Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.960
Filtrar
1.
Food Chem ; 336: 127687, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771901

RESUMO

The electrostatic complex coacervation between scallop Patinopecten. yessoensis male gonad hydrolysates (SMGHs) and κ-carrageenan (κ-C) were monitored by using turbidimetry at various pH (1-12) and biopolymer mixing ratio (9:1-1:9). The pHc exhibited ratio-independent behavior, and pHφ1, pHmax exhibited ratio-dependent behavior, respectively. The decreasing ratio enhanced the gel strength of SMGHs/κ-C at higher pH while inversely at lower pH, ascribing to more SMGHs aggregates and stronger neutralization between positively charged patches in SMGHs and κ-C at lower pH and higher ratio. Moreover, SMGHs/κ-C gel at acid condition exhibited lower relaxation times (T21 and T23). Furthermore, the rheological and relaxation time T2 data were well associated with microscopy images which indicated that SMGHs/κ-C gel showed a well-distributed network structure at more acidic domains, supporting stronger gel rigidity and water-holding capacity.


Assuntos
Carragenina/química , Gônadas/química , Pectinidae/química , Animais , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Hidrólise , Masculino , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Eletricidade Estática
2.
Mar Environ Res ; 160: 104985, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32907723

RESUMO

This study aims at (1) experimentally estimating first sexual maturation of the European sardine S. pilchardus, (2) using the results to calibrate existing bioenergetic models. During the 183 days-experiment, fish growth and body condition were assessed by biometry, and gonads were weighed when present. Age, wet weight and total length at first maturity were estimated at 262 days, 10.79 ± 0.75 g, and 11.26 ± 0.21 cm, respectively. Including these traits in biphasic Von Bertalanffy models did not significantly improve simulations for either length or weight data, meaning that energy allocation was not impacted by these traits. The implementation of the results in the Dynamic Energy Budget (DEB) calibration procedure strengthened the parameter set of the existing model, but resulted in significant changes in the energy allocation. Our results are a first step that will allow the design of new experiments to further quantify maturation and reproduction rates in diverse environmental conditions, consolidating DEB model calibration.


Assuntos
Peixes , Alimentos Marinhos , Animais , Metabolismo Energético , Peixes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gônadas
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111367, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971454

RESUMO

Tebuconazole (TBZ), an azole pesticide, is one of the most frequently detected fungicides in surface water. Despite its harmful effects, mainly related to endocrine disturbance, the consequences of TBZ exposure in amphibians remain poorly understood. Here, we investigated the adverse and delayed effects of TBZ chronic exposure on a native anuran species, often inhabiting cultivated areas, the Italian tree frog (Hyla intermedia). To disclose the multiple mechanisms of action through which TBZ exerts its toxicity we exposed tadpoles over the whole larval period to two sublethal TBZ concentrations (5 and 50 µg/L), and we evaluated histological alterations in three target organs highly susceptible to xenobiotics: liver, kidney, and gonads. We also assessed morphometric and gravimetric parameters: snout-vent length (SVL), body mass (BM), liver somatic index (LSI), and gonad-mesonephros complex index (GMCI) and determined sex ratio, gonadal development, and differentiation. Our results show that TBZ induces irreversible effects on multiple target organs in H. intermedia, exerting its harmful effects through several pathological pathways, including a massive inflammatory response. Moreover, TBZ markedly affects sexual differentiation also by inducing the appearance of sexually undetermined individuals and a general delay of germ cell maturation. Given the paucity of data on the effects of TBZ in amphibians, our results will contribute to a better understanding of the environmental risk posed by this fungicide to the most endangered group of vertebrates.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Triazóis/toxicidade , Animais , Anuros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Sexual/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Aquat Toxicol ; 227: 105610, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32920298

RESUMO

Pen shell (Atrina cf. japonica) resources have been devastated in Ariake Bay, Japan, and to facilitate the recovery of this species, there is an urgent need to fully understand the factors contributing to its high levels of mortality. Pen shells living in natural waters grow through successive life stages, and environmental factors may affect these bivalves differently at different stages. Accordingly, to elucidate the causes of mortality in natural waters, it is necessary to gain an understanding of the quantitative effects of environmental factors on bivalves at each life stage. In this study, we sought to determine the differential effects of hypoxic conditions on 1-year-old (average shell length: 93.9 mm) and 2-year-old (146.5 mm) pen shells bred under artificial conditions. We exposed shells of each age group to six different dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations for 96 h and monitored their behavior and survival rate. Based on the survival status, we estimated the lethal DO concentrations that induced 50%, 95%, and 5% mortality (LC50, LC95, and LC5, respectively) at each age. We found that for 1-year-old shells, the LC50 values at 48, 72, and 96 h were 0.51, 0.74, and 0.84 mg/L, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for 2-year-old shells were 0.74, 1.27, and 1.80 mg/L. Furthermore, we found that for 1- and 2-year-old shells, the estimated ranges from LC95 to LC5 at 48, 72, and 96 h were 0.39-0.68, 0.62-0.88, and 0.64-1.12 mg/L, and 0.31-1.75, 0.77-2.09, and 1.29-2.53 mg/L, respectively. Under low DO concentrations (0.47 to 1.93 mg/L and 0.49 to 3.30 mg/L for 1- and 2-year-old shells, respectively), we observed pen shells with more than half of their shell length protruding above the substrate. In addition to age and body size, the 1- and 2-year-old pen shells used in the present study also differed with respect to reproductive status, with 7.6% of 1-year-old and 96.7% of 2-year-old shells considered to be fully ripe. Collectively, our observations indicate that 2-year-old pen shells are less tolerant to hypoxic conditions than are 1-year-old pen shells, and we suspect that the differences in hypoxic tolerance could be attributable to differences in the physiological status of the pen shells during gonadal development. We believe the findings of this study will make an important contribution to enhancing our understanding of the effects of hypoxia on the viability of A. cf. japonica in natural waters.


Assuntos
Bivalves/fisiologia , Eutrofização , Animais , Gônadas , Hipóxia , Japão
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(34): e21831, 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846829

RESUMO

Adoption of interventional endoscopic procedures is increasing with increasing prevalence of diseases. However, medical radiation exposure is concerning; therefore, radiation protection for medical staff is important. However, there is limited information on the usefulness of an additional lead shielding device during interventional endoscopic procedures. Therefore, we aimed to determine whether an additional lead shielding device protects medical staff from radiation.An X-ray unit (CUREVISTA; Hitachi Medical Systems, Tokyo, Japan) with an over-couch X-ray system was used. Fluoroscopy-associated scattered radiation was measured using a water phantom placed at the locations of the endoscopist, assistant, nurse, and clinical engineer. For each location, measurements were performed at the gonad and thyroid gland/eye levels. Comparisons were performed between with and without the additional lead shielding device and with and without a gap in the shielding device. Additionally, a clinical study was performed with 27 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedures.The scattered radiation dose was lower with than without additional lead shielding at all medical staff locations and decreased by 84.7%, 82.8%, 78.2%, and 83.7%, respectively, at the gonad level and by 89.2%, 86.4%, 91.2%, and 87.0%, respectively, at the thyroid gland/eye level. Additionally, the scattered radiation dose was lower without than with a gap in the shielding device at all locations.An additional lead shielding device could protect medical staff from radiation during interventional endoscopic procedures. However, gaps in protective equipment reduce effectiveness and should be eliminated.


Assuntos
Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição à Radiação/prevenção & controle , Proteção Radiológica/instrumentação , Radiografia Intervencionista/efeitos adversos , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/efeitos adversos , Colangiopancreatografia Retrógrada Endoscópica/estatística & dados numéricos , Fluoroscopia/efeitos adversos , Gônadas/efeitos da radiação , Humanos , Traumatismos Ocupacionais/prevenção & controle , Imagens de Fantasmas/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamentos de Proteção/normas , Doses de Radiação , Lesões por Radiação/prevenção & controle , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos da radiação
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141554, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795812

RESUMO

Little is known about the molecular effects of progestins on the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes in fish prior to sexual differentiation. In this study, the effects of norethindrone (NET) on the ontogeny of HPG- and HPA-related genes in zebrafish embryo/early larvae prior to sexual differentiation were evaluated. Embryo/larvae were exposed to different concentrations (5, 50, 500 ng/L) of NET for 6 days. The levels of the transcripts of the genes closely related to the HPG and HPA axes were determined daily during 3 stages (embryo, embryo/larvae transition, and early larvae). The results showed that most genes were up-regulated and the ontogeny of genes in the HPA axis was earlier than that of HPG axis, especially for the upstream genes of both the HPG (gnrh2, gnrh3, fshb, lhb) and the HPA (crh, pomc, star) axes. In contrast, the transcriptional expressions of genes of the cortisol/stress pathway (cyp11b, mr) were inhibited and those of the progesterone pathway were not affected. More importantly, NET exposure induced the expressions of the genes (esr1, vtg1, hsd17b3, hsd11b2, ar) that are closely related to the steroid hormone pathways in the embryos/larvae stages, implying a precocious effects of NET in zebrafish. This study demonstrates that NET alters the expression of HPA- and HPG-axes related genes in zebrafish at early stages, pointing to the need for the same type of analysis during the zebrafish gonadal differentiation window.


Assuntos
Noretindrona , Peixe-Zebra , Animais , Gônadas , Sistema Hipotálamo-Hipofisário , Sistema Hipófise-Suprarrenal , Peixe-Zebra/genética
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 205: 111176, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32846301

RESUMO

The effects of 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on sex ratio, gonopodium morphology, and gonadal histology of C. decemmaculatus were assessed by a full-lifecycle exposure experiment. Newborn fish were waterborne exposed to 30, 100, and 300 ng EE2/L for 90 d, using 50 fish per treatment. Additionally, in December of 2016, a field survey was conducted on a C. decemmaculatus population inhabiting the Girado Creek downstream of the Chascomus city wastewater effluent discharge. After 90 d of exposure, EE2 was able to histologically skew the sex ratio toward females and inhibit the full gonopodium development since the lowest tested concentration (LOEC = 30 ng/L). At higher concentrations, EE2 was toxic, inducing mortality in a concentration-dependent fashion (90 d-LC50 = 109.9 ng/L) and altering the gonadal histoarchitecture, causing neither testes nor ovaries discernible histologically (LOEC = 100 ng/L). In addition, a novel response, perianal hyperpigmentation, was discovered been induced by the EE2 exposure in a concentration-dependent fashion (90 d-EC50 = 39.3 ng/L). A higher proportion of females and perianal hyperpigmentation were observed in wild fish collected from the Girado Creek. The major reached conclusions are: i) EE2 induce different effects on the sexual traits of C. decemmaculatus when exposed from early-life or adult stages. ii) The most sensitive effects observed in the laboratory occur in a creek receiving wastewater effluent. iii) The perianal hyperpigmentation comes-up as a promising biomarker of exposure to estrogenic compounds.


Assuntos
Ciprinodontiformes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Etinilestradiol/toxicidade , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hiperpigmentação/induzido quimicamente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gônadas/patologia , Humanos , Estágios do Ciclo de Vida/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ovário/patologia , Fenótipo , Razão de Masculinidade , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Testículo/patologia
8.
Gene ; 761: 145037, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32777526

RESUMO

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are singled out from somatic cells very early during embryogenesis, then they migrate towards the genital ridge and differentiate into gametes through oogenesis or spermatogenesis. Labeling PGCs with Localized RNAexpression (LRE) technique by fluorescent proteins has been widely applied among teleost species to study the germ cell development and gonad differentiation. In this study, we first cloned and characterized the 3' untranslated regions (3'UTRs) of nanos homolog 1-like (nos1l), dead end (dnd), and vasa in yellow catfish (Pelteobagrus fulvidraco), and then synthesized the GFP-nos1l/dnd/vasa 3'UTR mRNAs. Each of these three 3'UTRs could label PGCs in yellow catfish embryos, of which, vasa 3'UTR exhibited the highest labeling efficiency. To identify the differences in PGCs at embryonic stage, XX all-female and XY all-male yellow catfish embryos were produced and injected with GFP-vasa 3'UTR mRNA. We observed the PGC migration route in these two monosex embryos from 24 hpf to 7 dpf, and found there was no difference between them. Besides, the PGC number was counted at 48 hpf, and the result showed that the average PGC number in XX females (11.3) was significantly larger than that in XY males (8.1).These findings provide an insight into the development of PGCs in yellow catfish embryos and the relationship between embryonicPGCnumberand thelatergonaddifferentiation.


Assuntos
Peixes-Gato/genética , Gametogênese/genética , Células Germinativas/metabolismo , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Movimento Celular/genética , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Feminino , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Gônadas/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/metabolismo
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1930): 20200578, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605522

RESUMO

Apoptosis is an evolutionarily conserved process of programmed cell death. Here, we show structural changes in the gonads caused by apoptosis during gametogenesis in the scleractinian coral, Euphyllia ancora. Anatomical and histological analyses revealed that from the non-spawning to the spawning season, testes and ovaries increased in size due to active proliferation, differentiation and development of germ cells. Additionally, the thickness and cell density of the gonadal somatic layer decreased significantly as the spawning season approached. Further analyses demonstrated that the changes in the gonadal somatic layer were caused by apoptosis in a subpopulation of gonadal somatic cells. The occurrence of apoptosis in the gonadal somatic layer was also confirmed in other scleractinian corals. Our findings suggest that decreases in thickness and cell density of the gonadal somatic layer are structural adjustments facilitating oocyte and spermary (male germ cell cluster) enlargement and subsequent gamete release from the gonads. In animal reproduction, apoptosis in germ cells is an important process that controls the number and quality of gametes. However, apoptosis in gonadal somatic cells has rarely been reported among metazoans. Thus, our data provide evidence for a unique use of apoptosis in animal reproduction.


Assuntos
Antozoários/fisiologia , Apoptose , Animais , Diploide , Feminino , Células Germinativas , Gônadas , Masculino , Oócitos , Ovário , Estações do Ano , Testículo
10.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127415, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603964

RESUMO

Amphibians are the most endangered class of vertebrates. In this study, Xenopus laevis frogs were exposed to 0, 1 and 10 mg/L of triadimefon or triadimenol. After 14 or 28 days of exposure, high levels of triadimefon or triadimenol obstructed the growth of frogs. However, low levels of triadimefon induced the growth of females after the longer period of exposure. We also found that the antioxidant enzyme activity and LDH levels in males were higher than those in females after 28-days exposure. In histopathology tests, triadimenol exerted more effect on the ovary while triadimefon exerted more effect on the testes. Additionally, the levels of Estradiol in all 14-day treatments, except 1 mg/L triadimenol, were significantly decreased, however, there was no difference in testosterone levels. Furthermore, triadimefon and triadimenol disrupted the expression of genes controlling hormone homeostasis and reproduction, and this effect depended on the exposure time and the gender of the organism. Our experiments explored the effect of triadimefon and its metabolite on the gonads of frogs and highlighted the role that pesticides are likely to play in the global decline of amphibians.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Gônadas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Triazóis/toxicidade , Xenopus laevis/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Fungicidas Industriais/metabolismo , Gônadas/anatomia & histologia , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/metabolismo , Masculino , Xenopus laevis/metabolismo
11.
Chemosphere ; 259: 127221, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615454

RESUMO

Due to its unique properties, graphene oxide (GO) has potential for biomedical and electronic applications, however environmental contamination including aquatic ecosystem is inevitable. Moreover, potential risks of GO in aquatic life are inadequately explored. Present study was designed to evaluate GO as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) using the model Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). GO was injected intraperitoneally (25-200 µg/g) once to breeding pairs and continued pair breeding an additional 21 days. Eggs laid were analyzed for fecundity and the fertilized eggs were evaluated for developmental abnormalities including hatching. Histopathological evaluation of gonads, liver, and kidneys was made 21 days post-injection. LD50 was found to be sex-dependent. Fecundity tended to reduce in a dose-dependent manner during early post-injection days; however, the overall evaluation showed no significant difference. The hatchability of embryos was reduced significantly in the 200 µg/g group; edema (yolk and cardiovascular) and embryo-mortality remained unaltered. Histopathological assessment identified black particles, probably agglomerated GO, in the gonads of GO-treated fish. However, folliculogenesis in stromal compartments of ovary and the composition of germinal elements in testis remained almost unaltered. Moreover, granulosa and Leydig cells morphology did not indicate any significant EDC-related effects. Although liver and kidney histopathology did not show GO as an EDC, some GO-treated fish accumulated proteinaceous fluid in hepatic vessels and induced hyperplasia in interstitial lymphoid cells (HIL) located in kidneys. GO agglomerated in medaka gonads after 21-days post-injection. However, gonad histopathology including granulosa and Leydig cells alterations were associated with GO toxicity rather than EDC effects.


Assuntos
Grafite/toxicidade , Oryzias/fisiologia , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Ecossistema , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Feminino , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Testículo/efeitos dos fármacos
12.
Chemosphere ; 261: 127692, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32721689

RESUMO

Marine organisms are exposed to great changes caused by man due to discharges into the oceans, so the study of marine pollution is of great value for each ecosystem. For this study, 963 specimens of pelagic fish have been collected, of which 345 are Scomber colias, 294 are Trachurus picturatus and 324 are Sardina pilchardus, it was wanted to study the development and ontogeny in the three species observing if there were variations in their metallic content. The study covered a total of 2 years, from June 2016 to May 2018.16 samples of each species were studied each month, during the 2 years of sampling, from the samplings carried out by the Canary Islands Oceanographic Center of the Spanish Institute Oceanography (COC-IEO) in the markets of the Island of Tenerife. The concentration of 11 anthropic metals was determined in each sample using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES) technique. Statistical studies were carried out with factors such as the oceanographic season, and the level of maturity of the gonads. S. colias was the species that presented the highest concentration in a greater number of metals. S. pilchardus presents higher concentration in Cu, Li and Zn, in the warm season. These are metals of a very anthropic character on coasts; This species tends to get closer to the coasts compared to the other two and is the cause of its higher concentration in these metals due to the influence of pollution linked to the coast. The immature specimens of the three species had a higher concentration in more metals than the mature specimens.


Assuntos
Monitoramento Ambiental , Peixes/metabolismo , Metais/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , África Ocidental , Animais , Ecossistema , Gônadas , Humanos , Metais/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Oceanos e Mares , Perciformes , Estações do Ano , Espanha , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(31): 39516-39530, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32651777

RESUMO

Seawater pH lowering, known as ocean acidification, is considered among the major threats to marine environment. In this study, post-spawning adults of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus were maintained at three pH values (8.0, 7.7, 7.4) for 60 days. Physiological, biochemical, cellular, behavioural and reproductive responses were evaluated in males and females. Significant differences between sexes were observed, with higher ammonia excretion and lower catalase activity in males. Respiration rate (after 21 days), catalase activity in gonads and total coelomocyte count showed the same increasing trend in males and females under low pH. Ammonia excretion, gonadosomatic index and lysozyme activity exhibited opposite responses to low pH, with an increasing trend in males and decreasing in females. Results demonstrated that exposure to low pH could result in different response strategies of male and female sea urchins at a physiological, biochemical and immunological level. Reduced female gonadosomatic index under low pH suggested decreased energy investment in reproduction.


Assuntos
Paracentrotus , Animais , Feminino , Gônadas , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Reprodução , Ouriços-do-Mar , Água do Mar
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 735: 139496, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32480152

RESUMO

Pyriproxyfen (PPF), a broad-spectrum insecticide known to cause reproductive and endocrine disruption in invertebrates, while the data is scarce in aquatic vertebrates. The goal of this study is to investigate the impact of PPF on reproductive endocrine system of male and female zebrafish along hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. In brain, PPF caused significant alteration in the transcripts of erα, lhß, and cyp19b genes in male and fshß, lhß, and cyp19b genes in female zebrafish. The downstream genes of steroidogenic pathway like, star, 3ßhsd, 17ßhsd, and cyp19a expression were significantly altered in gonad of both sexes. Subsequent changes in circulatory steroid hormone levels lead to imbalance in hormone homeostasis as revealed from estradiol/testosterone (E2/T) ratio. Further, the vitellogenin transcript level was enhanced in hepatic tissues and their blood plasma content was increased in male (16.21%) and declined in female (21.69%). PPF also induced histopathological changes in gonads such as, reduction of mature spermatocytes in male and vitellogenic oocytes in female zebrafish. The altered E2/T ratio and gonadal histopathology were supported by the altered transcript levels of HPG axis genes. Overall, these findings provide new insights of PPF in zebrafish reproductive system and highlights for further investigations on its potential risks in aquatic environment.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacologia , Animais , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Gônadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Homeostase , Hipotálamo , Masculino , Piridinas , Reprodução , Vitelogeninas , Peixe-Zebra
15.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110852, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554204

RESUMO

Maps with grey or even white spaces are still present in spite of the fact that persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are at the forefront of research in aquatic toxicology and environmental safety. This is also the case for the Mureș River basin. The intensive use of industrial substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and pesticides such as organochlorine compounds (OCPs) has caused global contamination of the aquatic environment. In our study we have found very high concentrations of both PCBs (2110-169,000 ng/g lipid weight ΣPCB, 1950-166,000 ng/g lipid weight ΣPCB7) and OCPs (1130-7830 ng/g lipid weight ΣDDT, 47.6-2790 ng/g lipid weight ΣHCH, 5.53-35.6 ng/g lipid weight ΣChlordane, and 6.74-158 ng/g lipid weight HCB) in the gonad tissue of Barbus barbus (Linnaeus, 1758) males and females. Contrary to most studies where the weight, length, and lipid percentage are positively correlated with the concentration of POPs from different tissue types, we observed a downward trend for the lipid normalized concentrations of some pollutants in gonads while these indices were actually increasing. The decrease of lipid normalized POPs with the increase of CF and lipid percentage may be due to the fact that individuals are eliminating hard and soft roes every year during reproduction which could mean that some quantities of pollutants are also eliminated along with the hard and soft roes. The high POPs concentrations found in our study should be a needed wakeup call for environmentalists and a starting point in developing monitoring and management measures for these pollutants.


Assuntos
Bioacumulação , Cyprinidae/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Gônadas/metabolismo , Rios/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Feminino , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/metabolismo , Masculino , Praguicidas/análise , Praguicidas/metabolismo , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/metabolismo , Romênia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(29): 36799-36815, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572740

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine how the short-term exposure to a supraphysiological concentration of waterborne 17ß-estradiol (E2) influences on melatonin (Mel) and thyroxine (T4) concentrations in plasma and E2 and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT) concentrations in plasma and gonads in both sexes of round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) during the pre-spawning, spawning, late spawning and non-spawning phases. The experimental protocol was based on short-term, repeated exposures of fish to a supraphysiological dose of waterborne E2. Mel level was unchanged on exposure to E2 during the investigated phases, and its role in determining a time frame for spawning in both sexes of round goby seems to be stable in those conditions. T4 and sex steroids (E2 and 11-KT) were sensitive to the exposure of E2, and those changes influence gonads by accelerating oocyte development, ovulation and regression and inhibiting spermatogenesis in this species. The results demonstrate that the physiological responses of fish in all investigated phases were altered over a short window of exposure, indicating that short-term exposure to a supraphysiological dose of E2 may impact fish in the wild. Furthermore, round goby can be recommended as a very suitable model for studying endocrine disruptors, which is sensitive to even short exposure to E2.


Assuntos
Estradiol , Perciformes , Animais , Estrogênios , Feminino , Peixes , Gônadas , Masculino
17.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(8): 1873-1878, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32489072

RESUMO

The present study was conducted to explore the effect of constant temperature overwintering on the growth, gonadal development and internal quality of the Wh. pigra which were in overwintering period. Wh. pigra which in overwintering period were placed in light incubator at 21 ℃, and the Wh. pigra that overwintered under natural conditions were used as control. That the changes of growth performance, gonad index, internal quality of two groups of Wh. pigra were measured at the end of the overwintering. Simultaneously the tissue slice technique was used to observe the morphological structure of the spermary and ovary of the two groups. The results showed that the body weight of constant temperature overwintering Wh. pigra which were placed in light incubator at 21 ℃ was 2.35 times that of natural overwintering Wh. pigra which overwintered under natural conditions, and the weight of female gonads of the Wh. pigra which were placed in light incubator at 21 ℃ was 11.54% higher than that of Wh. pigra which overwintered under natural conditions, and the weight of male gonads of the Wh. pigra which were placed in light incubator at 21 ℃ was 48.33% higher than that of the Wh. pigra which overwintered under natural conditions. At the same time, that vitellogenesis cells and film forming cells which in ovarian vesicles were significantly higher than those of the Wh. pigra which overwintered under natural conditions, and that spermatogonia and primary spermatocytes which in seminal vesicle were significantly higher than those of Wh. pigra which overwintered under natural conditions. Most important of all, the anti-thrombin activity of Wh. pigra which were placed in light incubator at 21 ℃ increased by 27.85% compared with the Wh. pigra that overwintered under natural conditions. In conclusion, that constant temperature can promote the growth, the development of sperm and egg cells, and the increase of anti-thrombin activity of Wh. pigra which were in overwintering period.


Assuntos
Sanguessugas , Animais , Feminino , Gônadas , Masculino , Ovário , Óvulo , Temperatura
18.
Rev. chil. radiol ; 26(2): 40-45, jun. 2020. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126192

RESUMO

Resumen: La protección gonadal ha sido durante largo tiempo un importante factor para abordar el requisito "tan bajo como sea razonablemente posible" ALARA. El presente artículo realiza una revisión sistemática sobre la utilidad de la protección gonadal en la radiografía de pelvis en la cual se han destacado los factores que tienen que ver con su realización diaria, es decir, la dosis de radiación involucrada, la radiosensibilidad de las gónadas, la posición del protector gonadal y el factor psicológico de la población en relación con su uso. La incorporación de equipamientos modernos, con dosis y protocolo optimizados, transforma el beneficio de la protección en un tema al menos debatible. Mientras algunos siguen respaldando la medida, otros organismos y autores ya no la respaldan. Es necesario reconsiderar prácticas actuales fundadas en consensos científicos que pueden estar obsoletos y considerar el factor de cambio cultural basados en estos nuevos consensos para su implementación, sin generar mayor preocupación en la población.


Abstract: Gonadal protection has long been an important factor in addressing the ALARA "as low as reasonably possible" requirement. This article performs a systematic review on the usefulness of gonadal protection in pelvic radiography, in which the factors that have to do with its daily performance have been highlighted, that is, radiation dose involved, the radiosensitivity of the gonads, the position of the gonadal shielding and the psychological factor of the population in relation to its use. The incorporation of modern equipment, with optimized dose and protocols, transforms the benefit of gonad shielding into an issue that is at least debatable. While some continue to support the measure, other agencies and authors no longer support it. It is necessary to reconsider current practices based on scientific consensus that may be obsolete and consider the factor of cultural change based on these new consensus for its implementation, without generating major concern in the population.


Assuntos
Humanos , Criança , Pelve/diagnóstico por imagem , Proteção Radiológica/métodos , Gônadas/efeitos da radiação , Doses de Radiação , Raios X , Radiografia
19.
Gene ; 755: 144906, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32554048

RESUMO

The olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus, an important marine fish, shows gender differences in growth. The mechanism on its gonadal differentiation direction affected with exogenous factors still needs to be clarified. The anti-Müllerian hormone (amh) gene is involved in fish testicular differentiation and maintenance. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of the flounder amh in tissues and the gonads. The quantitative expression analysis results showed that it was highly expressed in the testis, especially in the testis at stages I - IV (P < 0.05). Also, amh was detected in Sertoli cells surrounding spermatogonia and peripheral seminiferous lobule of the testis with in situ hybridization (ISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). During the differentiation period, the amh expression in the testis of the tamoxifen treatment group (100 ppm) was higher than that in the ovary of the 17ß-estradiol (E2, 5 ppm) group, and the expression levels of amh during process of the male differentiation in the tamoxifen group were higher than those in the 17ɑ-methyltestosterone (MT, 5 ppm) group (P < 0.05). ISH results also exhibited that amh was expressed in the somatic cells that surrounded the germ cells of juvenile flounder similar to adult ones. Furthermore, the flounder gonads in the tamoxifen group maintained more germ cells and somatic cells than those in the MT group from 20 to 80 mm total length (TL). Especially, at 60 and 80 mm TL, the numbers of germ and somatic cells in the tamoxifen group were significantly higher than those in the MT group (P < 0.05). In summary, amh might initiate the process of testicular differentiation, and is involved in the early development and maintenance of testis.


Assuntos
Hormônio Antimülleriano/genética , Linguado/genética , Células de Sertoli/metabolismo , Animais , Hormônio Antimülleriano/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular , Estradiol/farmacologia , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Gônadas/metabolismo , Hibridização In Situ/métodos , Masculino , Metiltestosterona/farmacologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Diferenciação Sexual/genética , Espermatogônias/metabolismo , Tamoxifeno/farmacologia , Testículo/metabolismo
20.
Gene ; 749: 144754, 2020 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32376450

RESUMO

DNA methylation is an essential epigenetic modification that significantly regulates gene expression during development and differentiation. In this study, genome-wide methylation analysis of different gonads of the large yellow croaker was performed using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing (WGBS), which has characterized DNA methylation patterns in gonad tissue and identified candidate regions for future studies. Clustering analysis revealed that male and neomale methylation patterns were close compared to female. Based on KEGG pathway analysis of differentially methylated genes, we obtained signaling pathways related to gonadal development. We further investigated the methylation status of previously reported sex determination genes, and found that these genes showed different methylation status in three types of gonads, which may provide important clues to reveal the sex determination genes in the large yellow croaker. Furthermore, combined with transcriptome analysis, we found 7 sex-related genes in three comparison groups where expression negatively correlated with methylation.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA , Gônadas/metabolismo , Perciformes/genética , Animais , Citosina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Masculino , Perciformes/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , RNA-Seq , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Processos de Determinação Sexual , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA