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1.
Nature ; 603(7902): 672-678, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296857

RESUMO

The fungal microbiota (mycobiota) is an integral part of the complex multikingdom microbial community colonizing the mammalian gastrointestinal tract and has an important role in immune regulation1-6. Although aberrant changes in the mycobiota have been linked to several diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease3-9, it is currently unknown whether fungal species captured by deep sequencing represent living organisms and whether specific fungi have functional consequences for disease development in affected individuals. Here we developed a translational platform for the functional analysis of the mycobiome at the fungal-strain- and patient-specific level. Combining high-resolution mycobiota sequencing, fungal culturomics and genomics, a CRISPR-Cas9-based fungal strain editing system, in vitro functional immunoreactivity assays and in vivo models, this platform enables the examination of host-fungal crosstalk in the human gut. We discovered a rich genetic diversity of opportunistic Candida albicans strains that dominate the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Among these human-gut-derived isolates, strains with high immune-cell-damaging capacity (HD strains) reflect the disease features of individual patients with ulcerative colitis and aggravated intestinal inflammation in vivo through IL-1ß-dependent mechanisms. Niche-specific inflammatory immunity and interleukin-17A-producing T helper cell (TH17 cell) antifungal responses by HD strains in the gut were dependent on the C. albicans-secreted peptide toxin candidalysin during the transition from a benign commensal to a pathobiont state. These findings reveal the strain-specific nature of host-fungal interactions in the human gut and highlight new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for diseases of inflammatory origin.


Assuntos
Fungos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais , Microbiota , Micobioma , Animais , Sistemas CRISPR-Cas , Candida albicans , Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Variação Genética , Humanos , Imunidade , Inflamação , Mamíferos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35163090

RESUMO

The current worldwide pandemic caused by coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) had alerted the population to the risk that small microorganisms can create for humankind's wellbeing and survival. All of us have been affected, directly or indirectly, by this situation, and scientists all over the world have been trying to find solutions to fight this virus by killing it or by stop/decrease its spread rate. Numerous kinds of microorganisms have been occasionally created panic in world history, and several solutions have been proposed to stop their spread. Among the most studied antimicrobial solutions, are metals (of different kinds and applied in different formats). In this regard, this review aims to present a recent and comprehensive demonstration of the state-of-the-art in the use of metals, as well as their mechanisms, to fight different pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, and fungi.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Metais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/síntese química , Anti-Infecciosos/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/patogenicidade , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Equipamentos e Provisões , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Saúde da População , SARS-CoV-2/fisiologia , Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus/patogenicidade
3.
Viruses ; 14(2)2022 02 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35216039

RESUMO

Coinfection rates with other pathogens in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) varied during the pandemic. We assessed the latest prevalence of coinfection with viruses, bacteria, and fungi in COVID-19 patients for more than one year and its impact on mortality. A total of 436 samples were collected between August 2020 and October 2021. Multiplex real-time PCR, culture, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were performed to detect pathogens. The coinfection rate of respiratory viruses in COVID-19 patients was 1.4%. Meanwhile, the rates of bacteria and fungi were 52.6% and 10.5% in hospitalized COVID-19 patients, respectively. Respiratory syncytial virus, rhinovirus, Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans were the most commonly detected pathogens. Ninety percent of isolated A. baumannii was non-susceptible to carbapenem. Based on a multivariate analysis, coinfection (odds ratio [OR] = 6.095), older age (OR = 1.089), and elevated lactate dehydrogenase (OR = 1.006) were risk factors for mortality as a critical outcome. In particular, coinfection with bacteria (OR = 11.250), resistant pathogens (OR = 11.667), and infection with multiple pathogens (OR = 10.667) were significantly related to death. Screening and monitoring of coinfection in COVID-19 patients, especially for hospitalized patients during the pandemic, are beneficial for better management and survival.


Assuntos
Infecções Bacterianas/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Micoses/epidemiologia , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/patogenicidade , COVID-19/microbiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Coinfecção/mortalidade , Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/virologia , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/patogenicidade , Adulto Jovem
4.
BMC Microbiol ; 22(1): 26, 2022 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35026980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Soil fertility decline and pathogen infection are severe issues for crop production all over the world. Microbes as inherent factors in soil were effective in alleviating fertility decrease, promoting plant growth and controlling plant pathogens et al. Thus, screening microbes with fertility improving and pathogen controlling properties is of great importance to humans. RESULTS: Bacteria Pt-3 isolated from tea rhizosphere showed multiple functions in solubilizing insoluble phosphate, promoting plant growth, producing abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and inhibiting the growth of important fungal pathogens in vitro. According to the 16S rRNA phylogenetic and biochemical analysis, Pt-3 was identified to be Serratia marcescens. The solubilizing zone of Pt-3 in the medium of lecithin and Ca3(PO4)2 was 2.1 cm and 1.8 cm respectively. In liquid medium and soil, the concentration of soluble phosphorus reached 343.9 mg.L- 1, and 3.98 mg.kg- 1, and significantly promoted the growth of maize seedling, respectively. Moreover, Pt-3 produced abundant volatiles and greatly inhibited the growth of seven important phytopathogens. The inhibition rate ranged from 75.51 to 100% respectively. Solid phase micro-extraction coupled with gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry proved that the antifungal volatile was dimethyl disulfide. Dimethyl disulfide can inhibit the germination of Aspergillus flavus, and severely destroy the cell structures under scanning electron microscopy. CONCLUSIONS: S. marcescens Pt-3 with multiple functions will provide novel agent for the production of bioactive fertilizer with P-solubilizing and fungal pathogens control activity.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Serratia marcescens/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Camellia sinensis/microbiologia , Fertilizantes/microbiologia , Fungos/patogenicidade , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Rizosfera , Serratia marcescens/química , Serratia marcescens/genética , Solubilidade
5.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D837-D847, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34788826

RESUMO

Since 2005, the Pathogen-Host Interactions Database (PHI-base) has manually curated experimentally verified pathogenicity, virulence and effector genes from fungal, bacterial and protist pathogens, which infect animal, plant, fish, insect and/or fungal hosts. PHI-base (www.phi-base.org) is devoted to the identification and presentation of phenotype information on pathogenicity and effector genes and their host interactions. Specific gene alterations that did not alter the in host interaction phenotype are also presented. PHI-base is invaluable for comparative analyses and for the discovery of candidate targets in medically and agronomically important species for intervention. Version 4.12 (September 2021) contains 4387 references, and provides information on 8411 genes from 279 pathogens, tested on 228 hosts in 18, 190 interactions. This provides a 24% increase in gene content since Version 4.8 (September 2019). Bacterial and fungal pathogens represent the majority of the interaction data, with a 54:46 split of entries, whilst protists, protozoa, nematodes and insects represent 3.6% of entries. Host species consist of approximately 54% plants and 46% others of medical, veterinary and/or environmental importance. PHI-base data is disseminated to UniProtKB, FungiDB and Ensembl Genomes. PHI-base will migrate to a new gene-centric version (version 5.0) in early 2022. This major development is briefly described.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Fenótipo , Interface Usuário-Computador , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/patogenicidade , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Diplomonadida/classificação , Diplomonadida/genética , Diplomonadida/patogenicidade , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Insetos/patogenicidade , Internet , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Plantas/microbiologia , Plantas/parasitologia , Virulência
6.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(1): 51-62, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34731370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Crown and root rot is the most important and destructive strawberry diseases in Korea as it causes substantial economic loss. In August 2020, a severe outbreak of crown and root rot on strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was observed in the greenhouse at Sangju, South Korea. Infected plantlets displayed browning rot within the crown and root, stunted growth, and poor rooting. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty fungal isolates were obtained from the affected plantlet. Isolates were identified based on morphological characteristics and pathogenicity test as well as sequence data obtained from internal transcribed spacer, large subunit ribosomal ribonucleic acid, translation elongation factor, and RNA polymerase II-second largest subunit. Results showed that the crown and root rot of strawberry in Korea was caused by three distinct fungal species: Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae, F. solani, and Plectosphaerella cucumerina. To the best of our knowledge, F. solani, and P. cucumerina are reported for the first time as the causal agents of the crown and root rot of strawberry in South Korea. Pathogenicity tests confirmed that these isolates are pathogenic to strawberry. CONCLUSIONS: Understanding the composition and biology of the pathogen population will be helpful to provide effective control strategies for the disease.


Assuntos
DNA Fúngico/genética , Fragaria/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus/métodos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , DNA Intergênico/genética , Surtos de Doenças , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , RNA Polimerase II/genética , República da Coreia , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores/genética
7.
Mol Biol Rep ; 49(1): 747-754, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34709573

RESUMO

COVID-19-associated-mucormycosis, commonly referred to as the "Black Fungus," is a rare secondary fungal infection in COVID-19 patients prompted by a group of mucor molds. Association of this rare fungal infection with SARS-CoV-2 infection has been declared as an endemic in India, with minor cases in several other countries around the globe. Although the fungal infection is not contagious like the viral infection, the causative fungal agent is omnipresent. Infection displays an overall mortality rate of around 50%, with many other secondary side effects posing a potential threat in exacerbating COVID-19 mortality rates. In this review, we have accessed the role of free iron availability in COVID-19 patients that might correlate to the pathogenesis of the causative fungal agent. Besides, we have analyzed the negative consequences of using immunosuppressive drugs in encouraging this opportunistic fungal infection.


Assuntos
COVID-19/complicações , Hiperferritinemia , Mucormicose , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Hiperferritinemia/complicações , Hiperferritinemia/microbiologia , Imunossupressores/efeitos adversos , Índia/epidemiologia , Ferro/metabolismo , Mortalidade , Mucormicose/epidemiologia , Mucormicose/etiologia , Mucormicose/microbiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/epidemiologia , Infecções Oportunistas/microbiologia , Rhizopus oryzae/isolamento & purificação , Rhizopus oryzae/patogenicidade
8.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D898-D911, 2022 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34718728

RESUMO

The Eukaryotic Pathogen, Vector and Host Informatics Resource (VEuPathDB, https://veupathdb.org) represents the 2019 merger of VectorBase with the EuPathDB projects. As a Bioinformatics Resource Center funded by the National Institutes of Health, with additional support from the Welllcome Trust, VEuPathDB supports >500 organisms comprising invertebrate vectors, eukaryotic pathogens (protists and fungi) and relevant free-living or non-pathogenic species or hosts. Designed to empower researchers with access to Omics data and bioinformatic analyses, VEuPathDB projects integrate >1700 pre-analysed datasets (and associated metadata) with advanced search capabilities, visualizations, and analysis tools in a graphic interface. Diverse data types are analysed with standardized workflows including an in-house OrthoMCL algorithm for predicting orthology. Comparisons are easily made across datasets, data types and organisms in this unique data mining platform. A new site-wide search facilitates access for both experienced and novice users. Upgraded infrastructure and workflows support numerous updates to the web interface, tools, searches and strategies, and Galaxy workspace where users can privately analyse their own data. Forthcoming upgrades include cloud-ready application architecture, expanded support for the Galaxy workspace, tools for interrogating host-pathogen interactions, and improved interactions with affiliated databases (ClinEpiDB, MicrobiomeDB) and other scientific resources, and increased interoperability with the Bacterial & Viral BRC.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais , Vetores de Doenças/classificação , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Fenótipo , Interface Usuário-Computador , Animais , Apicomplexa/classificação , Apicomplexa/genética , Apicomplexa/patogenicidade , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/transmissão , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Diplomonadida/classificação , Diplomonadida/genética , Diplomonadida/patogenicidade , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Insetos/classificação , Insetos/genética , Insetos/patogenicidade , Internet , Nematoides/classificação , Nematoides/genética , Nematoides/patogenicidade , Filogenia , Virulência , Fluxo de Trabalho
9.
Clin Chem ; 68(1): 83-90, 2021 12 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969112

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infections caused by fungi can be important causes of morbidity and mortality in certain patient populations, including those who are highly immunocompromised or critically ill. Invasive mycoses can be caused by well-known species, as well as emerging pathogens, including those that are resistant to clinically available antifungals. CONTENT: This review highlights emerging fungal infections, including newly described species, such as Candida auris, and those that having undergone taxonomic classification and were previously known by other names, including Blastomyces and Emergomyces species, members of the Rasamsonia argillacea species complex, Sporothrix brasiliensis, and Trichophyton indotinae. Antifungal resistance also is highlighted in several of these emerging species, as well as in the well-known opportunistic pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus. Finally, the increased recognition and importance of fungal co-infections with respiratory pathogens, including severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is discussed. SUMMARY: Both clinicians and clinical microbiology laboratories should remain vigilant regarding emerging fungal infections. These may be difficult both to diagnose and treat due to the lack of experience of clinicians and laboratory personnel with these organisms and the infections they may cause. Many of these fungal infections have been associated with poor clinical outcomes, either due to inappropriate therapy or the development of antifungal resistance.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Micoses , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , COVID-19 , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micoses/epidemiologia
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(22)2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34830204

RESUMO

The high cytotoxicity of the secondary metabolites of mycotoxins is capable of killing microbes and tumour cells alike, similarly to the genotoxic effect characteristic of Janus-faced molecules. The "double-edged sword" effect of several cytotoxins is known, and these agents have, therefore, been utilized only reluctantly against fungal infections. In this review, consideration was given to (a) toxins that could be used against plant and human pathogens, (b) animal models that measure the effect of antifungal agents, (c) known antifungal agents that have been described and efficiently prevent the growth of fungal cells, and (d) the chemical interactions that are characteristic of antifungal agents. The utilization of apoptotic effects against tumour growth by agents that, at the same time, induce mutations may raise ethical issues. Nevertheless, it deserves consideration despite the mutagenic impact of Janus-faced molecules for those patients who suffer from plant pathogenic fungal infections and are older than their fertility age, in the same way that the short-term cytotoxicity of cancer treatment is favoured over the long-term mutagenic effect.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/patogenicidade , Micoses/tratamento farmacológico , Micotoxinas/farmacologia , Micotoxinas/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fungos/metabolismo , Humanos , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Micoses/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/química , Resultado do Tratamento , Virulência
11.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(4): 1027-1053, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752219

RESUMO

Invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients and in the immunocompromised population. This article reviews the current epidemiology of nosocomial fungal infections in adult patients, with an emphasis on invasive candidiasis (IC) and invasive aspergillosis (IA). Included are descriptions of nosocomial infections caused by Candida auris, an emerging pathogen, and IC- and IA-associated with coronavirus disease 2019. The characteristics and availability of newer nonculture-based tests for identification of nosocomial fungal pathogens are discussed. Recently published recommendations and guidelines for the control and prevention of these nosocomial fungal infections are summarized.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Micoses/epidemiologia , Micoses/prevenção & controle , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/complicações , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/etiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Controle de Infecções/normas , Micoses/diagnóstico , Micoses/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , SARS-CoV-2
12.
J Biosci ; 462021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34728591

RESUMO

The interaction of microbiota with its host has the ability to alter the cellular functions of both, through several mechanisms. Recent work, from many laboratories including our own, has shown that epigenetic mechanisms play an important role in the alteration of these cellular functions. Epigenetics broadly refers to change in the phenotype without a corresponding change in the DNA sequence. This change is usually brought by epigenetic modifications of the DNA itself, the histone proteins associated with the DNA in the chromatin, non-coding RNA or the modifications of the transcribed RNA. These modifications, also known as epigenetic code, do not change the DNA sequence but alter the expression level of specific genes. Microorganisms seem to have learned how to modify the host epigenetic code and modulate the host transcriptome in their favour. In this review, we explore the literature that describes the epigenetic interaction of bacteria, fungi and viruses, with their mammalian hosts.


Assuntos
Bactérias/patogenicidade , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Epigênese Genética , Mamíferos/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade , Animais , Metilação de DNA , Fungos/patogenicidade , Fungos/fisiologia , Histonas/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Mamíferos/virologia , RNA/metabolismo
13.
Plant Dis ; 105(10): 3087-3091, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34702082

RESUMO

In Japan, no association between the ambrosia beetle and their fungal symbionts causing branch dieback or tree mortality on maple, Acer amoenum, has been reported. However, we identified dieback of several branches and numerous holes created by three species of ambrosia beetles, Euwallacea fornicatus, Euwallacea interjectus, and Platypus calamus, on Acer amoenum trees at the University of Tokyo Tanashi Forest, Tokyo Metropolis, Japan, in 2016. The high attack density of the beetles was observed on the weakened trees; however, the contribution of the associated fungi to the branch dieback was still unknown. We isolated fungi carried by these three beetles and inoculated them to Acer amoenum cut main trunks and sapling branches to determine whether the associated fungi caused the branch dieback. Fusarium euwallaceae was isolated from all Euwallacea fornicatus and Euwallacea interjectus, whereas Arthrinium phaeospermum, Raffaelea cyclorhipidia, and Epicoccum nigrum were isolated from P. calamus, with 35, 15, and 5% isolation frequencies, respectively. Inoculation with F. euwallaceae and R. cyclorhipidia induced statistically significantly wider sapwood discoloration (six and four times wider for F. euwallaceae and R. cyclorhipidia, respectively) than the controls, and larger water-conductance loss (2 and 1.7 times larger for F. euwallaceae and R. cyclorhipidia, respectively) than the controls. However, the observed lesions were not large enough to cause discoloration, and symptoms of dieback were not observed, even 13 months after the inoculation. Therefore, we concluded that the virulence of the four investigated fungi to Acer amoenum was very low and that these fungi were likely not the primary cause of the branch dieback.


Assuntos
Acer , Fungos/patogenicidade , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Gorgulhos , Acer/microbiologia , Animais , Virulência , Gorgulhos/microbiologia
14.
mBio ; 12(5): e0306820, 2021 10 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663100

RESUMO

Cytokinin (CK) is an important plant developmental regulator, having activities in many aspects of plant life and response to the environment. CKs are involved in diverse processes in the plant, including stem cell maintenance, vascular differentiation, growth and branching of roots and shoots, leaf senescence, nutrient balance, and stress tolerance. In some cases, phytopathogens secrete CKs. It has been suggested that to achieve pathogenesis in the host, CK-secreting biotrophs manipulate CK signaling to regulate the host cell cycle and nutrient allocation. CK is known to induce host plant resistance to several classes of phytopathogens from a few works, with induced host immunity via salicylic acid signaling suggested to be the prevalent mechanism for this host resistance. Here, we show that CK directly inhibits the growth, development, and virulence of fungal phytopathogens. Focusing on Botrytis cinerea (Bc), we demonstrate that various aspects of fungal development can be reversibly inhibited by CK. We also found that CK affects both budding and fission yeast in a similar manner. Investigating the mechanism by which CK influences fungal development, we conducted RNA next-generation sequencing (RNA-NGS) on mock- and CK-treated B. cinerea samples, finding that CK alters the cell cycle, cytoskeleton, and endocytosis. Cell biology experiments demonstrated that CK affects cytoskeleton components and cellular trafficking in Bc, lowering endocytic rates and endomembrane compartment sizes, likely leading to reduced growth rates and arrested developmental programs. Mutant analyses in yeast confirmed that the endocytic pathway is altered by CK. Our work uncovers a remarkably conserved role for a plant growth hormone in fungal biology, suggesting that pathogen-host interactions resulted in fascinating molecular adaptations on fundamental processes in eukaryotic biology. IMPORTANCE Cytokinins (CKs), important plant growth/developmental hormones, have previously been associated with host disease resistance. Here, we demonstrate that CK directly inhibits the growth, development, and virulence of B. cinerea (Bc) and many additional phytopathogenic fungi. Molecular and cellular analyses revealed that CK is not toxic to Bc, but rather, Bc likely recognizes CK and responds to it, resulting in cell cycle and individual cell growth retardation, via downregulation of cytoskeletal components and endocytic trafficking. Mutant analyses in yeast confirmed that the endocytic pathway is a CK target. Our work demonstrates a conserved role for CK in yeast and fungal biology, suggesting that pathogen-host interactions may cause molecular adaptations in fundamental processes in eukaryotic biology.


Assuntos
Citocininas/farmacologia , Citoesqueleto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Doenças das Plantas/prevenção & controle , Botrytis/efeitos dos fármacos , Botrytis/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Botrytis/patogenicidade , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistência à Doença , Fungos/genética , Fungos/patogenicidade , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas , Patologia Vegetal , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Schizosaccharomyces/efeitos dos fármacos , Schizosaccharomyces/genética , Schizosaccharomyces/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Virulência
15.
BMC Microbiol ; 21(1): 283, 2021 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34663233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The widespread use of shared bicycles has increased the demand and sanitary requirements for shared bicycles. Previous studies have identified potentially pathogenic bacteria on the surfaces of shared bicycles, but fungal communities have not been investigated. METHODS: We sampled shared-bicycle handles and saddles from five selected locations in a metropolis (Chengdu, China, n = 98) and used surrounding air deposition samples as controls (n = 12). Full-length ITS sequencing and multiple bioinformatic analyses were utilized to reveal fungal community structures and differences. RESULTS: Aspergillus was dominant on both the handles and saddles of shared bicycles, and Alternaria and Cladosporium were the most abundant families in the air samples. Significant differences in fungal community structures were found among the three groups. The handle samples contained higher abundances of Aureobasidium melanogenum and Filobasidium magnum than the saddle and air samples. The saddle samples had a higher abundance of Cladosporium tenuissimum than the other two sample types (P < 0·05). A higher abundance of fungal animal pathogens on shared-bicycle surfaces than in air by FUNGuild (P < 0·05). Moreover, the co-occurrence network of fungi on handles was more stable than that on saddles. CONCLUSION: There were more potential pathogens, including Aspergillus pseudoglaucus, Aureobasidium melanogenum, Kazachstania pintolopesii, Filobasidium magnum, Candida tropicalis, and Malassezia globose were found on shared bicycles than in air, suggesting that hands should not contact mucous membrane after cycling, especially in susceptible individuals, and hygiene management of shared bicycles should be given more attention by relevant organizations worldwide.


Assuntos
Ciclismo , Micobioma , Microbiologia do Ar , China , Cidades , Análise por Conglomerados , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos
16.
Malar J ; 20(1): 393, 2021 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34627243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to the effect of synthetic and commercial insecticides on non-target organisms and the resistance of mosquitoes, non-chemical and environmentally friendly methods have become prevalent in recent years. The present study was to isolate entomopathogenic fungi with toxic effects on mosquitoes in natural larval habitats. METHODS: Larvae of mosquitoes were collected from Central, Qamsar, Niasar, and Barzok Districts in Kashan County, Central Iran by standard dipping method, from April to late December 2019. Dead larvae, live larvae showing signs of infection, and larvae and pupae with a white coating of fungal mycelium on the outer surface of their bodies were isolated from the rest of the larvae and sterilized with 10% sodium hypochlorite for 2 min, then washed twice with distilled water and transferred to potato-dextrose-agar (PDA) and water-agar (WA) media and incubated at 25 ± 2 °C for 3-4 days. Larvae and fungi were identified morphologically based on identification keys. RESULTS: A total of 9789 larvae were collected from urban and rural areas in Kashan County. Thirteen species were identified which were recognized to belong to three genera, including Anopheles (7.89%), Culiseta (17.42%) and Culex (74.69%). A total of 105 larvae, including Anopheles superpictus sensu lato (s.l), Anopheles maculipennis s.l., Culex deserticola, Culex perexiguus, and Culiseta longiareolata were found to be infected by Nattrassia mangiferae, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus fumigatus, Trichoderma spp., and Penicillium spp. Of these, Penicillium spp. was the most abundant fungus isolated and identified from the larval habitats, while An. superpictus s.l. was the most infected mosquito species. CONCLUSIONS: Based on the observations and results obtained of the study, isolated fungi had the potential efficacy for pathogenicity on mosquito larvae. It is suggested that their effects on mosquito larvae should be investigated in the laboratory. The most important point, however, is the proper way of exploiting these biocontrol agents to maximize their effect on reducing the population of vector mosquito larvae without any negative effect on non-target organisms.


Assuntos
Anopheles/microbiologia , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Mosquitos Vetores/microbiologia , Animais , Culex/microbiologia , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/patogenicidade , Irã (Geográfico) , Larva/microbiologia , Pupa/microbiologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 20699, 2021 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34667179

RESUMO

The non-persistent impact of biocontrol agents can be revealed for pest control when associated entomopathogenic fungi (EPFs) negatively affect the natural enemies. In this assay, impacts of Beauvaria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin, and Metarhizium anisopliae (Metschnikoff) Sorokin were studied for their compatibility or side effects on life table parameters of an important generalist predator, Coccinella septempunctata L. The results indicated non-significant impacts of both EPFs on life table parameters of C. septempunctata. The development time (egg-adult) was not significantly different in control (69.79 days) and EPFs treated C. septempunctata (69.35-80.07 days). Both fungi did not induce any significant changes in the fecundity, adult pre-oviposition period (APOP), total preoviposition period (TPOP), and mean generation time (T) as compared to control treatment. Similarly, no difference in fecundity rate of C. septempunctata was observed after EPFs treatment (287.7-288.5) compared to control (290.0). The highest net reproductive rate (R0) occurred in control (87.05 offspring individual-1) and M. anisopliae (86.31 offspring individual-1) as compared to B. bassiana treated beetles (76.97 offspring individual-1). The age-specific fecundity curves indicated that the C. septempunctata had a similar fecundity rate in both EPFs treatments and control. This study demonstrates no significant side effects of B. bassiana and M. anispoliae on the performance and biology of C. septempunctata. Considering the compatibility of both EPFs with C. septempunctata, their combinations can be recommended in various integrated pest management programs.


Assuntos
Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Besouros/microbiologia , Fungos/patogenicidade , Animais , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/microbiologia , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Controle de Pragas/métodos , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Reprodução/fisiologia
18.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(10)2021 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678983

RESUMO

Phytopathogen fungi are responsible for serious plant diseases which might negatively affect crop productivity [...].


Assuntos
Fungos/fisiologia , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Produtos Agrícolas/microbiologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Fungos/patogenicidade , Micotoxinas/biossíntese , Plantas/microbiologia , Virulência
19.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(10)2021 09 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34680865

RESUMO

The growing number of immunocompromised patients begs for efficient therapy strategies against invasive fungal infections. As conventional antifungal treatment is increasingly hampered by resistance to commonly used antifungals, development of novel therapy regimens is required. On the other hand, numerous fungal species are industrially exploited as cell factories of enzymes and chemicals or as producers of medically relevant pharmaceuticals. Consequently, there is immense interest in tapping the almost inexhaustible fungal portfolio of natural products for potential medical and industrial applications. Both the pathogenicity and production of those small metabolites are significantly dependent on the acetylation status of distinct regulatory proteins. Thus, classical lysine deacetylases (KDACs) are crucial virulence determinants and important regulators of natural products of fungi. In this review, we present an overview of the members of classical KDACs and their complexes in filamentous fungi. Further, we discuss the impact of the genetic manipulation of KDACs on the pathogenicity and production of bioactive molecules. Special consideration is given to inhibitors of these enzymes and their role as potential new antifungals and emerging tools for the discovery of novel pharmaceutical drugs and antibiotics in fungal producer strains.


Assuntos
Fungos/genética , Histona Desacetilases/genética , Lisina/genética , Acetilação , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Fungos/enzimologia , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional/genética
20.
Chest ; 160(3): e259-e263, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34488964

RESUMO

Hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP) is an inflammatory and/or fibrotic disease affecting the lung parenchyma and small airways. It typically results from an immune-mediated reaction provoked by an overt or occult inhaled antigen in susceptible individuals. The chronic or fibrotic form of HP has a poor prognosis, especially when no inciting antigen is identified, which occurs in up to 60% of cases. We report two cases of HP associated with exposure to mold in foam pillows and a mattress, which has not previously been reported as a risk factor for HP. Given the high prevalence of foam in pillows and mattresses, mold in foam in bedding may explain many HP cases with a previously unrecognized cause. Early identification and avoidance of foam in bedding may prevent HP progression to end-stage pulmonary fibrosis and death.


Assuntos
Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca , Leitos/microbiologia , Dispneia , Fungos , Pulmão , Idoso , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/diagnóstico , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/etiologia , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/fisiopatologia , Alveolite Alérgica Extrínseca/terapia , Técnicas Bacteriológicas/métodos , Biópsia/métodos , Progressão da Doença , Dispneia/diagnóstico , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/terapia , Feminino , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/patogenicidade , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oxigênio/sangue , Testes de Função Respiratória/métodos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento
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