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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1204: 1-30, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152941

RESUMO

Most fungal species are harmless to humans and some exist as commensals on mucocutaneous surfaces. Yet many fungi are opportunistic pathogens, causing life-threatening invasive infections when the immune system becomes compromised. The fungal cell wall contains conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), which allow the immune system to distinguish between self (endogenous molecular patterns) and foreign material. Sensing of invasive microbial pathogens is achieved through recognition of PAMPs by pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). One of the predominant fungal-sensing PRRs is the C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family. These receptors bind to structures present on the fungal cell wall, eliciting various innate immune responses as well as shaping adaptive immunity. In this chapter, we specifically focus on the four major human fungal pathogens, Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans and Pneumocystis jirovecii, reviewing our current understanding of the CLRs that are involved in their recognition and protection of the host.


Assuntos
Fungos/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/imunologia , Candida albicans/imunologia , Cryptococcus neoformans/imunologia , Humanos , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/imunologia , Pneumocystis carinii/imunologia
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1204: 75-127, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152944

RESUMO

Collectins are collagen-containing C-type (calcium-dependent) lectins which are important pathogen pattern recognising innate immune molecules. Their primary structure is characterised by an N-terminal, triple-helical collagenous region made up of Gly-X-Y repeats, an a-helical coiled-coil trimerising neck region, and a C-terminal C-type lectin or carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD). Further oligomerisation of this primary structure can give rise to more complex and multimeric structures that can be seen under electron microscope. Collectins can be found in serum as well as in a range of tissues at the mucosal surfaces. Mannanbinding lectin can activate the complement system while other members of the collectin family are extremely versatile in recognising a diverse range of pathogens via their CRDs and bring about effector functions designed at the clearance of invading pathogens. These mechanisms include opsonisation, enhancement of phagocytosis, triggering superoxidative burst and nitric oxide production. Collectins can also potentiate the adaptive immune response via antigen presenting cells such as macrophages and dendritic cells through modulation of cytokines and chemokines, thus they can act as a link between innate and adaptive immunity. This chapter describes the structure-function relationships of collectins, their diverse functions, and their interaction with viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites.


Assuntos
Colectinas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Bactérias/imunologia , Fungos/imunologia , Humanos , Parasitos/imunologia , Vírus/imunologia
3.
Infect Immun ; 88(2)2020 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31611280

RESUMO

The pulmonary immune response protects healthy individuals against Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP). However, the immune response also drives immunopathogenesis in patients who develop severe PcP, and it is generally accepted that optimal treatment requires combination strategies that promote fungal killing and also provide effective immunomodulation. The anti-inflammatory drug sulfasalazine programs macrophages for enhanced Pneumocystis phagocytosis and also suppresses PcP-related immunopathogenesis. Anti-Pneumocystis antibody opsonizes Pneumocystis organisms for greater phagocytosis and may also mask antigens that drive immunopathogenesis. Thus, we hypothesized that combining antibody and sulfasalazine would have the dual benefit of enhancing fungal clearance while dampening immunopathogenesis and allow the rescue of severe PcP. To model a clinically relevant treatment scenario in mice, therapeutic interventions were withheld until clear symptoms of pneumonia were evident. When administered individually, both passive antibody and sulfasalazine improved pulmonary function and enhanced Pneumocystis clearance to similar degrees. However, combination treatment with antibody and sulfasalazine produced a more rapid improvement, with recovery of body weight, a dramatic improvement in pulmonary function, reduced lung inflammation, and the rapid clearance of the Pneumocystis organisms. Accelerated fungal clearance in the combination treatment group was associated with a significant increase in macrophage phagocytosis of Pneumocystis Both passive antibody and sulfasalazine resulted in the suppression of Th1 cytokines and a marked increase in lung macrophages displaying an alternatively activated phenotype, which were enhanced by combination treatment. Our data support the concept that passive antibody and sulfasalazine could be an effective and specific adjunctive therapy for PcP, with the potential to accelerate fungal clearance while attenuating PcP-associated immunopathogenesis.


Assuntos
Anticorpos/imunologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/imunologia , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia por Pneumocystis/imunologia , Sulfassalazina/farmacologia , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Fatores Imunológicos/imunologia , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunomodulação/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Inflamação/imunologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos SCID , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/imunologia
4.
Mol Immunol ; 116: 1-10, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31561060

RESUMO

Keratin is a cytoskeletal protein that constitutes the intermediate filament. Its distribution is restricted to epithelial tissues in mammals, but is wider in fish. An interesting feature of fish keratin is that it is abundant in the cutaneous mucus. However, the biological function of keratin in the mucus has not been explored. In the present study, we hypothesized that mucus keratins of fugu Takifugu rubripes function as antimicrobial molecules. To verify this hypothesis, we first identified all of the keratins expressed in the epidermis and present in mucus. Five of 15 keratins including Tr-K4 expressed in the epidermis were identified in the mucus. Subsequently, we examined the interaction of keratin molecules present in fugu mucus with yeast. Affinity chromatography using yeast as a carrier and subsequent LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that three types of keratin were bound to the yeast. Furthermore, yeast incubated with fugu mucus was agglutinated, and this was inhibited by anti-recombinant Tr-K4 (rTr-K4) antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis also revealed that keratin was attached to the surface of agglutinated yeasts. These findings indicate that mucus keratin agglutinates yeast. Furthermore, we found insoluble clumps in fugu mucus, which were mainly comprised of keratin. After incubation of yeast with soluble mucus fraction, insoluble clumps incorporating yeast were formed. This observation suggests that fugu mucus keratin sequesters microbes into insoluble clumps, which are eventually eliminated from the mucus. Here, we present our finding of the novel function of keratin as a defense molecule in fish mucus.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Citoesqueleto/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Fungos/imunologia , Queratinas/imunologia , Muco/imunologia , Takifugu/imunologia , Animais , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Mamíferos/imunologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
5.
Future Microbiol ; 14: 1159-1170, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512519

RESUMO

Staphylococci are common inhabitants at several human body sites and are also implicated in infections either as primary or opportunistic pathogens. These bacteria can thus both contribute to the host defense being a part of the commensalistic microbiota or synergize with the other microbes during the infection process. Among fungi, staphylococci interact synergistically with Candida spp. and Aspergillus fumigatus, and antagonistically with Cryptococcus neoformans and Trichosporon asahii. These interactions are highly dynamic and are orchestrated by a multitude of microbial and host factors. During such cross-talks, staphylococci can modulate the virulence, immune response or drug resistance of the coexisting microbe(s), thereby influencing the infection course, disease severity, treatment strategy and the clinical outcome.


Assuntos
Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/patogenicidade , Interações Microbianas , Staphylococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Staphylococcus/patogenicidade , Fungos/imunologia , Humanos , Staphylococcus/imunologia
6.
J Vet Intern Med ; 33(5): 2327-2335, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31429513

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Severe asthma in horses, known as severe equine asthma (SEA), is a prevalent, performance-limiting disease associated with increased allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) against a range of environmental aeroallergens. OBJECTIVE: To develop a protein microarray platform to profile IgE against a range of proven and novel environmental proteins in SEA-affected horses. ANIMALS: Six SEA-affected and 6 clinically healthy Warmblood performance horses. METHODS: Developed a protein microarray (n = 384) using protein extracts and purified proteins from a large number of families including pollen, bacteria, fungi, and arthropods associated with the horses, environment. Conditions were optimized and assessed for printing, incubation, immunolabeling, biological fluid source, concentration techniques, reproducibility, and specificity. RESULTS: This method identified a number of novel allergens, while also identifying an association between SEA and pollen sensitization. Immunolabeling methods confirmed the accuracy of a commercially available mouse anti-horse IgE 3H10 source (R2 = 0.91). Biological fluid source evaluation indicated that sera and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) yielded the same specific IgE profile (average R2 = 0.75). Amicon centrifugal filters were found to be the most efficient technique for concentrating BALF for IgE analysis at 40-fold. Overnight incubation maintained the same sensitization profile while increasing sensitivity. Reproducibility was demonstrated (R2 = 0.97), as was specificity using protein inhibition assays. Arthropods, fungi, and pollens showed the greatest discrimination for SEA. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: We have established that protein microarrays can be used for large-scale IgE mapping of allergens associated with the environment of horses. This technology provides a sound platform for specific diagnosis, management, and treatment of SEA.


Assuntos
Asma/veterinária , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/imunologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Análise Serial de Proteínas/veterinária , Animais , Artrópodes/imunologia , Asma/sangue , Asma/imunologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Fungos/imunologia , Doenças dos Cavalos/sangue , Cavalos , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Camundongos , Pólen/imunologia , Análise Serial de Proteínas/métodos
7.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 422: 1-30, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278515

RESUMO

Melanins are a class of pigments that are ubiquitous throughout biology. They play incredibly diverse and important roles ranging from radiation protection to immune defense, camouflage, and virulence. Fungi have evolved to use melanin to be able to persist in the environment and within organisms. Fungal melanins are often located within the cell well and are able to neutralize reactive oxygen species and other radicals, defend against UV radiation, bind and sequester non-specific peptides and compounds, and produce a physical barrier that defends the cell. For this reason, melanized fungi are often well-suited to be human pathogens-melanin allows fungi to neutralize the microbicidal oxidative bursts of our innate immune system, bind and inactivate to antimicrobial peptides and enzymes, sequester antifungal pharmaceuticals, and create a shield to block immune recognition of the fungus. Due to the importance and pervasiveness of melanin in fungal virulence, mammalian immune systems have evolved antifungal strategies that involve directly detecting and binding to fungal melanins. Such strategies include the use of melanin-specific antibody responses and C-type lectins like the newly discovered melanin-specific MelLec receptor.


Assuntos
Fungos/metabolismo , Fungos/patogenicidade , Melaninas/metabolismo , Animais , Fungos/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Melaninas/imunologia , Virulência
8.
J Immunol Res ; 2019: 3205072, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30868077

RESUMO

Ficolins are innate pattern recognition receptors (PRR) and play integral roles within the innate immune response to numerous pathogens throughout the circulation, as well as within organs. Pathogens are primarily removed by direct opsonisation following the recognition of cell surface carbohydrates and other immunostimulatory molecules or via the activation of the lectin complement pathway, which results in the deposition of C3b and the recruitment of phagocytes. In recent years, there have been a number of studies implicating ficolins in the recognition and removal of numerous bacterial, viral, fungal, and parasitic pathogens. Moreover, there has been expanding evidence highlighting that mutations within these key immune proteins, or the possession of particular haplotypes, enhance susceptibility to colonization by pathogens and dysfunctional immune responses. This review will therefore encompass previous knowledge on the role of ficolins in the recognition of bacterial and viral pathogens, while acknowledging the recent advances in the immune response to fungal and parasitic infections. Additionally, we will explore the various genetic susceptibility factors that predispose individuals to infection.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata , Lectinas/genética , Lectinas/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/imunologia , Animais , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Fungos/imunologia , Fungos/patogenicidade , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Camundongos , Micoses/imunologia , Parasitos/imunologia , Parasitos/patogenicidade , Doenças Parasitárias/imunologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/genética , Roedores , Vírus/imunologia , Vírus/patogenicidade
9.
Immunology ; 156(4): 297-298, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30873603

RESUMO

Th17-derived IL-17 might be considered the archetypal pro-inflammatory cytokine of adaptive immunity, to be targeted by new therapeutics for alleviation of autoimmune and inflammatory disease. However, the IL-17 family of cytokines is produced by diverse innate and adaptive cells, including Th17, Tc17, ILC3, NK cells and γδ T-cells. These responses are appreciated to underpin diverse aspects of protective, physiological immunity, from dialogue with the gut microbiota to bacterial and fungal immunity in the lung.


Assuntos
Células Th17/imunologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/imunologia , Animais , Doenças Autoimunes/imunologia , Doenças Autoimunes/microbiologia , Bactérias/imunologia , Fungos/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Humanos
10.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1153: 79-89, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30783996

RESUMO

Asthmatic patients are suspected of having a higher risk of mold sensitization. Thus, precise diagnosis of fungal sensitization is important. Mold allergen extracts are difficult to standardize, but component-resolved allergy diagnosis may be an alternative to replace extract-based tests. In this research, asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects were studied for their sensitization to Aspergillus fumigatus (Asp f), Cladosporium herbarum (Cla h), Penicillium chrysogenum (Pen ch), Alternaria alternata (Alt a), and Aspergillus versicolor (Asp v). Extract-based tests were applied using the skin prick test (SPT) and allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE). Subjects with extract-based sensitization to Asp f or Alt a were further investigated for sIgE response to recombinant (r) single mold allergens. At least one mold sensitization was found in about 50% of asthmatic and non-asthmatics with the most frequent sensitization to Alt a, followed by Pen ch, Asp f, Cla h, and Asp v. Interestingly, sensitization rate to individual mold species was always higher in asthmatics and was only significant for Pen ch. The component-resolved diagnosis with the sum of rAsp f 1 - rAsp f 4 plus rAsp f 6 matched the extract-based results (SPT and/or sIgE) in 50% of asthmatics and 46% of non-asthmatics, whereas, rAlt a 1 covered 59% of asthmatics and 50% non-asthmatics of extract-based Alt a sensitization. In conclusion, individual fungal sensitization rate was higher in asthmatics compared to non-asthmatics. Extract-based tests, especially SPTs, were most sensitive, but component-based tests covered 80% of extract-based serological sensitization to Alternaria and Aspergillus.


Assuntos
Alérgenos , Asma , Fungos , Hipersensibilidade , Alérgenos/imunologia , Asma/imunologia , Fungos/imunologia , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E , Testes Cutâneos
11.
Fungal Genet Biol ; 125: 28-35, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30641126

RESUMO

Gene manipulation is an important routine technique and its efficiency is often a rate-limiting step in research. To facilitate gene manipulation in filamentous fungi, we adapted the S. cerevisiae Gene Deletion and Gene Tagging plasmid collections to include additional selectable markers that make the useful resources applicable to other fungi. Three markers for auxotrophic selection in Aspergillus and related species (the riboB, pyroA and pyrG genes of Aspergillus fumigatus) and a dominant selectable marker for glufosinate resistance (the Bar gene from Streptomyces hygroscopicus) were introduced to the collections. A total of fifty-six plasmids were constructed for all combinations between the four new markers and thirteen epitope tags (viz., 3xHA, 13xMYC, 3xFLAG, FLAG, MYC, T7, HIS, Strep, S, HSV, VSV-G, V5 and GFP). The selectable marker and epitope tag cassettes are positioned between two universal sequences in the plasmids, and therefore, can be amplified by PCR using the same pair of primers. With these plasmids, we have also established a simple and efficient procedure for making gene deletion and gene tagging transformation DNA constructs. The procedure, along with the universal flanking sequences, allows quick and easy interchange of selectable marker and epitope cassettes in transformation DNA constructs for different selection and/or tagging. To demonstrate utility and efficiency of the system, we simultaneously performed C-terminal tagging of HapB - a subunit of the highly conserved Aspergillus nidulans CCAAT binding complex that plays important transcriptional regulatory roles - using ten different epitopes in order to identify those neutral to HapB function in vivo. It is expected that the expanded plasmid collections coupled with the simple construction strategy would facilitate gene manipulation in many fungal species.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Fungos/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Epitopos/genética , Epitopos/imunologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/imunologia , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/imunologia , Deleção de Genes , Marcação de Genes
12.
Int J Environ Health Res ; 29(4): 387-399, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30461300

RESUMO

Dairy farming is a risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim was to determine predictive markers either in blood samples or in dwelling dust samples by comparing COPD and healthy controls with or without farming activity. Dust was collected and analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR. ELISA and DELFIA® were performed to assay the level of specific IgG and IgE of 10 targeted microorganisms. The dwelling exposure of farmers was higher than in the non-farmers (Especially Eurotium amstelodami and Lichtheimia corymbifera). The IgG response against Wallemia sebi and Saccharopolyspora rectivirgula was more often higher in the farmers than the non-farmers. However, exposure and sensitization to the microorganisms tested cannot explain the occurrence of COPD in the dairy farmers' population. COPD development is probably caused by multiple factors associated with exposure over a period of several years.


Assuntos
Indústria de Laticínios , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bactérias/imunologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Poeira/análise , Fazendeiros , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Fungos/imunologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Habitação , Humanos , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/sangue , Fatores de Risco
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 86: 641-652, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30485793

RESUMO

In mammalian, T-cell receptors (TCRs) play a key role in recognizing the presented antigen from external to protect organisms against environmental pathogens. To understand the potential roles of TCRγ and TCRδ in dojo loach (Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), Ma-TCRγ and Ma-TCRδ cDNAs were cloned and their gene expression profiles were investigated after bacterial, parasitic and fungal challenge. The open reading frame (ORF) of Ma-TCRγ and Ma-TCRδ cDNAs contained 948 and 867 bp, encoding 316 and 288 amino acid residues, respectively. Structurally, Ma-TCRγ and Ma-TCRδ were consisted of a signal peptide, a variable region, a constant region (IgC), a connecting peptide (CPS), a transmembrane region (TM) and a cytoplasmic domain (CYT), which were similar to those of other vertebrates. Multiple sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed Ma-TCRγ and Ma-TCRδ were closely related to fish of Cyprinidae family. Ma-TCRγ and Ma-TCRδ were widely expressed in all tested organs/tissues, as the highest expressions of Ma-TCRγ and Ma-TCRδ were detected in kidney and gill, respectively. In addition, three infection models of dojo loach with bacteria (F. columnare G4), parasite (Ichthyophthirius multifiliis) and fungus (Saprolegnia sp.) were constructed. The morphological changes of gills and skin after challenged with F. columnare G4 and Ichthyophthirius multifiliis were investigated. Compared to F. columnare G4 infection, mRNA expression of both TCRγ and TCRδ showed higher sensitivity in classical immune organs (kidney and spleen) and mucosal tissues (skin and gill) after challenge with Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Saprolegnia sp. Our results first indicated that TCRγ and TCRδ of dojo loach might function differently in response to challenge with different pathogens.


Assuntos
Bactérias/imunologia , Cyprinidae/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Fungos/imunologia , Parasitos/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/genética , Animais , Clonagem Molecular , Cyprinidae/genética , DNA Complementar/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/parasitologia , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Flavobacterium/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T gama-delta/imunologia , Saprolegnia/imunologia , Transcriptoma
14.
Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis ; 38(2): 413-417, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30506332

RESUMO

Desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR) has been developed for assessing desirability of outcome in interventional studies. However, its possible use in observational studies of the diagnosis and early treatment of infectious diseases has not been explored so far, and it might introduce interesting features in specific scenarios. This was a post hoc analysis of a prospective observational study in intensive care unit patients with sepsis and at risk of candidemia. The probabilities that a randomly selected patient would have a more, less, and equally cost-effective early therapeutic choice following a BDG-based diagnostic strategy rather than the empirical administration of antifungals to all patients were calculated using DOOR methods. The probability of a more cost-effective therapeutic choice following the BDG-based rather than the empirical strategy was 67.81% (95% CI 67.32-68.30), whereas the probabilities of a less and equally cost-effective early therapeutic choice were 19.68% (95% CI 19.27-20.10) and 12.50% (95% CI 12.16-12.85), respectively. The application of DOOR methods to observational studies focused on diagnosis and early treatment is a novel field that could merit further investigation.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Antígenos de Fungos/sangue , Candidemia/diagnóstico , Candidemia/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Custo-Benefício , beta-Glucanas/sangue , Antifúngicos/economia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Fungos/imunologia , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Estudos Prospectivos , Sepse/etiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Cell Host Microbe ; 24(6): 755-757, 2018 12 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30543774

RESUMO

Gut fungal dysbiosis exacerbates colitis and lung allergy. In recent studies published in Science (Leonardi et al., 2018) and Cell Host & Microbe (Li et al., 2018), gut-resident CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes were found to mediate crosstalk between intestinal fungi and systemic immunity along the lung-gut axis during homeostasis and inflammation.


Assuntos
Colite , Hipersensibilidade , Disbiose/imunologia , Fungos/imunologia , Humanos , Intestinos/imunologia
16.
Allergol. immunopatol ; 46(6): 557-564, nov.-dic. 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-177895

RESUMO

Introduction and objectives: Although the prevalence of sensitization to fungi is not precisely known, it can reach 50% in inner cities and has been identified as a risk factor in the development of asthma. Whereas the prevalence of allergic diseases is increasing, it is unclear whether the same occurs with sensitization to fungi. Patients and methods: A retrospective study was performed at the "Hospital Infantil de México Federico Gómez". From skin tests taken between 2004 and 2015, information was gathered about Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Cladosporium herbarum, Mucor mucedo and Penicillium notatum. The participating patients were 2-18 years old, presented some type of allergic condition, and underwent immediate hypersensitivity tests to the fungi herein examined. Descriptive analysis and chi-squared distribution were used. Results: Of the 8794 patients included in the study, 14% showed a negative result to the entire panel of environmental allergens. The remaining 7565 individuals displayed sensitization to at least one fungus, which most frequently was Aspergillus, with a rate of 16.8%. When the patients were divided into age groups, the same trend was observed. The highest percentage of sensitization (58%) toward at least one type of fungus was found in 2014, and the lowest percentage (49.8%) in 2008. Conclusion: The rate of sensitization to at least one type of fungus was presently over 50%, higher than that detected in other medical centers in Mexico. This rate was constant over the 11-year study, and Aspergillus exhibited the greatest frequency of sensitization among the patients


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Alérgenos/imunologia , Anticorpos Antifúngicos/imunologia , Asma/epidemiologia , Fungos/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade/epidemiologia , Imunização , México/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Prevalência
17.
Eur J Immunol ; 48(12): 1929-1937, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411335

RESUMO

The human gut harbors a wide range of microorganisms that play a fundamental role in the well-being of their host. A dysregulation of the microbial composition can lead to the development or exacerbation of gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Emerging evidence supports the hypothesis that mast cells (MCs) play a role in host-microbiota communication, modulating the mutual influence between the host and its microbiota through changes in their activation state. The ability of some bacteria to specifically affect MC functions and activation has been extensively studied, with different and sometimes conflicting results, while only little is known about MC-fungi interactions. In this review, the most recent advances in the field of MC-bacteria and MC-fungi interactions will be discussed, with a particular focus on the role of these interactions in the onset of GI disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Moreover, the connection between some MC-targeting drugs and IBD was discussed, suggesting probiotics as reasonable and promising therapy in the management of IBD patients.


Assuntos
Bactérias/imunologia , Terapia Biológica , Disbiose/imunologia , Fungos/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Mastócitos/imunologia , Microbiota/imunologia , Animais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/terapia , Probióticos/uso terapêutico
18.
Curr Opin Gastroenterol ; 34(6): 398-403, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30299290

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestinal microbiota plays a central role in inflammatory diseases of the gut. Although most investigations regarding how the mucosal immune system interacts with the microbiota have focused on bacteria, recent studies are elucidating the additional role of commensal fungi in health and disease in the gut. RECENT FINDINGS: New technical approaches are defining the makeup of the fungal communities in the intestines of humans and mice. The reported composition of these communities is influenced by the approaches used to define the fungi. Changes in the intestinal mycobiota are associated with gut inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and in mouse models of colitis. Recent studies are beginning to elucidate the mechanisms by which the mucosal immune system interacts with and is influenced by intestinal fungi. SUMMARY: Studies clearly demonstrate the presence of intestinal fungi and document the ability of the mucosal immune system to recognize and respond to fungi. Future studies will further investigate whether intestinal fungi directly influence intestinal disease and what cellular, molecular, and genetic mechanisms contribute.


Assuntos
Fungos/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos , Humanos , Imunidade nas Mucosas , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia
20.
FEBS Lett ; 592(23): 3921-3942, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30320884

RESUMO

Lipid rafts formed by glycosphingolipids (GSLs) on cellular membranes play important roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Lactosylceramide (LacCer) forms lipid rafts on plasma and granular membranes of human neutrophils. These LacCer-enriched lipid rafts bind directly to pathogenic components, such as pathogenic fungi-derived ß-glucan and Mycobacteria-derived lipoarabinomannan via carbohydrate-carbohydrate interactions, and mediate innate immune responses to these pathogens. In contrast, a-series and o-series gangliosides form distinct rafts on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell subsets, respectively, contributing to the respective functions of these cells and stimulating adaptive immune responses through T cell receptors. These findings suggest that gangliosides play indispensable roles in T cell selection and activation. This Review introduces the involvement of GSL-enriched lipid rafts in innate and adaptive immunity.


Assuntos
Fungos/imunologia , Glicoesfingolipídeos/imunologia , Sistema Imunitário/imunologia , Microdomínios da Membrana/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Animais , Fungos/metabolismo , Fungos/fisiologia , Glicoesfingolipídeos/metabolismo , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/microbiologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/metabolismo , Microdomínios da Membrana/microbiologia , Mycobacterium/metabolismo , Mycobacterium/fisiologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/microbiologia , beta-Glucanas/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
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