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2.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 27-35, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791086

RESUMO

Several athletic programs incorporate echocardiography during pre-participation screening of American Style Football (ASF) players with great variability in reported echocardiographic values. Pre-participation screening was performed in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I ASF players from 2008 to 2016 at the Division of Sports Cardiology. The echocardiographic protocol focused on left ventricular (LV) mass, mass-to-volume ratio, sphericity, ejection fraction, and longitudinal Lagrangian strain. LV mass was calculated using the area-length method in end-diastole and end-systole. A total of two hundred and thirty players were included (18±1 years, 57% were Caucasian, body mass index 29±4 kg/m2) after four players (2%) were excluded for pathological findings. Although there was no difference in indexed LV mass by race (Caucasian 78±11 vs. African American 81±10 g/m2, p=0.089) or sphericity (Caucasian 1.81±0.13 vs. African American 1.78±0.14, p=0.130), the mass-to-volume ratio was higher in African Americans (0.91±0.09 vs. 0.83±0.08, p<0.001). No race-specific differences were noted in LV longitudinal Lagrangian strain. Player position appeared to have a limited role in defining LV remodeling. In conclusion, significant echocardiographic differences were observed in mass-to-volume ratio between African American and Caucasian players. These demographics should be considered as part of pre-participation screening.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Remodelação Ventricular/fisiologia , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos , Composição Corporal/fisiologia , Ecocardiografia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Ventrículos do Coração/anatomia & histologia , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Raciais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
3.
Int J Sports Med ; 41(1): 36-43, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31747699

RESUMO

Subconcussive head impacts (SHI), defined as impacts to the cranium that do not result in concussion symptoms, are gaining traction as a major public health concern. The contribution of physiological factors such as physical exertion and muscle damage to SHI-dependent changes in neurological measures remains unknown. A prospective longitudinal study examined the association between physiological factors and SHI kinematics in 15 high school American football players over one season. Players wore a sensor-installed mouthguard for all practices and games, recording frequency and magnitude of all head impacts. Serum samples were collected at 12 time points (pre-season, pre- and post-game for five in-season games, and post-season) and were assessed for an isoenzyme of creatine kinase (CK-MM) primarily found in skeletal muscle. Physical exertion was estimated in the form of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) from heart rate data captured during the five games. Mixed-effect regression models indicated that head impact kinematics were significantly and positively associated with change in CK-MM but not EPOC. There was a significant and positive association between CK-MM and EPOC. These data suggest that when examining SHI, effects of skeletal muscle damage should be considered when using outcome measures that may have an interaction with muscle damage.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano/lesões , Cabeça/fisiopatologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Esforço Físico/fisiologia , Adolescente , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Concussão Encefálica/fisiopatologia , Creatina Quinase Forma MM/sangue , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/enzimologia , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
5.
Sports Health ; 12(1): 66-73, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31469616

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The relationship of training load to injury using wearable technology has not been investigated in professional American football players. The primary objective of this study was to determine the correlation between player workload and soft tissue injury over the course of a football season utilizing wearable global positioning system (GPS) technology. HYPOTHESIS: Increased training load is associated with a higher incidence of soft tissue injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Case-control study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Player workloads were assessed during preseason and regular-season practice sessions using GPS tracking and triaxial accelerometry from 2014 to 2016. Soft tissue injuries were recorded during each season. Player workload during the week of injury (acute) and average weekly workload during the 4 weeks (chronic) prior to injury were determined for each injury and in uninjured position-matched controls during the same week. A matched-pairs t test was used to determine differences in player workload. Subgroup analysis was also conducted to determine whether observed effects were confounded by training period and type of injury. RESULTS: In total, 136 lower extremity injuries were recorded. Of the recorded injuries, 101 injuries with complete GPS and clinical data were included in the analysis. Injuries were associated with greater increases in workload during the week of injury over the prior month when compared with uninjured controls. Injured players saw a 111% (95% CI, 66%-156%) increase in workload whereas uninjured players saw a 73% (95% CI, 34%-112%) increase in workload during the week of injury (P = 0.032). Individuals who had an acute to chronic workload ratio higher than 1.6 were 1.5 times more likely to sustain an injury relative to time- and position-matched controls (64.6% vs 43.1%; P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: Soft tissue injuries in professional football players were associated with sudden increases in training load over the course of a month. This effect seems to be especially pronounced during the preseason when player workloads are generally higher. These results suggest that a gradual increase of training intensity is a potential method to reduce the risk of soft tissue injury. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Preseason versus regular-season specific training programs monitored with wearable technology may assist team athletic training and medical staff in developing programs to optimize player performance.


Assuntos
Acelerometria/instrumentação , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Monitores de Aptidão Física , Futebol Americano/lesões , Condicionamento Físico Humano/efeitos adversos , Condicionamento Físico Humano/métodos , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/etiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Extremidade Inferior/lesões , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Lesões dos Tecidos Moles/prevenção & controle , Adulto Jovem
6.
Movimento (Porto Alegre) ; 25(1): e25003, jan.- dez. 2019.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047594

RESUMO

O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as experiências com o rúgbi promovidas nas duas primeiras décadas do século XX, no Rio de Janeiro, Recife e São Paulo, cidades nas quais os britânicos tiveram notável presença em função do processo de diversificação econômica. Como fontes, foram utilizados jornais e revistas publicados no período em tela. Discute-se as peculiaridades da influência estrangeira na conformação do campo esportivo brasileiro em importante momento de sua consolidação. Debate-se como uma modalidade tão relacionada à identidade britânica foi apreendida e considerada em um país que buscava forjar uma ideia de cultura nacional a partir de leituras de manifestações de diferentes origens. Conclui-se que o rúgbi ocupou uma posição intermediária entre o críquete e o futebol, já que as iniciativas que houve não foram suficientes para popularizar a prática. De fato, tal caso permite perceber as particularidades e limites do processo de trânsito cultural


This study investigates the rugby experiences promoted in the two first decades of the 20th century in the Brazilian cities of Rio de Janeiro, Recife and São Paulo ­ where the British had a remarkable presence due to the process of economic diversification. Newspapers and magazines published in the period were used as sources. It discusses the peculiarities of foreign influence in the making of Brazil's sports field at an important time of its consolidation. It debates how a practice so closely related to British identity was taken over and represented in a country that sought to forge an idea of national culture from readings of manifestations from different countries. It concludes that rugby played an intermediate position between cricket and football. The initiatives were not enough to make that sport popular. In fact, this case allows us to perceive the particularities and limits of the process of cultural transit


Este estudio tuvo por objetivo investigar las experiencias con el rugby promovidas en las dos primeras décadas del siglo XX, en Rio de Janeiro, Recife y São Paulo, ciudades en que los británicos tuvieron notable presencia en función del proceso de diversificación económica. Como fuentes, se utilizaron diarios y revistas publicados en el período. Se discuten las peculiaridades de la influencia extranjera en la conformación del campo deportivo brasileño en importante momento de su consolidación. Se debate cómo una modalidad tan relacionada a la identidad británica fue aprendida y considerada en un país que buscaba forjar una idea de cultura nacional a partir de lecturas de manifestaciones de diferentes orígenes. Se concluye que el rugby ocupó una posición intermedia entre el cricket y el fútbol, ya que las iniciativas que hubo no fueron suficientes para popularizar ese deporte. De hecho, tal caso permite percibir las particularidades y límites del proceso de tránsito cultural


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Esportes/história , Futebol Americano , História do Século XX , Aculturação
7.
8.
Undersea Hyperb Med ; 46(5): 647-654, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683363

RESUMO

Introduction: The effects of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) therapy on sprains, ligament injuries, and muscle strains have been reported in several animal studies. In a dog model of compartment syndrome and in a rat contused skeletal muscle injury model, the significant effects of HBO2 therapy on the reduction of edema and muscle necrosis have been reported. In basic research HBO2 therapy stimulated fibroblast activity to improve the healing process. Because of this it expected that HBO2 therapy might improve focal edema and pain in the acute phase and accelerate the healing of injured tissues in athletes with a medial collateral ligament (MCL) injury of the knee. This study aimed to examine the short-term effects of HBO2 application subjectively, and the long-term effects of HBO2 therapy in Japanese professional or semi-professional rugby players with grade 2 MCL injury of the knee. Methods: Thirty-two professional or semi-professional rugby players with grade 2 MCL injury of the knee were investigated. First, in the HBO2 group (n=16), HBO2 therapy was performed during the acute phase. Visual analog scales (VASs) immediately before and after HBO2 therapy on the same day were compared. Next, we retrospectively evaluated the time to return to play in the HBO2 (n=16) and non-HBO2 (n=16) groups. Results: VAS scores for pain while walking immediately before and after HBO2 therapy on the same day were 37.4 ± 20.1 (mean ± standard deviation) and 32.4 ± 21.8, respectively (p⟨0.001). The VAS scores for pain while jogging were 50.7 ± 25.6 and 43.9 ± 25.0, respectively (p⟨0.001). The time to return to play was 31.4 ± 12.2 days in the HBO2 group and 42.1 ± 15.8 days in the non-HBO2 group, indicating a significant difference between the groups (p⟨0.05). Conclusion: HBO2 therapy may reduce pain and accelerate the return to play in athletes with grade 2 MCL injury of the knee in this non-randomized study.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano/lesões , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Ligamento Colateral Médio do Joelho/lesões , Dor Musculoesquelética/terapia , Volta ao Esporte , Cicatrização/fisiologia , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Humanos , Japão , Corrida Moderada , Instabilidade Articular/classificação , Masculino , Dor Musculoesquelética/reabilitação , Medição da Dor/métodos , Caminhada , Adulto Jovem
9.
Int J Sports Med ; 40(13): 825-830, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574545

RESUMO

Concussion is a frequently occurring injury in rugby which is not usually reported to coaches or medical staff. Recognition and treatment of concussion should be a priority; however, education surrounding concussion knowledge and attitudes of the players have been lacking. The aim of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitudes toward concussion in Western Province Rugby Union (WPRU) Super League senior club rugby players. This study focused on gathering quantitative information from WPRU club rugby players, using the Rosenbaum Concussion Knowledge and Attitudes Survey-Student Version (RoCKAS-ST). The correlation between the Concussion Attitude Index (CAI) and Concussion Knowledge Index (CKI) was (r=0.14). The CKI average for the players was (16.72±2.96). The participants answered 67% (16.72±2.96) of the CKI questions and 62% (46.54±5.75) of the CAI questions correctly. The participants demonstrated sufficient knowledge of concussion, as well as safe attitudes toward concussion. A small number of players lacked knowledge of symptoms and attitudes toward concussion, which may have been influenced by the importance of games. Overall, the participants in this study demonstrated superior knowledge and safe attitudes compared to other studies. The current study found that the players had good knowledge and safe attitudes regarding the severity of concussion.


Assuntos
Atletas/psicologia , Concussão Encefálica , Futebol Americano/lesões , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adulto , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino , África do Sul , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(5): 1171-1178, sept.-oct. 2019. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184642

RESUMO

Introducción: los trastornos de la conducta alimentaria (TCA) se caracterizan por una preocupación exagerada por el peso y la imagen corporal. Los deportistas de equipo son excluidos tradicionalmente de los grupos de riesgo de TCA. No obstante, esta exención puede ser cuestionada por la creciente asociación deporte-delgadez y la evidencia de estudios previos sobre una gran preocupación por la imagen corporal en estos jugadores. Objetivos: detectar sintomatología de TCA e identificar factores que elevan el riesgo de padecerlos en hombres de entre 18 y 35 años jugadores de deportes de equipo. Metodología: Se llevó a cabo un estudio descriptivo-analítico con 49 jugadores semiprofesionales de baloncesto, fútbol y rugby. Todos los sujetos firmaron un consentimiento informado previo a su participación en el estudio. Los datos fueron recogidos mediante una hoja de valoración general y cuatro herramientas validadas: Cuestionario de Hábitos Alimentarios del Deportista (CHAD), Test de Actitudes Alimentarias (EAT-40), Inventario de Desórdenes Alimentarios (EDI-2) y Cuestionario sobre la Forma Corporal (BSQ). El análisis de datos se llevó a cabo mediante Kolmogorov- Smirnov, t de Student, ANOVA y correlación de Pearson. Resultados: el 14% de los sujetos presentó sintomatología de TCA. Se observó una correlación positiva entre las puntuaciones de los cuestionarios, el IMC y el volumen de entrenamiento semanal. Los jugadores de fútbol y rugby obtuvieron mayores puntuaciones que los jugadores de baloncesto. Conclusión: los jugadores de deportes de equipo podrían constituir un grupo de riesgo de TCA, especialmente los de fútbol y rugby. El riesgo aumenta cuanto mayor es el IMC y/o el volumen de entrenamiento


Introduction: eating disorders (EDs) are characterized by an extreme concern about body weight and body image. Male team sports players are usually excluded from the population at risk of developing EDs. This exemption can be questioned based on previous studies identifying a great body concern in male team athletes along with a increase of the sport-thinness relation. Objective: to detect EDs symptoms and to assess risk factors of its development in male team sports players. Methodology: a descriptive-analytical study was carried out with 49 male adult semiprofessional team sports players (football, basketball and rugby) between 18 and 35 years old. All subjects authorized their participation through informed consent. Data was collected through a general assessment sheet along with four validates tools: the Eating Habits Questionnaire for Athletes (CHAD), the Test of Food Attitudes (EAT-40), the Inventory of Eating (EDI-2), and the Questionnaire on the Body Shape (BSQ). All data were analyzed with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Student's t, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Results: it was observed that 14% of the subjects presented symptoms of EDs. Positive correlation was observed between score of the questionnaires, weekly training load and body mass index. Also football players score and rugbiers score were higher than basketball players score. Conclusion: male sports team players could also be a group of risk for EDs development. EDs risk greats when BMI and weekly training load high


Assuntos
Masculino , Adulto , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/epidemiologia , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Esportes/fisiologia , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Massa Corporal , Futebol Americano , Futebol , Inquéritos e Questionários , Análise de Variância , Análise de Dados
11.
Perspect Biol Med ; 62(3): 503-518, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31495794

RESUMO

This essay analyzes the conflicts that arise between an individual's deeply held beliefs and the collective norms of society. Sometimes these conflicts are framed in religious terms. The author argues that such a framing is too narrow and inappropriately puts the focus on a specific set of (largely Christian) beliefs about matters related to sexuality. This essay attempts to broaden the discussion in order to highlight the ways in which conflicts between individual beliefs and practices, on the one hand, and prevailing societal norms, on the other, create the tension that can lead to societal change.


Assuntos
Recusa Consciente em Tratar-se , Cultura , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Normas Sociais , Aborto Induzido/ética , Cristianismo , Recusa Consciente em Tratar-se/ética , Anticoncepcionais Orais Hormonais/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Futebol Americano , Humanos , Imunização/ética , Obrigações Morais , Médicos , Gravidez , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos/ética , Estados Unidos
12.
J Int Soc Sports Nutr ; 16(1): 39, 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Enzymatically modified isoquercitrin (EMIQ), a water-soluble quercetin, has been shown to intensify muscle hypertrophy in mice. We investigated the effect of EMIQ in supplementary protein powder on athlete body composition. METHODS: Forty Japanese males who played American football (age: 19.8 ± 1.4 years; body height: 174.1 ± 6.0 cm; body mass: 75.5 ± 10.7 kg) were assigned to a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial of parallel group. Participants received either EMIQ in whey protein (EW, n = 19) or contrast whey protein (W, n = 20) 6 days per week over 4 months. Body composition was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Markers of oxidative stress, derivatives of reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP), were assessed using a free radical analytical system. Data were analyzed using a univariate and repeated measures general model statistics. RESULTS: After 4 months, changes in lower limb fat-free mass and muscle mass were significantly greater in the EW group than in the W group (mean change ±95% CI; W: 324.1 ± 284.3, EW: 950.3 ± 473.2, p = 0.031, W: 255.7 ± 288.6, EW: 930.9 ± 471.5, p = 0.021, respectively). Moreover, the EW group exhibited a significantly higher BAP/d-ROMs ratio, antioxidation index, than the W group after 4 months (mean change ± SD; W: 8.8 ± 1.1, EW: 10.3 ± 2.8; p = 0.028). No significant differences in body mass, lean body mass, fat mass, or lower limb fat mass were observed between the groups. CONCLUSION: Ingestion of EMIQ in supplementary protein powder for 4 months exerts antioxidant effects and increases muscle mass among American football players. TRIAL REGISTRATION: University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry, UMIN000036036 . Retrospectively registered in 2019.


Assuntos
Composição Corporal , Suplementos Nutricionais , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Quercetina/análogos & derivados , Absorciometria de Fóton , Adolescente , Atletas , Proteínas na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Futebol Americano , Humanos , Masculino , Quercetina/administração & dosagem , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Esportiva , Adulto Jovem
14.
Sports Health ; 11(6): 550-553, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484001

RESUMO

An elite high school American football athlete sustained a traumatic, isolated, axillary nerve injury. Axillary nerve injuries are uncommon, but serious injuries in American football. With the advent of nerve transfers and grafts, these injuries, if diagnosed in a timely manner, are treatable. This case report discusses the multidisciplinary approach necessary for the diagnosis and treatment of an elite high school American football player who presented with marked deltoid atrophy. The athlete's injury was diagnosed via electrodiagnostic testing and he underwent a medial triceps nerve to axillary nerve transfer. After appropriate postsurgical therapy, the athlete was able to return to American football the subsequent season and continue performing at an elite level. This case report reviews the evaluation and modern treatment for axillary nerve injuries in the athlete, including nerve transfers, nerve grafts, and return to play.


Assuntos
Axila/inervação , Futebol Americano/lesões , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/diagnóstico , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Adolescente , Diagnóstico Tardio , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Debilidade Muscular/etiologia , Atrofia Muscular/etiologia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/etiologia , Volta ao Esporte
15.
J Athl Train ; 54(8): 852-857, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415183

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assist sideline medical staff and to augment detection of concussion in National Football League (NFL) players during preseason and regular season games via the use of certified athletic trainer (ATC) spotters. BACKGROUND: Detecting concussive injuries in contact-sport athletes can be a challenging task for health care providers on the sideline. Over the past 8 years, professional sport leagues have begun to use additional sets of eyes (medical spotters along with video review) to help identify athletes with possible concussive injuries. DESCRIPTION: The NFL first began a program using spotters in 2011, and the ATC Spotter Program has undergone systematic enhancements each year. This article describes the evolution of the ATC Spotter Program, the requirements and training of its participants, and the program data available to date. Directions for future improvement and research are addressed. CLINICAL ADVANTAGES: The use of ATC spotters stationed in the broadcast booth has enhanced the real-time detection of concussed players in the NFL.


Assuntos
Traumatismos em Atletas/diagnóstico , Concussão Encefálica/diagnóstico , Futebol Americano/lesões , Gestão da Segurança , Traumatismos em Atletas/etiologia , Concussão Encefálica/etiologia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento de Programas , Melhoria de Qualidade , Segurança , Gestão da Segurança/métodos , Gestão da Segurança/organização & administração , Estados Unidos
16.
J Athl Train ; 54(9): 929-938, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411898

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Interest in identifying the effects of physical and mental activity on recovery after sport-related concussion is growing. Clinical studies of concussed athletes' activities require well-validated methods for tracking their intensity and timing. OBJECTIVE: To develop and validate a novel multimodal approach to monitoring activity postconcussion using mobile (mHealth) technologies. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: Translational research unit. PATIENTS OR OTHER PARTICIPANTS: A total of 40 high school and collegiate football players were evaluated at preseason and followed longitudinally after either concussion (n = 25; age = 17.88 ± 1.74 years, height = 182.07 ± 8.08 cm, mass = 98.36 ± 21.70 kg) or selection as a nonconcussed control (n = 15; age = 18.27 ± 1.83 years, height = 180.01 ± 7.19 cm, mass = 93.83 ± 24.56 kg). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Participants wore a commercial actigraph and completed a daily mobile survey for 2 weeks. Analyses focused on comparisons between groups for actigraph-based physical activity and self-reported physical and mental activity during the follow-up period. RESULTS: For the first 2 days postinjury, objective measures showed fewer daily steps in concussed (6663 ± 2667 steps) than in control (11 148 ± 3381 steps) athletes (P < .001), and both objective and self-reported measures indicated less moderate to vigorous physical activity in concussed (27.6 ± 32.6 min/d and 25.0 ± 43.6 min/d, respectively) than in control (57.3 ± 38.6 min/d and 67.5 ± 40.1 min/d, respectively) athletes (both P values < .05). Correlations between objective and self-reported measures of moderate to vigorous physical activity were moderate across select 1-week and 2-week averages. We observed no group differences in self-reported mental activities. CONCLUSIONS: Physical activity after sport-related concussion varied widely across athletes but on average was reduced during the acute and early subacute postinjury periods for both objective and self-reported measures. The lack of differences in mental activities between groups may reflect limited change in mental exertion postconcussion or difficulty accurately measuring mental activities. Assessing concussed athletes' activities using actigraphy and self-reported scales may help monitor their compliance with activity recommendations and be useful in studies aimed at better understanding the effects of physical activity on concussion recovery.


Assuntos
Actigrafia , Traumatismos em Atletas , Concussão Encefálica , Exercício , Futebol Americano/lesões , Telemedicina/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Strength Cond Res ; 33(10): 2616-2621, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31425459

RESUMO

Bradley, LJ, Miller, KC, Wiese, BW, and Novak, JR. Precooling's effect on American football skills. J Strength Cond Res 33(10): 2616-2621, 2019-Precooling (i.e., cooling before exercise) may reduce the risk of exertional heatstroke (EHS) in American football athletes. However, implementation of precooling by coaches or medical staff would likely be poor if it impaired performance. We investigated whether precooling impacted American football skill performance in this randomized, crossover, counterbalanced study. Twelve men (24 ± 2 years, mass = 85.5 ± 6.3 kg, height = 181.8 ± 8.1 cm) completed a familiarization day to practice each skill and then 2 testing days. On testing days (wet-bulb globe temperature = 19.3 ± 4.1° C), subjects were either precooled for 15 minutes using cold-water immersion (10.1 ± 0.3° C) or not (control). Then, they donned an American football uniform and completed several bouts of 8 different football skills. Rectal temperature (Trec) was measured before, during, and after skill testing. Precooling did not affect vertical jump, broad jump, agility, dynamic or stationary catching, or maximum throwing distance (p ≥ 0.13). Precooling impaired 40-yard dash time (precooling = 5.72 ± 0.53 seconds, control = 5.31 ± 0.34 seconds; p = 0.03, effect size = 1.2) and throwing accuracy (precooling = 4 ± 1 points, control = 7 ± 2 points; p = 0.001, effect size = 1.4). On average, Trec was 0.58 ± 0.35° C lower during skills testing after precooling and statistically differed from control from minute 10 to the end of testing (∼35 minutes; p < 0.05, effect size ≥ 1.2). Precooling may be a useful EHS prevention strategy in American football players because it lowered Trec without impacting most skills. By lowering Trec, precooling would prolong the time it would take for an athlete's Trec to become dangerous (i.e., >40.5° C). If precooling is implemented, coaches should alter practice so that throwing accuracy and speed drills occur after an athlete's Trec returns to normal (i.e., >35 minutes).


Assuntos
Desempenho Atlético/fisiologia , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Adulto , Temperatura Corporal , Temperatura Baixa , Estudos Cross-Over , Teste de Esforço , Golpe de Calor/prevenção & controle , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Imersão , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Água , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Athl Train ; 54(7): 831, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441685
19.
J Athl Train ; 54(7): 832-833, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441686
20.
Sports Health ; 11(6): 507-513, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have examined white matter with diffusion tensor imaging in 8- to 12-year-old collision sport (CS) athletes. HYPOTHESIS: Youth CS athletes will demonstrate change in brain fractional anisotropy (FA) after a season of CS compared with an age-matched noncollision sport (NCS) cohort, and the number, magnitude, and location of hits will correlate with changes in the brain determined via FA for CS athletes. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level 3. METHODS: Thirty-five 8- to 12-year-old males in a youth tackle football league (CS) and 12 males from local swim teams (NCS) were recruited. Participants underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging with FA before and after the football season. Number, magnitude, and direction of head impacts were recorded for CS participants throughout the season. RESULTS: A total of 1905 hits were recorded in the CS group for the season, 341 (17.9%) collected during 7 games and 1564 (82.1%) observed during 31 practices. No significant interaction between group (CS and NCS) and time (pre- and postseason) was observed for FA (P > 0.05). Correlation analysis revealed a significantly positive and moderate relationship between increase of left cingulate cortex (CgC) FA from pre- to postseason and the total magnitude of lateral head impacts (r = 0.40; P = 0.03). CONCLUSION: There was no significant change in FA measurement of white matter integrity in a cohort of 8- to 12-year-old males after a season of youth football, nor was any difference detected in FA between youth football players and an age-matched cohort of swimmers. There was a significant correlation between total magnitude of hits sustained by youth football players and an increase in FA in the left CgC; whether this is adaptive or pathologic remains unknown. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: These data can be used within the body of knowledge to counsel patients regarding the known risks of youth tackle football regarding brain health.


Assuntos
Futebol Americano/lesões , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem , Anisotropia , Criança , Imagem de Tensor de Difusão , Futebol Americano/fisiologia , Cabeça/diagnóstico por imagem , Cabeça/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos
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