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1.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33053052

RESUMO

Despite the medical advances and interventions to improve the quality of life of those in intensive care, people with cancer or severely immunocompromised or other susceptible hosts, invasive fungal diseases (IFD) remain severe and underappreciated causes of illness and death worldwide. Therefore, IFD continue to be a public health threat and a major hindrance to the success of otherwise life-saving treatments and procedures. Globally, hundreds of thousands of people are affected every year with Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, endemic dimorphic fungi and Mucormycetes, the most common fungal species causing invasive diseases in humans. These infections result in morbidity and mortality rates that are unacceptable and represent a considerable socioeconomic burden. Raising the general awareness of the significance and impact of IFD in human health, in both the hospital and the community, is hence critical to understand the scale of the problem and to raise interest to help fighting these devastating diseases.


Assuntos
Fungos , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/diagnóstico , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/complicações , Infecções Fúngicas Invasivas/mortalidade , Qualidade de Vida
2.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 348-355, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955213

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Newborn babies staying on hospital wards are likely to be colonized by microorganisms, including potentially pathogenic fungi. The aim of the study was to assess the mycological purity of hospital wards and medical equipment utilized in the treatment and nursing of newborns. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in Neonatal High Dependency Units (NHDU) and Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). 539 samples were collected from 24 different sources, 130 from ward furnishings and 289 from medical equipment. The study was carried out following the microbiology research methods for sample collection. Subsequently, the samples (swabs, water from incubators, washings from respirator tubes and nasal cannulas (nCPAP)) were cultivated on Sabouraud agar plates. The stamps were collected with the application of Count-Tact method. The samples were incubated at the temperature of 25+/-2 o C and the number of fungi assessed (cfu/cm -2 of the surface area). The species were identified based on their morphological and biochemical features. RESULTS: Fungal growth was observed on 60% of samples collected from ward furnishings and 7% of samples collected from medical equipment. The average number of cfu/cm -2 ranged between 0-8.84 in the case of ward furnishings and between 0-1.22 cfu/cm -2 in the case of medical equipment. In 180 samples collected from the material which had direct contact with newborns no fungal growth was observed. CONCLUSIONS: The furnishings of the wards on which newborns were treated and nursed were contaminated with fungi to an extent which did not pose a threat to the life and health of the newborns. Medical equipment (respirators, incubators, nCPAP cannulas and masks) which came into direct contact with newborns was free from fungi.


Assuntos
Contaminação de Equipamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal/estatística & dados numéricos , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Recém-Nascido
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4897, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994415

RESUMO

Soil microbial respiration is an important source of uncertainty in projecting future climate and carbon (C) cycle feedbacks. However, its feedbacks to climate warming and underlying microbial mechanisms are still poorly understood. Here we show that the temperature sensitivity of soil microbial respiration (Q10) in a temperate grassland ecosystem persistently decreases by 12.0 ± 3.7% across 7 years of warming. Also, the shifts of microbial communities play critical roles in regulating thermal adaptation of soil respiration. Incorporating microbial functional gene abundance data into a microbially-enabled ecosystem model significantly improves the modeling performance of soil microbial respiration by 5-19%, and reduces model parametric uncertainty by 55-71%. In addition, modeling analyses show that the microbial thermal adaptation can lead to considerably less heterotrophic respiration (11.6 ± 7.5%), and hence less soil C loss. If such microbially mediated dampening effects occur generally across different spatial and temporal scales, the potential positive feedback of soil microbial respiration in response to climate warming may be less than previously predicted.


Assuntos
Carbono/análise , Metagenoma/genética , Microbiota/fisiologia , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Aclimatação/genética , Archaea/genética , Archaea/isolamento & purificação , Archaea/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Carbono/metabolismo , Ciclo do Carbono , Celulose/metabolismo , DNA Ambiental/genética , DNA Ambiental/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Aquecimento Global , Pradaria , Temperatura Alta/efeitos adversos , Metagenômica , Modelos Genéticos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Poaceae/química
4.
J Environ Public Health ; 2020: 4609164, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733576

RESUMO

Air pollution has been a major challenge worldwide particularly in the developing world. Improper waste disposal and management may result in microbial air pollution. In advanced countries, landfill sites are far from neighborhoods; however, the opposite is observed for landfill sites in the developing world. In Accra, some landfill sites are 100 meters from neighborhoods. The aim of this study was to assess the microbial air quality and associated environmental health hazards of landfill sites in selected districts in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. A random sampling method was employed to select sampling sites across the dry and wet seasons from landfills and their corresponding neighborhoods. Results obtained showed a higher total count (CFU/m3) of bacteria and fungi in the air at the landfill sites than neighborhoods. Statistically significant variation (p < 0.05) in bacterial and fungal concentrations over two seasons was found for both landfills and neighborhoods. However, bacterial concentrations were significantly higher than fungal concentrations (p < 0.05) across seasons for all locations. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the highest (15.6 %) occurring microbe at both landfill sites and neighborhoods. This was followed by Staphylococcus aureus (12.7%). Other bacteria and fungi of public health importance such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus flavus, and Aspergillus niger were also isolated from the study sites, above the WHO recommended levels. In conclusion, the landfill waste disposal and its close proximity to neighborhoods as observed in this study pose a potential environmental health risk, with dire implications for public health and safety. The government must enact and implement policies to regulate waste management and to ensure public safety.


Assuntos
Microbiologia do Ar , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Instalações de Eliminação de Resíduos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/normas , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Monitoramento Ambiental , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Gana , Saúde Pública , Eliminação de Resíduos , Medição de Risco
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237245, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780782

RESUMO

Straw mulching has been widely adopted in dryland cropping but its effect on soil respiration and microbial communities under warming are not well understood. Soil samples were collected from a corn field with straw mulching (SM) for nine years and without straw mulching (CK), and incubated at 15°C, 25°C, and 35°C for 60 days. Soil respiration, C fractions and bacterial and fungal community structure were measured SM had greater soil organic carbon and potential C mineralization and a similar microbial biomass carbon throughout the incubation when compared with CK. Soil respiration increased with increasing temperature and its temperature sensitivity (Q10) was lower with SM than CK. Similar microbial community composition was found in the soils with SM and CK before incubation. However, SM had a greater bacterial richness and the relative abundances of Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Nitrospirae, Planctomycetes, Bacteroidetes, and Basidiomycota, but lower relative abundances of Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Ascomycota than CK after incubation. Bacterial richness and diversity were greater at 15°C and 25°C than 35°C, but there was no difference in fungal richness and diversity among the incubation temperatures. As temperature increased, the relative abundances of Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, and Bacteroidetes decreased, but Gemmatimonadetes and Ascomycota increased, and were significantly correlated with soil C fractions and respiration. These findings indicated that the effect of straw mulching on soil C cycling and microbial community structure can be highly modified by increasing temperature.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Microbiologia do Solo , Solo/química , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carbono/análise , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Micobioma , Temperatura , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237263, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764812

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic infected wounds are generally difficult to manage and treatment can be particularly challenging in resource-limited settings where diagnostic testing is not readily available. In this study, the epidemiology of microbial pathogens in chronically infected wounds in rural Ghana was assessed to support therapeutic choices for physicians. METHODS: Culture-based bacterial diagnostics including antimicrobial resistance testing were performed on samples collected from patients with chronic wounds at a hospital in Asante Akim North Municipality, Ghana. Fungal detection was performed by broad-range fungal PCR and sequencing of amplicons. RESULTS: In total, 105 patients were enrolled in the study, from which 207 potential bacterial pathogens were isolated. Enterobacteriaceae (n = 84, 41%) constituted the most frequently isolated group of pathogens. On species level, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 50, 24%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n = 28, 14%) were predominant. High resistance rates were documented, comprising 29% methicillin resistance in S. aureus as well as resistance to 3rd generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones in 33% and 58% of Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. One P. aeruginosa strain with carbapenem resistance was identified. The most frequently detected fungi were Candida tropicalis. CONCLUSIONS: The pathogen distribution in chronic wounds in rural Ghana matched the internationally observed patterns with a predominance of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Very high resistance rates discourage antibiotic therapy but suggest an urgent need for microbiological diagnostic approaches, including antimicrobial resistance testing to guide the management of patients with chronic wounds in Ghana.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Infecção dos Ferimentos/tratamento farmacológico , Infecção dos Ferimentos/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida tropicalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida tropicalis/isolamento & purificação , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Feminino , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Gana/epidemiologia , Hospitais de Distrito , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/isolamento & purificação , Infecção dos Ferimentos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236936, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735609

RESUMO

The Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) remains the most effective treatment for morbidly obese patients to lower body weight and improve glycemic control. There is recent evidence that the mycobiome (fungal microbiome) can aggravate disease severity in a number of diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and hepatitis; moreover, a dysbiotic fungal microbiota has been reported in the obese. We characterized fungal and bacterial microbial composition in fecal samples of 16 morbidly obese patients before and three months after RYGB surgery and compared with nine healthy controls. We found that RYGB surgery induced a clear alteration in structure and composition of the gut fungal and bacterial microbiota. Beta diversity analysis revealed significant differences in bacterial microbiota between obese patients before surgery and healthy controls (P < 0.005) and a significant, unidirectional shift in RYGB patients after surgery (P < 0.001 vs. before surgery). In contrast, there was no significant difference in fungal microbiota between groups but individually specific changes after RYGB surgery. Interestingly, RYGB surgery induced a significant reduction in fungal alpha diversity namely Chao1, Sobs, and Shannon diversity index (P<0.05, respectively) which contrasts the trend for uniform changes in bacteria towards increased richness and diversity post-surgery. We did not observe any inter-kingdom relations in RYGB patients but in the healthy control cohort and there were several correlations between fungi and bacteria and clinical parameters (P<0.05, respectively) that warrant further research. Our study identifies changes in intestinal fungal communities in RYGB patients that are distinct to changes in the bacterial microbiota.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Obesidade Mórbida , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , DNA Intergênico , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Genes Bacterianos , Genes Fúngicos , Humanos , Masculino , Metagenômica , Microbiota , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Micobioma , Obesidade Mórbida/microbiologia , Obesidade Mórbida/cirurgia , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
8.
Food Chem ; 333: 127525, 2020 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32683262

RESUMO

The consumption of halophytes as healthy gourmet food has increased considerably in the past few years. However, knowledge on the nutritional profile of domesticated halophytes is scarce and little is known on which cultivation conditions can produce plants with the best nutritional and functional properties. In this context, Salicornia ramosissima J. Woods was cultivated in six different salt concentrations, ranging from 35 to 465 mM of NaCl. Both the nutritional profile, the antioxidant capacity, and microbial quality of the produced plants were evaluated including minerals and vitamins. Salt has a marked effect on growth, which decreases for salinities higher than 110 mM. Nonetheless, plants cultivated with intermediate levels of salinity (110 and 200 mM) revealed better antioxidant status with higher amounts of phenolic compounds. Overall, results from this paper indicated that soilless culture systems using low-intermediate salinities produces S. ramosissima plants fit for commercialization and human consumption.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Chenopodiaceae/química , Cloreto de Sódio/química , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Carotenoides/análise , Chenopodiaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Chenopodiaceae/microbiologia , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Valor Nutritivo , Fenóis/química , Vitaminas/análise
9.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236135, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697800

RESUMO

Fungi in the marine environment are often neglected as a research topic, despite that fungi having critical roles on land as decomposers, pathogens or endophytes. Here we used culture-dependent methods to survey the fungi associated with the seagrass, Zostera marina, also obtaining bacteria and oomycete isolates in the process. A total of 108 fungi, 40 bacteria and 2 oomycetes were isolated. These isolates were then taxonomically identified using a combination of molecular and phylogenetic methods. The majority of the fungal isolates were classified as belonging to the classes Eurotiomycetes, Dothideomycetes, and Sordariomycetes. Most fungal isolates were habitat generalists like Penicillium sp. and Cladosporium sp., but we also cultured a diverse set of rare taxa including possible habitat specialists like Colletotrichum sp. which may preferentially associate with Z. marina leaf tissue. Although the bulk of bacterial isolates were identified as being from known ubiquitous marine lineages, we also obtained several Actinomycetes isolates and a Phyllobacterium sp. We identified two oomycetes, another understudied group of marine microbial eukaryotes, as Halophytophthora sp. which may be opportunistic pathogens or saprophytes of Z. marina. Overall, this study generates a culture collection of fungi which adds to knowledge of Z. marina associated fungi and highlights a need for more investigation into the functional and evolutionary roles of microbial eukaryotes associated with seagrasses.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ecossistema , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Oomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Zosteraceae/microbiologia
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108712, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563775

RESUMO

The bread-making quality of wheat depends on the viscoelastic properties of the dough in which gluten proteins play an important role. The quality of gluten proteins is influenced by the genetics of the different wheat varieties and environmental factors. Occasionally, a near complete loss of gluten strength, measured as the maximum resistance towards stretching (Rmax), is observed in grain lots of Norwegian wheat. It is hypothesized that the loss of gluten quality is caused by degradation of gluten proteins by fungal proteases. To identify fungi associated with loss of gluten strength, samples from a selection of wheat grain lots with weak gluten (n = 10, Rmax < 0.3 N) and strong gluten (n = 10, Rmax ≥ 0.6 N) was analyzed for the abundance of fungal operational taxonomic units (OTUs) using DNA metabarcoding of the nuclear ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) region ITS1. The DNA quantities for a selection of fungal pathogens of wheat, and the total amount of fungal DNA, were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The mean level of total fungal DNA was higher in grain samples with weak gluten compared to grain samples with strong gluten. Heightened quantities of DNA from fungi within the Fusarium Head Blight (FHB) complex, i.e. Fusarium avenaceum, Fusarium graminearum, Microdochium majus, and Microdochium nivale, were observed in grain samples with weak gluten compared to those with strong gluten. Microdochium majus was the dominant fungus in the samples with weak gluten. Stepwise regression modeling based on different wheat quality parameters, qPCR data, and the 35 most common OTUs revealed a significant negative association between gluten strength and three OTUs, of which the OTU identified as M. majus was the most abundant. The same analysis also revealed a significant negative relationship between gluten strength and F. avenaceum detected by qPCR, although the DNA levels of this fungus were low compared to those of M. majus. In vitro growth rate studies of a selection of FHB species showed that all the tested isolates were able to grow with gluten as a sole nitrogen source. In addition, proteins secreted by these fungi in liquid cultures were able to hydrolyze gluten substrate proteins in zymograms, confirming their capacity to secrete gluten-degrading proteases. The identification of fungi with potential to influence gluten quality can enable the development of strategies to minimize future problems with gluten strength in food-grade wheat.


Assuntos
Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/classificação , Glutens/química , Triticum/química , Triticum/microbiologia , DNA Fúngico/genética , Grão Comestível/microbiologia , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Glutens/metabolismo , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Triticum/metabolismo
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 202(9): 2379-2390, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588083

RESUMO

In the aquaculture industry, the selection and quality of feed are highly relevant because their integrity and management have an impact on the health and development of organisms. In general, feeds contamination depends on storage conditions and formulation. Furthermore, it has been recognized that filamentous fungi are among the most important contaminating agent in formulated feeds. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to identify saprophytic fungi capable of proliferating in commercial feeds, as well as determining their prevalence, extracellular enzymes profile, ability to assimilate carbon sources, and finally their ability to produce aflatoxins. In order to do that, twenty-two fungi were isolated from commercial fish feeds. After, the species Aspergillus chevalieri, A. cristatus, A. sydowii, A. versicolor, A. flavus, A. creber, and Lichtheimia ramosa were identified. These fungi were able to produce extracellular enzymes, such as phosphatases, esterases, proteases, ß-glucosidase, and N-acetyl-ß-glucosaminidase. The isolated fungi showed no selective behavior in the assimilation of the different carbon sources, showing a strong metabolic diversity. Prevalence percentages above 85% were recorded. Among all fungi studied, A. flavus M3-C1 had the highest production of aflatoxins when this strain was inoculated directly in the feeds (295 ppb). The aflatoxin production by this strain under the experimental setting is above the permitted levels, and it has been established that high levels of aflatoxins in feeds can cause alterations in fish growth as well as the development of cancerous tumors in the liver, in addition to enhancing mortality.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos , Proliferação de Células , Peixes , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/patogenicidade
12.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(7): 944-948, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32490795

RESUMO

Introduction. Polymicrobial infections including yeasts and bacteria are not rare and patients with polymicrobial bloodstream infection have higher early and overall case fatality rates. The diagnosis of invasive fungal and bacterial infections is mainly based on blood culture.Aim. The aim was to reveal the effect of concomitant bacteraemia on the detection of fungi from blood cultures in the presence of polymicrobial bloodstream infections involving Candida and non-Candida fungi and to show the superiority of blood culture bottles including selective fungal media in such situations.Methodology. Twenty-four polymicrobial bloodstream infection models - involving one fungus and one bacterium - were constituted by using clinical blood culture isolates (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Fusarium solani and Trichosporon asahii). The Plus Aerobic/F (PAF) and Mycosis IC/F (MICF) culture bottles were used with the BACTEC 9240 device. After a bottle signalled positive, direct microscopic examination and subcultures on agar plates were performed.Results. All of fungi that were inoculated alone and in combination were detected by both direct microscopic examination and subcultures on agar plates from MICF bottles, whereas direct microscopic examination only revealed the bacterial agents from PAF bottles including combinations. Furthermore, fungal growth was hidden by bacterial growth on blood agar subcultures from PAF bottles including combinations of F. solani, C. glabrata or T. asahii with bacteria.Conclusion. Blood culture bottles including selective fungal media that can allow selective growth of fungi and earlier detection of some species should be preferred in addition to non-selective blood culture bottles, especially in specific patient populations. Further, the use of selective agar plates such as inhibitory mould agar may contribute to the solution of this problem in clinical laboratories.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Hemocultura/métodos , Bacteriemia/sangue , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Bacterianas/sangue , Infecções Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candidemia/sangue , Candidemia/diagnóstico , Candidemia/microbiologia , Meios de Cultura , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Técnicas Microbiológicas/métodos , Micoses/sangue , Micoses/diagnóstico
13.
J Med Microbiol ; 69(7): 971-978, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552987

RESUMO

Introduction. Pneumonia is highly prevalent in intensive care units (ICUs), with high associated mortality. Empirical treatment prioritizes breadth of coverage while awaiting laboratory diagnosis, often at the expense of antimicrobial stewardship. Microarrays use multiple parallel polymerase chain reactions to enable a rapid syndromic approach to laboratory diagnosis.Aim. To evaluate the clinical and laboratory implications of introducing a bespoke 22-pathogen TaqMan Array Card (TAC) for rapid pathogen detection in deep respiratory samples from adult ICUs.Methodology. TAC results from all ICU patients prospectively tested over a 9-month period at Cambridge's Clinical Microbiology and Public Health Laboratory were compared to those of corresponding conventional microbiological assays (culture-, PCR- or serology-based) in terms of result agreement and time-to-result availability. Clinical impact was assessed by retrospective review of medical records.Results. Seventy-one patients were included [45 (63 %) male, median age 59). Overall result agreement was 94 %, with TAC detecting more pathogens than conventional methods. TAC detected Streptococcus pneumoniae more readily than culture (7 vs 0 cases; P=0.02). TAC did not detect Aspergillus spp. in eight culture- or galactomannan-positive cases. The median turnaround time (1 day) was significantly shorter than that of bacterial/fungal culture, Pneumocystis jirovecii PCR and galactomannan testing (each 3 days; P<0.001), atypical bacteria serology (13 days; P<0.001) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis culture (46 days; P<0.001). Earlier result availability prompted discontinuation of unnecessary antimicrobials in 15/71 (21 %) cases, but had no bearing on patient isolation/deisolation.Conclusion. TAC provided greater overall yield of pathogen detection and faster turnaround times, permitting earlier discontinuation of unnecessary antimicrobials.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Pneumonia/diagnóstico , Infecções Respiratórias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Feminino , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Reino Unido
14.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234208, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497073

RESUMO

Mines and caves are unusual ecosystems containing unique fungi and are greatly understudied compared to other environments. The Soudan Mine in Tower, MN, an iron ore mine that closed in 1963 after operating for 80 years, was sampled to explore fungal diversity and to investigate taxa that tolerate heavy metals for potential bioprocessing technologies or as sources of bioactive molecules for drug discovery and possible biocontrol for white-nose syndrome (WNS) of bats. The mine is 714 m deep, has 18 levels and contains large quantities of wooden timbers, in contrast to many other oligotrophic subterranean environments. Fungi were cultured from samples and the ITS region was sequenced for identification and phylogenetic analysis. Results show Ascomycota are the dominant fungi followed by Basidiomycota and Mucoromycota. Out of 164 identified taxa, 108 belong to the Ascomycota and 26 and 31 to Basidiomycota and Mucoromycota, respectively. There are also 46 taxa that do not match (<97% BLAST GenBank identity) sequenced fungal species. Examples of the most commonly isolated Ascomycota include Scytalidium sp., Mariannaea comptospora, Hypocrea pachybasidioides, Oidiodendron griseum and Pochonia bulbillosa; Basidiomycota include Postia sp., Sistotrema brinkmannii, Calocera sp., Amylocorticiellum sp.; Mucoromycota include Mortierella parvispora, M. gamsii, M. hyaline, M. basiparvispora and Mortierella sp. Unusual growth forms were also found including large quantities of black rhizomorphs of Armillaria sinapina and white mycelial cords of Postia sp. mycelium, as well as Pseudogymnoascus species growing over large areas of mine walls and ceiling. The mine environment is a relatively extreme environment for fungi, with the presence of high levels of heavy metals, complete darkness and poor nutrient availability. Several genera are similar to those isolated in other extreme environments but phylogenetic analyses show differences in species between these environments. Results indicate this subterranean environment hosts a wide diversity of fungi, many of them not found in above ground environments.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Ferro , Mineração , Águas Residuárias/química
15.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32357167

RESUMO

Fungus-cultivating termites are successful herbivores largely rely on the external symbiotic fungus-combs to decompose plant polysaccharides. The comb harbors both fungi and bacteria. However, the complementary roles and functions of the bacteria are out of the box. To this purpose, we look into different decomposition stages of fungus-combs using high-throughput sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene to examine bacterial community structure. We also explored the bacterial response to physicochemical indexes (such as moisture, ash content and organic matter) and plant substrates (leaves or branches or mix food). Some specific families such as Lachnospiraceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Peptostreptococcaceae may be involved in lignocellulose degradation, whereas Burkholderiaceae may be associated with aromatic compounds degradation. We observed that as the comb mature there is a shift of community composition which may be an adjustment of specific bacteria to deal with different lignocellulosic material. Our results indicated that threshold amount of physicochemical indexes are beneficial for bacterial diversity but too high moisture, low organic matter and high ash content may reduce their diversity. Furthermore, the average highest bacterial diversity was recorded from the comb built by branches followed by mix food and leaves. Besides, this study could help in the use of bacteria from the comb of fungus-cultivating termites in forestry and agricultural residues making them easier to digest as fodder.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Isópteros/microbiologia , Plantas/parasitologia , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Biodiversidade , Feminino , Fungos/fisiologia , Isópteros/fisiologia , Masculino , Microbiota , RNA Bacteriano , RNA Ribossômico 16S
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2577, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32444671

RESUMO

The gut microbiome consists of a multi-kingdom microbial community. Whilst the role of bacteria as causal contributors governing host physiological development is well established, the role of fungi remains to be determined. Here, we use germ-free mice colonized with defined species of bacteria, fungi, or both to differentiate the causal role of fungi on microbiome assembly, immune development, susceptibility to colitis, and airway inflammation. Fungal colonization promotes major shifts in bacterial microbiome ecology, and has an independent effect on innate and adaptive immune development in young mice. While exclusive fungal colonization is insufficient to elicit overt dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis, bacterial and fungal co-colonization increase colonic inflammation. Ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation reveals that bacterial, but not fungal colonization is necessary to decrease airway inflammation, yet fungi selectively promotes macrophage infiltration in the airway. Together, our findings demonstrate a causal role for fungi in microbial ecology and host immune functionality, and therefore prompt the inclusion of fungi in therapeutic approaches aimed at modulating early life microbiomes.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Sistema Imunitário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Intestinos/microbiologia , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/microbiologia , Sulfato de Dextrana/toxicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Vida Livre de Germes , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/microbiologia , Metaboloma , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/toxicidade
17.
Int J Infect Dis ; 96: 663-670, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To study the prevalence of fungal species in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients over a 16 years period. To examine the impact of Candida albicans (C. albicans), Candida dubliniensis (C. dubliniensis) and Aspergillus fumigatus (A. fumigatus) on lung function. METHODS: Observational single-center cohort study (2000-2015) including 133 CF patients (ages 6-66 years). Linear mixed models with autoregressive covariance matrix were used. RESULTS: The most common fungus was C. albicans (prevalence 62%) followed by A. fumigatus (22%) and C. dubliniensis (11%). In the initial year of detection, there was no impact of C. albicans, C. dubliniensis or A. fumigatus on lung function. However, one and two years after detection of C. dubliniensis a reduction in percent predicted forced expiratory volume in the first second (ppFEV1) was observed of 3.8% (p = 0.022) and 4.1% (p = 0.017), respectively, compared with CF patients without these findings. Furthermore, patients with positive cultures for any of these fungal species for three consecutive years exhibited a decline in lung function: C. dubliniensis, 7.6% reduction in ppFEV1 (p = 0.001); A. fumigatus, 4.9% (p = 0.007); C. albicans, 2.6% (p = 0.014). The results were adjusted for age, CFTR genotype, chronic and intermittent P. aeruginosa colonization, and numbers of intravenous antibiotic treatments per year. Persistence of C. dubliniensis for three consecutive years was positively correlated to age and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (both p = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Cystic fibrosis patients who were cultured positive for C. dubliniensis, C. albicans or A. fumigatus in sputum exhibited a decline in ppFEV1 over time. The effect was most pronounced for C. dubliniensis.


Assuntos
Candida/isolamento & purificação , Fibrose Cística/microbiologia , Fibrose Cística/fisiopatologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Biodiversidade , Candida/classificação , Candida/genética , Candida/fisiologia , Criança , Fibrose Cística/complicações , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Escarro/microbiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 153: 110976, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275531

RESUMO

The Pestalotiopsis sp. genus comprises filamentous fungi whose species present both pathogenic and clinical-industrial importance. The cultivation and production of bivalve molluscs in regions of Rio de Janeiro is lucrative both artisanally and industrially, as the climate, geography and water quality favor the practice of this activity throughout the year at reduced costs, making the region competitive in the national market. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify filamentous fungi associated with the internal tissue anatomy of bivalve molluscs (Perna perna) from mariculture farms. Samples collected from BEMAR marine farms were dissected and transferred to 1% hypochlorite, washed in sterile distilled water and sown on Petri dishes containing potato dextrose agar (BDA). After four days, a white colony, displaying vigorous mycelium, cotton-like with abundant sporulation and black conidia masses was isolated. Observations concerning vegetative and reproductive structures were performed by microcultures stained with Amann's Lactophenol andCotton Blue. Micromorphology analyses indicated spindle and septated conidia, with two to three apical filiform appendages and a short basal pedicel. The result indicates that bivalve mollusks may be bioindicators for the presence of Pestalotiopsis sp; associated with water transport, possibly due to diluted sediments in the medium. No infectious processes or lesions in the processed material were observed. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the first report of Pestalotiopsis sp; in Perna perna mytilids.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Perna (Organismo)/microbiologia , Animais , Aquicultura , Brasil , Contaminação de Alimentos , Fungos/metabolismo , Humanos , Mytilidae/microbiologia
19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 295, 2020 Apr 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316920

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soft tissue or skin infections due to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) have been reported frequently and are mostly associated with trauma or cosmetic interventions like plastic surgery. However, infection with NTM as a result of a dental procedure have rarely been described and the lack of clinical suspicion and a clear clinical manifestation makes diagnosis challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: We report on three patients with a facial cutaneous sinus tract of dental origin, due to an infection with respectively Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. abscessus and M. peregrinum. The infection source was the dental unit waterlines (DUWLs), which were colonized with NTM. CONCLUSIONS: Water of the DUWL can pose a health risk. This report emphasizes the need for quality control and certification of water flowing through DUWLs, including the absence of NTM. Our report also shows the need for a rapid recognition of NTM infections and accurate laboratory diagnosis in order to avoid long-term ineffective antibiotic treatment.


Assuntos
Face/microbiologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/diagnóstico , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/isolamento & purificação , Adolescente , Criança , DNA Viral/metabolismo , Feminino , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/microbiologia , Mycobacterium fortuitum/genética , Mycobacterium fortuitum/isolamento & purificação , Micobactérias não Tuberculosas/genética , Microbiologia da Água , Adulto Jovem
20.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 19(1): 11, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32228660

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Fungal keratitis (FK) has been shown to be a climate-sensitive disease. The differentiation between FK from bacterial keratitis (BK) was difficult. The purpose of this study was to compare the bacteriology and mycology between tropical and subtropical Taiwan and to investigate the independent risk factors for identification of fungi from bacteria. METHODS: Two hundred ninety-seven patients with clinical suspected microbial keratitis were prospectively enrolled. A fungal to bacteria rate (FBR), the number of fungi divided by bacteria identified, was determined to estimate the prevalence of fungi and bacteria. Clinical presentation, profiles of microorganisms, and predisposing risk factors were determined. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to investigate the independent risk factors. RESULTS: A total of 82 fungi and 143 bacteria were laboratory confirmed. The identification rate of fungus was higher in tropical Taiwan (p = 0.010). Among the fungi and bacteria confirmed, the FBR was 0.29 (22.4% vs. 77.6%) in subtropical Taiwan, and 0.70 (41.3% vs. 58.7%) in tropical Taiwan. Samples obtained in tropical area (p = 0.019), ocular trauma (p = 0.019), and plant exposure (p = 0.003) were independent risk factors for identification of fungus from bacteria. The predominant fungus isolated from corneal scraping were Fusarium solani (25%) and Trichosporon faecale (25%) in subtropical Taiwan; in tropical Taiwan was Fusarium spp. (50%). CONCLUSIONS: The identification rate of fungus was higher in tropical Taiwan than subtropical Taiwan. Awareness of the local epidemiology is crucial for early diagnosis of fungal keratitis in tropical area.


Assuntos
Úlcera da Córnea/microbiologia , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Ceratite , Adulto , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estudos de Coortes , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Feminino , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/microbiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Trichosporon/isolamento & purificação , Clima Tropical/efeitos adversos
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