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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(11): 1664-1670, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553302

RESUMO

Purpose. To assess in vitro activities of nine antifungal agents (amphotericin B, fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole, caspofungin, micafungin, terbinafine and 5-flucytosine) against 93 strains of rare pathogenic fungi and the combined effects of drug combinations against several multidrug-resistant fungi.Methodology. The broth microdilution method M38-A3 and M27-A4 from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute and the checkerboard method were performed in this study.Results. Low MICs for fluconazole were observed in moulds including Tritirachium oryzae, Exophiala attenuata and yeasts. MICs for amphotericin B>2 µg ml-1 were found among Aspergillus nidulans, Fusarium napiforme, Trichoderma longibrachiatum, Tritirachium oryzae, Cunninghamella bertholletiae, Cunninghamella phaeospora, Conidiobolus coronatus, Exophiala attenuata, Ochroconis mirabilis and Rhinocladiella basitona. Multidrug resistance was observed in Microascus spp., Lomentospora prolificans and Pythium insidiosum.Conclusion. Our study illustrated in vitro drug susceptibilities of some rare pathogenic fungi, which provide data to guide clinical treatment of fungal infections.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Micoses/microbiologia , Anfotericina B/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Triazóis/farmacologia , Voriconazol/farmacologia
2.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1544-1551, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31436523

RESUMO

Introduction. Breakthrough bloodstream infections (BSIs) are rare among non-neutropenic patients.Aim. Our goal was to determine the risk factors associated with development of breakthrough BSIs among critically ill non-neutropenic patients and its role in mortality.Methodology. During a 24-month period (August 2016 to July 2018), all BSIs among non-neutropenic patients hospitalized at the University General Hospital of Patras, Greece, were included. Antimicrobial resistance of isolates was interpreted according to EUCAST guidelines. BSIs were considered as breakthrough when blood cultures yielded a pathogen in a patient who, for at least the previous 72 h, had been receiving at least one antibiotic to which the isolated microorganism was susceptible.Results. Among 217 episodes of BSI, 118 (54.4 %) developed a breakthrough infection. Primary BSIs predominated (101; 46.5 %), followed by catheter-related BSIs (56; 25.8 %). Gram-negative bacteria represented the most common pathogens isolated (157; 72.4 %), followed by Gram-positive bacteria (36; 16.6 %) and fungi (36; 16.6 %). Factors independently associated with the development of breakthrough BSIs were immunosuppressive therapy, obesity (body mass index ≥30 kg m- 2), infection by Gram-positive bacteria, noradrenaline dose during 24 h from BSI onset, prior use of colistin and antifungal treatment. Overall 14-day mortality was 23.0 % (50 patients). Multivariate analysis revealed noradrenaline dose during 24 h from BSI onset as an independent predictor of mortality, while appropriate empiric antimicrobial treatment and breakthrough BSI were identified as predictors of good prognosis.Conclusion. Breakthrough BSIs were common among critically ill non-neutropenic patients and these patients were associated with better survival because they were de facto receiving appropriate antibiotics.


Assuntos
Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Bacteriemia/mortalidade , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Estado Terminal/epidemiologia , Fungemia/microbiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Bacteriemia/tratamento farmacológico , Bacteriemia/epidemiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/genética , Estado Terminal/terapia , Feminino , Fungemia/epidemiologia , Fungemia/mortalidade , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Grécia/epidemiologia , Hospitais Universitários , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(10): 1507-1516, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460858

RESUMO

Introduction. Prosthetic joint infections (PJIs) are challenging to treat therapeutically because the infectious agents often are resistant to antibiotics and capable of abundant growth in surface-attached biofilms. Though infection rates are low, ca. 1-2 %, the overall increase in the sheer number of joint replacement surgeries results in an increase in patients at risk.Aims. This study investigates the consensus of microbial species comprising PJI ecology, which is currently lacking.Methodology. In this study, PJI populations from seven patients were analysed using combined culturing and whole-genome shotgun sequencing (WGSS) to establish population profiles and compare WGSS and culture methods for detection and identification of the PJI microbiome.Results. WGSS detected strains when culture did not, notably dormant, culture-resistant and rare microbes. The CosmosID algorithm was used to predict micro-organisms present in the PJI and discriminate contaminants. However, culturing indicated the presence of microbes falling below the WGSS algorithm threshold. In these instances, microbes cultured are believed to be minor species. The two strategies were combined to build a population profile.Conclusions. Variability between and among PJIs showed that most infections were distinct and unique. Comparative analysis of populations revealed PJIs to form clusters that were related to, but separate from, vaginal, skin and gut microbiomes. Fungi and protists were detected by WGSS, but the role of fungi is just beginning to be understood and for protists it is unknown. These micro-organisms and their novel and strain-specific microbial interactions remain to be determined in current clinical tests.


Assuntos
Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Artropatias/microbiologia , Microbiota , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Articulações/microbiologia , Articulações/cirurgia , Masculino , Próteses e Implantes/efeitos adversos , Próteses e Implantes/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas à Prótese/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
4.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(8): 601-608, 2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422639

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the sensitivity and specificity of fungal fluorescent staining in the diagnosis of fungal keratitis, and to compare it with conventional fungal culture, in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) and Giemsa staining. To explore its value of clinical application. Methods: Prospective case-control study. A total of 105 consecutive patients (105 eyes) diagnosed with infectious keratitis at Beijing Tongren Hospital from August 2017 to April 2018 were included. Patients with infectious keratitis were divided into fungal keratitis (FK) group and non-fungal keratitis (NFK) group by slit lamp microscopy, corneal in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM) examination, and the results of Giemsa staining, fluorescent staining and pathogenic culture of corneal scraping from ulcer. The sensitivity and specificity of the above-mentioned examination methods for the diagnosis of fungal keratitis were analyzed. The receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC curve) and Area Under Curve (AUC) values were calculated to determine the diagnostic value of fungal fluorescent staining for fungal keratitis. Results: Among the 105 patients with infectious keratitis, 66 were fungal keratitis, 39 were non-fungal keratitis (29 cases of bacterial keratitis and 10 cases of acanthamoeba keratitis). Isolation from fungal keratitis were mainly Fusarium spp. (43.5%), followed by Alternaria spp. (21.7%) and Aspergillus spp. (19.6%). After fluorescent staining of the ulcer smear, the background of tissue demonstrated homogeneous black or weak blue fluorescence. The cell wall of fungi showed bright blue-violet to blue fluorescence, and the morphology, structure and hyphal density were easily recognized. The sensitivity of different methods for the diagnosis of corneal fungal infection were smear fluorescence staining (97.0%), IVCM (87.9%) , Giemsa staining (86.7%), and fungal culture (69.7%); the specificity of fungal culture was the highest (100%), followed by IVCM and Giemsa staining (94.9%), and fluorescent staining (87.2%). The ascending order of AUC values was: fungal culture (0.848)

Assuntos
Infecções Oculares Fúngicas , Fungos , Ceratite , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Ceratite/diagnóstico , Ceratite/microbiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Coloração e Rotulagem
5.
Microbiol Res ; 228: 126299, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422231

RESUMO

Wastewaters from textile dyeing industries represent an ecological concern, notably due to the known toxicity of azo dyes to the local microbiome and human health. Although physicochemical approaches are the rule for the treatment of industrial effluents, biological strategies such as enzyme-mediated dye destaining is a promising alternative. Notwithstanding a broad range of microorganisms, including fungi, algae, yeast, and bacteria, display dye-destaining properties, most of the literature has focused in ligninolytic fungi, leaving other classes of organisms somehow ignored. In this study, six endophytic strains isolated from Maytenus ilicifolia were studied for their destaining activity. The phylogenetic and morphological analysis allowed the identification of strain LGMF1504 as Neopestalotiopsis sp. LGMF1504 that decolorized several commercial dyes as the result of a mycelium-associated laccase. The enzyme expression was modulated by carbon and nitrogen content in the culture medium, it was weakly affected by the presence of aromatic compounds and metal ions while some common laccase mediators improved the destaining activity onto dye substrates. The best culture condition observed for laccase activity was a basic culture medium containing 5 g L-1 starch and 15 g L-1 ammonium tartrate. The laccase activity showed low substrate specificity and almost unaltered performance in a wide range of pH values and NaCl concentrations, suggesting the potential of Neopestalotiopsis sp. LGMF1504 for biodegradation approaches.


Assuntos
Corantes/metabolismo , Endófitos/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Micélio/metabolismo , Compostos Azo/toxicidade , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carbono , Corantes/toxicidade , DNA Fúngico , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Metais , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Nitrogênio , Filogenia , Cloreto de Sódio/análise , Indústria Têxtil , Águas Residuárias
6.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(9): 139, 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451943

RESUMO

Exploitation of microbes, especially fungi, has the potential to help humankind meet the UN's sustainable development goals, help feed the worlds growing population and improve bioeconomies of poorer nations. The majority of the world's fungal genetic resources are held in collections in developed countries, primarily within the USA, Europe and Japan. Very little capacity exists in low to middle income countries, which are often rich in biodiversity but lack resources to be able to conserve and exploit their own microbial resources. In this paper we review the current challenges facing culture collections and the challenges of integrating new approaches, the worth of collaborative networks, and the importance of technology, taxonomy and data handling. We address the need to underpin research and development in developing countries through the need to build 'in country' infrastructure to address these challenges, whilst tackling the global challenges to meet the requirements of the research community through the impacts of legislation and the Nagoya protocol on access to biological resources.


Assuntos
Fungos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável/tendências , Biodiversidade , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/fisiologia , Disseminação de Informação , Internacionalidade
7.
J Microbiol ; 57(9): 717-724, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31452042

RESUMO

Salterns are hypersaline extreme environments with unique physicochemical properties such as a salinity gradient. Although the investigation of microbiota in salterns has focused on archaea and bacteria, diverse fungi also thrive in the brine and soil of salterns. Fungi isolated from salterns are represented by black yeasts (Hortaea werneckii, Phaeotheca triangularis, Aureobasidium pullulans, and Trimmatostroma salinum), Cladosporium, Aspergillus, and Penicillium species. Most studies on saltern-derived fungi gave attention to black yeasts and their physiological characteristics, including growth under various culture conditions. Since then, biochemical and molecular tools have been employed to explore adaptation of these fungi to salt stress. Genome databases of several fungi in salterns are now publicly available and being used to elucidate salt tolerance mechanisms and discover the target genes for agricultural and industrial applications. Notably, the number of enzymes and novel metabolites known to be produced by diverse saltern-derived fungi has increased significantly. Therefore, fungi in salterns are not only interesting and important subjects to study fungal biodiversity and adaptive mechanisms in extreme environments, but also valuable bioresources with potential for biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Sais/química , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Solo/química , Adaptação Fisiológica , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Tolerância ao Sal
9.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6589-6600, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rice smut and rice blast are listed as two of the three major diseases of rice. Owing to the small size and similar structure of rice blast and rice smut spores, traditional microscopic methods are troublesome to detect them. Therefore, this paper uses microscopy image identification based on the synergistic judgment of texture and shape features and the decision tree-confusion matrix method. RESULTS: The distance transformation-Gaussian filtering-watershed algorithm method was proposed to separate the adherent rice blast spores, and the accuracy was increased by about 10%. Four shape features (area, perimeter, ellipticity, complexity) and three texture features (entropy, homogeneity, contrast) were selected for decision-tree model classification. The confusion-matrix algorithm was used to calculate the classification accuracy, in which global accuracy is 82% and the Kappa coefficient is 0.81. At the same time, the detection accuracy is as high as 94%. CONCLUSIONS: The synergistic judgment of texture and shape features and the decision tree-confusion matrix method can be used to detect rice disease quickly and precisely. The proposed method can be combined with a spore trap, which is vital to devise strategies early and to control rice disease effectively. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador/métodos , Microscopia/métodos , Oryza/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Esporos Fúngicos/citologia , Algoritmos , Árvores de Decisões , Fungos/química , Fungos/citologia , Microscopia/instrumentação , Esporos Fúngicos/química , Esporos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação
10.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6522-6534, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31321764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dajiang is fermented based on the metabolism of microbial communities in bean sauce mash, a traditional fermented soybean product in China. The current study first investigated the metaproteome of bean sauce mash. This was followed by an analysis of its biological functions and its microbial community to reveal information about strains and about the expressed proteins to better understand the roles of the microbiota in bean sauce mash. RESULTS: The metaproteomic results demonstrated that a total of 1415 microbial protein clusters were expressed mainly by members of the Penicillium and Rhizopus genera and were classified into 100 cellular components, 238 biological processes, and 220 molecular function categories by gene ontology (GO) annotation. Enzymes associated with glycolysis metabolic pathways were also identified. These can provide the energy required for microbial fermentation. Illumina MiSeq sequencing technology results showed that the microorganism communities of bean sauce mash exhibited a high level of diversity. Microbiological analysis demonstrated that the Penicillium, Mucor, Fusarium, Aspergillus, and Rhizopus fungi, and Lactobacillus, Enterococcus, Fructobacillus, Staphylococcus, Carnobacterium genera were predominant 22 samples. CONCLUSION: The profiles and insights in the current study are important for research on bean sauce mash and related products in terms of their food microbial ecology. The information obtained from this study will help the development of stable sufu starter cultures with unique sensory qualities. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias/enzimologia , Alimentos Fermentados/microbiologia , Fungos/enzimologia , Microbiota , Soja/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , China , Fermentação , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Soja/metabolismo
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2009-2014, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355553

RESUMO

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen is one of the Chinese herbal medicine being susceptible to aflatoxins contamination. To investigate the sources of aflatoxins contamination and toxigenic fungi species on Ziziphi Spinosae Semen,32 samples were collected from multiple steps during the post-harvest processing in this study. Aflatoxins in these samples were determined by immunoaffinity column and HPLC coupled with post-column photochemical derivatization. The dilution-plate method was applied to the fungi isolation. The isolated fungi strains were identified by morphological characterization and molecular approaches. The results showed that aflatoxins were detected in 28 samples from every step during the processing of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. Three samples were detected with aflatoxin B_1 and 2 samples with both aflatoxin B_1 and total aflatoxin exceeding the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Especially the samples from the washing step,with the highest detected amounts of AFB_1 and AFs were reached 94. 79,121. 43 µg·kg~(-1),respectively. All 32 samples were contaminated by fungi. The fungal counts on the newly harvested samples were 2. 20 × 10~2 CFU·g~(-1). Moreover,it increased as tphreocessing progresses,and achieved 1. 16×10~6 CFU·g~(-1) after washing. A total of 321 isolates were identified to 17 genera. Aspergillus flavus was the main source of aflatoxins during the processing and storage of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. One isolate of A. flavus was confirmed producing AFB_1 and AFB_2. The fungal count was significantly increased by composting,and Aspergillus was the predominant genus after shell breaking. The contamination level of aflatoxins was increased by composting and washing.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Sementes/microbiologia , Ziziphus/química , Aspergillus , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(7): 113, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31289918

RESUMO

Camellia taliensis (W. W. Smith) Melchior is a wild tea plant endemic from the west and southwest of Yunnan province of China to the north of Myanmar and is used commonly to produce tea by the local people of its growing areas. Its chemical constituents are closely related to those of C. sinensis var. assamica, a widely cultivated tea plant. In this study, the α diversity and phylogeny of endophytic fungi in the branches of C. taliensis were explored for the first time. A total of 160 fungal strains were obtained and grouped into 42 species from 29 genera, which were identified based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. Diversity analysis showed that the endophytic fungal community of the branches of C. taliensis had high species richness S (42), Margalef index D' (8.0785), Shannon-Wiener index H' (2.8494), Simpson diversity index DS (0.8891), PIE index (0.8947) and evenness Pielou index J (0.7623) but a low dominant index λ (0.1109). By contrast, that in the branches of C. taliensis had abundant species and high species evenness. Diaporthe tectonigena, Acrocalymma sp. and Colletotrichum magnisporum were the dominant endophytic fungi. The phylogenetic tree was established by maximum parsimony analysis, and the 11 orders observed for endophytic fungi belonging to Ascomycota and Basidiomycota were grouped into 4 classes.


Assuntos
Camellia/microbiologia , Endófitos/classificação , Endófitos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Chá , Ascomicetos/classificação , Ascomicetos/genética , Ascomicetos/isolamento & purificação , Basidiomycota/classificação , Basidiomycota/genética , Basidiomycota/isolamento & purificação , Biodiversidade , China , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Endófitos/genética , Fungos/genética , Mianmar , Análise de Sequência
13.
Rom J Ophthalmol ; 63(2): 178-183, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31334398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Endogenous endophthalmitis is a serious sight-threatening disease. Common causes include immunocompromised state and intravenous drug use, permitting opportunistic pathogens to reach the eye through the blood stream. We reported a rare case of a presumed simultaneous opportunistic intraocular fungal and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection. Case presentation: A 67-year-old male patient with a recent history of hospitalization due to pneumonia, presented to our department with bilateral loss of vision. Ocular examination revealed low visual acuity, signs of vitritis with chorioretinal infiltrations and cotton ball colony-like lesions, bilaterally. A bilateral endogenous fungal endophthalmitis was suspected and topical and systemic antifungal treatment was initiated. Nevertheless, vitreous and blood cultures were negative for fungi and other bacteria, while serological examinations revealed primary infection with CMV. Following vitrectomy, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of vitreous washings confirmed the intraocular infection with CMV. Treatment was modified, including intravenous administration of Gancyclovir. In the following days, the patient's clinical signs and visual acuity improved remarkably. Conclusions: A case of a presumed mixed fungal and CMV intraocular infection was presented. High level of suspicion with prompt diagnosis and aggressive combination treatment led to a favorable result.


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus/complicações , Citomegalovirus , Endoftalmite/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/complicações , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Oportunistas/complicações , Acuidade Visual , Idoso , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/virologia , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Oculares Fúngicas/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Infecções Oportunistas/diagnóstico
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 603, 2019 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aims to investigate the pathogen distribution and drug resistance in patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection. METHODS: From August 2015 to December 2017, 172 pathogenic bacterial strains from patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection in our hospital were identified, and the drug sensitivity was analyzed. RESULTS: Among these 172 strains of pathogenic bacteria, gram negative bacteria was the main cause of pulmonary infection in hospitalized patients with acute cerebral infarction, accounting for 75.6% of all pathogens. Furthermore, 80% of diabetic patients with cerebral infarction had lung infection induced by gram negative bacteria, which was significantly higher than that in non-diabetic patients (72.2%). Moreover, the drug resistance rate in the diabetic group (68.3%) was significantly higher than that in the non-diabetic group (54.3%). Gram positive bacteria accounted for 19.1% of all pathogenic bacteria. The infection rate of gram-positive bacteria in diabetic patients with cerebral infarction was 14.7%, which was lower than that in the non-diabetic group (22.6%). The drug-resistance rate was higher in the diabetic group (45.5%) than in the non-diabetic group (28.2%). Furthermore, the fungal infection rate in patients with lung infection in these two groups was 5.3 and 5.2%, respectively, and fungi presented with high sensitivity to commonly used antifungal agents. CONCLUSION: In patients with acute cerebral infarction complicated with diabetes mellitus and nosocomial pulmonary infection, the majority of pathogens are multidrug-resistant gram negative bacilli. Pathogen culture should be conducted as soon as possible before using antibiotics, and antimicrobial agents should be reasonably used according to drug sensitivity test results.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/complicações , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Complicações do Diabetes/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Doença Aguda , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Infarto Cerebral/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações do Diabetes/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Masculino , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Pneumonia/tratamento farmacológico
15.
Food Microbiol ; 83: 211-218, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31202415

RESUMO

The processing conditions and physiochemical properties used in food manufacturing create niches which support the growth of a limited number of spoilage fungi. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic food product variables on the identity of spoilage fungi genera isolated from commercially produced foods. The spoilage etiology was identified in 127 products through ITS region sequencing. The prevalence and diversity of the identified spoilage fungi were evaluated in relationship to product-specific attributes using various descriptive statistics and a bipartite network analysis. Additionally, recursive partitioning was used to generate a classification tree with the outcomes, genera of the spoilage isolates, divided into increasingly homogenous subgroups. All of the isolated fungi belonged to the Ascomycete phylum, except four mucoralian isolates and the basidiomycete Rhodotorula. The occurrence of filamentous fungi repeatedly isolated ranged from 2% (Phoma spp.) to 18% (Penicillium spp.). In order of decreasing contribution to subgroup homogeneity, the split rules for the classification tree were based on process, water activity, food matrix category, and pH. Fungal genera representation in the terminal nodes indicated that production failures, in addition to product-specific attributes, were responsible for determination of the most probable spoilage organism.


Assuntos
Fast Foods/análise , Fast Foods/microbiologia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Manipulação de Alimentos , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Fungos/classificação , Penicillium/isolamento & purificação , Rhodotorula/isolamento & purificação
16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5687-5695, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of soy sauce is strongly affected by microorganisms and raw materials (defatted soybean or whole soybean). The present study investigated the effect of two types of fortified pattern, including inoculation with starters (Tetragenococcus halophilus combined with Zygosaccharomyces rouxii and Candida versatilis), and adding culture medium (saccharified rice flour solution), on the metabolite profiles and microbial community of soy sauce produced from defatted soybean (DP) and whole soybean (HD). Relationships between microbes and volatiles, and their interactions, were shown. RESULTS: The dominant metabolites differed in the soy sauce samples except for isoflavones. Alcohols and phenols were higher in DP moromi. Two classes of dominant esters, long-chain fatty acid esters (LFAE) and unsaturated-short-chain fatty acid esters (USFAE), were higher in HD moromi than DP. Weissella, Leuconostoc, and Aspergillus were the dominant microbes. Leuconostoc, and Aspergillus increased, and Weissella decreased in moromi inoculated with starters compared with a control. Similar changes to Leuconostoc were observed in moromi added culture medium. CONCLUSIONS: The microbes were responsible for the formation of volatiles. The intergeneric interactions with microbes were affected by fortified pattern. The effect of starters or culture medium on microbial community and metabolites of soy sauce depended on the raw material. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Microbiota , Alimentos de Soja/microbiologia , Soja/microbiologia , Álcoois/análise , Álcoois/metabolismo , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/metabolismo , Candida/metabolismo , Enterococcaceae/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/metabolismo , Fenóis/análise , Fenóis/metabolismo , Alimentos de Soja/análise , Soja/metabolismo , Zygosaccharomyces/metabolismo
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 181: 395-403, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31212188

RESUMO

The aims of this work was to investigate, in soil microcosms, the effects on soil microbial community structure and function of increasing concentrations of 4-Nonylphenol (NP). The lasts is a product of degradation of NPEOs (Nonylphenol polyethoxylates) with a known toxic and estrogenic capacity able to disrupt animal's hormonal systems. The effect of increasing concentrations of NP (0, 10, 30, 90, and 270 mg NP kg-1 of dry soil) in soil microcosms in three sampling dates (28, 56, and 112 days) over soil microbial activity and function were assessed. Soil microbial activity was estimated by microbial ATP content, and both bacterial and fungal communities composition were estimated using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (T-RFLP). Abundance of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was estimated by qPCR of gene encoding for the bacterial ammonia-monoxygenase (amoA). Changes in biologically mediated soil properties were also assessed, namely water-soluble NH+4, NO-2 and NO-3 content, the two last allowing the assessment of mineralization rates. NP-spiking had some unexpected impacts on microbial community structure and functions, since (i) impacted both bacterial and fungal communities structure at the highest NP concentration tested, bacterial communities were resistant to lower concentrations, while fungal communities were increasingly impacted until the end of the incubation at day 112; (ii) no community structure resilience was observed in bacteria at the highest NP concentration nor for fungi at any concentration; (iii) microbial activity decreased with NP after 28 and 56 d, but increased in the last sampling at the highest concentrations tests, coupled to an enrichment in AOB taxa after 56 and 112 days, that at least partly explain also explain the observed speed up of nitrification rates.


Assuntos
Estrogênios não Esteroides/toxicidade , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Nitrogênio , Fenóis/toxicidade , Microbiologia do Solo , Poluentes do Solo/toxicidade , Amônia/análise , Amônia/metabolismo , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Minerais , Nitratos/análise , Nitrificação , Nitritos/análise , Solo/química
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 304: 106-118, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176963

RESUMO

Nicaraguan cocoa bean fermentations of several single local cocoa varieties originating from the same region (North Highlands of Nicaragua, San Jose de Bocay/El Cuá) were compared to fermentations of blended cocoa varietals from other producing regions of the country (Waslala and Nueva Guinea) making use of High Throughput Sequencing techniques, metabolite target analysis and sensory evaluation of cocoa liquor samples. A succession of the important cocoa-related yeasts Hanseniaspora uvarum/opuntiae, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and/or Pichia kudriavzevii was seen for single varietals and Nueva Guinea fermentations, while Kazachstania humilis dominated the mid and end phase of the Waslala cocoa fermentations. Tatumella species (mainly Tatumella terrea and Tatumella punctata) predominated the bacterial community at the onset of all fermentations followed by unusually late (generally 2 days into the fermentations) appearance of Lactobacillus fermentum relative to fermentations in other parts of the World. Acetobacter spp. were the main acetic acid bacteria during all fermentations, but also Gluconobacter spp. were involved in some single-variety fermentations. All fermentations proved complete as determined by metabolite analysis with bean sucrose being fully depleted and pulp sugars exhausted after 48-72 h of fermentation. From an organoleptic point of view, all Nicaraguan cocoas of this study reflected fine fruity (citrus or berry-like) flavours with distinct herbal or caramel notes. Floral notes were associated with the cases where P. kudriavzevii was involved in the later stages of fermentation. Intense citrus/fruity character was related to high pulp and bean citrate concentrations. Off-notes were found in some over-fermented batches where Bacillus spp. was detected. No relation between cut-test results and organoleptic appreciation was seen.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Cacau/microbiologia , Chocolate/microbiologia , Fermentação/fisiologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Ácido Acético/metabolismo , Acetobacter/metabolismo , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Reatores Biológicos/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/metabolismo , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Gluconobacter/metabolismo , Hanseniaspora/metabolismo , Lactobacillus fermentum/metabolismo , Pichia/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo
20.
Cornea ; 38(7): 829-835, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To report the rate of microbial contamination and analyze possible risk factors for contamination of banked corneas stored using the organ culture method. METHODS: Data from the New South Wales Tissue Banks incorporating the Lions NSW Eye Bank, between September 1, 2011, and November 30, 2017, were reviewed retrospectively. All corneas collected during this period and stored in organ culture storage media were tested for microbial contamination. The influence of potential factors on the rate of contamination was analyzed using the χ test and logistic regression using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: A total of 4410 corneas were included in this study, of which 110 were medium culture positive, representing a microbial contamination rate of 2.5%. The main contaminants were Candida species followed by Staphylococcus species. Corneal tissue collected in summer and autumn had a significantly higher contamination rate (P = 0.006). All other factors studied were not shown to have a statistically significant association with contamination after accounting for within-pair correlation and confounders. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively low contamination rate of 2.5% observed in our study reflects the stringent laboratory protocols, strict donor selection criteria, and high level of experience among staff at the Lions NSW Eye Bank. Our study demonstrated that the season of collection had a strong association with the rate of organ culture contamination. Because Candida species contributed the largest percentage of contamination, specific measures to reduce and eliminate fungal proliferation should be considered by eye banks particularly in warm seasons.


Assuntos
Córnea/microbiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Preservação de Órgãos/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bancos de Olhos/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções Oculares Bacterianas/microbiologia , Feminino , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New South Wales , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Doadores de Tecidos
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