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1.
PLoS Genet ; 16(7): e1008923, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735630

RESUMO

Mitochondrial translation defects can be due to mutations affecting mitochondrial- or nuclear-encoded components. The number of known nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial translation has significantly increased in the past years. RCC1L (WBSCR16), a putative GDP/GTP exchange factor, has recently been described to interact with the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit. In humans, three different RCC1L isoforms have been identified that originate from alternative splicing but share the same N-terminus, RCC1LV1, RCC1LV2 and RCC1LV3. All three isoforms were exclusively localized to mitochondria, interacted with its inner membrane and could associate with homopolymeric oligos to different extent. Mitochondrial immunoprecipitation experiments showed that RCC1LV1 and RCC1LV3 associated with the mitochondrial large and small ribosomal subunit, respectively, while no significant association was observed for RCC1LV2. Overexpression and silencing of RCC1LV1 or RCC1LV3 led to mitoribosome biogenesis defects that resulted in decreased translation. Indeed, significant changes in steady-state levels and distribution on isokinetic sucrose gradients were detected not only for mitoribosome proteins but also for GTPases, (GTPBP10, ERAL1 and C4orf14), and pseudouridylation proteins, (TRUB2, RPUSD3 and RPUSD4). All in all, our data suggest that RCC1L is essential for mitochondrial function and that the coordination of at least two isoforms is essential for proper ribosomal assembly.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Isoformas de Proteínas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Humanos , Imunoprecipitação , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Ribossomos Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Proteínas Monoméricas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética
2.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4029, 2020 08 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788597

RESUMO

In autosomal dominant optic atrophy (ADOA), caused by mutations in the mitochondrial cristae biogenesis and fusion protein optic atrophy 1 (Opa1), retinal ganglion cell (RGC) dysfunction and visual loss occur by unknown mechanisms. Here, we show a role for autophagy in ADOA pathogenesis. In RGCs expressing mutated Opa1, active 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and its autophagy effector ULK1 accumulate at axonal hillocks. This AMPK activation triggers localized hillock autophagosome accumulation and mitophagy, ultimately resulting in reduced axonal mitochondrial content that is restored by genetic inhibition of AMPK and autophagy. In C. elegans, deletion of AMPK or of key autophagy and mitophagy genes normalizes the axonal mitochondrial content that is reduced upon mitochondrial dysfunction. In conditional, RGC specific Opa1-deficient mice, depletion of the essential autophagy gene Atg7 normalizes the excess autophagy and corrects the visual defects caused by Opa1 ablation. Thus, our data identify AMPK and autophagy as targetable components of ADOA pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Atrofia Óptica Autossômica Dominante/complicações , Transtornos da Visão/complicações , Adenilato Quinase/metabolismo , Animais , Autofagia/genética , Axônios/patologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ativação Enzimática , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitofagia , Mutação/genética , Fosforilação , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia
3.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000808, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817651

RESUMO

Although dysregulation of mitochondrial dynamics has been linked to cellular senescence, which contributes to advanced age-related disorders, it is unclear how Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5), an essential transcriptional factor of cardiovascular remodeling, mediates the link between mitochondrial dynamics and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) senescence. Here, we show that Klf5 down-regulation in VSMCs is correlated with rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), an age-related vascular disease. Mice lacking Klf5 in VSMCs exacerbate vascular senescence and progression of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced AAA by facilitating reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Klf5 knockdown enhances, while Klf5 overexpression suppresses mitochondrial fission. Mechanistically, Klf5 activates eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5a (eIF5a) transcription through binding to the promoter of eIF5a, which in turn preserves mitochondrial integrity by interacting with mitofusin 1 (Mfn1). Accordingly, decreased expression of eIF5a elicited by Klf5 down-regulation leads to mitochondrial fission and excessive ROS production. Inhibition of mitochondrial fission decreases ROS production and VSMC senescence. Our studies provide a potential therapeutic target for age-related vascular disorders.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/genética , Idoso , Angiotensina II/genética , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/metabolismo , Aneurisma da Aorta Abdominal/patologia , Senescência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ecocardiografia , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Humanos , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/deficiência , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores de Iniciação de Peptídeos/deficiência , Cultura Primária de Células , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ligação Proteica , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235490, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628708

RESUMO

Mutations in KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF (RAS/BRAF) genes are the main predictive biomarkers for the response to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) targeted therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). This retrospective study aimed to report the mutational status prevalence of these genes, explore their possible associations with clinicopathological features, and build and validate a predictive model. To achieve these objectives, 500 mCRC Mexican patients were screened for clinically relevant mutations in RAS/BRAF genes. Fifty-two percent of these specimens harbored clinically relevant mutations in at least one screened gene. Among these, 86% had a mutation in KRAS, 7% in NRAS, 6% in BRAF, and 2% in both NRAS and BRAF. Only tumor location in the proximal colon exhibited a significant correlation with KRAS and BRAF mutational status (p-value = 0.0414 and 0.0065, respectively). Further t-SNE analyses were made to 191 specimens to reveal patterns among patients with clinical parameters and KRAS mutational status. Then, directed by the results from classical statistical tests and t-SNE analysis, neural network models utilized entity embeddings to learn patterns and build predictive models using a minimal number of trainable parameters. This study could be the first step in the prediction for RAS/BRAF mutational status from tumoral features and could lead the way to a more detailed and more diverse dataset that could benefit from machine learning methods.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Modelos Estatísticos , Taxa de Mutação , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , México/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Redes Neurais de Computação , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3409, 2020 07 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641778

RESUMO

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is associated with high mortality and therapy resistance. Here, we show that low expression of κB-Ras GTPases is frequently detected in PDAC and correlates with higher histologic grade. In a model of KRasG12D-driven PDAC, loss of κB-Ras accelerates tumour development and shortens median survival. κB-Ras deficiency promotes acinar-to-ductal metaplasia (ADM) during tumour initiation as well as tumour progression through intrinsic effects on proliferation and invasion. κB-Ras proteins are also required for acinar regeneration after pancreatitis, demonstrating a general role in control of plasticity. Molecularly, upregulation of Ral GTPase activity and Sox9 expression underlies the observed phenotypes, identifying a previously unrecognized function of Ral signalling in ADM. Our results provide evidence for a tumour suppressive role of κB-Ras proteins and highlight low κB-Ras levels and consequent loss of Ral control as risk factors, thus emphasizing the necessity for therapeutic options that allow interference with Ral-driven signalling.


Assuntos
Células Acinares/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/genética , Pancreatite/genética , Proteínas/genética , Células Acinares/patologia , Idoso , Animais , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/metabolismo , Carcinoma Ductal Pancreático/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Feminino , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Proteínas I-kappa B/genética , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Metaplasia/genética , Metaplasia/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/patologia , Pancreatite/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/genética , Fatores de Transcrição SOX9/metabolismo , Proteínas ral de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas ral de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Proteínas ras/genética , Proteínas ras/metabolismo
6.
Mol Cell ; 79(4): 629-644.e4, 2020 08 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32679035

RESUMO

In contrast to the bacterial translation machinery, mitoribosomes and mitochondrial translation factors are highly divergent in terms of composition and architecture. There is increasing evidence that the biogenesis of mitoribosomes is an intricate pathway, involving many assembly factors. To better understand this process, we investigated native assembly intermediates of the mitoribosomal large subunit from the human parasite Trypanosoma brucei using cryo-electron microscopy. We identify 28 assembly factors, 6 of which are homologous to bacterial and eukaryotic ribosome assembly factors. They interact with the partially folded rRNA by specifically recognizing functionally important regions such as the peptidyltransferase center. The architectural and compositional comparison of the assembly intermediates indicates a stepwise modular assembly process, during which the rRNA folds toward its mature state. During the process, several conserved GTPases and a helicase form highly intertwined interaction networks that stabilize distinct assembly intermediates. The presented structures provide general insights into mitoribosomal maturation.


Assuntos
Ribossomos Mitocondriais/química , RNA Ribossômico/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores/química , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/metabolismo , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/química , RNA Helicases DEAD-box/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/química , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Ribossomos Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Conformação de Ácido Nucleico , RNA Ribossômico/química , Proteínas Ribossômicas/química , Proteínas Ribossômicas/genética , Proteínas Ribossômicas/metabolismo , Subunidades Ribossômicas Maiores/metabolismo , Trypanosoma brucei brucei/genética
7.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(27): 15684-15693, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32571921

RESUMO

Mitochondria are known to play an essential role in photoreceptor function and survival that enables normal vision. Within photoreceptors, mitochondria are elongated and extend most of the inner-segment length, where they supply energy for protein synthesis and the phototransduction machinery in the outer segment, as well as acting as a calcium store. Here, we examined the arrangement of the mitochondria within the inner segment in detail using three-dimensional (3D) electron microscopy techniques and show they are tethered to the plasma membrane in a highly specialized arrangement. Remarkably, mitochondria and their cristae openings align with those of neighboring inner segments. The pathway by which photoreceptors meet their high energy demands is not fully understood. We propose this to be a mechanism to share metabolites and assist in maintaining homeostasis across the photoreceptor cell layer. In the extracellular space between photoreceptors, Müller glial processes were identified. Due to the often close proximity to the inner-segment mitochondria, they may, too, play a role in the inner-segment mitochondrial arrangement as well as metabolite shuttling. OPA1 is an important factor in mitochondrial homeostasis, including cristae remodeling; therefore, we examined the photoreceptors of a heterozygous Opa1 knockout mouse model. The cristae structure in the Opa1 +/- photoreceptors was not greatly affected, but the mitochondria were enlarged and had reduced alignment to neighboring inner-segment mitochondria. This indicates the importance of key regulators in maintaining this specialized photoreceptor mitochondrial arrangement.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Membranas Mitocondriais/ultraestrutura , Visão Ocular/genética , Animais , Membrana Celular/genética , Membrana Celular/ultraestrutura , Células Ependimogliais/metabolismo , Células Ependimogliais/ultraestrutura , Humanos , Camundongos , Microscopia Eletrônica , Mitocôndrias/ultraestrutura , Membranas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Células Fotorreceptoras/ultraestrutura , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
8.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(2): C404-C418, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520609

RESUMO

The ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) superfamily of regulatory GTPases, including both the ARF and ARF-like (ARL) proteins, control a multitude of cellular functions, including aspects of vesicular traffic, lipid metabolism, mitochondrial architecture, the assembly and dynamics of the microtubule and actin cytoskeletons, and other pathways in cell biology. Considering their general utility, it is perhaps not surprising that increasingly ARF/ARLs have been found in connection to primary cilia. Here, we critically evaluate the current knowledge of the roles four ARF/ARLs (ARF4, ARL3, ARL6, ARL13B) play in cilia and highlight key missing information that would help move our understanding forward. Importantly, these GTPases are themselves regulated by guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) that activate them and by GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs) that act as both effectors and terminators of signaling. We believe that the identification of the GEFs and GAPs and better models of the actions of these GTPases and their regulators will provide a much deeper understanding and appreciation of the mechanisms that underly ciliary functions and the causes of a number of human ciliopathies.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Cílios/genética , Ciliopatias/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/classificação , Cílios/metabolismo , Ciliopatias/patologia , Citoesqueleto/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/classificação , Proteínas Ativadoras de GTPase/genética , Fatores de Troca do Nucleotídeo Guanina/genética , Humanos , Microtúbulos/genética , Transdução de Sinais/genética
10.
Am J Clin Pathol ; 154(2): 266-276, 2020 07 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525522

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Management of colorectal cancer warrants mutational analysis of KRAS/NRAS when considering anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy and BRAF testing for prognostic stratification. In this multicenter study, we compared a fully integrated, cartridge-based system to standard-of-care assays used by participating laboratories. METHODS: Twenty laboratories enrolled 874 colorectal cancer cases between November 2017 and December 2018. Testing was performed on the Idylla automated system (Biocartis) using the KRAS and NRAS-BRAF cartridges (research use only) and results compared with in-house standard-of-care testing methods. RESULTS: There were sufficient data on 780 cases to measure turnaround time compared with standard assays. In-house polymerase chain reaction (PCR) had an average testing turnaround time of 5.6 days, send-out PCR of 22.5 days, in-house Sanger sequencing of 14.7 days, send-out Sanger of 17.8 days, in-house next-generation sequencing (NGS) of 12.5 days, and send-out NGS of 20.0 days. Standard testing had an average turnaround time of 11 days. Idylla average time to results was 4.9 days with a range of 0.4 to 13.5 days. CONCLUSIONS: The described cartridge-based system offers rapid and reliable testing of clinically actionable mutation in colorectal cancer specimens directly from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. Its simplicity and ease of use compared with other molecular techniques make it suitable for routine clinical laboratory testing.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrão de Cuidado , Fatores de Tempo
11.
Gene ; 754: 144854, 2020 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525045

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common forms of neurodegenerative diseases. Aggregation of Aß42 and hyperphosphorylated tau are two major hallmarks of AD. Whether different forms of tau (soluble or hyperphosphorylated) or Aß are the main culprit in the events observed in AD is still under investigation. Here, we examined the effect of wild-type, prone to hyperphosphorylation and hyperphosphorylated tau, and also Aß42 peptide on the brain antioxidant defense system and two mitochondrial genes, Marf (homologous to human MFN2) and Drp1 involved in mitochondrial dynamics in transgenic Drosophila melanogaster. AD is an age associated disease. Therefore, the activity of antioxidant agents, CAT, SOD, and GSH levels and the mRNA levels of Marf and Drp1 were assessed in different time points of the flies lifespan. Reduction in cognitive function and antioxidant activity was observed in all transgenic flies at any time point. The most and the least effect on the eye phenotype was exerted by hyperphosphorylated tau and Aß42, respectively. In addition, the most remarkable alteration in Marf and Drp1 mRNA levels was observed in transgenic flies expressing hyperphosphorylated tau when pan neuronal expression of transgenes was applied. However, when the disease causing gene expression was confined to the mushroom body, Marf and Drp1 mRNA levels alteration was more prominent in tauWT and tauE14 transgenic flies, respectively. In conclusion, in spite of antioxidant deficiency caused by different types of tau and Aß42, it seems that tau exerts more toxic effect on the eye phenotype and mitochondrial genes regulation (Marf and Drp1). Moreover, different mechanisms seem to be involved in mitochondrial genes dysregulation when Aß or various forms of tau are expressed.


Assuntos
Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Dinaminas/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Proteínas tau/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Dinaminas/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Transtornos da Memória/metabolismo , Transtornos da Memória/patologia , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Fosforilação , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Proteínas tau/genética
12.
Life Sci ; 254: 117762, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437795

RESUMO

AIMS: Patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) have less tolerance to ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver than those with the healthy liver; hence have a higher incidence of severe complications after surgery. This study aimed to investigate the dynamics of the liver and mitochondrial damage and the impact of TLR4 knockout (TLR4KO) on Mfn2 expression in the composite model of NAFLD and IRI. MAIN METHODS: We performed high-fat diet (HFD) feeding and ischemia reperfusion (IR) on wild type (WT) and TLR4 knockout TLR4KO mice. KEY FINDINGS: The degree of structural and functional injuries to the liver and mitochondria (NAFLD and IRI) is greater than that caused by a single factor (NAFLD or IRI) or a simple superposition of both. The IL-6 and TNF-α expressions were significantly suppressed (P < .05), while PGC-1α and Mfn2 expressions were up-regulated considerably (P < .05) after TLR4KO. Furthermore, mitochondrial fusion increased, while ATP consumption and ROS production decreased significantly after TLR4KO (P < .05). The degree of reduction of compound injury by TLR4KO is more significant than the reduction degree of single factor injury. Also, TNF-α and IL-6 levels can be used predictive markers for mitochondrial damage and liver tolerance to NAFLD and IRI. SIGNIFICANCE: TLR4KO upregulates the expression of Mfn2 and PGC-1α in the composite model of NAFLD and IRI. This pathway may be related to IL-6 and TNF-α. This evidence provides theoretical and experimental basis for the subsequent Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) receptor targeted therapy.


Assuntos
GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/biossíntese , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/biossíntese , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Transplante de Fígado , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/metabolismo , Reperfusão , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/deficiência , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Ativação Transcricional , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima
14.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 16(1): 170-172, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32362631

RESUMO

With the discovery of v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) inhibitors, new treatment possibilities arose against metastatic melanoma. A frequent adverse effect of BRAF inhibitor therapy is the induction of epithelial proliferations such as cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous papilloma. Here, we describe a case in which a patient developed extensive anal epithelial proliferations resembling condylomata acuminata, after starting vemurafenib treatment. This adverse effect has rarely been reported in the literature. Interestingly, the lesions in our patient were negative for human papillomavirus, and mutations in BRAF, Neuroblastoma rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (NRAS), Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS), and Harvey rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (HRAS) were not detected. Different pathways can contribute to these epithelial proliferations resembling condylomata acuminata. We show the relevance of a detailed history at the beginning and during treatment, instructions, education, and dermatological follow-up (including the genital area) for patients treated with BRAF inhibitors. Condylomata acuminata can influence the quality of life and are treated, in an early stage, with cryotherapy, coagulation, imiquimod, and/or CO2 laser therapy.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Ânus/diagnóstico , Proliferação de Células , Condiloma Acuminado/diagnóstico , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Vemurafenib/efeitos adversos , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias do Ânus/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias do Ânus/genética , Condiloma Acuminado/induzido quimicamente , Diagnóstico Diferencial , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares/genética , Papillomaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Papillomavirus/virologia , Prognóstico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas p21(ras)/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia
15.
Cancer Sci ; 111(7): 2536-2545, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32324312

RESUMO

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a prevalent malignancy in Southeast Asia, hence, identifying easily detectable biomarkers for NPC screening is essential for better diagnosis and prognosis. Using genome-wide and targeted analyses based on next-generation sequencing approaches, we previously showed that gene promoters are hypermethylated in NPC tissues. To confirm whether DNA methylation rates of genes could be used as biomarkers for NPC screening, 79 histologically diagnosed NPC patients and 29 noncancer patients were recruited. A convenient quantitative analysis of DNA methylation using real-time PCR (qAMP) was carried out, involving pretreatment of tissue DNA, and circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) from nonhemolytic plasma, with methylation-sensitive and/or methylation-dependent restriction enzymes. The qAMP analyses revealed that methylation rates of RERG, ZNF671, ITGA4, and SHISA3 were significantly higher in NPC primary tumor tissues compared to noncancerous tissues, with sufficient diagnostic accuracy of the area under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC). Interestingly, higher methylation rates of RERG in ccfDNA were statistically significant and yielded a very good AUC; however, those of ZNF671, ITGA4, and SHISA3 were not significant. Furthermore, the combination of methylation rates of RERG and ZNF671 in ccfDNA showed higher diagnostic accuracy than either of them individually. In conclusion, the methylation rates of specific genes in ccfDNA can serve as novel biomarkers for early detection and screening of NPC.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais , Ácidos Nucleicos Livres , Metilação de DNA , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/genética , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Área Sob a Curva , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/diagnóstico , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/epidemiologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Curva ROC
16.
Biochim Biophys Acta Rev Cancer ; 1873(2): 188364, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32275934

RESUMO

Hyperactivation of the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathway is prevalent in melanoma, principally due to mutations in the BRAF and NRAS genes. MAPK inhibitors are effective only short-term, and recurrence occurs due to functional redundancies or intertwined pathways. The remodeling of Ca2+ signaling is also common in melanoma cells, partly through the increased expression of T-type channels (TTCCs). Here we summarize current knowledge about the prognostic value and molecular targeting of TTCCs. Furthermore, we discuss recent evidence pointing to TTCCs as molecular switches for melanoma chemoresistance, which set the grounds for novel combined therapies against the advanced disease.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Canais de Cálcio Tipo T/metabolismo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/farmacologia , Bloqueadores dos Canais de Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Progressão da Doença , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Resistencia a Medicamentos Antineoplásicos/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/antagonistas & inibidores , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/genética , Melanoma/genética , Melanoma/mortalidade , Melanoma/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mutação , Prognóstico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas B-raf/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Res ; 1867(7): 118709, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224193

RESUMO

Peroxisomes are highly dynamic subcellular compartments with important functions in lipid and ROS metabolism. Impaired peroxisomal function can lead to severe metabolic disorders with developmental defects and neurological abnormalities. Recently, a new group of disorders has been identified, characterised by defects in the membrane dynamics and division of peroxisomes rather than by loss of metabolic functions. However, the contribution of impaired peroxisome plasticity to the pathophysiology of those disorders is not well understood. Mitochondrial fission factor (MFF) is a key component of both the peroxisomal and mitochondrial division machinery. Patients with MFF deficiency present with developmental and neurological abnormalities. Peroxisomes (and mitochondria) in patient fibroblasts are highly elongated as a result of impaired organelle division. The majority of studies into MFF-deficiency have focused on mitochondrial dysfunction, but the contribution of peroxisomal alterations to the pathophysiology is largely unknown. Here, we show that MFF deficiency does not cause alterations to overall peroxisomal biochemical function. However, loss of MFF results in reduced import-competency of the peroxisomal compartment and leads to the accumulation of pre-peroxisomal membrane structures. We show that peroxisomes in MFF-deficient cells display alterations in peroxisomal redox state and intra-peroxisomal pH. Removal of elongated peroxisomes through induction of autophagic processes is not impaired. A mathematical model describing key processes involved in peroxisome dynamics sheds further light into the physical processes disturbed in MFF-deficient cells. The consequences of our findings for the pathophysiology of MFF-deficiency and related disorders with impaired peroxisome plasticity are discussed.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Peroxissomos/genética , Autofagia/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas Associadas aos Microtúbulos/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
18.
PLoS Genet ; 16(3): e1008638, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191694

RESUMO

Compromising mitochondrial fusion or fission disrupts cellular homeostasis; however, the underlying mechanism(s) are not fully understood. The loss of C. elegans fzo-1MFN results in mitochondrial fragmentation, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential and the induction of the mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt). We performed a genome-wide RNAi screen for genes that when knocked-down suppress fzo-1MFN(lf)-induced UPRmt. Of the 299 genes identified, 143 encode negative regulators of autophagy, many of which have previously not been implicated in this cellular quality control mechanism. We present evidence that increased autophagic flux suppresses fzo-1MFN(lf)-induced UPRmt by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential rather than restoring mitochondrial morphology. Furthermore, we demonstrate that increased autophagic flux also suppresses UPRmt induction in response to a block in mitochondrial fission, but not in response to the loss of spg-7AFG3L2, which encodes a mitochondrial metalloprotease. Finally, we found that blocking mitochondrial fusion or fission leads to increased levels of certain types of triacylglycerols and that this is at least partially reverted by the induction of autophagy. We propose that the breakdown of these triacylglycerols through autophagy leads to elevated metabolic activity, thereby increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and restoring mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis.


Assuntos
Autofagia/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/genética , Animais , Autofagia/fisiologia , Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Proteínas de Caenorhabditis elegans/metabolismo , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Homeostase/genética , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/fisiologia , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Interferência de RNA , Resposta a Proteínas não Dobradas/fisiologia
19.
Ann Neurol ; 88(1): 18-32, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dominant optic atrophy (DOA) is the most common inherited optic neuropathy, with a prevalence of 1:12,000 to 1:25,000. OPA1 mutations are found in 70% of DOA patients, with a significant number remaining undiagnosed. METHODS: We screened 286 index cases presenting optic atrophy, negative for OPA1 mutations, by targeted next generation sequencing or whole exome sequencing. Pathogenicity and molecular mechanisms of the identified variants were studied in yeast and patient-derived fibroblasts. RESULTS: Twelve cases (4%) were found to carry novel variants in AFG3L2, a gene that has been associated with autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia 28 (SCA28). Half of cases were familial with a dominant inheritance, whereas the others were sporadic, including de novo mutations. Biallelic mutations were found in 3 probands with severe syndromic optic neuropathy, acting as recessive or phenotype-modifier variants. All the DOA-associated AFG3L2 mutations were clustered in the ATPase domain, whereas SCA28-associated mutations mostly affect the proteolytic domain. The pathogenic role of DOA-associated AFG3L2 mutations was confirmed in yeast, unraveling a mechanism distinct from that of SCA28-associated AFG3L2 mutations. Patients' fibroblasts showed abnormal OPA1 processing, with accumulation of the fission-inducing short forms leading to mitochondrial network fragmentation, not observed in SCA28 patients' cells. INTERPRETATION: This study demonstrates that mutations in AFG3L2 are a relevant cause of optic neuropathy, broadening the spectrum of clinical manifestations and genetic mechanisms associated with AFG3L2 mutations, and underscores the pivotal role of OPA1 and its processing in the pathogenesis of DOA. ANN NEUROL 2020 ANN NEUROL 2020;88:18-32.


Assuntos
Proteases Dependentes de ATP/genética , ATPases Associadas a Diversas Atividades Celulares/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Atrofia Óptica/genética , Doenças do Nervo Óptico/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Adulto Jovem
20.
BMC Genomics ; 21(1): 190, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32122294

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The AIG (avrRpt2-induced gene) family of GTPases, characterized by the presence of a distinctive AIG1 domain, is mysterious in having a peculiar phylogenetic distribution, a predilection for undergoing expansion and loss, and an uncertain functional role, especially in invertebrates. AIGs are frequently represented as GIMAPs (GTPase of the immunity associated protein family), characterized by presence of the AIG1 domain along with coiled-coil domains. Here we provide an overview of the remarkably expanded AIG repertoire of the freshwater gastropod Biomphalaria glabrata, compare it with AIGs in other organisms, and detail patterns of expression in B. glabrata susceptible or resistant to infection with Schistosoma mansoni, responsible for the neglected tropical disease of intestinal schistosomiasis. RESULTS: We define the 7 conserved motifs that comprise the AIG1 domain in B. glabrata and detail its association with at least 7 other domains, indicative of functional versatility of B. glabrata AIGs. AIG genes were usually found in tandem arrays in the B. glabrata genome, suggestive of an origin by segmental gene duplication. We found 91 genes with complete AIG1 domains, including 64 GIMAPs and 27 AIG genes without coiled-coils, more than known for any other organism except Danio (with > 100). We defined expression patterns of AIG genes in 12 different B. glabrata organs and characterized whole-body AIG responses to microbial PAMPs, and of schistosome-resistant or -susceptible strains of B. glabrata to S. mansoni exposure. Biomphalaria glabrata AIG genes clustered with expansions of AIG genes from other heterobranch gastropods yet showed unique lineage-specific subclusters. Other gastropods and bivalves had separate but also diverse expansions of AIG genes, whereas cephalopods seem to lack AIG genes. CONCLUSIONS: The AIG genes of B. glabrata exhibit expansion in both numbers and potential functions, differ markedly in expression between strains varying in susceptibility to schistosomes, and are responsive to immune challenge. These features provide strong impetus to further explore the functional role of AIG genes in the defense responses of B. glabrata, including to suppress or support the development of medically relevant S. mansoni parasites.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria/genética , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária , Motivos de Aminoácidos , Animais , Biomphalaria/parasitologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Vetores de Doenças , Evolução Molecular , GTP Fosfo-Hidrolases/química , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Família Multigênica , Domínios Proteicos
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