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1.
Vet Q ; 41(1): 242-249, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34403624

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Masai Giraffes have declined dramatically in recent decades due to loss of habitat and illegal hunting. Hence, it is critically important that the epidemiology and etiology of so-called giraffe skin disease (GSD) is understood well. AIM: To assess the prevalence and histopathological characteristics of GSD in the Tarangire-Manyara Ecosystem (TME), northern Tanzania. METHODS: The study used road transects to gather field information on GSD. Eighty-four giraffes were sighted by systematic random sampling in the six study sites. Examination of giraffes involved body distribution of lesions, severity of the lesions and whether they were associated with age and sex of the affected giraffes. Five giraffes with GSD were immobilized for tissue collection and histopathological analysis. RESULTS: Prevalence among adults was 79%. Affected animals typically had 1-5 lesions which were mostly moderate and were predominantly observed on the forelegs. GSD positivity rate was higher among females versus males, whereas males had a higher rate of severe lesions and generally had more lesions than females. Calves showed no lesions. All tissue sections from five affected giraffes showed the presence of large quantities of fungal elements (hyphae and spores) that involved hair shafts and sub-cutaneous tissue after staining with Grocott Methenamine Silver as special fungal staining technique. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest the involvement of fungal infection in GSD pathogenesis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: We recommend further characterization of the lesions using modern molecular techniques and culture to identify primary and secondary or opportunistic etiologies, and the order in which the pathogens occur in the lesions.


Assuntos
Girafas , Micoses/veterinária , Dermatopatias/veterinária , Animais , Feminino , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Prevalência , Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Dermatopatias/microbiologia , Dermatopatias/patologia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia
2.
OMICS ; 25(8): 484-494, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34255557

RESUMO

Pandemics and environmental crises evident from the first two decades of the 21st century call for methods innovation in biosurveillance and early detection of risk signals in planetary ecosystems. In crises conditions, conventional methods in public health, biosecurity, and environmental surveillance do not work well. In addition, the standard laboratory amenities and procedures may become unavailable, irrelevant, or simply not feasible, for example, owing to disruptions in logistics and process supply chains. The COVID-19 pandemic has been a wakeup call in this sense to reintroduce point-of-need diagnostics with an eye to limited resource settings and biosurveillance solutions. We report here a methodology innovation, a fast, scalable, and alkaline DNA extraction pipeline for emergency microbiomics biosurveillance. We believe that the presented methodology is well poised for effective, resilient, and anticipatory responses to future pandemics and ecological crises while contributing to microbiome science and point-of-need diagnostics in nonelective emergency contexts. The alkaline DNA extraction pipeline can usefully expand the throughput in emergencies by deployment or to allow backup in case of instrumentation failure in vital facilities. The need for distributed public health genomics surveillance is increasingly evident in the 21st century. This study makes a contribution to these ends broadly, and for future pandemic preparedness in particular. We call for innovation in biosurveillance methods that remain important existentially on a planet under pressure from unchecked human growth and breach of the boundaries between human and nonhuman animal habitats.


Assuntos
Biovigilância/métodos , DNA/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Técnicas Genéticas/economia , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/economia , Plantas/microbiologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 3484, 2021 06 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34108462

RESUMO

Ecosystems across the globe receive elevated inputs of nutrients, but the consequences of this for soil fungal guilds that mediate key ecosystem functions remain unclear. We find that nitrogen and phosphorus addition to 25 grasslands distributed across four continents promotes the relative abundance of fungal pathogens, suppresses mutualists, but does not affect saprotrophs. Structural equation models suggest that responses are often indirect and primarily mediated by nutrient-induced shifts in plant communities. Nutrient addition also reduces co-occurrences within and among fungal guilds, which could have important consequences for belowground interactions. Focusing only on plots that received no nutrient addition, soil properties influence pathogen abundance globally, whereas plant community characteristics influence mutualists, and climate influence saprotrophs. We show consistent, guild-level responses that enhance our ability to predict shifts in soil function related to anthropogenic eutrophication, which can have longer-term consequences for plant communities.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Nitrogênio/farmacologia , Fósforo/farmacologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Fertilizantes/análise , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pradaria , Micorrizas/efeitos dos fármacos , Micorrizas/isolamento & purificação , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Nitrogênio/análise , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/farmacologia , Fósforo/análise , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/química
4.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 299, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34178218

RESUMO

Introduction: nosocomial diseases are a major public health problem in sub-Saharan Africa particularly in Burkina Faso. The purpose of this study was to determine the biodiversity of the fungal flora identified at the reanimation service of the University Hospital Souro Sanou of Bobo-Dioulasso. Methods: we conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study from August 2016 to January 2017. The purpose of the study was to investigate the fungal flora in the ambient air and in the reanimation environment. Samples were seeded and incubated for 3-4 days at 37°C in the oven. The identification of colonies of filamentous fungi was macroscopic and microscopic. Blastesis test, chromogenic medium and latex agglutination test were used to identify Candida species. Results: out of 200 samples collected, 176 grew in Sabouraud-Chloramphenicol agar. The overall prevalence of fungal flora was 88% (176/200). Molds were the most common fungal agents found (66.9%). Among the eight types of mold identified, Aspergillus was the most common family (48.9%) while Aspergillus fumigatus was the most detected species (32.9%). Conclusion: regular decontamination of fungal niches should be systematic at the reanimation service of the University Hospital Souro Sanou of Bobo-Dioulasso.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Microbiologia Ambiental , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Burkina Faso , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais Universitários , Testes de Fixação do Látex , Prevalência , Ressuscitação
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 184: 750-759, 2021 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34171259

RESUMO

Pathogens pose a severe threat to food safety and human health. The traditional methods for pathogen detection can't meet the growing diagnosis and control need. Digital PCR (dPCR) attracts a considerable attention for its ability to absolutely quantify pathogens with features of high selectivity, simplicity, accuracy and rapidity. The dPCR technique that achieves absolute quantification based on end-point measurement without standard curve offers a guideline for further genetic analysis and molecular diagnosis. It could contribute to the quantification of low level of nucleic acid, early detection and timely prevention of pathogenic diseases. In this review, 1442 publications about dPCR were selected and the detections of various pathogens by dPCR were reviewed comprehensively, including viruses, bacteria, parasites and fungi. A number of examples are cited to illustrate that dPCR is a new powerful tool with desired accuracy, sensitivity, and reproducibility for quantification of different types of pathogens. Moreover, the benefits, challenges and future prospects of the dPCR were also highlighted in this review.


Assuntos
Infecções/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Animais , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Parasitos/isolamento & purificação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
6.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112362, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34087650

RESUMO

Chloropicrin (Pic) and dazomet (DZ) are effective soil fumigants that are often used to reduce soil-borne pathogens that would otherwise reduce crop yield. As Pic is scheduled to be banned, we investigated whether its consumption could be halved by alternating it with DZ. We observed that Pic alternated with DZ increased the soil NH4+-N content by 28.74-47.07 times, increased available potassium content by 40.80%-46.81% and increased electrical conductivity by 39.23%-85.81%. It generally improved the soil's physicochemical properties. High-throughput DNA sequencing showed that Pic alternated with DZ changed the taxonomic diversity of bacteria and fungi by increasing the relative abundance of Bacillus and Firmicutes, and by decreasing Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Sphingomonas. Moreover, Pic alternated with DZ can inhibit key soil pathogens by more than 90% and significantly increased strawberry yield by 78.22%-116.12%. In terms of strawberry production, we recommend using DZ in the first year and Pic in the second year. Our results showed significant ecological benefit and yield benefit when Pic consumption was halved by alternating it with DZ.


Assuntos
Fragaria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Praguicidas/farmacologia , Tiadiazinas/farmacologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fragaria/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Nutrientes/análise , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
7.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063892

RESUMO

Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) is recognized as a valuable source of vitamin C and antioxidants, frequently used as nutraceuticals and cosmeceuticals. In the present study, attempts are made to produce and characterize a novel type of marmalade using sea buckthorn berries processed at 102 °C into marmalade in two combinations, with whole cane or stevia sugar. Changes in the phytochemical profile, antioxidant activity, color, shelf-life, texture, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were determined. The total carotenoids content in the marmalades were significantly different, with values of 0.91 ± 0.03 mg/g dry weight (DW) in the sample with whole sugar cane (Cz) and 2.69 ± 0.14 mg/g DW in the sample with Stevia sugar (Cs). Significant values of polyphenols were found, of 59.41 ± 1.13 mg GAE/g DW in Cz and 72.44 ± 2.31 mg GAE/g DW in Cs, leading to an antioxidant activity of 45.12 ± 0.001 µMol Trolox/g DW and 118.07 ± 0.01 µMol Trolox/g DW, respectively. Accelerated storage study showed a decrease in all the phytochemicals, however no significant changes were found in antioxidant activity. Values of <100 CFU/g for yeasts and molds and <5 CFU/g for Enterobacteriaceae after 21 days of storage at the room temperature of the marmalades were determined. The sensorial and color results were more than acceptable. Overall, the results highlighted the potential of using sea buckthorn as a potential rich source of bioactive compounds to be used in the sugar-based products manufacturing.


Assuntos
Manipulação de Alimentos , Hippophae/química , Stevia , Açúcares , Antioxidantes/análise , Carotenoides/análise , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Enterobacteriaceae/isolamento & purificação , Análise de Alimentos , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação
8.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112414, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126305

RESUMO

Chloropicrin (CP) can cause long-term damage to beneficial microbes which reduces soil health. Biochar (BC) can mitigate against the effects of CP by reducing the time for beneficial microbes to recover after CP fumigation. In this study, we used Real-Time Quantitative PCR to determine the effects of different rates of BC added to CP-fumigated soil on the speed of recovery of bacteria and fungi population and on changes to gene copy number of the target pathogen Fusarium oxysporum. And then we compared the structure and composition of the beneficial microbial community in the different treatments soil by using High throughput Illumina sequencing. As the results shown, adding 1 or 3% BC after CP fumigation accelerated the recovery of bacterial and fungal populations without increasing F. oxysporum abundance. BC also promoted the recovery of beneficial bacteria Rokubacteria and Latescibacteria damaged by CP. And these two bacteria may be related to the immunity of soil to F. oxysporum. In CP-fumigated soil, BC improved the disease resistance of the soil by increasing beneficial microbes, such as Steroidobacter, Sphingomonas, Purpureocillium and Mortierella. This combination of CP and BC is a new concept that could encourages the development of a healthy and sustainable soil ecosystems while controlling plant pathogens.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Fumigação/métodos , Fusarium/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/farmacologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carvão Vegetal/análise , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Solo/química , Microbiologia do Solo
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 583, 2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed that type 2 short bowel syndrome (SBS) rats were accompanied by severe intestinal bacterial dysbiosis. Limited data are available for intestinal fungal dysbiosis. Moreover, no effective therapeutic drugs are available for these microbiota dysbiosis. The aims of our study were to investigate the therapeutic potential of glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2) for these microbiota dysbiosis in type 2 SBS rats. METHODS: 8-week-old male SD rats which underwent 80% small bowel resection, ileocecum resection, partial colon resection and jejunocolostomy, were treated with saline (SBS group, n = 5) or GLP-2 (GLP2.SBS group, n = 5). The Sham group rats which underwent transection and re-anastomosis were given a saline placebo (Sham group, n = 5). 16S rRNA and ITS sequencing were applied to evaluate the colonic bacterial and fungal composition at 22 days after surgery, respectively. RESULTS: The relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and proinflammatory Proteobacteria increased significantly in SBS group rats, while the relative abundance of Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia and Tenericutes decreased remarkably. GLP-2 treatment significantly decreased Proteus and increased Clostridium relative to the saline treated SBS rats. The diversity of intestinal fungi was significantly increased in SBS rats, accompanied with some fungi abnormally increased and some resident fungi (e.g., Penicillium) significantly decreased. GLP-2 treatment significantly decreased Debaryomyces and Meyerozyma, and increased Penicillium. Moreover, GLP-2 partially restored the bacteria-fungi interkingdom interaction network of SBS rats. CONCLUSION: Our study confirms the bacterial and fungal dysbiosis in type 2 SBS rats, and GLP-2 partially ameliorated these microbiota dysbiosis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeo 2 Semelhante ao Glucagon/farmacologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/patologia , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Colo/cirurgia , Colostomia , Análise Discriminante , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Disbiose , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Peptídeo 2 Semelhante ao Glucagon/uso terapêutico , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome do Intestino Curto/microbiologia
10.
J Dairy Res ; 88(2): 217-220, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985601

RESUMO

In this research communication we report on the diversity of yeast and mould species in 69 samples of milk and different dairy products from three plants located in Umbria, central Italy. Isolates were characterised both macroscopically and microscopically and then identified by PCR and genome sequencing of the ITS region and the D1-D2 domain of the large-subunit rRNA gene for filamentous fungi and yeasts, respectively. Out of the 69 samples analysed, 51 (73.9%) tested positive for the presence of yeasts, whereas moulds were detected in 25 (36.2%) samples. A total of 9 yeast species belonging to 8 different genera and 13 mould species belonging to 6 different genera were isolated. The most common genera isolated were Debaryomyces and Kluyveromyces among the yeasts and Penicillium and Galactomyces among the moulds. Microbiota play a key role in the formation of flavour, aroma, texture and appearance of dairy products. This complex microbial ecosystem includes both cultured and external bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Some of them have an important role in the production of cheeses, whereas others are responsible for dairy product spoilage, resulting in significant food waste and economic losses. Some species can produce mycotoxins, representing a potential hazard for the consumer's safety. This study provides interesting information on the diversity of fungi species in dairy products from central Italy that can be of major importance to identify these products and to develop adequate strategies for fungal spoilage control and consumer safety.


Assuntos
Laticínios/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Biodiversidade , Queijo/microbiologia , Conservação de Alimentos , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Itália , Leite/microbiologia , Leveduras/classificação , Leveduras/genética
11.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis ; 12(5): 101732, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33992909

RESUMO

Establishing and maintaining tick colonies in the laboratory is essential for studying their biology and pathogen transmission, or for the development of new tick control methods. Due to their requirement for very high humidity, these laboratory-bred colonies are frequently subject to fungal contamination. In the present study, we aimed to identify the fungal species that contaminated a laboratory-reared colony of Ixodes ricinus through microscopic observation and molecular identification. We identified three different taxa isolated from the ticks: Aspergillus parasiticus, Penicillium steckii, and Scopulariopsis brevicaulis. These three species are usually regarded as environmental saprophytic molds but both direct and indirect evidence suggest that they could also be considered as entomopathogenic fungi. Although we do not have any direct evidence that the fungi isolated from I. ricinus in this study could cause lethal infections in ticks, we observed that once infected, heavy fungal growth coupled with very high mortality rates suggest that studying the entomopathogenic potential of these fungi could be relevant to biological tick control.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Ixodes/microbiologia , Animais , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Laboratórios , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Controle de Ácaros e Carrapatos/tendências
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 227, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046132

RESUMO

Introduction: opportunistic fungal infections due to immunosuppression coupled with antifungal drug resistance are an emerging challenge globally. The present study examined the antifungal susceptibility of yeasts and molds from sputum of tuberculosis retreatment and relapse patients at selected reference facilities in Kenya. Methods: a total of 340 sputa samples from patients who gave written informed consent were examined. Fungal culture was done on sabouraud dextrose agar (SDA). Molds were identified by macroscopic and microscopic features while yeasts were inoculated on CHROMTMagar Candida and confirmed using API 20C AUXTM. Itraconazole (ICZ), voriconazole (VCZ), fluconazole (FCZ) and amphotericin B (AMB) were tested using broth micro-dilution methods according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Results: out of the 340 samples, 14.4% (n=49) and 15.6% (n=53) were positive for yeasts and molds respectively. Candida albicans and C. krusei were the most predominant isolates constituting 49.0% (n=24) and 20.4% (n=10) of the total yeasts respectively. Aspergillus spp. were the most frequent (22.6%) molds and isolates with MICs ≥4µg/ml on the antifungal agents were noted. All the molds except two (n=2) isolates of Scedosporium aspiopermum exhibited MICs >4µg/ml for fluconazole. Overall, molds were more sensitive to AMB and VCZ. Candida albicans had MIC50 <0.06µg/ml, and MIC90<4µg/ml. There was a statistically significant difference (F=3.7, P=0.004<0.05) in the overall sensitivity pattern of molds for the four antifungal agents while there was no significant difference (F=1.7, P=0.154>0.05) in sensitivity exhibited by the yeasts. Conclusion: the study demonstrates the significance of fungal colonization in presumptive tuberculosis retreatment or relapse with evidence of triazole resistance. There is need to strengthen fungal diagnostic and clinical management capabilities in susceptible populations.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Oportunistas/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Quênia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Micoses/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Retratamento , Escarro/microbiologia , Tuberculose/tratamento farmacológico
13.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2296: 43-57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33977441

RESUMO

Microbial drug resistance is increasing over the last years, becoming one of the most important health concerns in the twenty-first century. It encourages the discovery of new antibiotics. Thus, novel antibiotics discovered by exploring different environments that previously have been left out of the scientific focus is a realistic opportunity. One of these habitats can be forest deadwood, which is a specific niche inside of the forest that provides shelter and nutrition to a great variety of organisms, such as fungi, bacteria, or saproxylic insects. Different studies have found the existence of complex antagonisms and symbiotic interactions among them, which points at decayed wood as a competitive environment. Besides, it is an interesting niche to look for new antibiotic producer microorganisms and active chemicals. This chapter describes isolation and screening methods of novel producers of antimicrobial compounds from decayed wood.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Madeira/microbiologia
14.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(5): 540-548, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903746

RESUMO

The identification and proper naming of microfungi, in particular plant, animal and human pathogens, remains challenging. Molecular identification is becoming the default approach for many fungal groups, and environmental metabarcoding is contributing an increasing amount of sequence data documenting fungal diversity on a global scale. This includes lineages represented only by sequence data. At present, these taxa cannot be formally described under the current nomenclature rules. By considering approaches used in bacterial taxonomy, we propose solutions for the nomenclature of taxa known only from sequences to facilitate consistent reporting and communication in the literature and public sequence repositories.


Assuntos
Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , DNA Fúngico/genética , Microbiologia Ambiental , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Micoses/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Terminologia como Assunto
15.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0248967, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The fungal part of the pulmonary microbiome (mycobiome) is understudied. We report the composition of the oral and pulmonary mycobiome in participants with COPD compared to controls in a large-scale single-centre bronchoscopy study (MicroCOPD). METHODS: Oral wash and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) was collected from 93 participants with COPD and 100 controls. Fungal DNA was extracted before sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region of the fungal ribosomal RNA gene cluster. Taxonomic barplots were generated, and we compared taxonomic composition, Shannon index, and beta diversity between study groups, and by use of inhaled steroids. RESULTS: The oral and pulmonary mycobiomes from controls and participants with COPD were dominated by Candida, and there were more Candida in oral samples compared to BAL for both study groups. Malassezia and Sarocladium were also frequently found in pulmonary samples. No consistent differences were found between study groups in terms of differential abundance/distribution. Alpha and beta diversity did not differ between study groups in pulmonary samples, but beta diversity varied with sample type. The mycobiomes did not seem to be affected by use of inhaled steroids. CONCLUSION: Oral and pulmonary samples differed in taxonomic composition and diversity, possibly indicating the existence of a pulmonary mycobiome.


Assuntos
Fungos , Pulmão/microbiologia , Boca/microbiologia , Micobioma/efeitos dos fármacos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/microbiologia , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Fúngico/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0242969, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33882058

RESUMO

Bioaerosols are defined as aerosols that comprise particles of biological origin or activity that may affect living organisms through infectivity, allergenicity, toxicity, or through pharmacological or other processes. Interest in bioaerosol exposure has increased over the last few decades. Exposure to bioaerosols may cause three major problems in the food industry, namely: (i) contamination of food (spoilage); (ii) allergic reactions in individual consumers; or (iii) infection by means of pathogenic microorganisms present in the aerosol. The aim of this study was to characterise the culturable fraction of bioaerosols in the production environment of a fruit juice manufacturing facility and categorise isolates as harmful, innocuous or potentially beneficial to the industry, personnel and environment. Active sampling was used to collect representative samples of five areas in the facility during peak and off-peak seasons. Areas included the entrance, preparation and mixing area, between production lines, bottle dispersion and filling stations. Microbes were isolated and identified using 16S, 26S or ITS amplicon sequencing. High microbial counts and species diversity were detected in the facility. 239 bacteria, 41 yeasts and 43 moulds were isolated from the air in the production environment. Isolates were categorised into three main groups, namely 27 innocuous, 26 useful and 39 harmful bioaerosols. Harmful bioaerosols belonging to the genera Staphylococcus, Pseudomonas, Penicillium and Candida were present. Although innocuous and useful bioaerosols do not negatively influence human health their presence act as an indicator that an ideal environment exists for possible harmful bioaerosols to emerge.


Assuntos
Aerossóis/efeitos adversos , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Ar , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/efeitos adversos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Indústria de Processamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Exposição Ocupacional , Estações do Ano
17.
Arch Microbiol ; 203(6): 3361-3372, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33877389

RESUMO

Cinnamomum longepaniculatum (Gamble) N. Chao is an important woody incense plant that contains volatile terpenoids and has been extensively cultivated in Yibin, China. However, the relationship between endophytic fungal diversity and C. longepaniculatum species remains unclear. Here, fungal taxa in different tissue samples were analyzed using Illumina-based sequencing of ITS1 region of fungal rDNA genes. Results showed that 476 OTUs were identified in all tissues of C. longepaniculatum, with 78 OTUs common among all tissues. Similarity cluster analysis indicated that these OTUs belong to 5 phyla and at least 18 genera, with a large number of OTUs remaining unidentified at family and genus levels. The fungal community in seeds exhibited the greatest richness and diversity, followed by those in branches, leaves, and roots, respectively. Unclassified Chaetosphaeriales (91.66%), Passalora (57.17%), and unclassified Ascomycota (58.79%) OTUs dominated in root, branch, and leaf communities, respectively, and other common groups in the branch community included unclassified Ascomycota (12.13%), Houjia (10.38%), and Pseudoveronaea (5.43%), whereas other common groups in leaf community included Passalora (11.43%) and Uwebraunia (8.58%). Meanwhile, the seed community was dominated by unclassified Ascomycota (16.98%), unclassified Pleosporaceae (15.46%), and Talaromyces (12.50%) and also included high proportions of unclassified Nectriaceae (7.68%), Aspergillus (6.95%), Pestalotiopsis (6.02%), and Paraconiothyrium (5.11%) and several seed-specific taxa, including Peniophora, Cryptodiscus, and Penicillium. These findings suggest that Yibin-native C. longepaniculatum harbors rich and diverse endophytic communities that may represent an underexplored reservoir of biological resources.


Assuntos
Cinnamomum/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , China , DNA Ribossômico/química , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/genética , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Micobioma , Sementes/microbiologia
18.
Biosensors (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Mar 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33810105

RESUMO

In this work, we developed an enzymatic voltammetric biosensor for the determination of catechin and gallic acid in green tea and kombucha samples. The differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) methodology was optimized regarding the amount of crude enzyme extract, incubation time in the presence of the substrates, optimal pH, reuse of the biosensor, and storage time. Samples of green tea and kombucha were purchased in local markets in the city of Goiânia-GO, Brazil. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric techniques were performed for the comparison of the analytical methods employed. In addition, two calibration curves were made, one for catechin with a linear range from 1 to 60 µM (I = -0.152 * (catechin) - 1.846), with a detection limit of 0.12 µM and a quantification limit of 0.38 µM and one for gallic acid with a linear range from 3 to 60 µM (I = -0.0415 * (gallic acid) - 0.0572), with a detection limit of 0.14 µM and a quantification limit of 0.42 µM. The proposed biosensor was efficient in the determination of phenolic compounds in green tea.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Chá de Kombucha/microbiologia , Chá/microbiologia , Calibragem , Catequina/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Análise de Alimentos , Ácido Gálico/análise , Chá de Kombucha/análise , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Espectrofotometria , Chá/química
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 347: 109199, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33878643

RESUMO

Zhacai is a traditional fermented vegetable that has been consumed in China for centuries. It is currently manufactured by spontaneous fermentation and therefore mostly relies on the activities of autochthonous microorganisms. Here, we characterized microbial community dynamics and associated biochemical changes in 12% salted Zhacai during a 90-day spontaneous fermentation process using high-throughput sequencing and chromatography-based approaches to identify associations between microorganisms and fermentation characteristics. Amplicon sequencing targeting bacterial 16S rRNA genes revealed that bacterial communities were dominated by halophilic bacteria (HAB, i.e., Halomonas and Idiomarina) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB, i.e., Lactobacillus-related genera and Weissella) after 30 days of fermentation. In addition, the relative abundances of the fungal genera Debaryomyces, Sterigmatomyces, and Sporidiobolus increased as fermentation progressed. Concomitantly, pH decreased while titratable acidity increased during fermentation, along with associated variation in biochemical profiles. Overall, the levels of organic acids (i.e., lactic and acetic acid), free amino acids (i.e., alanine, lysine, and glutamic acid), and volatiles (i.e., alcohols, esters, aldehydes, and ketones) increased in mature Zhacai. In addition, the abundances of Lactobacillus-related species, Halomonas spp., Idiomarina loihiensis, as well as that of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii, were strongly correlated with increased concentrations of organic acids, amino acids, biogenic amines, and volatiles. This study provides new detailed insights into the succession of microbial communities and their potential roles in Zhacai fermentation.


Assuntos
Alteromonadaceae/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Lactobacillales/isolamento & purificação , Mostardeira/microbiologia , Weissella/isolamento & purificação , Alteromonadaceae/genética , Alteromonadaceae/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Aminas Biogênicas/metabolismo , Reatores Biológicos , China , Fermentação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Lactobacillales/genética , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Microbiota , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Weissella/genética , Weissella/metabolismo
20.
Food Microbiol ; 98: 103787, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875215

RESUMO

The fungal communities and volatile compounds of traditional dry sausages collected from five different regions in Northeast China, including Harbin (HRB), Daqing (DQ), Suihua (SH), Hegang (HG) and Mudanjiang (MDJ) were investigated in this study. The results revealed clear differences among the fungal community structures of the sausages. Aspergillus pseudoglaucus, Debaryomyces hansenii, and Trichosporon asahii were found to be the predominant species in the sausages from HRB, HG, and MDJ, respectively. Candida zeylanoides was the predominant species in the sausage from DQ and SH. Additionally, 88 volatile compounds were identified in all sausages, of which 31 volatile compounds were the most important flavor contributors (odor activity value > 1). Potential correlation analysis revealed that 8 fungi (D. hansenii, C. zeylanoides, T. asahii, A. pseudoglaucus, Aspergillus sydowii, Penicillium expansum, A. alternata, and Alternaria tenuissima) showed significant positive correlations with ≥3 key volatile compounds. Among these fungi, D. hansenii was regarded as a core functional fungus responsible for the formation of the volatile compounds, given its strong connection with the highest number of key volatile compounds. These results provide detailed insight into the fungal communities of traditional dry sausages and a deeper understanding of the contribution of these fungi to sausage flavor.


Assuntos
Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Produtos da Carne/microbiologia , Micobioma , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo , Animais , Fermentação , Alimentos e Bebidas Fermentados/análise , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Odorantes/análise , Suínos , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
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