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1.
Physiol Rep ; 10(9): e15291, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35510312

RESUMO

There is very little about the impact that sports training has on female football referees. Therefore, we determined the effects of a 40-week physical preparation, including a full football season, on plasma testosterone and cortisol concentrations and physical performance in female football referees. Plasma cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assayed together with fitness tests at the beginning of the training period (T0, in September), after 8 weeks from T0 (T1), at the mid of the season (T2, 24 weeks after T0), and at the end of the season (T3, in June, 40 weeks after T0). Plasma cortisol increased during the first period and up to T2 (from 15.4 ± 4.7 to 28.5 ± 3.9 µg/dl; p < 0.001), and then decreased at the end of the season (T3: 16.0 ± 2.4 µg/dl). Plasma testosterone concentration in T0 was 14.2±0.37 µg/dl and increased in T1 (57.1 ± 3.7 µg/dl) and T2 (47 ± 3.7 µg/dl) and then decreased in T3 (33.5 ± 2.8 µg/dl). Resting testosterone levels in women were very low (14,2 ± 0.37 µg/dl) (Figure 3c). Testosterone increased in T1 (57.1 ± 3.7 µg/dl) and T2 (47 ± 3.7 µg/dl) whilst, at the end of the season, its concentration decreased (33.5 ± 2.8 µg/dl) (Figure 3c). Significant improvements were observed in all physical performances during the observed period (ANOVA, p < 0.05). Finally, testosterone and cortisol concentrations significantly (p < 0.0001 for both) correlated with maximal oxygen consumption. In T1, testosterone concentration was also significantly correlated with running speed test (p < 0.001). In conclusion, training induces endocrine changes in order to maintain body homeostasis in women referees. It is important that coaches and sports scientists regularly observe changes in endocrine function induced by training and matches in female referees, because they can help maximize referees' performance and limit cases of overtraining.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Corrida , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Testosterona
2.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 25(5): 563-568, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35593596

RESUMO

Background: Breastfeeding-related Neck Pain (BFNP) is prevalent in nursing mothers and cuts across the utilization of different breastfeeding (BF) hold positions. Biomechanical considerations to highlight ergonomically safe BF positions for the prevention of BFNP have not been previously studied. Aim: This study was designed to compare the electrical activities of selected neck muscles across three breastfeeding hold positions [cradle (C1), cross-cradle (C2), and football (FB)]. Materials and Method: Surface electromyographic analyses of four neck muscles (right and left components of each trapezius and sternocleidomastoid) were performed respectively during three BF trials with different BF hold positions (C1, C2, and FB) in 22 nursing mothers. For all the trials, the mothers nursed from the left breast. Results: Across the three BF trials, the electrical activities of each of the neck muscles did not vary significantly (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the left muscular components showed predominantly higher activities, as compared to their right components. Conclusion: The breastfeeding hold position adopted during BF tasks may not be a determinant of BFNP in nursing mothers. Further studies to ascertain the biomechanical implications of the utilized BF holds are recommended.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Futebol , Aleitamento Materno , Feminino , Humanos , Mães , Músculos do Pescoço/fisiologia
3.
Ir Med J ; 115(3): 559, 2022 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35532426

RESUMO

Introduction Gaelic football and hurling are the most commonly played amateur sports in Ireland with elite level athletes participating at inter-county level. Over time, the intensity and frequency of inter-county training has approached levels of professional sports. Previous studies have not assessed differences in hip and groin injury between eras. We aimed to examine differences in hip and groin injury, incidence of surgery and Hip and Groin Outcome Scores between elite GAA players of different eras and duration of intercountry career. Methods Members of the squads from the 1976, 1986, 1996 and 2006 hurling and football All-Ireland Finals provided data on age starting intercounty career and previous hip and groin injury and surgery. 372 players were surveyed in total. The hip and groin outcome score (HAGOS), a validated questionnaire assessing hip and groin problems suffered was also assessed. Results There were significant differences in four of the six HAGOS categories between eras with lower scores in 2006 group and in those who were younger starting their intercounty career. In addition, those with younger start and those who played in more recent times had higher rates of groin surgery (23.9% of 2006 cohort, N = 17). As expected, older players had higher rates of total hip replacement (19.7% of the 1976 cohort, N = 12). Conclusion This study highlights the influence of early playing career at elite level on hip and groin injury and that those playing in more modern times had higher incidence of groin surgery and lower HAGOS scores.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Futebol Americano/lesões , Virilha/lesões , Quadril , Humanos , Dor , Prevalência
5.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 19(1): 49-69, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35599915

RESUMO

Background: Adequate nutritional intake plays a pivotal role in optimizing performance, recovery, and body composition goals. This study aimed to investigate the dietary intakes (DIs); nutritional knowledge (NK); and attitudes, perceptions, and challenges (APC) of semiprofessional rugby players in Scotland. Methods: Dietary intakes and NK of 24 male semiprofessional rugby players of a Super6 club were evaluated using validated questionnaires. Players were categorized as having good or poor NK according to NK scores. Diet-related APCs were assessed using researcher-developed questionnaires and 1-1 semi-structured interviews. Results: Mean ± SD total NK% was poor, 53.7 ± 11.9%. The 'Good' NK group scored significantly higher in the Weight Management (p = 0.014), Macronutrients (p < 0.001), Micronutrients (p = 0.001), and Sports Nutrition (p < 0.001) sections. Mean DIs from food sources were 26.3 ± 9.2 kcal/kg/day energy, 1.4 ± 0.4 g/kg/day protein, and 21.7 ± 10.1 g/day fibre. Median (25th,75th) carbohydrate intake was 3.0 (2.0, 3.0) g/kg/day, and 6.3 (2.3, 10.6) units/week alcohol. Mean ± SD fat and saturated fat (SFA) % total energy intake (EI) were 36.2 ± 3.7% and 12.8 ± 1.9%, respectively, and SFA %EI exceeded recommendations (p < 0.001). The 'Good' NK group had significantly higher intakes of all macronutrients (p < 0.05). Total NK% positively correlated with intakes of meat (r = 0.556, p = 0.011), cereals (r = 0.458, p = 0.042), dietary fat (r = 0.477, p = 0.034), vegetables (r = 0.487, p = 0.030), and alcoholic beverages (r = 0.541, p = 0.014). Supplement use was 68%. Players felt diet affected performance (94%) but 31% of them were unaware of any specific nutritional strategies. A healthy diet was perceived to be 'balanced' with 'variety from all food groups. Lack of time for preparation was described as the main barrier to healthy eating. Conclusions: Overall, players had poor NK, their fibre and carbohydrate intake was suboptimal, whereas saturated fat intake exceeded recommendations. Many lacked awareness of current sports nutrition guidelines. Further nutrition education may be needed to improve diet quality and aid performance goals.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Atletas , Dieta , Gorduras na Dieta , Fibras na Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ingestão de Energia , Humanos , Masculino
6.
Sci Med Footb ; 6(2): 172-180, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475736

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: This study sought to reduce the dimensionality of commonly reported spatiotemporal characteristics obtained from Australian Football games to facilitate their practical use and interpretability. METHODS: A retrospective longitudinal design was utilised with team and individual spatiotemporal variables, measured via global navigation satellite system devices, collected during official Australian Football League matched over three seasons. Two separate principal component analyses were conducted at the team and individual level to reduce correlated spatiotemporal characteristics into a smaller set of uncorrelated components. RESULTS: At the team level, eighteen variables were reduced to five components pertaining to dispersive coordination, lateral predictability and spacing, multidirectional synchrony, longitudinal predictability and longitudinal behaviour whilst maintaining 69% of variance in the original dataset. At the individual level, fifteen variables were reduced to four components pertaining to multidirectional and spacing synchrony, unpredictability, player movement and player positioning whilst maintaining 64% of variance. CONCLUSION: This study is the first to provide a simplified, novel method for analysing spatiotemporal behaviour in an Australian Football context with both the team- and individual- derived metrics revealing useful information for coaches and practitioners. Components may provide insight into behaviours that emerge and persist throughout a game and allow coaches to distinguish between different playing/behavioural styles.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Austrália , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
7.
Sci Med Footb ; 6(2): 181-188, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475738

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Outscoring opponents is the primary goal in football. To optimise goal scoring opportunities (GSOs), it is important to understand the preceding physical and tactical performance. This observational study explored whether running behaviour prior to GSOs related to the subsequent outcome (goal or no goal) or contextual factors. METHODS: Tracking data was collected from one professional team during its 2016/2017 season. Physical output was differentiated for attacking styles and analysed for attackers (taking shots) and defenders (trying to prevent shots). RESULTS: Counter attacks were found most effective, as outcomes improved with fewer defenders behind the ball (r=-0.27; p=0.03). Offensively, running behaviour in the minute prior to GSOs explained most variance and increased activities correlated with success (r=0.26; p=0.04). Moreover, decreased high-intensity distances covered during matches significantly correlated with favourable outcomes (r=-0.21; p=0.02). Finally, increased attacking effectiveness was found to relate to greater defensive covered distances (r=0.51; p<0.01). DISCUSSION: Running behaviour prior to GSOs was found to relate to the subsequent outcome. Specifically, space ahead of attackers, forcing defenders to cover more ground, was found to relate to GSO effectiveness. The running behaviour of attackers was found unrelated to previous activity, highlighting the significance of physical capacity and well-timed substitutions.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Comportamento Competitivo , Equipamentos Médicos Duráveis , Humanos
8.
Sci Med Footb ; 6(2): 189-202, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475742

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In the current study, we examined how football players' usage of space and the teams' ball movement flow throughout the match are associated with the quality of performance achieved in competition. METHODS: We constructed two novel metrics that aimed at measuring spatial symmetry and passing flow on a team-wide scope. Our aim was to clarify whether the way players position themselves throughout the match, and the passing patterns they produce, can explain team success. RESULTS: An analysis of all matches played in the 2018-2019 English Premier League season (N = 380) revealed a positive relationship between the teams' spatiotemporal dynamics and team performance. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings of our analysis, we discuss the strengths and limitations of the newly-developed metrics, and stress the need for additional studies examining their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Benchmarking , Movimento
9.
Sci Med Footb ; 6(2): 262-267, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475743

RESUMO

METHODS: A survey of 136 articles published in 2019 (sampled at random) was conducted to determine whether a statement about missing data was included. RESULTS: The proportion of studies reporting on missing data was low, at 11.0% (95% confidence interval = 6.3% to 17.5%). RECOMMENDATIONS: We recommend that researchers describe the number and percentage of missing values, including when there are no missing values. Exploratory analysis should be conducted to explore missing values, and visualisations describing missingness overall should be provided in the paper, or at least in supplementary materials. Missing values should almost always be imputed, and imputation methods should be explored to ensure they are appropriately representative. Researchers should consider these recommendations and pay greater attention to missing data and its influence on research results.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Futebol
10.
Sci Med Footb ; 6(2): 228-233, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475744

RESUMO

Match activity analyses in Australian Football (AF) have provided information on the loads of match-play and identified contextual factors influencing physical activity. Match physical activity has been shown to be influenced by technical and tactical factors. This study examined the association of in-game contextual factors and technical involvements on the activity demands of elite AF players. Global positioning system data were recorded from 35 players in 13 matches throughout the 2019 Australian Football League (AFL) season. Technical involvements - player possession, and defensive pressure applied - were attained from Champion Data (AFL statistics provider), while possession phases and the commencing possession chain event were manually coded. Mixed models examined the influence possession chain contextual factors had on the total distance (TD) and high-speed running (HSR). During attacking phases, physical activity increased when a player had a possession, when a greater number of opposition players applied pressure, and when play was initiated from a turnover (p ≤ 0.001). During defensive phases, physical activity was greatest when an individual player applied pressure, however, also increased when the total number of players applying pressure increased and when play was initiated from a turnover or kick-in (p ≤ 0.001). Overall, this study combines the three constructs of AF performance (physical, technical and tactical) and demonstrates that TD and HSR demands are greatest in a chain when a player was directly involved in the play or applying pressure on the opposition.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Corrida , Futebol , Austrália
11.
Sci Med Footb ; 6(2): 148-152, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475749

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering individual beliefs and preferences is a pillar of the evidence-based practice and determines compliance and outcomes of an intervention. However, little is known about the professional football (soccer) players' perceptions on injury issues. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the professional football players' perceptions towards injury risk factors and prevention strategies. METHODS: One-hundred male professional football players answered an online questionnaire. RESULTS: The top-five risk factors included poor muscle strength/power; poor rest/sleep; short interval between matches; high number of matches in season; and excessive training. More than ¾ of football players in our study considered the following strategies as being effective in reducing injury risk: workload monitoring; warm-up; lumbo-pelvic stability training; proprioceptive training; functional training; monitoring diet; flexibility training; and conventional strength training. CONCLUSION: Perceptions of professional male football players regarding injury risk factors and prevention strategies are only partially in line with current scientific evidence. These perceptions have been usually overlooked, and should be considered by medical/coaching staffs in order to get greater compliance to injury prevention programs.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Exercício de Aquecimento , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Futebol Americano/lesões , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Futebol/lesões
12.
Sci Med Footb ; 6(2): 141-147, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475750

RESUMO

OJECTIVE: To investigate the injury characteristics in Finnish male football players. DESIGN: One-season prospective epidemiological study. Data were collected via injury reports from the medical staff and directly from the players using the Olso Sports Trauma Research Center Health Questionnaire. PARTICIPANTS: The first team squads of Finnish football league (n = 12 teams, 236 players). MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENT: Injury incidence. RESULTS: A total of 541 injuries occurred during the exposure of 62 878 hours. Injury incidence per 1000 exposure hours was 8.6 (30.6 in matches and 3.4 in training). A player sustained on average 2.3 (median 2, range 0-13) injuries during the study. Thigh and ankle were the most commonly injured body parts for acute injuries and hip/groin were the most commonly injured body part for overuse injuries. The median absence time for all injuries was 12 (range 0-107) days, 12 (range 0-107) for acute, and 8 (range 0-61) for overuse injuries. Thigh injuries caused the greatest consequences in terms of absence from full participation (median 5 days, range 0-88). CONCLUSION: Lower limb muscle injuries were the most prevalent injuries in the study. Collecting data directly from the players enabled to report more injuries compared to what was reported only by the medical staff.


Assuntos
Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos , Futebol Americano , Transtornos Traumáticos Cumulativos/epidemiologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Futebol Americano/lesões , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , Estações do Ano
13.
Sci Med Footb ; 6(2): 221-227, 2022 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35475753

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study aimed to examine physiological, mechanical and perceptual loading in small-sided games using different relative playing areas with balanced and unbalanced player numbers. METHODS: Data were collected in twelve elite youth male soccer players and included heart rate and standard time-motion outputs using commercial GPS. RESULTS: The data demonstrated higher cardiovascular, physical and perceptual demands with increasing pitch size (e.g. average HR was 88.7 vs. 86.7% HRmax with 8 vs. 2 high-intensity acceleration in medium vs. small pitch formats. The largest pitch format resulted in a greater accumulation of high-intensity distance (47 ± 30 m), higher peak velocity (25.2 ± 1.6 km.h-1) and a higher distance and frequency of accelerations (35 ± 9 m and 8 ± 3) compared with the smallest pitch (all p < 0.01). In unbalanced games, there was significantly greater average heart rate in the overloaded team (84.4 ± 4.9 vs. 80.4 ± 4.8% HRmax in 4 v. 6). CONCLUSION: These data suggest that different game formats including numerical imbalance could be prescribed for squad management to target conditioning stimuli for specific players (e.g. to target a higher training load for players that do not get consistent match exposure).


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Aceleração , Adolescente , Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Futebol/fisiologia
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35410067

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This scoping review aims to identify sports performance tests for amputee football players and to critically analyze the methodological quality, validation data, reliability, and standardization of sport-specific tests to indicate the best-fitting tests. METHODS: Electronic database searches were conducted between January 2019 and October 2021. Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. Qualitative assessment of each study was conducted by STROBE checklist. RESULTS: Twenty-nine sports performance tests were identified. No sports performance test fully met all three criteria associated with the qualitative assessment of tests. The critical appraisal of the articles demonstrates a gap in study design, settings, and main results description. Some inconsistencies were found in the methodological descriptions of tests assessing the same motor skill. A STROBE score of 13 points was considered a satisfactory score for the article (it was obtained by 8 of the 12 studies). The weakest point of the analyzed studies was the description of how the test group size was accessed and later obtained. CONCLUSIONS: No test was found that was simultaneously presented as valid, reliable, and standardized. The authors can recommend the use of the two-sports performance tests that are the closest to ideal: the L test and the YYIRT1.


Assuntos
Amputados , Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 6683, 2022 Apr 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35461320

RESUMO

Rubber waste, in the form of granules of styrene butadiene rubber and ethylene-propylene-diene-monomer with a particle size of 0.5 to 4 mm, is broadly used for the construction of synthetic surfaces of sport fields. This method of recycling may be significantly limited due to the restrictions on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) content in rubber granules in the European Union since 2022. This also applies to the recommendations of the European Chemicals Agency in relation to the identification of other hazardous chemicals in this waste, including metal elements. The scope of the research included the identification of organotin compounds, PAHs content and 18 elements leached from recycled rubber granules in terms of substances harmful to human health and to natural environment. The research covered 84 samples of rubber granules collected from the surface of football pitches or supplied by recyclers in Poland. The test results showed an over-standard content of PAHs in rubber granules. This result confirms the need to develop alternative directions of rubber granules application: construction and hydro construction, reinforcing soil and roadsides, asphalt pavements, making retaining walls, anti-shock and anti-vibration slabs, soundproofing and damping screens, paving stones and landscaping elements.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Substâncias Perigosas/análise , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Reciclagem , Borracha/química
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35457332

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of the menstrual cycle phases on the movement patterns of sub-elite women soccer players during competitive matches over three consecutive seasons. Individual movement data were analyzed and compared in eight players from the second French League at the early follicular (EF), late follicular (LF) and mid-luteal (ML) phases of their menstrual cycle, determined by the calendar method. The movement patterns, expressed as meters per minute, were recorded during competitive matches using devices placed on the player's ankle. Our results showed significantly lower distances covered at moderate and high velocity in the EF phase than in the LF and ML phases (Cohen's d effect size = 1.03 and 0.79, respectively). The total distance covered during matches and the number of sprints also were reduced during EF compared with LF (d = 0.78 and 0.7, respectively). Overall, the total distance and distance covered at low velocity were significantly lower during the second half-time of the matches (d = 1.51), but no menstrual cycle phase × game period interaction was noted. In conclusion, our study suggests that EF may impact the movement pattern of sub-elite women soccer players during competitive matches, without any modulation of this effect by the playing time. Despite the low sample size, these results can be useful for coaches and support staff to modulate training loads and player rotation during soccer games.


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético , Futebol Americano , Corrida , Futebol , Feminino , Humanos , Ciclo Menstrual
18.
Ir Med J ; 115(2): 537, 2022 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35416471

RESUMO

Aim Ladies Gaelic football and Camogie are leading female sports in Ireland. Referees are essential to the game, however, no research has examined injury in referees that officiate over female Gaelic games to date. Therefore, this study aims to retrospectively examine the musculoskeletal injury profile and injury prevention practices of referees that officiate over female Gaelic games. Methods A retrospective anonymous questionnaire examined injuries that occurred in the previous 12 months in currently active Ladies Gaelic football and Camogie referees (n=170). Incidence and repeat incidence proportions were calculated along with descriptive statistics. Results In 2019, 42.9% (n=73) of referees sampled sustained an injury with 27.4% (n=20) sustaining two or more. Injuries primarily occurred to the lower extremity (79.6%,n=78), particularly the lower leg (20.4%,n=20) and knee (18.4%,18). Muscle strains and cramps (55.1%,n=54) were most frequent and injuries predominantly occurred during games (71.4%,n=70). Referees largely completed a warm-up but just 30.6% (n=52) conducted a cool-down. Over half had undertaken injury prevention education but only 37.6% (n=64) incorporated injury prevention elements into their training. Conclusion Just over two in five referees that officiate female Gaelic games became injured in the previous year, however their utilisation of injury prevention strategies, beyond completing a warm-up, is lacking. Thus, a referee specific injury prevention programme should be developed and if found to be effective, incorporated into a comprehensive injury prevention strategy by the governing bodies.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas , Futebol Americano , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas , Traumatismos em Atletas/epidemiologia , Traumatismos em Atletas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Futebol Americano/lesões , Humanos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos
19.
Acta Neuropathol Commun ; 10(1): 52, 2022 04 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35418116

RESUMO

Exposure to military blast and repetitive head impacts (RHI) in contact sports is associated with increased risk of long-term neurobehavioral sequelae and cognitive deficits, and the neurodegenerative disease chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). At present, the exact pathogenic mechanisms of RHI and CTE are unknown, and no targeted therapies are available. Astrocytes have recently emerged as key mediators of the multicellular response to head trauma. Here, we investigated interface astrogliosis in blast and impact neurotrauma, specifically in the context of RHI and early stage CTE. We compared postmortem brain tissue from former military veterans with a history of blast exposure with and without a neuropathological diagnosis of CTE, former American football players with a history of RHI with and without a neuropathological diagnosis of CTE, and control donors without a history of blast, RHI exposure or CTE diagnosis. Using quantitative immunofluorescence, we found that astrogliosis was higher at the grey-white matter interface in the dorsolateral frontal cortex, with mixed effects at the subpial surface and underlying cortex, in both blast and RHI donors with and without CTE, compared to controls. These results indicate that certain astrocytic alterations are associated with both impact and blast neurotrauma, and that different astroglial responses take place in distinct brain regions.


Assuntos
Encefalopatia Traumática Crônica , Futebol Americano , Doenças Neurodegenerativas , Encefalopatia Traumática Crônica/patologia , Futebol Americano/lesões , Gliose/complicações , Humanos , Doenças Neurodegenerativas/complicações , Neuropatologia
20.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 756, 2022 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35422019

RESUMO

In Australia, and throughout the world, it is evident that the mental health and wellbeing of young males aged 15-24, is not a priority. In Australia suicide is the leading cause of death in people aged 15-24 years and 75% are male (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. Australian hospital statistics 2011-12, 2021). It is clear young males as well as those who identify as indigenous or LGBTIQ are at risk groups with respect to self arm and suicide (Drummond, MJN, et al. 2019). It is the transition period from adolescence to adluthood that is of particular concern. Often young males must pass through this phase of life with minimal guidance or direction and without a "safe space" where they can attain emotional support. Sport is a significant part of boys' and young males' lives and offers that "safe space". Sport can play a substantial role in protective mental health through socialization and engagement in a socially endorsed activity that seemingly has far more positive outcomes than negative ones. This research is underpinned by both quantitative and qualitative research with young males involved masculinised sporting clubs. Its aim is to provide insights into how we can create safe spaces for males and influence positive forms of masculinities that can enhance mental health promotion among young males. This mixed methods research explores issues around mental health in young males involved across two male dominated sporting codes in Australian (Australian football and cricket). Surveys and interviews with young males age 15-24 as well as parents, coaches and key stakeholders underpin this research. While the data is designed to assist in the development of educational resources for males to influence positive forms of masculinities that can enhance mental health promotion among young males involved in these sporting codes, this paper reports on the exploratory nature of the data and raises important issues emerging among young males with respect to mental health and the role of the sporting club.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano , Futebol , Adolescente , Austrália , Feminino , Promoção da Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Masculinidade
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