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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(16)2021 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34445465

RESUMO

Cordyline terminalis leaf extract (aqCT) possesses abundant polyphenols and other bioactive compounds, which are encapsulated in gelatin-polyethylene glycol-tyramine (GPT)/alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) gels to form the additional functional materials for biomedical applications. In this study, the gel compositions are optimized, and the GPT/α-CD ratios equal to or less than one half for solidification are found. The gelation time varies from 40.7 min to 5.0 h depending on the increase in GPT/α-CD ratios and aqCT amount. The aqCT extract disturbs the hydrogen bonding and host-guest inclusion of GPT/α-CD gel networks, postponing the gelation. Scanning electron microscope observation shows that all gels with or without aqCT possess a microarchitecture and porosity. GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels could release polyphenols from 110 to 350 nmol/mL at the first hour and sustainably from 5.5 to 20.2 nmol/mL for the following hours, which is controlled by feeding the aqCT amount and gel properties. GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels achieved significant antioxidant activity through a 100% scavenging DPPH radical. In addition, all gels are non-cytotoxic with a cell viability more than 85%. Especially, the GPT3.75α-CD10.5aqCT gels with aqCT amount of 3.1-12.5 mg/mL immensely enhanced the cell proliferation of GPT3.75α-CD10.5 gel without extract. These results suggest that the inherent bioactivities of aqCT endowed the resulting GPT/α-CD/aqCT gels with effective antioxidant and high biocompatibility, and natural polyphenols sustainably release a unique platform for a drug delivery system or other biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Cordyline/química , Derme/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Géis/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Células Cultivadas , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Géis/administração & dosagem , Humanos
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361087

RESUMO

Silica/biopolymer hydrogel-based materials constitute very attractive platforms for various emerging biomedical applications, particularly for bone repair. The incorporation of calcium phosphates in the hybrid network allows for designing implants with interesting biological properties. Here, we introduce a synthesis procedure for obtaining silica-chitosan (CS)-tricalcium phosphate (TCP) xerogels, with CS nominal content varying from 4 to 40 wt.% and 10 to 20 wt.% TCP. Samples were obtained using the sol-gel process assisted with ultrasound probe, and the influence of ethanol or water as washing solvents on surface area, micro- and mesopore volume, and average pore size were examined in order to optimize their textural properties. Three washing solutions with different soaking conditions were tested: 1 or 7 days in absolute ethanol and 30 days in distilled water, resulting in E1, E7, and W30 washing series, respectively. Soaked samples were eventually dried by evaporative drying at air ambient pressure, and the formation of interpenetrated hybrid structures was suggested by Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. In addition the impact that both washing solvent and TCP content have on the biodegradation, in vitro bioactivity and osteoconduction of xerogels were explored. It was found that calcium and phosphate-containing ethanol-washed xerogels presented in vitro release of calcium (2-12 mg/L) and silicon ions (~60-75 mg/L) after one week of soaking in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), as revealed by inductive coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopy analysis. However, only the release of silicon was detected for water-washed samples. Besides, all the samples exhibited in vitro bioactivity in simulated body fluid (SBF), as well as enhanced in vitro cell growth and also significant focal adhesion development and maturation.


Assuntos
Regeneração Óssea , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Quitosana/química , Géis/química , Osteoblastos/citologia , Dióxido de Silício/química , Solventes/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Líquidos Corporais , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Teste de Materiais
3.
J Photochem Photobiol B ; 221: 112246, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34243023

RESUMO

Photo-oxidative skin damage is mainly caused by the UV-A radiation of the sun. Synthetic sunscreens used to counter this acts mostly on the superficial skin layer and possess serious side effects. P-coumaric acid (PCA) is a UV-A protective plant phenolic having quick diffusion and distribution in superficial skin layers limiting its application as herbal sunscreen. The present study was designed to formulate an optimized phospholipid complex of PCA (PCAPC) through response surface methodology to enhance its skin permeation to deeper skin layers providing protection against photo-oxidative stress. PCAPC was characterized by FT-IR, DTA, PXRD, TEM, zeta potential etc. PCAPC was then incorporated into a gel formulation (PCAPC-GE) to facilitate its transdermal delivery. Physicochemical properties of the gel were assessed by pH, homogeneity, rheology, spreadability etc. In-vitro SPF and UVA-PF of the gel was evaluated and compared with conventional gel (PCA-GE). Ex-vivo skin permeation flux, permeability coefficient, skin deposition and dermatokinetic analysis were carried out to measure the rate and level of skin permeation. This was accompanied by in-vivo evaluation of PCAPC-GE and PCA-GE in the experimental rat model by measuring the various oxidative stress markers such as superoxide dismutase, catalase etc. PCAPC-GE provided high SPF and UVA-PF value compared to PCA-GE. The physicochemical parameters were suitable for transdermal application. PCAPC-GE enhanced the permeation rate of PCA by almost 6 fold compared to PCA-GE. Besides, a significant reduction of UV-A induced oxidative stress biomarkers were observed for PCAPC-GE. Thus, the PCAPC-GE may be an effective alternative of synthetic sunscreens due to its enhanced permeation and protection against UVA-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Ácidos Cumáricos/química , Géis/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fosfolipídeos/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Raios Ultravioleta , Animais , Estabilidade de Medicamentos , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos da radiação , Tamanho da Partícula , Permeabilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade/efeitos da radiação , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Reologia , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Pele/metabolismo , Pele/efeitos da radiação , Solubilidade , Fator de Proteção Solar , Temperatura de Transição
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202572

RESUMO

Culturing three-dimensional (3D) tissues with an appropriate microenvironment is a critical and fundamental technology in broad areas of cutting-edge bioengineering research. In addition, many technologies have engineered tissue functions. However, an effective system for transporting nutrients, waste, or oxygen to affect the functions of cell tissues has not been reported. In this study, we introduce a novel system that employs diffusion and convection to enhance transportation. To demonstrate the concept of the proposed system, three layers of normal human dermal fibroblast cell sheets are used as a model tissue, which is cultured on a general dish or porous collagen scaffold with perfusable channels for three days with and without the perfusion of culture media in the scaffold. The results show that the viability of the cell tissue was improved by the developed system. Furthermore, glucose consumption, lactate production, and oxygen transport to the tissues were increased, which might improve the viability of tissues. However, mechanical stress in the proposed system did not cause damage or unintentional functional changes in the cultured tissue. We believe that the introduced culturing system potentially suggests a novel standard for 3D cell cultures.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células , Colágeno , Géis , Perfusão/métodos , Tecidos Suporte , Células Cultivadas , Géis/química , Porosidade , Esferoides Celulares , Engenharia Tecidual/métodos , Tecidos Suporte/química
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199292

RESUMO

Giant unilamellar vesicles (GUV) are powerful tools to explore physics and biochemistry of the cell membrane in controlled conditions. For example, GUVs were extensively used to probe cell adhesion, but often using non-physiological linkers, due to the difficulty of incorporating transmembrane adhesion proteins into model membranes. Here we describe a new protocol for making GUVs incorporating the transmembrane protein integrin using gel-assisted swelling. We report an optimised protocol, enumerating the pitfalls encountered and precautions to be taken to maintain the robustness of the protocol. We characterise intermediate steps of small proteoliposome formation and the final formed GUVs. We show that the integrin molecules are successfully incorporated and are functional.


Assuntos
Géis/química , Integrinas/metabolismo , Lipossomas Unilamelares/química , Adesão Celular , Fluorescência , Humanos , Bicamadas Lipídicas/metabolismo , Lipídeos/química , Tamanho da Partícula
6.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204905

RESUMO

Cyclodipeptides (CDPs) or 2,5-diketopiperazines (DKPs) can exert a variety of biological activities and display pronounced resistance against enzymatic hydrolysis as well as a propensity towards self-assembly into gels, relative to the linear-dipeptide counterparts. They have attracted great interest in a variety of fields spanning from functional materials to drug discovery. This concise review will analyze the latest advancements in their synthesis, self-assembly into gels, and their more innovative applications.


Assuntos
Dicetopiperazinas/síntese química , Dipeptídeos/química , Peptídeos Cíclicos/síntese química , Dicetopiperazinas/química , Géis/química , Química Verde , Micro-Ondas , Estrutura Molecular , Peptídeos Cíclicos/química
7.
Molecules ; 26(11)2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200144

RESUMO

Natural products have been extensively used for treating a wide variety of disorders. In recent times, Brucine (BRU) as one of the natural medications extracted from seeds of nux vomica, was investigated for its anticancer activity. As far as we know, this is the first study on BRU anticancer activity against skin cancer. Thus, the rational of this work was implemented to develop, optimize and characterize the anticancer activity of BRU loaded ethosomal gel. Basically, thin film hydration method was used to formulate BRU ethosomal preparations, by means of Central composite design (CCD), which were operated to construct (32) factorial design. Two independent variables were designated (phospholipid percentage and ethanol percentage) with three responses (vesicular size, encapsulation efficiency and flux). Based on the desirability function, one formula was selected and incorporated into HPMC gel base to develop BRU loaded ethosomal gel. The fabricated gel was assessed for all physical characterization. In-vitro release investigation, ex-vivo permeation and MTT calorimetric assay were performed. BRU loaded ethosomal gel exhibited acceptable values for the characterization parameters which stand proper for topical application. In-vitro release investigation was efficiently prolonged for 6 h. The flux from BRU loaded ethosome was enhanced screening optimum SSTF value. Finally, in-vitro cytotoxicity study proved that BRU loaded ethosomal gel significantly improved the anticancer activity of the drug against A375 human melanoma cell lines. Substantially, the investigation proposed a strong motivation for further study of the lately developed BRU loaded ethosomal gel as a prospective therapeutic strategy for melanoma treatment.


Assuntos
Etanol/química , Géis/química , Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Estricnina/análogos & derivados , Administração Cutânea , Animais , Géis/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Fosfolipídeos/química , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Absorção Cutânea/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Estricnina/administração & dosagem , Estricnina/química
8.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200653

RESUMO

Cushioning and antibacterial packaging are the requirements of the storage and transportation of fruits and vegetables, which are essential for reducing the irreversible quality loss during the process. Herein, the composite of carboxymethyl nanocellulose, glycerin, and acrylamide derivatives acted as the shell and chitosan/AgNPs were immobilized in the core by using coaxial 3D-printing technology. Thus, the 3D-printed cushioning-antibacterial dual-function packaging aerogel with a shell-core structure (CNGA/C-AgNPs) was obtained. The CNGA/C-AgNPs packaging aerogel had good cushioning and resilience performance, and the average compression resilience rate was more than 90%. Although AgNPs was slowly released, CNGA/C-AgNPs packaging aerogel had an obvious antibacterial effect on E. coli and S. aureus. Moreover, the CNGA/C-AgNPs packaging aerogel was biodegradable. Due to the customization capabilities of 3D-printing technology, the prepared packaging aerogel can be adapted to more application scenarios by accurately designing and regulating the microstructure of aerogels, which provides a new idea for the development of food intelligent packaging.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Celulose/química , Embalagem de Alimentos/métodos , Géis/química , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Quitosana/química , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Impressão Tridimensional , Prata/química , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200887

RESUMO

Royal jelly is a natural substance produced by worker bees that possesses a variety of biological activities, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and protective. Although fresh royal jelly is kept at low temperatures, to increase its stability, it needs to be incorporated into pharmaceutical formulations, such as in situ gels. The aim of this study was to formulate in situ ocular gels containing Lithuanian royal jelly for topical corneal use in order to increase the retention time of the formulation on the ocular surface and bioavailability. Gels were evaluated for physicochemical characteristics (pH, rheological properties, refractive index) and in vitro drug release measuring the amount of 10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA). An ocular irritation test and cell viability tests were performed using the SIRC (Statens Seruminstitut Rabbit Cornea) cell culture line. Results indicated that all the in situ gels were within an acceptable pH and refractive index range close to corneal properties. Rheology studies have shown that the gelation temperature varies between 25 and 32 °C, depending on the amount of poloxamers. The release studies have shown that the release of 10-HDA from in situ gels is more sustained than royal jelly suspension. All gel formulations were non-irritant according to the short-time exposure test (STE) using the SIRC cell culture line, and long-term cell viability studies indicated that the formulations used in small concentrations did not induce cell death. Prepared in situ gels containing royal jelly have potential for ocular drug delivery, and they may improve the bioavailability, stability of royal jelly, and formation of non-irritant ocular formulations.


Assuntos
Córnea/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Graxos/química , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Géis/química , Géis/farmacologia , Animais , Abelhas/metabolismo , Disponibilidade Biológica , Produtos Biológicos/química , Produtos Biológicos/farmacocinética , Produtos Biológicos/farmacologia , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Farmacêutica/métodos , Córnea/metabolismo , Ácidos Decanoicos/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/química , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacologia , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos/efeitos dos fármacos , Excipientes/química , Géis/farmacocinética , Poloxâmero/química , Coelhos , Reologia , Temperatura
10.
Nutrients ; 13(6)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203999

RESUMO

Human skin acts as a physical barrier; however, sometimes the skin gets infected by fungi, which becomes more severe if the infection occurs on the third layer of the skin. Azole derivative-based antifungal creams, liquids, or sprays are available to treat fungal infections; however, these formulations show various side effects on the application site. Over the past few years, herbal extracts and various essential oils have shown effective antifungal activity. Additionally, autoxidation and epimerization are significant problems with the direct use of herbal extracts. Hence, to overcome these obstacles, polysaccharide-based nanohydrogels embedded with natural plant extracts and oils have become the primary choice of pharmaceutical scientists. These gels protect plant-based bioactive compounds and are effective delivery agents because they release multiple bioactive compounds in the targeted area. Nanohydrogels can be applied to infected areas, and due to their contagious nature and penetration power, they get directly absorbed through the skin, quickly reaching the skin's third layer and effectively reducing the fungal infection. In this review, we explain various skin fungal infections, possible treatments, and the effective utilization of plant extract and oil-embedded polysaccharide-based nanohydrogels.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Géis/química , Nanoestruturas/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Polissacarídeos/uso terapêutico , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Antifúngicos/química , Azóis/química , Azóis/uso terapêutico , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais , Polissacarídeos/química
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(64): 7898-7901, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286734

RESUMO

Mixing low molecular weight gelators (LMWGs) shows promise as a means of preparing innovative materials with exciting properties. Here, we investigate the effect of increasing hydrophobic chain length on the properties of the resulting multicomponent systems which are capable of showing ambidextrous phase behaviour on pH perturbation.


Assuntos
Compostos de Amônio/química , Ácidos Carboxílicos/química , Géis/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Estrutura Molecular , Peso Molecular , Tamanho da Partícula
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34298901

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to determine how the molecular structure of porcine fat-in-water type emulsions stabilised with potato starch affected their rheomechanical properties. Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and instrumental analysis of the texture were the method used in experiments. Starch gels with concentrations corresponding to the water starch concentration of the examined emulsions were used as control systems. The analysis of the starch and starch-fat systems showed that the values characterising their rheomechanical and textural properties reflected the spatial reaction of the amylose matrix to dynamic mechanical interactions. Changes in their values resulted from conformational changes in the structure of segments and nodes of the lattice, conditioned by the concentration of starch and the presence of fat. As a result of these changes, starch-fat emulsions are distinguished by greater densities of network segments and nearly two times greater functionalities of nodes than starch gels. The instrumental analysis of the texture showed that the values of the texture parameters in the starch gels were greater than in the starch-fat emulsions. The high values of the correlation coefficients (R~0.9) between the texture determinants and the rheological parameters proved that there was a strong correlation between the textural properties of the tested systems and their rheomechanical properties.


Assuntos
Emulsões/química , Gorduras/química , Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Água/química , Amilose/química , Animais , Géis/química , Estrutura Molecular , Reologia/métodos , Suínos
13.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jun 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34201778

RESUMO

TiO2 nanopowders modified by Nd and Sm were prepared using the sol-gel technique. It was found by XRD analysis that the samples containing Sm are amorphous up to 300 °C, while those with Nd preserve a mixed organic-inorganic amorphous structure at higher temperatures (400 °C). The TiO2 (rutile) was not detected up to 700 °C in the presence of both modified oxides. TiO2 (anatase) crystals found at about 400 °C in the Sm-modified sample exhibited an average crystallite size of about 25-30 nm, while doping with Nd resulted in particles of a lower size-5-10 nm. It was established by DTA that organic decomposition is accompanied by significant weight loss occurring in the temperature range 240-350 °C. Photocatalytic tests showed that the samples heated at 500 °C possess photocatalytic activity under UV irradiation toward Malachite green organic dye. Selected compositions exhibited good antimicrobial activity against E. coli K12 and B. subtilis.


Assuntos
Géis/química , Neodímio/química , Pós/química , Samário/química , Titânio/química , Bacillus subtilis/efeitos dos fármacos , Catálise , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Temperatura Alta , Transição de Fase , Corantes de Rosanilina/química , Análise Espectral , Titânio/efeitos da radiação , Raios Ultravioleta , Difração de Raios X
14.
J Mater Chem B ; 9(23): 4690-4699, 2021 06 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34076032

RESUMO

Sialic acids located at the terminal end of glycans are densely attached to cell surfaces and play crucial and distinctive roles in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as neural development, cell-cell interactions, autoimmunity and cancers. However, due to the subtle structural differences of sialic acid species and the complicated composition of glycans, the precise recognition of sialylated glycans is difficult. Here, a fluorescent dynamic response system based on a pyrene-conjugated histidine (PyHis) supramolecular gel is proposed. Driven by π-π stacking and intermolecular hydrogen bonds, PyHis exhibits a strong self-assembly ability and forms stable gels. It is found that introduction of N-acetylneuraminic acid (a typical sialic acid) can prevent this self-assembly process, whereas other monosaccharides or sialic acid analogs have no significant effect on it. Interestingly, a sialylated glycan also has a remarkable inhibitory effect on the gel formation, which highlights the high selectivity of the gel dynamic response system. Analysis of the mechanism reveals that the sialic acid or sialylated glycan can interact closely with two PyHis molecules stacked together in the assemblies via hydrogen bonding interactions, thereby preventing the ordered accumulation of the gelators. It is worth noting that the high-efficiency sialic acid recognition effect is not observed at the single molecule level but at the supramolecular level, indicating the unique superiority of the supramolecular self-assembly system in biomolecular recognition and response. This work shows the promising prospects of using supramolecular gels in assembly engineering, regenerative medicine, tumour cell sorting and cancer diagnosis.


Assuntos
Géis/química , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/metabolismo , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier/métodos
15.
Food Chem ; 362: 130222, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34090040

RESUMO

The synergistic effect of pH and heating on the structure, aggregation behaviour and gel properties of myofibrillar protein (MP) in mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) was evaluated. The surface hydrophobicity of the control at pH 5.0 (143.6 ± 0.3 µg) was significantly higher than that of other samples (P < 0.05). Under the same pH conditions, the decrease in total sulfhydryl content of all samples during the heating process demonstrated that covalent/non-covalent cross-linking occurred between proteins due to heat input. Moreover, the decrease in solubility and the increase in turbidity of all samples verified the fact of MP aggregation, and the changes in the elasticity index (EI) and macroscopic viscosity index (MVI) also indicated a decrease in MP fluidity upon heating treatment. Therefore, the aggregation of MP was affected by pH and heating, and the optimal three-dimensional network structure and gel properties could be formed at pH 6.0 and above 70 °C.


Assuntos
Carpas , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Géis/química , Proteínas Musculares/química , Animais , Calefação , Temperatura Alta , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Solubilidade , Compostos de Sulfidrila/análise , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Viscosidade
16.
Food Chem ; 362: 130253, 2021 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34116429

RESUMO

The effect of high amylose corn starch (HAS)-fatty acid complexes on the gel properties, protein secondary structure, microstructure, fatty acid content, and sensory properties of surimi under high-temperature treatment were investigated. The formation of HAS-fatty acid complexes increased melting temperature and decreased average particle size of HAS. The addition of HAS-fatty acid complexes significantly improved the breaking force, deformation and whiteness of surimi gels. The water in surimi gels containing HAS or HAS-fatty acid complexes became increasingly immobilized. HAS or HAS-fatty acid complexes promoted protein conformational transition from α-helix structure to other three secondary structure. Surimi gels added with HAS-fatty acid complexes had more compact network structure and higher fatty acid content. Moreover, the better sensory properties were obtained in surimi gels containing HAS-fatty acid complexes. Therefore, starch-fatty acid complexes not only could improve the gel properties of surimi, but also enhance its fatty acid content.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/química , Produtos Pesqueiros/análise , Produtos Pesqueiros/normas , Peixes , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Géis/química , Temperatura Alta , Amido/química , Animais , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Proteínas de Peixes/química
17.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 3061-3074, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34151429

RESUMO

In order to optimize protein recovery from catfish byproducts by alkaline extraction, the effects of different factors, including particle size, mince-to-water ratio, pH, and extraction time were investigated. It was found that a protein recovery of about 30% could be achieved. Increases in pH (pH 10.5, 11, and 11.5) not only improved protein recovery, but also increased protein denaturation evidenced by decreased solubility, decreased α-helix, increased ß-sheet, and increased random coil. The color and texture of gels made from protein isolate were greatly affected by the pH values used for protein extraction. For the gels made from fillet mince, and protein isolates extracted at pH 10.5, 11, and 11.5, the "L" values were 78.96, 60.38, 57.74, and 54.39, the breaking forces were 205, 492, 585, and 458 g, and deformation values were 10.59, 8.07, 6.73, and 5.04 mm, respectively. Electrophoresis revealed protein degradation during alkali-aided extraction with MHC, the most predominant band, showing about 50% decrease in comparison with fillet mince. It also demonstrated that gelation not only caused cross-linking, but also autolysis with 53%, 56%, 59%, and 81% decrease in MHC intensity for fillet mince, protein isolates extracted at pH 10.5, 11, and 11.5, respectively. Fillet mince and protein isolates exhibited different storage modulus patterns during temperature sweep, implying different gelation mechanisms. This study proved the protein extracted from catfish byproducts was potential to be utilized as edible food components especially in gel making. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Catfish byproducts, which account for 70% of total weight and 50% of total protein of catfish, are normally used as animal feed, fertilizer, or even waste. This study demonstrated the potential of the utilization of catfish wastes to develop edible food components. This could reduce the total processing waste being discarded into the environment and nutrient loss, therefore increasing profitability of catfish industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Peixes/farmacologia , Géis/química , Extratos de Tecidos/química , Animais , Peixes-Gato , Proteínas de Peixes/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Solubilidade , Temperatura
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066105

RESUMO

Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease, and it is especially characterized by the occurrence of red, itchy, and scaly eruptions on the skin. The quality of life of patients with psoriasis is decreased because this disease remains incurable, despite the rapid progress of therapeutic methods and the introduction of many innovative antipsoriatic drugs. Moreover, many patients with psoriasis are dissatisfied with their current treatment methods and the form with which the drug is applied. The patients complain about skin irritation, clothing stains, unpleasant smell, or excessive viscosity of the preparation. The causes of these issues should be linked with little effectiveness of the therapy caused by low permeation of the drug into the skin, as well as patients' disobeying doctors' recommendations, e.g., concerning regular application of the preparation. Both of these factors are closely related to the physicochemical form of the preparation and its rheological and mechanical properties. To improve the quality of patients' lives, it is important to gain knowledge about the specific form of the drug and its effect on the safety and efficacy of a therapy as well as the patients' comfort during application. Therefore, we present a literature review and a detailed analysis of the composition, rheological properties, and mechanical properties of polymeric gels as an alternative to viscous and greasy ointments. We discuss the following polymeric gels: hydrogels, oleogels, emulgels, and bigels. In our opinion, they have many characteristics (i.e., safety, effectiveness, desired durability, acceptance by patients), which can contribute to the development of an effective and, at the same time comfortable, method of local treatment of psoriasis for patients.


Assuntos
Fármacos Dermatológicos/administração & dosagem , Géis/administração & dosagem , Polímeros/química , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Géis/química , Humanos
19.
Food Chem ; 361: 130075, 2021 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077880

RESUMO

The impact of ozone-induced oxidation on the gel properties of egg yolk was investigated for the first time in this research. The textural properties, water-holding capacity, cooking loss rate and color of the chicken egg yolk gel (CEYG) were significantly improved after ozonation. The maximum hardness value (976.04 g) was reached at 20 min of ozonation and it was 134.92 g higher than that of the natural group. Additionally, the ozone-treated yolk showed an increase of 58.47% in carbonyl content and a decrease of 44.33% in free sulfhydryl groups. The results of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that ozone promoted the conversion of free water to non-flowing water in the CEYG. Scanning electron microscopy represented that the moderate ozone treatment resulted in a more regular, continuous and smooth network structure of the CEYG. These results provided a theoretical basis for the application of ozone to improve the performance of heat-induced CEYG.


Assuntos
Gema de Ovo/química , Ozônio/química , Água/química , Animais , Galinhas , Géis/química , Dureza , Oxirredução , Reologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34071110

RESUMO

Rectal drug delivery is an effective alternative to oral and parenteral treatments. This route allows for both local and systemic drug therapy. Traditional rectal dosage formulations have historically been used for localised treatments, including laxatives, hemorrhoid therapy and antipyretics. However, this form of drug dosage often feels alien and uncomfortable to a patient, encouraging refusal. The limitations of conventional solid suppositories can be overcome by creating a thermosensitive liquid suppository. Unfortunately, there are currently only a few studies describing their use in therapy. However, recent trends indicate an increase in the development of this modern therapeutic system. This review introduces a novel rectal drug delivery system with the goal of summarising recent developments in thermosensitive liquid suppositories for analgesic, anticancer, antiemetic, antihypertensive, psychiatric, antiallergic, anaesthetic, antimalarial drugs and insulin. The report also presents the impact of various types of components and their concentration on the properties of this rectal dosage form. Further research into such formulations is certainly needed in order to meet the high demand for modern, efficient rectal gelling systems. Continued research and development in this field would undoubtedly further reveal the hidden potential of rectal drug delivery systems.


Assuntos
Administração Retal , Géis/administração & dosagem , Preparações Farmacêuticas/administração & dosagem , Supositórios/administração & dosagem , Resinas Acrílicas/química , Alginatos/química , Temperatura Corporal , Composição de Medicamentos , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Previsões , Géis/química , Temperatura Alta , Humanos , Absorção Intestinal , Metilcelulose/química , Poloxâmero/química , Povidona/química , Supositórios/química
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