old tea orchards named T3, T36 and T105, respectively), and in an adjacent soil from a natural forest. The results indicate that the tea plantations significantly enhanced soil N2O production compared with the forest soil. Tea plantations significantly decreased soil pH and C/N ratio, but increased soil inorganic nitrogen (N). Furthermore, they increased the fungal contribution to the production of soil N2O, but decreased the bacterial counterpart. We also observed that fungal community and functional composition differed distinctly between tea plantations and forest. Additionally, most of the fungal groups in high N2O emission soils (T36 and T105) were identified as the genus Fusarium, which were positively correlated with soil N2O emissions. The variation in N2O emission response could be well explained by NO3--N, soil organic carbon (SOC), C/N, and Fusarium, which contributed to up to 97% of the observed variance. Altogether, these findings provide significant direct evidence that the increase of soil N2O emissions and fungal communities be attributed to the conversion of natural forest to tea plantations.


Assuntos
Micobioma , Carbono/análise , Florestas , Fungos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Chá
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 738: 140337, 2020 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806360

RESUMO

Over half of people live in cities and while urban environments offer myriad social, cultural and economic benefits, they alter the microbial communities to which people are exposed: with potentially important but underexplored health impacts. In particular, higher rates of asthma and allergies in urban areas have been linked to urban-altered microbial communities - including aerial microbial communities. To date, however, there has been no synthesis of the disparate literature on the impacts of urbanisation on aerial microbial communities, making it difficult to ascertain potential health impacts. We fill this knowledge gap by systematically examining studies that compare the characteristics (e.g. microbial abundance/diversity) and/or health effects of airborne fungal and bacterial communities (hereafter referred to as 'aerobiomes') across urban and rural locations. We included 19 studies, with 31 distinct urban-rural comparisons, in our analysis. We found that rural aerobiomes more often have a greater abundance of microbes (57% of studies). Aerobiome diversity was under-reported but when comparisons were made, rural aerobiome diversity was often higher (67%). Only two studies experimentally examined the impact of urban and rural aerobiomes on human health outcomes; both found rural aerobiomes shifted immune function away from allergic (Th2-type) responses. Overall, we conclude that significant gaps remain in our understanding of how urbanisation impacts aerobiomes and the health implications of those changes. We highlight the need to standardise methods and make aerobiome data open access to facilitate cross-study comparisons. Further mechanistic studies are urgently needed to examine the impact of aerobiome composition on immune function to demonstrate how urban-driven changes to the aerobiome impact human health - ultimately facilitating the development of healthier cities.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Urbanização , Bactérias , Cidades , Fungos , Humanos
6.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3870, 2020 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747621

RESUMO

Soils harbor a substantial fraction of the world's biodiversity, contributing to many crucial ecosystem functions. It is thus essential to identify general macroecological patterns related to the distribution and functioning of soil organisms to support their conservation and consideration by governance. These macroecological analyses need to represent the diversity of environmental conditions that can be found worldwide. Here we identify and characterize existing environmental gaps in soil taxa and ecosystem functioning data across soil macroecological studies and 17,186 sampling sites across the globe. These data gaps include important spatial, environmental, taxonomic, and functional gaps, and an almost complete absence of temporally explicit data. We also identify the limitations of soil macroecological studies to explore general patterns in soil biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships, with only 0.3% of all sampling sites having both information about biodiversity and function, although with different taxonomic groups and functions at each site. Based on this information, we provide clear priorities to support and expand soil macroecological research.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Ecossistema , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/parasitologia , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biomassa , Clima , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Geografia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/metabolismo , Oligoquetos/classificação , Oligoquetos/metabolismo , Solo/química , Temperatura
7.
Water Sci Technol ; 81(12): 2559-2567, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857743

RESUMO

In environmental biotechnology applications for wastewater treatment, bacterial-based bioprocesses are mostly implemented; on the contrary, the application of fungal-based bioprocesses, is still challenging under non-sterile conditions. In a previous laboratory-scale study, we showed that when specific tannins are used as the sole carbon source, fungi can play a key role in the microbial community, under non-sterile conditions and in the long term. In a previous study, an engineered ecosystem, based on fungal tannin biodegradation, was successfully tested in a laboratory-scale bioreactor under non-sterile conditions. In the present study, a kinetic and stoichiometric characterisation of the biomass developed therein was performed through the application of respirometric techniques applied to the biomass collected from the above-mentioned reactor. To this aim, a respirometric set-up was specifically adapted to obtain valuable information from tannin-degrading fungal biofilms. A mathematical model was also developed and applied to describe both the respirometric profiles and the experimental data collected from the laboratory-scale tests performed in the bioreactor. The microbial growth was described through a Monod-type kinetic equation as a first approach. Substrate inhibition, decay rate and tannin hydrolysis process were included to better describe the behaviour of immobilised biomass selected in the tannin-degrading bioreactor. The model was implemented in AQUASIM using the specific tool Biofilm Compartment to simulate the attached fungal biofilm. Biofilm features and transport parameters were either measured or assumed from the literature. Key kinetic and stoichiometric unknown parameters were successfully estimated, overcoming critical steps for scaling-up a novel fungal-based technology for tannins biodegradation.


Assuntos
Reatores Biológicos , Ecossistema , Biodegradação Ambiental , Biofilmes , Fungos , Taninos
8.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854262

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, producing the disease COVID-19 is a pathogenic virus that targets mostly the human respiratory system and also other organs. SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans, however there have been previous outbreaks of different versions of the beta coronavirus including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV1) from 2002 to 2003 and the most recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) which was first identified in 2012. All of the above have been recognised as major pathogens that are a great threat to public health and global economies. Currently, no specific treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection has been identified; however, certain drugs have shown apparent efficacy in viral inhibition of the disease. Natural substances such as herbs and mushrooms have previously demonstrated both great antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, the possibilities of natural substances as effective treatments against COVID-19 may seem promising. One of the potential candidates against the SARS-CoV-2 virus may be Inonotus obliquus (IO), also known as chaga mushroom. IO commonly grows in Asia, Europe and North America and is widely used as a raw material in various medical conditions. In this review, we have evaluated the most effective herbs and mushrooms, in terms of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects which have been assessed in laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fungos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Agaricales/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Betacoronavirus , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Chlorella/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
9.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1958-1964, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815458

RESUMO

Objectives Severe or critical COVID-19 is associated with intensive care unit admission, increased secondary infection rate, and would lead to significant worsened prognosis. Risks and characteristics relating to secondary infections in severe COVID-19 have not been described. Methods Severe and critical COVID-19 patients from Shanghai were included. We collected lower respiratory, urine, catheters, and blood samples according to clinical necessity and culture and mNGS were performed. Clinical and laboratory data were archived. Results We found 57.89% (22/38) patients developed secondary infections. The patient receiving invasive mechanical ventilation or in critical state has a higher chance of secondary infections (P<0.0001). The most common infections were respiratory, blood-stream and urinary infections, and in respiratory infections, the most detected pathogens were gram-negative bacteria (26, 50.00%), following by gram-positive bacteria (14, 26.92%), virus (6, 11.54%), fungi (4, 7.69%), and others (2, 3.85%). Respiratory Infection rate post high flow, tracheal intubation, and tracheotomy were 12.90% (4/31), 30.43% (7/23), and 92.31% (12/13) respectively. Secondary infections would lead to lower discharge rate and higher mortality rate. Conclusion Our study originally illustrated secondary infection proportion in severe and critical COVID-19 patients. Culture accompanied with metagenomics sequencing increased pathogen diagnostic rate. Secondary infections risks increased after receiving invasive respiratory ventilations and intravascular devices, and would lead to a lower discharge rate and a higher mortality rate.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/patologia , Infecções Bacterianas/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Fungemia/patologia , Micoses/patologia , Infecções Oportunistas/patologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Infecções Respiratórias/patologia , Infecções Urinárias/patologia , Idoso , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Bacteriemia/virologia , Infecções Bacterianas/microbiologia , Infecções Bacterianas/mortalidade , Infecções Bacterianas/virologia , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/microbiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estado Terminal , Feminino , Fungemia/microbiologia , Fungemia/mortalidade , Fungemia/virologia , Fungos/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/patogenicidade , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/patogenicidade , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Pulmão/microbiologia , Pulmão/patologia , Pulmão/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/microbiologia , Micoses/mortalidade , Micoses/virologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/mortalidade , Infecções Oportunistas/virologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/microbiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Respiração Artificial/efeitos adversos , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Infecções Respiratórias/mortalidade , Infecções Respiratórias/virologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Análise de Sobrevida , Infecções Urinárias/microbiologia , Infecções Urinárias/mortalidade , Infecções Urinárias/virologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3897, 2020 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753587

RESUMO

Lipo-chitooligosaccharides (LCOs) are signaling molecules produced by rhizobial bacteria that trigger the nodulation process in legumes, and by some fungi that also establish symbiotic relationships with plants, notably the arbuscular and ecto mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we show that many other fungi also produce LCOs. We tested 59 species representing most fungal phyla, and found that 53 species produce LCOs that can be detected by functional assays and/or by mass spectroscopy. LCO treatment affects spore germination, branching of hyphae, pseudohyphal growth, and transcription in non-symbiotic fungi from the Ascomycete and Basidiomycete phyla. Our findings suggest that LCO production is common among fungi, and LCOs may function as signals regulating fungal growth and development.


Assuntos
Quitina/análogos & derivados , Quitina/metabolismo , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Ascomicetos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Basidiomycota/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecologia , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Rhizobium/metabolismo , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simbiose/fisiologia
11.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 202: 110959, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800231

RESUMO

Long-term field experiments were performed to evaluate the phytotoxic properties of fungal metabolites in oil-contaminated soil and to assess the impact of contamination on the allelopathic activity of soil mycobiota. Two contrasting soils of Northwest Russia (sandy and loamy podzols) exposed to oil contamination underwent changes in abundance and allelopathic activities of soil fungi. Shifts within the microbial community caused by oil contamination affected not only oil-decomposition rates but also ecotoxicity of contaminated soil. There were significant differences in soil toxicity dynamics between sandy and loamy podzols. Four years after contamination, ecotoxicity of loamy podzol decreased, whereas sandy podzol remained highly toxic even nine years after contamination. The abundance and allelopathic activity of fungi is correlated with hydrocarbon degradation dynamics. The soil fungal community demonstrated high allelopathic activity which decreased over time in fertile loamy podzolic soil, whereas in poor sandy podzolic soil it remained high over the nine-year monitoring period. The results illustrate how oil contamination may influence allelopathic interactions in soil and demonstrate the advantage of using fungal metabolite toxicity test for testing of oil-contaminated soil samples.


Assuntos
Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos/toxicidade , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Petróleo/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Daphnia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecotoxicologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Hidrocarbonetos/análise , Micotoxinas/metabolismo , Petróleo/análise , Federação Russa , Solo/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Triticum/efeitos dos fármacos , Triticum/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
BMC Microbiol ; 20(1): 265, 2020 08 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32847510

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acetic acid has been used to clean and disinfect surfaces in the household for many decades. The antimicrobial efficacy of cleaning procedures can be considered particularly important for young, old, pregnant, immunocompromised people, but may also concern other groups, particularly with regards to the COVID-19 pandemics. This study aimed to show that acetic acid exhibit an antibacterial and antifungal activity when used for cleaning purposes and is able to destroy certain viruses. Furthermore, a disinfecting effect of laundry in a simulated washing cycle has been investigated. RESULTS: At a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid, acetic acid showed a reduction of > 5-log steps according to the specifications of DIN EN 1040 and DIN EN 1275 for the following microorganisms: P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, K. pneumoniae, E. hirae and A. brasiliensis. For MRSA a logarithmic reduction of 3.19 was obtained. Tests on surfaces according to DIN EN 13697 showed a complete reduction (> 5-log steps) for P. aeruginosa, E. coli, S. aureus, E. hirae, A. brasiliensis and C. albicans at an acetic acid concentration of already 5%. Virucidal efficacy tests according to DIN EN 14476 and DIN EN 16777 showed a reduction of ≥4-log-steps against the Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) for acetic acid concentrations of 5% or higher. The results suggest that acetic acid does not have a disinfecting effect on microorganisms in a dosage that is commonly used for cleaning. However, this can be achieved by increasing the concentration of acetic acid used, especially when combined with citric acid. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show a disinfecting effect of acetic acid in a concentration of 10% and in presence of 1.5% citric acid against a variety of microorganisms. A virucidal effect against enveloped viruses could also be proven. Furthermore, the results showed a considerable antimicrobial effect of acetic acid when used in domestic laundry procedures.


Assuntos
Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfecção/métodos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Norovirus/efeitos dos fármacos
13.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(8): 670-678, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32734730

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections is challenging due to the difficulty of obtaining sufficient specimens. Endobronchial ultrasound-guided transbronchial needle aspiration (EBUS-TBNA) needle rinse fluid has become an emerging diagnostic material. This study evaluated the role of routine fungal culture from EBUS-TBNA needle rinse fluid, in addition to histopathologic examination and fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue, in the diagnosis of pulmonary fungal infections. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Among patients who underwent EBUS-TBNA, those with results for at least one of three tests (histopathologic examination, fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue or needle rinse fluid) were included. Patients with a positive test were divided into two groups (clinical fungal infection and suspected fungal contamination) according to their clinical assessment and therapeutic response to antifungal. RESULTS: Of 6072 patients, 41 (0.7%) had positive fungal tests and 9 (22%) were diagnosed as clinical fungal infection. Of the 5222 patients who were evaluated using a fungal culture from EBUS-TBNA needle rinse fluid, 35 (0.7%) had positive results. However, only 4 out of 35 (11.4%) were classified as clinical fungal infection. Positive results were determined in 4 of the 68 (5.9%) evaluated by a fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue, and all were diagnosed as clinical fungal infection. CONCLUSION: Routine fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA needle rinse fluid is not useful due to the low incidence of fungal infection and high rate of contamination. However, fungal culture of EBUS-TBNA core tissue and needle rinse fluid should be considered in patients with clinically suspected fungal infection.


Assuntos
Aspiração por Agulha Fina Guiada por Ultrassom Endoscópico , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Agulhas , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Biópsia Guiada por Imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micoses/diagnóstico
14.
Extremophiles ; 24(5): 797-807, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789694

RESUMO

We recovered 85 fungal isolates from the acid sulphate soils in chronosequence under para-periglacial conditions in King George Island, Antarctica. Thirty-two taxa belonging to the phylum Ascomycota, Basidiomycota and Mortierellomycota were identified. Mortierella amoeboidea, Mortierella sp. 2, Mortierella sp. 3, Penicillium sp. 2 and Penicillium sp. 3 dominated the sulphite soils. Despite the multi-extreme physic-chemical conditions of the sulphate soils (low pH, variable content of macro and micronutrients and organic matter), the fungal assemblages exhibited moderate diversity indices, which ranged according to the degree of soil development. Soils with more weathered and, consequently, with highest values of organic carbon shelter the most diverse fungal assemblages, which can be associated with the occurrence of sulphurisation and sulphide oxidation. Different taxa of Mortierella and Penicillium displayed broad pH (3-9) and temperature (5-35 °C) plasticity. The multi-extreme sulphite soils of Antarctica revealed the presence of moderate fungal diversity comprising cold cosmopolitan and psychrophilic endemic taxa. Among these, Mortierella and Penicillium, known to survive in extreme conditions such as low temperature and available organic matter, low pH and high concentrations of metals, might represent interesting techniques to be used in biotechnological processes such as bioleaching in metallurgy and phosphate solubilisation in agriculture.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Fungos , Solo , Regiões Antárticas , Ilhas , Microbiologia do Solo , Sulfatos
15.
Annu Rev Phytopathol ; 58: 277-311, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853099

RESUMO

The loss of methyl bromide as a soil fumigant and minimal advances in the development and registration of new chemical fumigants has resulted in a resurgence of interest in the application of organic amendments (OAs) for soilborne plant pathogen and plant-parasitic nematode management. Significant progress has been made in the characterization of OAs, application of strategies for their use, and elucidation of mechanisms by which they suppress soilborne pests. Nonetheless, their utility is limited by the variability of disease control, expense, and the logistics of introducing them into crop production systems. Recent advances in molecular techniques have led to significant progress in the elucidation of the role of bacteria and fungi and their metabolic products on disease suppression with the addition of OAs. Biosolarization and anaerobic soil disinfestation, developed to manipulate systems and favor beneficial microorganisms to maximize their impact on plant pathogens, are built on a strong historical research foundation in OAs and the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of disease-suppressive soils. This review focuses on recent applications of OAs and their potential for the management of soilborne plant pathogens and plant-parasitic nematodes, with emphasis primarily on annual fruit and vegetable production systems.


Assuntos
Nematoides , Animais , Produção Agrícola , Fungos , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo
16.
Bioresour Technol ; 315: 123893, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736320

RESUMO

Consolidated bioprocesses for bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biodiesel feedstocks were developed. Palm empty fruit bunch (EFB) was biologically pretreated coupling with fungal lipid production (121.4 ± 2.7 mg/g-EFB) by lignocellulolytic oleaginous fungi prior to lipid production by oleaginous yeasts. In subsequent separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) of fungal pretreated EFB (FPEFB), the oleaginous yeast with the maximum lipid yield of 37.0 ± 0.1 mg/g-FPEFB was screened. While a higher lipid yield of 47.9 ± 1.5 mg/g-FPEFB was achieved in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) with less enzyme requirement. Fed-batch SSF of non-sterile FPEFB was proven as a practical and efficient strategy to increase lipid yield up to 53.4 ± 0.5 mg/g-FPEFB. Total lipid yield by both fungi and yeast was 165.0 ± 4.4 mg/g-EFB. Interestingly, the consolidated bioprocesses of enzyme and lipid production also achieved comparable total lipid yield of 149.3 ± 6.6 mg/g-EFB. These strategies may contribute greatly to cost-effective and sustainable bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass into biodiesel feedstocks.


Assuntos
Biocombustíveis , Leveduras , Biomassa , Fermentação , Fungos
17.
Carbohydr Polym ; 247: 116740, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829859

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease with highly heterogeneous and mortality rate, but its therapeutic options are now still limited. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by WHO as a pandemic, and the global number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has been more than 8.0 million. It is strongly supported for that PF should be one of the major complications in COVID-19 patients by the evidences of epidemiology, viral immunology and current clinical researches. The anti-PF properties of naturally occurring polysaccharides have attracted increasing attention in last two decades, but is still lack of a comprehensively understanding. In present review, the resources, structural features, anti-PF activities, and underlying mechanisms of these polysaccharides are summarized and analyzed, which was expected to provide a scientific evidence supporting the application of polysaccharides for preventing or treating PF in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/fisiologia , Fungos/química , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Heterogênea D0/fisiologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , RNA Longo não Codificante/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Alga Marinha/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores
18.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0231187, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730267

RESUMO

Little is known of how hurricane-induced deposition of canopy material onto tropical forest floors influences the soil microbial communities involved in decomposition of these materials. In this study, to identify how soil bacterial and fungal communities might change after a hurricane, and their possible roles in the C and N cycles, soils were collected from five 2000 m2 permanent plots in Lowland, Upland and Riparian primary forests in Costa Rica 3 months before and 7 months after Hurricane Otto damaged the forests. The soil Water, inorganic N and Biomass C increased and total organic C decreased Post-Hurricane, all of which best predicted the changes in the Post-Hurricane soil microbial communities. Post-Hurricane soils from all forest types showed significant changes in community composition of total bacteria, total fungi, and five functional groups of microbes (i.e., degrading/lignin degrading, NH4+-producing, and ammonium oxidizing bacteria, and the complex C degrading/wood rot/lignin degrading and ectomycorrhizal fungi), along with a decrease in richness in genera of all groups. As well, the mean proportion of DNA sequences (MPS) of all five functional groups increased. There were also significant changes in the MPS values of 7 different fungal and 7 different bacterial genera that were part of these functional groups. This is the first evidence that hurricane-induced deposition of canopy material is stimulating changes in the soil microbial communities after the hurricane, involving changes in specific taxonomic and functional group genera, and reduction in the community richness while selecting for dominant genera possibly better suited to process the canopy material. These changes may represent examples of taxonomic switching of functionally redundant microbial genera in response to dramatic changes in resource input. It is possible that differences in these microbial communities and genera may serve as indicators of disturbed and recovering regional soil ecosystems, and should be evaluated in the future.


Assuntos
Tempestades Ciclônicas , Florestas , Microbiologia do Solo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Costa Rica , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3684, 2020 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32703952

RESUMO

Empirical evidence for the response of soil carbon cycling to the combined effects of warming, drought and diversity loss is scarce. Microbial carbon use efficiency (CUE) plays a central role in regulating the flow of carbon through soil, yet how biotic and abiotic factors interact to drive it remains unclear. Here, we combine distinct community inocula (a biotic factor) with different temperature and moisture conditions (abiotic factors) to manipulate microbial diversity and community structure within a model soil. While community composition and diversity are the strongest predictors of CUE, abiotic factors modulated the relationship between diversity and CUE, with CUE being positively correlated with bacterial diversity only under high moisture. Altogether these results indicate that the diversity × ecosystem-function relationship can be impaired under non-favorable conditions in soils, and that to understand changes in soil C cycling we need to account for the multiple facets of global changes.


Assuntos
Biomassa , Ciclo do Carbono , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo
20.
Toxicon ; 185: 97-103, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32622693

RESUMO

Mycotoxins are toxic secondary metabolites produced by fungus which cause worldwide concern regarding food and feed safety. Ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1) and deoxynivalenol (DON) are some of the main mycotoxins and oxidative stress is the main mechanism of toxicity. Thereby, this study investigates the in vitro cytoprotective effects of curcumin (CUR) and silymarin (SIL) - known for their strong antioxidant activity - in PK-15 cells exposed to OTA, FB1 and DON. Pretreatment with CUR and SIL enhanced the viability of cells exposed to the mycotoxins (P < 0.001) and attenuated reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation by DON (P < 0.01), partially reduced ROS formation by FB1 (P < 0.001), but not OTA. CUR significantly decreased apoptosis in cells exposed to DON (P < 0.01) but was not able to prevent apoptosis in cells exposed to OTA and FB1. Whereas SIL was able to prevent apoptosis in PK-15 cells exposed to FB1 and DON (P < 0.01) but was not able to decrease apoptosis in cells exposed to OTA. In summary, these data indicate that curcumin and silymarin are able to provide cytoprotection against toxicity induced by OTA, FB1 and DON in PK-15 cells.


Assuntos
Curcumina/farmacologia , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Silimarina/farmacologia , Apoptose , Sobrevivência Celular , Fumonisinas/toxicidade , Fungos , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tricotecenos/toxicidade
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