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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251367, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355884

RESUMO

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effect of atmospheric plasma application on the inactivation of fungi on the surface of Erythrina velutina seeds and on isolated fungal colonies. Two experiments were conducted using a completely randomized design. First, plasma was applied to the surface of the seeds using helium gas and atmospheric plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min in addition to the control (untreated seeds), constituting seven treatments with five repetitions each. In the second experiment, Petri dishes containing the inoculum of different fungi were treated with atmospheric air plasma for 3, 6, and 9 min (Air-3, Air-6, and Air-9) and were compared with untreated fungi in Petri dishes without treatment (control), totaling four treatments and five repetitions each. We found that the application of atmospheric air plasma to E. velutina seeds for 9 min had an antimicrobial effect on the fungi Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Brachysporium sp., and Rhizopus sp. The formation of fungal colonies isolated from E. velutina seeds was also inhibited by 3 min of exposure to atmospheric air plasma, except for A. niger, whose inhibition occurred after 6 min of exposure to atmospheric plasma.


Resumo Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito da aplicação de plasma atmosférico na inativação de fungos na superfície de sementes de Erythrina velutina e em colônias fúngicas isoladas. Dois experimentos foram realizados em delineamento inteiramente casualizado: no primeiro, o plasma foi aplicado na superfície das sementes usando gás hélio e plasma atmosférico por três, seis e nove minutos, além do controle (sementes sem tratamento), constituindo sete tratamentos com cinco repetições cada; no segundo experimento, placas de Petri contendo o inóculo de diferentes fungos foram tratadas com plasma atmosférico por três, seis e nove minutos (Air-3, Air-6 e Air-9) e comparadas com fungos não tratados em placas de Petri sem tratamento (controle), totalizando quatro tratamentos e cinco repetições cada. Descobrimos que a aplicação de plasma atmosférico nas sementes de E. velutina por nove minutos teve efeito antimicrobiano sobre os fungos Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium sp., Brachysporium sp. e Rhizopus sp. A formação de colônias fúngicas isoladas de sementes de E. velutina também foi inibida por três minutos de exposição à aplicação de plasma atmosférico, exceto para A. niger, cuja inibição ocorreu a partir de 6 minutos de exposição à aplicação de plasma atmosférico.


Assuntos
Erythrina , Fungos
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253156, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355904

RESUMO

Abstract Endophytic fungi are a ubiquituos group that colonize all plant species on earth. Studies comparing the location of endophytic fungi within the leaves and the sampling time in Manihot esculenta Crantz (cassava) are limited. In this study, mature leaves of M. esculenta from Panama were collected in order to compare the cultivable diversity of endophytic fungi and to determine their distribution within the leaves. A total of one hundred sixty endophytes belonging to 97 species representing 13 genera and 8 morphospecies determined as mycelia sterilia that containing 63 isolates were isolated. Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia, and mycelia sterilia 1 and 3 were the most predominant isolated endophytes. We detected that endophytes varied across the sampling time, but not amongst locations within leaves. The endophytes composition across sampling and the location of endophytes within leaf was similar, except for Periconia and mycelia sterilia 3 and 7. The data generated in this study contribute to the knowledge on the biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Panama, and establish the bases for future research focused on understanding the function of endophytes in M. esculenta crops.


Resumo Os fungos endofíticos são um grupo ubiquituo que colonizam todas as espécies de plantas na terra. Os estudos que comparam a localização dos fungos endofíticos dentro das folhas de Manihot esculenta Crantz (mandioca) e o tempo de amostragem são muito escassos. Neste estudo, folhas maduras de M. esculenta foram coletadas do Panamá com a finalidade de comparar a diversidade cultivável de endófitos e determinar sua distribuição dentro das folhas. Um total de 170 endófitos foram isolados de 97 espécies que representam 13 gêneros e 8 morfoespécies determinadas como micélios esterilizados contendo 63 isolados. Os fungos Cladosporium, Nigrospora, Periconia e mycelia sterilia 1 e 3 foram os isolados mais predominantes. Também detectamos que os endófitos variaram ao longo do tempo de amostragem, mas não entre os locais dentro das folhas. A composição de endófitos na amostragem e localização de endófitos dentro da folha foi semelhante, exceto para Periconia e mycelia sterilia 3 e 7. Os dados gerados neste estudo contribuem para o conhecimento da biodiversidade de fungos endofíticos no Panamá e estabelecem as bases para pesquisas sobre o entendimento da função de endófitos em culturas de M. esculenta.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Manihot , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta , Biodiversidade , Endófitos , Fungos
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e246389, 2023. graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1285638

RESUMO

Abstract Poultry industry is expanding rapidly and producing million tons of feather waste annually. Massive production of keratinaceous byproducts in the form of industrial wastes throughout the world necessitates its justified utilization. Chemical treatment of keratin waste is proclaimed as an eco-destructive approach by various researchers since it generates secondary pollutants. Keratinase released by a variety of microbes (bacteria and fungi) can be used for the effective treatment of keratin waste. Microbial degradation of keratin waste is an emerging and eco-friendly approach and offers dual benefits, i.e., treatment of recalcitrant pollutant (keratin) and procurement of a commercially important enzyme (keratinase). This study involves the isolation, characterization, and potential utility of fungal species for the degradation of chicken-feather waste through submerged and solid-state fermentation. The isolated fungus was identified and characterized as Aspergillus (A.) flavus. In a trial of 30 days, it was appeared that 74 and 8% feather weight was reduced through sub-merged and solid-state fermentation, respectively by A. flavus. The pH of the growth media in submerged fermentation was changed from 4.8 to 8.35. The exploited application of keratinolytic microbes is, therefore, recommended for the treatment of keratinaceous wastes to achieve dual benefits of remediation.


Resumo A indústria avícola está se expandindo rapidamente e produzindo milhões de toneladas de resíduos de penas anualmente. A produção massiva de subprodutos queratinosos na forma de resíduos agrícolas e industriais em todo o mundo exige sua utilização justificada. O tratamento químico de resíduos de queratina é proclamado como uma abordagem ecodestrutiva por vários pesquisadores, uma vez que gera poluentes secundários. A queratinase liberada por uma variedade de micróbios (bactérias e fungos) pode ser usada para o tratamento eficaz de resíduos de queratina. A degradação microbiana de resíduos de queratina é uma abordagem emergente e ecológica e oferece benefícios duplos, ou seja, tratamento de poluente recalcitrante (queratina) e obtenção de uma enzima comercialmente importante (queratinase). Este estudo envolve o isolamento, caracterização e utilidade potencial de espécies de fungos para a degradação de resíduos de penas de frango por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O fungo isolado foi identificado e caracterizado como Aspergillus (A.) flavus. Em um ensaio de 30 dias, constatou-se que 74% e 8% do peso das penas foram reduzidos por A. flavus, respectivamente, por meio da fermentação submersa e em estado sólido. O pH do meio de crescimento em fermentação submersa foi alterado de 4,8 para 8,35. A aplicação explorada de micróbios queratinolíticos é, portanto, recomendada para o tratamento de resíduos ceratinosos para obter benefícios duplos de remediação.


Assuntos
Animais , Galinhas , Plumas , Fermentação , Fungos , Resíduos Industriais , Queratinas/metabolismo
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242070, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278554

RESUMO

Abstract Interactions between endophytic fungi (EFs) and their host plants range from positive to neutral to negative. The results of such interactions can vary depending on the organ of the infected host plant. EFs isolated from the leaves of some species of plants have potential for use as agents to inhibit seed germination and control invasive plants. The objectives of this study were to identify EFs present in the leaves of Copaifera oblongifolia and to evaluate the role of these fungi in seed germination and seedling development. A total of 11 species of EFs were isolated, which were identified using the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) sequence of the nuclear ribosomal DNA. The isolated species of EFs are generalists and probably are transmitted horizontally. Laboratory tests revealed that filtrates of these fungal isolates differently affect seed germination and seedling development of C. oblongifolia. The species Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum and Phomopsis sp. negatively affected seed germination, with N. parvum standing out for its negative effects, inhibiting seedling germination and survival in 89 and 222%, respectively. In addition, Cochliobolus intermedius negatively affected seedling development. Thus, the combined use of N. parvum and C. intermedius, or products from the metabolism of these microorganisms, in the control of invasive plants deserves attention from future studies.


Resumo As interações entre fungos endofíticos (FEs) e suas plantas hospedeiras variam de positivas, neutras a negativas. Os resultados destas interações podem variar dependendo do órgão da planta hospedeira infectada. FEs isolados de folhas de algumas espécies de plantas têm potencial para serem usados como agentes inibidores da germinação de sementes e no controle de plantas invasoras. Os objetivos deste estudo foram identificar os FEs presentes nas folhas de Copaifera oblongifolia e avaliar o papel destes fungos na germinação das sementes e no desenvolvimento das plântulas. Um total de 11 espécies de FEs foi isolado das folhas de C. oblongifolia e identificado através da sequência dos espaçadores internos transcritos do DNA ribossomal nuclear. As espécies de FEs isoladas são generalistas e provavelmente devem ser transmitidas horizontalmente. Os resultados dos testes de germinação mostraram que filtrados destes isolados fúngicos podem afetar diferentemente a germinação das sementes e o desenvolvimento das plântulas de C. oblongifolia. As espécies Curvularia intermedia, Neofusicoccum parvum, Pseudofusicoccum stromaticum e Phomopsis sp. afetaram negativamente a germinação das sementes de C. oblongifolia. Dentre estas espécies devemos destacar que N. parvum reduziu a germinação e a sobrevivência das plântulas em 89 e 222%, respectivamente. Além disso, Cochiliobolus intermedius afetou negativamente o desenvolvimento das plântulas. Assim, o uso combinado de N. parvum e C. intermedius, ou de produtos do metabolismo destas espécies de fungos, têm potencial para serem usados no manejo de plantas invasoras.


Assuntos
Germinação , Fabaceae , Ascomicetos , Sementes , Folhas de Planta , Plântula , Fungos , Curvularia
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247993, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278544

RESUMO

Abstract Bats are important for the homeostasis of ecosystems and serve as hosts of various microorganisms including bacteria, viruses, and fungi with pathogenic potential. This study aimed to isolate fungi from biological samples obtained from bats captured in the city of Sinop (state of Mato Grosso, Brazil), where large areas of deforestation exist due to urbanization and agriculture. On the basis of the flow of people and domestic animals, 48 bats were captured in eleven urban forest fragments. The samples were processed and submitted to microbiological cultures, to isolate and to identify the fungal genera. Thirty-four (70.83%) of the captured bats were positive for fungi; 18 (37.5%) and 16 (33.33%) of these bats were female and male, respectively. Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp., and Candida sp., which may cause opportunistic infections, were isolated. The bat species with the highest number of fungal isolates was Molossus molossus: 21 isolates (43.8%). According to our results, bats captured in urban forest fragments in Sinop harbor pathogenic fungi, increasing the risk of opportunistic fungal infections in humans and domestic animals.


Resumo Os morcegos apresentam grande importância na homeostasia dos ecossistemas e são hospedeiros de uma rica diversidade de micro-organismos como bactérias, vírus e fungos com potencial patogênico. Portanto, este estudo visou isolar fungos presentes em amostras biológicas de morcegos na cidade de Sinop - MT, que possui grandes áreas de desmatamento devido à urbanização e agricultura. Foram capturados 48 morcegos de diferentes espécies, em onze fragmentos florestais urbanos definidos de acordo com fluxo de pessoas e animais domésticos, para obtenção de amostras biológicas. Essas amostras foram processadas e submetidas aos cultivos microbiológicos, para isolamento e identificação dos gêneros dos fungos. Dos 48 morcegos, 34 (70,83%) foram positivos para pelos menos um gênero de fungo, sendo 18 (37,5%) fêmeas e 16 (33,33%) machos, e os gêneros isolados a partir das amostras biológicas foram Penicillium sp., Scopulariopsis sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Alternaria sp., Cryptococcus sp., Trichosporon sp. e Candida sp., que podem ser causadores de infecções oportunistas. Desse total, a espécie que apresentou maior positividade para pelo menos um gênero de fungo foi Molossus molossus com 21 (43,8%). Nossos resultados demonstram que os morcegos capturados nos fragmentos florestais urbanos na cidade de Sinop - MT, podem atuar como agentes veiculadores de fungos com potencial patogênico, aumentando assim o risco de exposição e aquisição de infecções fúngicas oportunistas por pessoas e animais domésticos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Quirópteros , Brasil , Florestas , Cidades , Ecossistema , Fungos
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e242830, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278540

RESUMO

Abstract Pesticide residues that contaminate the environment circulate within the hydrological cycle can accumulate within the food chain and cause problems to both environmental and human health. Microbes, however, are well known for their metabolic versatility and the ability to degrade chemically stable substances, including recalcitrant xenobiotics. The current study focused on bio-prospecting within Amazonian rainforest soils to find novel strains fungi capable of efficiently degrading the agriculturally and environmentally ubiquitous herbicide, glyphosate. Of 50 fungal strains isolated (using culture media supplemented with glyphosate as the sole carbon-substrate), the majority were Penicillium strains (60%) and the others were Aspergillus and Trichoderma strains (26 and 8%, respectively). All 50 fungal isolates could use glyphosate as a phosphorous source. Eight of these isolates grew better on glyphosate-supplemented media than on regular Czapek Dox medium. LC-MS revealed that glyphosate degradation by Penicillium 4A21 resulted in sarcosine and aminomethylphosphonic acid.


Resumo Resíduos de agrotóxicos que contaminam o meio ambiente circulam no ciclo hidrológico, podendo se acumular na cadeia alimentar e causar problemas tanto à saúde ambiental quanto humana. Por sua vez, microrganismos são bem conhecidos por sua versatilidade metabólica e capacidade de degradar substâncias quimicamente estáveis, incluindo xenobióticos recalcitrantes. O estudo atual se concentrou na bioprospecção nos solos da floresta amazônica para encontrar novas linhagens de fungos capazes de degradar com eficiência o herbicida onipresente na agricultura e no meio ambiente, o glifosato. Entre os 50 fungos isolados (usando meio de cultura suplementado com glifosato como única fonte de carbono), a maioria eram isolados do gênero Penicillium (60%) e os outros eram isolados de Aspergillus e Trichoderma (26 e 8%, respectivamente). Todos os 50 isolados de fungos foram capazes de usar glifosato como fonte de fósforo. Oito desses isolados cresceram melhor em meio suplementado com glifosato do que em meio Czapek Dox regular. LC-MS revelou que a degradação do glifosato por Penicillium 4A21 resultou nos metabólitos sarcosina e ácido aminometilfosfônico.


Assuntos
Humanos , Penicillium , Trichoderma , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Aspergillus , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Organofosfonatos , Fungos , Glicina/análogos & derivados
7.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(6): 3328-3337, 2022 Jun 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35686803

RESUMO

Grassland degradation has become a worldwide ecological problem. Although soil microorganisms, as the main participants in the process of grassland degradation, play a key role in maintaining ecosystem function and improving soil productivity, little is known about the changes in microbial communities caused by grassland degradation and their relationship with soil properties and plant communities. In this study, we used Illumina MiSeq sequencing to analyze the soil fungal communities of subalpine meadow soil at four different degradation stages[i.e., non-degraded (ND), lightly degraded (LD), moderately degraded (MD), and heavily degraded (HD)] on Mount Wutai. The results showed that Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, and Zygomycota were the dominant phyla of soil fungi in the subalpine meadow, regardless of degradation stage. LEfSe showed that the subalpine meadows with different degradation degrees were enriched with different biomarkers. Compared with ND, MD and HD were enriched with more pathogenic fungi. Moreover, HD apparently decreased the richness and Shannon indexes of soil fungal communities compared with those of ND. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) and similarity analysis (ANOSIM) indicated that the compositions and structures of fungal communities were significantly different among meadows with different degradation degrees (P<0.05). Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that soil water content, total nitrogen, plant richness, and ammonium nitrogen were significantly correlated with the compositions and structures of fungal communities (P<0.05). There were significant correlations between α diversity and ß diversity between plant and fungal communities (P<0.05), indicating strong coupling. The results of our study provide a theoretical basis for further research on the changes in soil fungal communities and their driving mechanism in different degradation stages of subalpine meadows.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Micobioma , Fungos/genética , Pradaria , Humanos , Nitrogênio , Plantas , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
8.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 887971, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35694549

RESUMO

Occurrence and intensity of systemic invasive fungal infections have significantly risen in recent decades with large amount of mortality and morbidity rates at global level. Treatment therapy lies on the current antifungal interventions and are often limited due to the emergence of resistance to antifungal agents. Chemosensitization of fungal strains to the conventional antimycotic drugs are of growing concern. Current antifungal drugs often have been reported with poor activity and side effects to the host and have a few number of targets to manifest their efficacy on the pathogens. Indiscriminately, the aforementioned issues have been easily resolved by the development of new intervention strategies. One such approach is to employ combinational therapy that has exhibited a great level of inhibitions than that of a single compound. Chemosensitization of pathogenic mycoses to commercial antifungal drugs could be drastically enhanced by co-application of chemosensitizers along with the conventional drugs. Chemosensitizers could address the resistance mechanisms evolved in the pathogenic fungi and targeting the system to make the organism susceptible to commercially and clinically proven antifungal drugs. However, this strategy has not been overreached to the greater level, but it needs much attention to fight against not only with the pathogen but combat the resistance mechanisms of pathogens to drugs. Natural compounds including plant compounds and microbial proteins act as potential chemosensitizers to break the resistance in mycoses. Aspergillus giganteus, a filamentous fungus, is known to produce a cysteine rich extracellular protein called as antifungal protein (AFP). AFP has shown enhanced efficacy against several filamentous and non-filamentous fungal pathogens. On the basis of the reported studies on its targeted potential against pathogenic mycoses, AFP would be fabricated as a good chemosensitizer to augment the fungicidal efficacy of commercial antimycotic drugs. This paper reviews on breakthrough in the discovery of antifungal drugs along with the resistance patterns of mycoses to commercial drugs followed by the current intervention strategies applied to augment the fungicidal potential of drugs.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Micoses , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergillus , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Fungicidas Industriais/farmacologia , Humanos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/microbiologia , alfa-Fetoproteínas/farmacologia , alfa-Fetoproteínas/uso terapêutico
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682227

RESUMO

In this study, the levels of airborne bacteria and fungi were tested in a female dormitory room; the effects of heating, relative humidity and number of occupants on indoor microorganisms were analyzed and the dose rate of exposure to microbes was assessed. The bacterial and fungal concentrations in the room ranged from 100 to several thousand CFU/m3, and the highest counts were observed in the morning (930 ± 1681 CFU/m3). Staphylococcus spp. and Micrococcus spp. were found in the dormitory. When the heating was on, the total bacterial and fungal counts were lower than when there was no heating. Moreover, statistically significant differences were observed for bacterial concentrations during the morning periods between the times when there was no heating and the times when there was heating. The number of occupants had an obvious positive effect on the total bacterial counts. Moreover, RH had no correlation with the airborne fungi in the dormitory, statistically. Furthermore, the highest dose rate from exposure to bacteria and fungi was observed during sleeping hours. The dose rate from exposure to airborne microorganisms in the dormitory was associated with the activity level in the room. These results helped to elucidate the threat of bioaerosols to the health of female occupants and provide guidance for protective measures.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Bactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Fungos , Habitação
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682253

RESUMO

We aimed to analyze airborne microorganisms and assess air quality, temperature, and relative humidity at "J" Market, an arcade-type traditional market in Anseong (South Korea). Measurements were taken 16 times, twice per quarter (January, April, July, and October), at both the entrance and intersection of the market in 2020. The concentrations of airborne bacteria and fungi at the entrance and intersection were highest in October and lowest in April; however, they were below the recommended indoor levels (airborne bacteria: <800 CFU/m3, airborne fungi: <500 CFU/m3) in January (second measurement) and April (first and second measurements). The concentrations of microbes during the first measurement in January and both measurements in July and October exceeded the allowed limits. The concentration of microorganisms exceeded the acceptable levels at relative humidity ≥60%. At all time points, except during the eighth survey, when the microorganisms were too numerous to count, microbial concentrations were higher at the intersection than at the entrance. It was confirmed that the microorganisms detected in this experiment were 26 species of bacteria and 21 species of fungi. Three of the four species of bacteria and fungi detected in more than 50% of the 16 experimental results were pathogenic. Our findings suggest that air purification systems must be installed in the market to improve sanitary conditions.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Bactérias , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fungos , República da Coreia
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682921

RESUMO

The introduction of the first antibiotic (penicillin) by Sir Alexander Fleming in 1928 was a huge milestone in the treatment of infectious diseases [...].


Assuntos
Penicilinas , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias , Fungos
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(11)2022 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35683011

RESUMO

Four unusual steckwaic acids E-H (1-4), possessing a rarely described acrylic acid unit at C-4 (1-3) or a double bond between C-12 and C-13 (4) are reported for the first time, along with four new analogues (5-8) and two known congeners (9 and 10). They were purified from the organic extract of Penicillium steckii AS-324, an endozoic fungus obtained from a deep-sea coral Acanthogorgiidae sp., which was collected from the Magellan Seamount at a depth of 1458 m. Their structures were determined by the interpretation of NMR and mass spectroscopic data. The relative and absolute configurations were determined by NOESY correlations, X-ray crystallographic analysis, and ECD calculations. All compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activities against human- and aquatic-pathogenic bacteria and plant-related pathogenic fungi.


Assuntos
Antozoários , Penicillium , Policetídeos , Animais , Fungos/química , Estrutura Molecular , Penicillium/química , Policetídeos/química , Policetídeos/farmacologia
13.
Curr Opin Virol ; 54: 101232, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35644066

RESUMO

Picobirnaviruses are small double-stranded RNA viruses first discovered in 1988 in stool samples from patients with diarrhea. It has generally been assumed that picobirnaviruses infect animal hosts and that they are potential agents of diarrhea, but there is still no direct evidence demonstrating that picobirnaviruses infect animals. In the metagenomic era, virome studies have broadened our understanding of picobirnavirus genetic diversity and genome organization, expanded the types of animals in which they have been detected, and identified novel associations with human disease. Most importantly, from the wealth of new sequencing data and comparative genomic analyses, a provocative new hypothesis has emerged that picobirnaviruses may not infect animals, but rather that they may infect evolutionarily simpler denizens of the gastrointestinal tract: bacteria and/or fungi. Depending on whether the true hosts of picobirnaviruses are animals, fungi, or bacteria, the mechanisms by which they impact animal biology will vary dramatically.


Assuntos
Picobirnavirus , Infecções por Vírus de RNA , Vírus , Animais , Bactérias/genética , Diarreia , Fezes , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Filogenia , Picobirnavirus/genética , Infecções por Vírus de RNA/veterinária , Vírus/genética
15.
Food Res Int ; 156: 111347, 2022 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35650976

RESUMO

The soy sauce produced by Cantonese fermentation has a unique flavor, among which brine fermentation plays an important role. In this fermentation process, 61 volatile compounds, including 19 esters, 10 aldehydes, 9 alcohols, 5 phenols, and 18 others, were identified by headspace solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventeen kinds of free amino acids were detected by high-performance liquid chromatography. Results showed that Touyou, which comprised 1.5 g/100 g total nitrogen, 1.0 g/100 mL amino acid nitrogen, 3.66 g/100 g reducing sugar, 1.44 g/100 mL total acid, 17.04 g/100 mL salt content, and 27.3% umami free amino acids, had excellent quality. High-throughput sequencing was used to identify microorganisms. The top 3 of bacteria were Weissella, Staphylococcus, and Lactobacillus, and the top 3 fungi were Aspergillus, Zygosaccharomyces, and Candida. The co-occurrence network analysis of microorganisms showed that the top-ranked microorganisms were Plectosphaerella, Aureobasidium, unidentified_Mortierellales_sp, Glutinomyces, Faecalibacterium, and Cladophialophora. Then, eight microorganisms (VIP[pred] > 1) were obtained by two-way orthogonal partial least squares model, namely, Staphylococcus, Candida, Weissella, Aspergillus, Zygosaccharomyces, Lactobacillus, Monilinia, and Clavispora. Correlation analysis showed that these microorganisms were strongly related to flavor metabolites. This study explored the dynamics of traditional Cantonese fermentation, which has positive implications for optimizing this traditional fermentation process.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Alimentos de Soja , Zygosaccharomyces , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Fungos/metabolismo , Nitrogênio/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Zygosaccharomyces/metabolismo
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(2): e20201718, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35674605

RESUMO

The inappropriate disposal of toxic compounds generated by industrial activity has considerably impacted the environment. Microbial communities inhabiting contaminated sites may represent ecological alternatives for the decontamination of environments. The present work aimed to search the potential of fungi isolated from wastewater treatment plant of a textile industry for bioremediation processes. Twenty-three fungi previously isolated from textile effluent were evaluated for their abilities to degrade pollutants using heavy metal and hydrocarbon tolerance assays. One isolate was subjected to pyrene degradation due its ability to tolerate hydrocarbon. The majority of isolates were resistant to at least two metals tested, i.e. chrome, copper, lead and aluminum. Isolates Penicillium sp. ITF 2, Penicillium rubens ITF 4, Penicillium sp. ITF 12 and ITF 20 (not identified) showed tolerance to tested heavy metals in all concentrations. ITF 12 and ITF 20 were able to tolerate benzene, toluene and hexane, separately. ITF 12 was able to degrade 24.9% of pyrene after 5 days of cultivation. The results encourage future studies to optimize the tolerance and degradation assay using the isolates that showed the best results, as well as studies on the treatment of environments contaminated with heavy metals and hydrocarbons, including industrial textile effluents.


Assuntos
Fungos , Metais Pesados , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Pirenos/metabolismo , Têxteis
17.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 374: 109723, 2022 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35643035

RESUMO

Organic acids and their salts are usually the first choice in the bread industry to restrict fungal spoilage, but their efficacy is pH-dependent and spoilage by fungi remains as a common threat. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the susceptibility of spoilage fungi of bakery products to acetic, sorbic, and propionic acids at different pH. Penicillium roqueforti, Penicilium paneum, Aspergillus pseudoglaucus, Aspergillus montevidensis and Hyphopichia burtonii strains isolated from spoiled products had their minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) defined by macrodilution. The concentrations tested were: (i) sorbic acid up to 32 mM; (ii) propionic acid up to 1024 mM and (iii) acetic acid up to 800 mM with pH adjusted in 4.5, 5.0, 5.0 and 6.0 after setting the agent concentration. The lowest MICs for all agents were obtained at pH 4.5, usually doubling with every 0.5 pH increase. P. roqueforti strains isolated from spoiled products were the most resistant to all tested preservatives; while strains of the related species P. paneum, showed similar tolerance to acetic and propionic acids but was double more susceptible to sorbic acid. Strains of A. pseudoglaucus and A. montevidensis were indistinctly susceptible to the preservatives and were the most susceptible species to propionic and acetic acids. H. burtonii strains demonstrated the most variable behaviour in comparison to the other strains being the most susceptible to sorbic acid, were like Aspergillus strains regarding propionic acid, but tolerate well acetic acid. Propionic acid concentrations usually allowed in baked goods are lower than the concentrations required to inhibit the most tolerant isolates tested in this study. The same is true for sorbic acid at higher pH levels. Spoilage species of bakery ware presents a distinct susceptibility profile to the preservatives commonly used in this sector, but the high tolerance observed is a cause of concern.


Assuntos
Conservantes de Alimentos , Ácido Sórbico , Ácido Acético/farmacologia , Ácidos/farmacologia , Pão/microbiologia , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Fungos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Propionatos/farmacologia , Ácido Sórbico/farmacologia
18.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 3151, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672407

RESUMO

Fungal infections are a major health problem that often begin in the gastrointestinal tract. Gut microbe interactions in early childhood are critical for proper immune responses, yet there is little known about the development of the fungal population from infancy into childhood. Here, as part of the TEDDY (The Environmental Determinants of Diabetes in the Young) study, we examine stool samples of 888 children from 3 to 48 months and find considerable differences between fungi and bacteria. The metagenomic relative abundance of fungi was extremely low but increased while weaning from milk and formula. Overall fungal diversity remained constant over time, in contrast with the increase in bacterial diversity. Fungal profiles had high temporal variation, but there was less variation from month-to-month in an individual than among different children of the same age. Fungal composition varied with geography, diet, and the use of probiotics. Multiple Candida spp. were at higher relative abundance in children than adults, while Malassezia and certain food-associated fungi were lower in children. There were only subtle fungal differences associated with the subset of children that developed islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes. Having proper fungal exposures may be crucial for children to establish appropriate responses to fungi and limit the risk of infection: the data here suggests those gastrointestinal exposures are limited and variable.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Probióticos , Adulto , Autoimunidade , Bactérias , Candida , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Fungos , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos
19.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 9390, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672438

RESUMO

Taxol (Paclitaxel) and its derivative taxanes are widely used in chemotherapy and treatment of different types of cancer. Although the extracted taxanes from Taxus sp. are currently used in semi-synthetic production of Taxol, providing alternative always available sources is still a main concern. Due to availability and fast growth rate, microorganisms are much potent alternative sources for taxanes. In the present study, 249 endophytic fungi were isolated from Corylus avellana at six different locations of Iran, among which 18 species were capable to produce taxanes. Genotyping analysis indicated that 17 genera were ascomycetes but only one basidiomycete. Seven taxanes were detected and quantified in solid and suspension cultures by HPLC and their structures were confirmed by LC-Mass analysis. Among endophytes, CA7 had all 7 taxoids and CA1 had the highest Taxol yield. In 78% of endophytes transferring to liquid media was accompanied by increase of taxanes yield and increased taxan production and its release to media up to 90%. Evaluation of cytotoxicity indicated that extracts of all isolated fungi were lethal to MCF7 cells. Since endophytes produced remarkable amounts of taxanes, they can be suggested as alternative inexpensive and easily available resources for Taxol production in semi-synthesis plans.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , Corylus , Taxus , Ascomicetos/genética , Endófitos , Fungos , Humanos , Paclitaxel , Taxoides , Taxus/microbiologia
20.
Curr Microbiol ; 79(7): 211, 2022 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35672529

RESUMO

This research was conducted to compare the soil characteristics and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) spore density from different types of pastures. To this purpose, four different areas were selected including an artificial pasture (AP), a fertilized artificial pasture (FAP), a natural pasture (NP), and a fertilized natural pasture (FNP). From the spring period of 2008, urea has been used as a fertilizer at an annual rate of 5 kg/da. Different numbers of AMF spores were found in all soil samples taken from the artificial and natural pastures. The average numbers of AMF spores in 50 g of soil from the AP, the FAP, the NP, and the FNP were determined as 266.9, 125.3, 117.0, and 59.6, respectively. Both the number of AMF spores and the number of species were found to be lower in the fertilized pastures, and consequently, it was concluded that the urea fertilizer had reduced the number of AMF spores and species. Spores were identified according to their morphological characteristics. In all pastures, the study identified 25 different AMF species belonging to 11 genera from 7 families. Rhizoglomus aggregatum was classified as the dominant species in FNP soils. Acaulospora dilatata, A. laevis, Dentiscutata heterogama, Diversispora eburnea, Gigaspora albida, G. margarita, Claroideoglomus etunicatum, C. lamellosum, Funneliformis caledonium, Glomus hoi, Rhizoglomus clarum, R. irregulare, Sclerocystis sinuosa, and Ambispora gerdemannii were classified as rare species in all pastures. This study demonstrated a negative correlation between the AMF spore density and the soil organic carbon, total nitrogen, and available potassium.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Mar Negro , Carbono , Fertilizantes , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo , Microbiologia do Solo , Esporos Fúngicos , Turquia , Ureia
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