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1.
Nutrients ; 12(9)2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32854262

RESUMO

The 2019 novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, producing the disease COVID-19 is a pathogenic virus that targets mostly the human respiratory system and also other organs. SARS-CoV-2 is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans, however there have been previous outbreaks of different versions of the beta coronavirus including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS-CoV1) from 2002 to 2003 and the most recent Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV) which was first identified in 2012. All of the above have been recognised as major pathogens that are a great threat to public health and global economies. Currently, no specific treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection has been identified; however, certain drugs have shown apparent efficacy in viral inhibition of the disease. Natural substances such as herbs and mushrooms have previously demonstrated both great antiviral and anti-inflammatory activity. Thus, the possibilities of natural substances as effective treatments against COVID-19 may seem promising. One of the potential candidates against the SARS-CoV-2 virus may be Inonotus obliquus (IO), also known as chaga mushroom. IO commonly grows in Asia, Europe and North America and is widely used as a raw material in various medical conditions. In this review, we have evaluated the most effective herbs and mushrooms, in terms of the antiviral and anti-inflammatory effects which have been assessed in laboratory conditions.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Fungos/química , Magnoliopsida/química , Plantas Medicinais/química , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Agaricales/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Basidiomycota/química , Betacoronavirus , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Chlorella/química , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237478, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853208

RESUMO

Paclitaxel as a microtubule-stabilizing agent is widely used for the treatment of a vast range of cancers. Corylus avellana cell suspension culture (CSC) is a promising strategy for paclitaxel production. Elicitation of paclitaxel biosynthesis pathway is a key approach for improving its production in cell culture. However, optimization of this process is time-consuming and costly. Modeling of paclitaxel elicitation process can be helpful to predict the optimal condition for its high production in cell culture. The objective of this study was modeling and forecasting paclitaxel biosynthesis in C. avellana cell culture responding cell extract (CE), culture filtrate (CF) and cell wall (CW) derived from endophytic fungus, either individually or combined treatment with methyl-ß-cyclodextrin (MBCD), based on four input variables including concentration levels of fungal elicitors and MBCD, elicitor adding day and CSC harvesting time, using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) and multiple regression methods. The results displayed a higher accuracy of ANFIS models (0.94-0.97) as compared to regression models (0.16-0.54). The great accordance between the predicted and observed values of paclitaxel biosynthesis for both training and testing subsets support excellent performance of developed ANFIS models. Optimization process of developed ANFIS models with genetic algorithm (GA) showed that optimal MBCD (47.65 mM) and CW (2.77% (v/v)) concentration levels, elicitor adding day (16) and CSC harvesting time (139 h and 41 min after elicitation) can lead to highest paclitaxel biosynthesis (427.92 µg l-1). The validation experiment showed that ANFIS-GA method can be a promising tool for selecting the optimal conditions for maximum paclitaxel biosynthesis, as a case study.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Corylus/química , Paclitaxel/biossíntese , Algoritmos , Corylus/metabolismo , Fungos/química , Fungos/metabolismo , Modelos Lineares , Células Vegetais/química , Células Vegetais/metabolismo , beta-Ciclodextrinas/química
3.
Carbohydr Polym ; 247: 116740, 2020 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829859

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a lung disease with highly heterogeneous and mortality rate, but its therapeutic options are now still limited. Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been characterized by WHO as a pandemic, and the global number of confirmed COVID-19 cases has been more than 8.0 million. It is strongly supported for that PF should be one of the major complications in COVID-19 patients by the evidences of epidemiology, viral immunology and current clinical researches. The anti-PF properties of naturally occurring polysaccharides have attracted increasing attention in last two decades, but is still lack of a comprehensively understanding. In present review, the resources, structural features, anti-PF activities, and underlying mechanisms of these polysaccharides are summarized and analyzed, which was expected to provide a scientific evidence supporting the application of polysaccharides for preventing or treating PF in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Produtos Biológicos/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Bleomicina/toxicidade , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/fisiologia , Fungos/química , Ribonucleoproteína Nuclear Heterogênea D0/fisiologia , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Camundongos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fitoterapia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , RNA Longo não Codificante/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Alga Marinha/química , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteína Smad2/fisiologia , Proteína Smad3/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/antagonistas & inibidores
4.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(36): 22061-22067, 2020 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839341

RESUMO

The correct distribution and trafficking of proteins are essential for all organisms. Eukaryotes evolved a sophisticated trafficking system which allows proteins to reach their destination within highly compartmentalized cells. One eukaryotic hallmark is the attachment of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor to C-terminal ω-peptides, which are used as a zip code to guide a subset of membrane-anchored proteins through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. In fungi, the final destination of many GPI-anchored proteins is their outermost compartment, the cell wall. Enzymes of the Dfg5 subfamily catalyze the essential transfer of GPI-anchored substrates from the plasma membrane to the cell wall and discriminate between plasma membrane-resident GPI-anchored proteins and those transferred to the cell wall (GPI-CWP). We solved the structure of Dfg5 from a filamentous fungus and used in crystallo glycan fragment screening to reassemble the GPI-core glycan in a U-shaped conformation within its binding pocket. The resulting model of the membrane-bound Dfg5•GPI-CWP complex is validated by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations and in vivo mutants in yeast. The latter show that impaired transfer of GPI-CWPs causes distorted cell-wall integrity as indicated by increased chitin levels. The structure of a Dfg5•ß1,3-glycoside complex predicts transfer of GPI-CWP toward the nonreducing ends of acceptor glycans in the cell wall. In addition to our molecular model for Dfg5-mediated transglycosylation, we provide a rationale for how GPI-CWPs are specifically sorted toward the cell wall by using GPI-core glycan modifications.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Fungos/química , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Glicoproteínas/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicosilfosfatidilinositóis/química , Transporte Proteico
5.
Food Chem ; 330: 127252, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585587

RESUMO

Mycoprotein is a food ingredient from filamentous fungi rich in protein and fibre. This study investigated the protein bioaccessibility from the fungal cells by colourimetric assays in different mycoprotein formulations, following extraction methods and in vitro gastrointestinal digestion. The methods effects were further analysed by static laser light scattering, SDS-PAGE and optical-fluorescence microscopy. The extraction methods released a comparable proportion of protein (30 wt%) independent of sample concentration (10 wt% and 25 wt%), whereas the simulated digestions endpoints released a higher proportion of protein from the less concentrated (46 wt%). Furthermore, mechanical/physical processing had only a minor impact. Intestinal proteases promoted the most efficient protein release but without causing any apparent damage to the cell walls when viewed by microscopy. This suggested that the enzymes can diffuse through the cell walls, due to its porosity/permeability, and are the main factors responsible for the hydrolysis and bioaccessibility of protein from mycoprotein.


Assuntos
Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Animais , Disponibilidade Biológica , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Fungos/química , Fungos/metabolismo
6.
AAPS PharmSciTech ; 21(5): 171, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529560

RESUMO

Modifications to the surface chemistry, charge, and hydrophilicity/hydrophobicity of nanoparticles are applicable approaches to the alterations of the in vivo fate of intravenously administered nano-sized drug carriers. The objective of this study is to investigate the in vitro and in vivo antitumor efficacies of curcumin PLGA nanoparticles in relation to their surface structural modification via self-assembling coating with unique fungal hydrophobin. The hydophobin-coated curcumin PLGA nanoparticles (HPB PLGA NPs) were obtained by simply soaking curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA NPs) in aqueous fungal hydrophobin solution. The in vitro drug release behavior of the HPB PLGA NPS was also tested. The cytotoxicity and cellular uptake of these nanoparticles were determined in HepG2, A549, and Hela cell lines using MTT assay method and CLSM observation. The in vivo antitumor activity was evaluated in Hela tumor xenografted mice model. Compared with the PLGA NPs, the size and zeta potential of the nanoparticles were changed after hydrophobin coating, whereas similar in vitro release pattern was observed. The pharmacodynamics study showed prolonged blood retention of both nano-formulations than that of free curcumin, but no significant difference between the hydrophobin coated and uncoated nanoparticles. It was found that HPB PLGA NPs had increased cytotoxicities, higher cellular uptake, and improved antitumor efficacy. Surface modification of nanoparticles via self-assembling of hydrophobin is a convenient and promising method of changing particle surface physiochemical properties and antitumor performances. Further investigations, especially on tissue distribution, were needed to assess the potential application of the hydrophobin self-assembling coating in nano-drug delivery carriers.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/química , Curcumina/química , Fungos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/química , Células A549 , Animais , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Curcumina/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/uso terapêutico , Células HeLa , Células Hep G2 , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Camundongos Nus , Tamanho da Partícula , Copolímero de Ácido Poliláctico e Ácido Poliglicólico/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Resultado do Tratamento , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto/métodos
7.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1830, 2020 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32286350

RESUMO

A synthetic biology method based on heterologous biosynthesis coupled with genome mining is a promising approach for increasing the opportunities to rationally access natural product with novel structures and biological activities through total biosynthesis and combinatorial biosynthesis. Here, we demonstrate the advantage of the synthetic biology method to explore biological activity-related chemical space through the comprehensive heterologous biosynthesis of fungal decalin-containing diterpenoid pyrones (DDPs). Genome mining reveals putative DDP biosynthetic gene clusters distributed in five fungal genera. In addition, we design extended DDP pathways by combinatorial biosynthesis. In total, ten DDP pathways, including five native pathways, four extended pathways and one shunt pathway, are heterologously reconstituted in a genetically tractable heterologous host, Aspergillus oryzae, resulting in the production of 22 DDPs, including 15 new analogues. We also demonstrate the advantage of expanding the diversity of DDPs to probe various bioactive molecules through a wide range of biological evaluations.


Assuntos
Diterpenos/farmacologia , Fungos/química , Naftalenos/farmacologia , Pironas/farmacologia , Biologia Sintética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Aspergillus/química , Vias Biossintéticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Vias Biossintéticas/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Diterpenos/química , Drosophila/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/genética , Genoma Fúngico , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Naftalenos/química , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Neoplásicas/patologia , Agregados Proteicos , Pironas/química , Esferoides Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Esferoides Celulares/metabolismo , Esferoides Celulares/patologia , Estereoisomerismo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0229921, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330147

RESUMO

Melanized fungi have been shown to thrive in environments with high radionuclide concentrations, which led to the association of the pigment melanin with the protection against ionizing radiation. Several hypotheses regarding the function of melanin have been proposed. Yet, the exact mechanism behind the protective property of melanin is unclear and poorly explored. A better understanding of the mechanisms that are involved in increasing the tolerance of the organisms to ionizing radiation could lead to technology transfer to human-related applications. Effective protection from radiation is essential for human space flight in general and human missions beyond Low Earth Orbit specifically. In this paper, we follow a biomimetic approach: we test two of current hypotheses and discuss how they could be applied to radiation shield designs. First we focus on the interaction of melanin with high energy electrons, which has been suspected to reduce the kinetic energy of the electrons through a cascade of collisions, thus providing physical shielding. Second, we investigate if the spatial arrangement of melanin, organized as a thin film or a collection of hollow micro-spheres, affects its shielding properties. To this end, we measured experimentally and by numerical simulations the attenuation of ß-radiation as pass through solutions and suspensions of melanin and contrasted the values to the ones of cellulose, a substance with similar elemental composition. Further, we investigate the spatial arrangement hypothesis using Monte Carlo simulations. In agreement with the simulations, our experiments indicated that melanin does not provide improved shielding in comparison to cellulose from ß-radiation. However, our simulations suggest a substantial effect of the spatial arrangement on the shielding performance of melanin, a pathway that could be transferred to the design of composite radiation shields.


Assuntos
Ciências da Terra , Fungos/metabolismo , Melaninas/metabolismo , Radiação Ionizante , Biomimética , Fungos/química , Humanos , Melaninas/química , Melaninas/efeitos da radiação , Método de Monte Carlo , Voo Espacial
9.
J Biosci Bioeng ; 130(1): 106-113, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253091

RESUMO

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are active pharmaceutical ingredients in antibody drugs, produced mainly using recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The regulation of recombinant CHO cell proliferation can improve the productivity of heterologous proteins. Chemical compound approaches for cell cycle regulation have the advantages of simplicity and ease of use in industrial processes. However, CHO cells have genetic and phenotypic diversity, and the effects of such compounds might depend on cell line and culture conditions. Increasing the variety of cell cycle inhibitors is a promising strategy to overcome the dependency. Marine microorganisms are a vast and largely undeveloped source of secondary metabolites with physiological activity. In this study, we focused on secondary metabolites of marine microorganisms and evaluated their effectiveness as cell cycle inhibitory compounds. Of 720 extracts from microorganisms (400 actinomycetes and 320 filamentous fungi) collected from the Okinawan Sea, we identified nine extracts that decreased the specific growth rate and increased the specific production rate without reducing cell viability. After fractionating the extracts, the components of active fractions were estimated using time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. Then, four compounds, including staurosporine and undecylprodigiosin were deduced to be active compounds. These compounds have been reported to exert a cell cycle inhibitory effect on mammalian cells. These compounds might serve as additives to improve mAb production in CHO cells. This study indicates that secondary metabolites of marine microorganisms are a useful source for new cell cycle inhibitory compounds that can increase mAb production in CHO cells.


Assuntos
Actinobacteria/química , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/química , Inibidores do Crescimento/farmacologia , Água do Mar/microbiologia , Actinobacteria/genética , Actinobacteria/isolamento & purificação , Actinobacteria/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Fungos/genética , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Fungos/metabolismo , Inibidores do Crescimento/metabolismo , Prodigiosina/análogos & derivados , Prodigiosina/metabolismo , Prodigiosina/farmacologia , Estaurosporina/metabolismo , Estaurosporina/farmacologia
10.
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol ; 425: 53-82, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193600

RESUMO

Glucans are characteristic and major constituents of fungal cell walls. Depending on the species, different glucan polysaccharides can be found. These differ in the linkage of the D-glucose monomers which can be either in α- or ß-conformation and form 1,3, 1,4 or 1,6 O-glycosidic bonds. The linkages and polymer lengths define the physical properties of the glucan macromolecules, which may form a scaffold for other cell wall structures and influence the rigidity and elasticity of the wall. ß-1,3-glucan is essential for the viability of many fungal pathogens. Therefore, the ß-1,3-glucan synthase complex represents an excellent and primary target structure for antifungal drugs. Fungal cell wall ß-glucan is also an important pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP). To hide from innate immunity, many fungal pathogens depend on the synthesis of cell wall α-glucan, which functions as a stealth molecule to mask the ß-glucans itself or links other masking structures to the cell wall. Here, we review the current knowledge about the biosynthetic machineries that synthesize ß-1,3-glucan, ß-1,6-glucan, and α-1,3-glucan. We summarize the discovery of the synthases, major regulatory traits, and the impact of glucan synthesis deficiencies on the fungal organisms. Despite all efforts, many aspects of glucan synthesis remain yet unresolved, keeping research directed toward cell wall biogenesis an exciting and continuously challenging topic.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/biossíntese , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Glucanos/biossíntese , Glucanos/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Parede Celular/química , Fungos/química , Fungos/citologia
11.
Prog Chem Org Nat Prod ; 111: 81-153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114663

RESUMO

Marine-derived fungi play an important role in the search for structurally unique secondary metabolites, some of which show promising pharmacological activities that make them useful leads for drug discovery. Marine natural product research in China in general has made enormous progress in the last two decades as described in this chapter on fungal metabolites. This contribution covers 613 new natural products reported from 2001 to 2017 from marine-derived fungi obtained from algae, sponges, corals, and other marine organisms from Chinese waters. The genera Aspergillus (170 new natural products, 28%) and Penicillium (70 new natural products, 11%) were the main fungal producers of new natural products during the time period covered, whereas sponges (184 new natural products, 30%) were the most abundant source of new natural products, followed by corals (154 new natural products, 25%) and algae (130 new natural products, 21%). Close to 40% of all natural products covered in this contribution displayed various bioactivities. The major bioactivities reported were cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines, antimicrobial (mainly antibacterial) activity, and antiviral activity, which accounted for 13%, 9%, and 3% of all natural products reported. In terms of structural classes, polyketides (188 new natural products, 31%) play a dominant role, and if prenylated polyketides and nitrogen-containing polyketides (included in meroterpenes and alkaloids in this contribution) are taken into account, their total number even exceeds 50%. Nitrogen-containing compounds including peptides (65 new natural products, 10%) and alkaloids (103 new natural products, 17%) are the second largest group.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Fungos/química , Policetídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antozoários/microbiologia , Anti-Infecciosos , Antineoplásicos , Organismos Aquáticos/microbiologia , Aspergillus/química , Produtos Biológicos/química , China , Penicillium/química , Policetídeos/química , Poríferos/microbiologia , Metabolismo Secundário
12.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(5): L921-L930, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32159972

RESUMO

The incidence of asthma has increased from 5.5% to near 8% of the population, which is a major health concern. The hallmarks of asthma include eosinophilic airway inflammation that is associated with chronic airway remodeling. Allergic airway inflammation is characterized by a complex interplay of resident and inflammatory cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that function as posttranscriptional modulators of gene expression. However, the role of miRNAs, specifically miR-451, in the regulation of allergic airway inflammation is unexplored. Our previous findings showed that oxidant stress regulates miR-451 gene expression in macrophages during an inflammatory process. In this paper, we examined the role of miR-451 in regulating macrophage phenotype using an experimental poly-allergenic murine model of allergic airway inflammation. We found that miR-451 contributes to the allergic induction of CCL17 in the lung and plays a key role in proasthmatic macrophage activation. Remarkably, administration of a Sirtuin 2 (Sirt2) inhibitor diminished alternate macrophage activation and markedly abrogated triple-allergen [dust mite, ragweed, Aspergillus fumigatus (DRA)]-induced lung inflammation. These data demonstrate a role for miR-451 in modulating allergic inflammation by influencing allergen-mediated macrophages phenotype.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Macrófagos Alveolares/imunologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Pneumonia/genética , Sirtuína 2/genética , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antígenos de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Aspergillus/química , Aspergillus/imunologia , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/patologia , Asma/terapia , Quimiocina CCL17/genética , Quimiocina CCL17/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fungos/química , Fungos/imunologia , Furanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/imunologia , Pulmão/patologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos Alveolares/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , MicroRNAs/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pneumonia/induzido quimicamente , Pneumonia/patologia , Pneumonia/terapia , Pyroglyphidae/química , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais , Sirtuína 2/antagonistas & inibidores , Sirtuína 2/imunologia
13.
Parasitol Int ; 76: 102099, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169659

RESUMO

The repeated usage of chemical insecticides, responsible for insecticide resistance in mosquitoes and environmental toxicity. Currently effective and environmental-safe control strategies are needed for the control disease-vector mosquitoes. Entomopathogens can be an effective alternative to chemical insecticide. Herein we isolated and tested 46 soil-borne entomopathogenic fungi belonging to six genera, namely Beauveria sp., Metarhizium sp., Fusarium sp., Aspergillus sp., Trichoderma sp., and Verticillium sp., fungi conidia were tested on Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus larvae. Bioassays results show that M. anisopliae fungal isolate causes a 100%, 98.6% and 92% mortality within six days, on Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus, respectively. M. anisopliae treated three mosquito larvae have lower lifetime with LT50 values in A. stephensi, 2.931 days; A. aegypti, 2.676 days and C. quinquefasciatus, 3.254 days. 18 s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that the isolated fungus are belonging to the genus of M. anisopliae-VKKH3, B. bassiana-VKBb03, and V. lecanii-VKPH1. Our results clearly show that M. anisopliae has good potential, as a low-cost, environmentally safe tool for the control of A. aegypti, A. stephensi, and C. quinquefasciatus mosquitoes.


Assuntos
Aedes , Anopheles , Agentes de Controle Biológico , Culex , Fungos/química , Controle de Mosquitos , Mosquitos Vetores , Aedes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Anopheles/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Culex/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Mosquitos Vetores/crescimento & desenvolvimento
14.
Mar Drugs ; 18(3)2020 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111022

RESUMO

Chemical investigation on EtOAc extract of the deep-sea-derived fungus Trichobotrys effuse FS524 resulted in the isolation of six new highly substituted phenol derivatives trieffusols A-F (1-6), along with ten known relative analogues (7-16). Their structures with absolute configurations were extensively characterized on the basis of spectroscopic data analyses, single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments, and electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. Structurally, trieffusols A and B shared an unprecedented ploy-substituted 9-phenyl-hexahydroxanthone skeleton with an intriguing 6-6/6/6 tetracyclic fused ring system, which were often encountered as significant moieties in the pharmaceutical drugs but rarely discovered in natural products. In the screening towards their anti-inflammatory activities of 1-6, trieffusols C and D exhibited moderate inhibitory activities against nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages with IC50 values ranging from 51.9 to 55.9 µM.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fungos/química , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/farmacologia , Animais , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Camundongos , Óxido Nítrico/antagonistas & inibidores , Oceanos e Mares , Células RAW 264.7/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 275-300, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32021180

RESUMO

Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are extensively studied nanoparticles (NPs) and are known to have profound applications in medicine. There are various methods to synthesize AuNPs which are generally categorized into two main types: chemical and physical synthesis. Continuous efforts have been devoted to search for other more environmental-friendly and economical large-scale methods, such as environmentally friendly biological methods known as green synthesis. Green synthesis is especially important to minimize the harmful chemical and toxic by-products during the conventional synthesis of AuNPs. Green materials such as plants, fungi, microorganisms, enzymes and biopolymers are currently used to synthesize various NPs. Biosynthesized AuNPs are generally safer for use in biomedical applications since they come from natural materials themselves. Multiple surface functionalities of AuNPs allow them to be more robust and flexible when combined with different biological assemblies or modifications for enhanced applications. This review focuses on recent developments of green synthesized AuNPs and discusses their numerous biomedical applications. Sources of green materials with successful examples and other key parameters that determine the functionalities of AuNPs are also discussed in this review.


Assuntos
Ouro/química , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Bactérias/química , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Fungos/química , Humanos , NAD/química , Fenóis/química , Plantas/química , Proteínas/química , Terpenos/química
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32101015

RESUMO

The hyperconstriction of airway smooth muscle (ASM) is the main driving mechanism during an asthmatic attack. The airway lumen is reduced, resistance to airflow increases, and normal breathing becomes more difficult. The tissue contraction can be temporarily relieved by using bronchodilator drugs, which induce relaxation of the constricted airways. In vitro studies indicate that relaxation of isolated, precontracted ASM is induced by mechanical oscillations in healthy subjects but not in asthmatic subjects. Further, short-term acute asthmatic subjects respond to superimposed pressure oscillations (SIPO) generated in the range of 5-15 Hz with ~50% relaxation of preconstricted sensitized airways. Mechanical oscillations, and specifically SIPO, are not widely characterized in asthmatic models. The objective of this in vivo study is to determine the effects of a range of oscillation patterns similar to our previous acute study differing from normal breathing. Both healthy and sensitized mice were observed, with their responses to SIPO treatments measured during induced bronchoconstriction resulting from acetylcholine (Ach) challenge. SIPO-generated results were compared with data from treatments using the bronchorelaxant isoproterenol (ISO). The study shows that SIPO in the range of 5-20 Hz induces relaxation in chronic sensitized airways, with significant improvements in respiratory parameters at SIPO values near 1.7 cmH2O irrespective of the frequency of generation.


Assuntos
Asma/terapia , Pulmão/imunologia , Músculo Liso/imunologia , Acetilcolina/farmacologia , Alérgenos/administração & dosagem , Animais , Antígenos de Plantas/administração & dosagem , Aspergillus/química , Aspergillus/imunologia , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Asma/imunologia , Asma/patologia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/imunologia , Broncoconstrição/efeitos dos fármacos , Broncodilatadores/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Fungos/química , Fungos/imunologia , Isoproterenol/farmacologia , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Contração Muscular/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pressão , Pyroglyphidae/química , Pyroglyphidae/imunologia , Testes de Função Respiratória
17.
FEMS Microbiol Lett ; 367(5)2020 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037451

RESUMO

Stable, long-term interactions between fungi and algae or cyanobacteria, collectively known as lichens, have repeatedly evolved complex architectures with little resemblance to their component parts. Lacking any central scaffold, the shapes they assume are casts of secreted polymers that cement cells into place, determine the angle of phototropic exposure and regulate water relations. A growing body of evidence suggests that many lichen extracellular polymer matrices harbor unicellular, non-photosynthesizing organisms (UNPOs) not traditionally recognized as lichen symbionts. Understanding organismal input and uptake in this layer is key to interpreting the role UNPOs play in lichen biology. Here, we review both polysaccharide composition determined from whole, pulverized lichens and UNPOs reported from lichens to date. Most reported polysaccharides are thought to be structural cell wall components. The composition of the extracellular matrix is not definitively known. Several lines of evidence suggest some acidic polysaccharides have evaded detection in routine analysis of neutral sugars and may be involved in the extracellular matrix. UNPOs reported from lichens include diverse bacteria and yeasts for which secreted polysaccharides play important biological roles. We conclude by proposing testable hypotheses on the role that symbiont give-and-take in this layer could play in determining or modifying lichen symbiotic outcomes.


Assuntos
Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Líquens/fisiologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Simbiose , Cianobactérias/química , Cianobactérias/fisiologia , Fungos/química , Fungos/fisiologia , Filogenia , Ácidos Urônicos
18.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1867(5): 118675, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32044385

RESUMO

Members of the large multigene family of acyl-CoA binding domain containing proteins (ACBDs) share a conserved motif required for binding of Coenzyme A esterified fatty acids of various chain length. These proteins are present in the three kingdoms of life, and despite their predicted roles in cellular lipid metabolism, knowledge about the precise functions of many ACBD proteins remains scarce. Interestingly, several ACBD proteins are now suggested to function at organelle contact sites, and are recognized as host interaction proteins for different pathogens including viruses and bacteria. Here, we present a thorough phylogenetic analysis of the ACBD family and discuss their structure and evolution. We summarize recent findings on the various functions of animal and fungal ACBDs with particular focus on peroxisomes, the role of ACBD proteins at organelle membranes, and their increasing recognition as targets for pathogens.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Fungos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/química , Evolução Molecular , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Proteínas Fúngicas/metabolismo , Fungos/química , Fungos/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Modelos Moleculares , Filogenia , Conformação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028595

RESUMO

We recently reported that mold odor may be explained by chloroanisoles (CAs) formed by microbial biotransformation of chlorophenols (CPs) in legacy wood preservatives. Here we examine psychophysical aspects of CAs and trace their historic origins in buildings. Our exposure of healthy volunteers shows that 2,4,6-triCA is often perceived as unpleasant, characterized as musty or moldy and is detected at 13 ng/m3 or lower. Similar concentrations are reported in buildings with odor complaints. Scrutiny of written records reveal that new building construction methods were introduced in the 1950s, namely crawlspaces and concrete slabs on the ground. These constructions were prone to dampness and attack from wood decay fungi, prompting chemical companies and authorities to advocate preservatives against rot. Simultaneously, CPs became household chemicals used for example in indoor paints. When large-scale odor problems evolved, the authorities that once approved the preservatives attributed the odor to hidden mold, with no evidence that substantial microbial biomass was necessary for odor formation. Thereby the public remained unaware of problematic exposure to CPs and CAs. We conclude that the introduction of inappropriate designs of house foundations and CP-based preservatives once ignited and still provide impetus for indoor air research on "dampness and mold".


Assuntos
Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados , Clorofenóis , Fungos , Umidade , Odorantes , Poluição do Ar em Ambientes Fechados/análise , Anisóis/química , Clorofenóis/química , Fungos/química , Habitação , Humanos , Odorantes/análise , Suécia
20.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(1): e1007927, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999794

RESUMO

During the course of fungal infection, pathogen recognition by the innate immune system is critical to initiate efficient protective immune responses. The primary event that triggers immune responses is the binding of Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), which are expressed at the surface of host immune cells, to Pathogen-Associated Molecular Patterns (PAMPs) located predominantly in the fungal cell wall. Most fungi have mannosylated PAMPs in their cell walls and these are recognized by a range of C-type lectin receptors (CTLs). However, the precise spatial distribution of the ligands that induce immune responses within the cell walls of fungi are not well defined. We used recombinant IgG Fc-CTLs fusions of three murine mannan detecting CTLs, including dectin-2, the mannose receptor (MR) carbohydrate recognition domains (CRDs) 4-7 (CRD4-7), and human DC-SIGN (hDC-SIGN) and of the ß-1,3 glucan-binding lectin dectin-1 to map PRR ligands in the fungal cell wall of fungi grown in vitro in rich and minimal media. We show that epitopes of mannan-specific CTL receptors can be clustered or diffuse, superficial or buried in the inner cell wall. We demonstrate that PRR ligands do not correlate well with phylogenetic relationships between fungi, and that Fc-lectin binding discriminated between mannosides expressed on different cell morphologies of the same fungus. We also demonstrate CTL epitope differentiation during different phases of the growth cycle of Candida albicans and that MR and DC-SIGN labelled outer chain N-mannans whilst dectin-2 labelled core N-mannans displayed deeper in the cell wall. These immune receptor maps of fungal walls of in vitro grown cells therefore reveal remarkable spatial, temporal and chemical diversity, indicating that the triggering of immune recognition events originates from multiple physical origins at the fungal cell surface.


Assuntos
Parede Celular/imunologia , Fungos/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Mananas/imunologia , Micoses/imunologia , Filogenia , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular/imunologia , Parede Celular/química , Parede Celular/genética , Fungos/química , Fungos/classificação , Fungos/genética , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Mananas/análise , Micoses/genética , Micoses/microbiologia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Receptores de Superfície Celular/imunologia
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