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1.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0237484, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332351

RESUMO

Livestock grazing and non-native plant species affect rangeland habitats globally. These factors may have important effects on ecosystem services including pollination, yet, interactions between pollinators, grazing, and invasive plants are poorly understood. To address this, we tested the hypothesis that cattle grazing and site colonization by cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) impact bee foraging and nesting habitats, and the biodiversity of wild bee communities, in a shortgrass prairie system. Bee nesting habitats (litter and wood cover) were marginally improved in non-grazed sites with low cheatgrass cover, though foraging habitat (floral cover and richness, bare soil) did not differ among cattle-grazed sites or non-grazed sites with low or high cheatgrass cover. However, floral cover was a good predictor of bee abundance and functional dispersion. Mean bee abundance, richness, diversity and functional diversity were significantly lower in cattle-grazed habitats than in non-grazed habitats. Differences in bee diversity among habitats were pronounced early in the growing season (May) but by late-season (August) these differences eroded as Melissodes spp. and Bombus spp. became more abundant at study sites. Fourth-corner analysis revealed that sites with high floral cover tended to support large, social, polylectic bees; sites with high grass cover tended to support oligolectic solitary bees. Both cattle-grazed sites and sites with high cheatgrass cover were associated with lower abundances of above-ground nesting bees but higher abundance of below-ground nesters than non-grazed sites with low cheatgrass cover. We conclude that high cheatgrass cover is not associated with reduced bee biodiversity or abundance, but cattle grazing was negatively associated with bee abundances and altered species composition. Although floral cover is an important predictor of bee assemblages, this was not impacted by cattle grazing and our study suggests that cattle likely impact bee communities through effects other than those mediated by forbs, including soil disturbance or nest destruction. Efforts aimed at pollinator conservation in prairie habitats should focus on managing cattle impacts early in the growing season to benefit sensitive bee species.


Assuntos
Abelhas/fisiologia , Gado/fisiologia , Polinização/fisiologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Bromus/fisiologia , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Flores/fisiologia , Pradaria , Plantas , Estações do Ano
2.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236895, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735578

RESUMO

Many studies on the coexistence of wildlife with livestock have focused primarily on similar-sized species. Furthermore, many of these studies have used dietary overlap as a measure of potential competition between interacting species and thus lack the important link between dietary overlap and any negative effects on a particular species-a prerequisite for competition. Consequently, the mechanisms that drive interspecific interactions between wildlife and cattle are frequently overlooked. To address this, we used an experimental setup where we leveraged different cattle stocking rates across two seasons to identify the drivers of interspecific interactions (i.e. competition and facilitation) between smaller-bodied oribi antelope and cattle. Using direct foraging observations, we assessed dietary overlap and grass regrowth, and also calculated oribi nutritional intake rates. Ultimately, we found that cattle compete with, and facilitate, smaller-bodied oribi antelope through bottom-up control. Specifically, cattle facilitated oribi during the wet season, irrespective of cattle stocking density, because cattle foraging produced high-quality grass regrowth. In contrast, during the dry season, cattle and oribi did not co-exist in the same areas (i.e. no direct dietary overlap). Despite this, we found that cattle foraging at high densities during the previous wet season reduced the dry season availability of oribi's preferred grass species. To compensate, oribi expanded their dry season diet breadth and included less palatable grass species, ultimately reducing their nutritional intake rates. Thus, cattle competed with oribi through a delayed, across-season habitat modification. We show that differences in body size alone may not be able to offset competitive interactions between cattle and wildlife. Finally, understanding the mechanisms that drive facilitation and competition are key to promoting co-existence between cattle and wildlife.


Assuntos
Antílopes/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Gado/fisiologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Tamanho Corporal , Bovinos , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Dieta/veterinária , Ecologia , Ecossistema , Herbivoria/fisiologia , Poaceae , Estações do Ano , África do Sul
3.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232681, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407336

RESUMO

In West Africa, long and complex livestock value chains connect producers mostly in the Sahel with consumption basins in urban areas and the coast. Regional livestock trade is highly informal and, despite recent efforts to understand animal movement patterns in the region, remains largely unrecorded. Using CILSS' database on intraregional livestock trade, we built yearly and overall weighted networks of animal movements between markets. We mapped and characterized the trade networks, identified market communities, key markets and their roles. Additionally, we compared the observed network properties with null-model generated ensembles. Most movements corresponded to cattle, were made by vehicle, and originated in Burkina Faso. We found that live animals in the central and eastern trade basins flow through well-defined, long distance trade corridors where markets tend to trade in a disassortive way with others in their proximity. Modularity-based communities indicated that both national and cross-border trade groups exist. The network's degree and link distributions followed a log-normal or a power-law distribution, and key markets located primarily in urban centers and near borders serve as hubs that give peripheral markets access to the regional network. The null model ensembles could not reproduce the observed higher-level properties, particularly the propinquity and highly negative assortativity, suggesting that other possibly spatial factors shape the structure of regional live animal trade. Our findings support eliminating cross-border impediments and improving the condition of the regional road network, which limit intraregional trade of and contribute to the high prices of food products in West Africa. Although with limitations, our study sheds light on the abstruse structure of regional livestock trade, and the role of trade communities and markets in West Africa.


Assuntos
Comércio , Gado , África Ocidental , Animais , Burkina Faso , Bovinos , Emigração e Imigração , Gado/fisiologia
4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1926): 20193000, 2020 05 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345142

RESUMO

In many regions of the world, populations of large wildlife have been displaced by livestock, and this may change the functioning of aquatic ecosystems owing to significant differences in the quantity and quality of their dung. We developed a model for estimating loading rates of organic matter (dung) by cattle for comparison with estimated rates for hippopotamus in the Mara River, Kenya. We then conducted a replicated mesocosm experiment to measure ecosystem effects of nutrient and carbon inputs associated with dung from livestock (cattle) versus large wildlife (hippopotamus). Our loading model shows that per capita dung input by cattle is lower than for hippos, but total dung inputs by cattle constitute a significant portion of loading from large herbivores owing to the large numbers of cattle on the landscape. Cattle dung transfers higher amounts of limiting nutrients, major ions and dissolved organic carbon to aquatic ecosystems relative to hippo dung, and gross primary production and microbial biomass were higher in cattle dung treatments than in hippo dung treatments. Our results demonstrate that different forms of animal dung may influence aquatic ecosystems in fundamentally different ways when introduced into aquatic ecosystems as a terrestrially derived resource subsidy.


Assuntos
Artiodáctilos/fisiologia , Bovinos , Ecossistema , Animais , Biomassa , Herbivoria , Quênia , Gado/fisiologia , Recursos Naturais , Rios
5.
J Anim Sci ; 98(3)2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32026938

RESUMO

Advances in the understanding of how the immune system functions in response to diet have altered the way we think about feeding livestock and companion animals on both the short (weeks/months) and long-term (years) timelines; however, depth of research in each of these species varies. Work dedicated to understanding how immune function can be altered with diet has revealed additional functions of required nutrients such as vitamins D and E, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), and minerals such as zinc, while feed additives such as phytogenics and probiotics add an additional layer of immunomodulating potential to modern diets. For certain nutrients such as vitamin D or omega-3 PUFA, inclusion above currently recommended levels may optimize immune function and reduce inflammation, while for others such as zinc, additional pharmacological supplementation above requirements may inhibit immune function. Also to consider is the potential to over-immunomodulate, where important functions such as clearance of microbial infections may be reduced when supplementation reduces the inflammatory action of the immune system. Continued work in the area of nutritional immunology will further enhance our understanding of the power of nutrition and diet to improve health in both livestock and companion animals. This review collects examples from several species to highlight the work completed to understand how nutrition can be used to alter immune function, intended or not.


Assuntos
Gado/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional/imunologia , Animais de Estimação/fisiologia , Vitamina D/imunologia , Animais , Dieta/veterinária , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/imunologia , Gado/imunologia , Minerais/imunologia , Necessidades Nutricionais , Animais de Estimação/imunologia , Vitamina E/imunologia
6.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 3, 2020 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32005099

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microparasitic diseases are caused by bacteria and viruses. Genetic improvement of resistance to microparasitic diseases in breeding programs is desirable and should aim at reducing the basic reproduction ratio [Formula: see text]. Recently, we developed a method to derive the economic value of [Formula: see text] for macroparasitic diseases. In epidemiological models for microparasitic diseases, an animal's disease status is treated as infected or not infected, resulting in a definition of [Formula: see text] that differs from that for macroparasitic diseases. Here, we extend the method for the derivation of the economic value of [Formula: see text] to microparasitic diseases. METHODS: When [Formula: see text], the economic value of [Formula: see text] is zero because the disease is very rare. When [Formula: see text]. is higher than 1, genetic improvement of [Formula: see text] can reduce expenditures on vaccination if vaccination induces herd immunity, or it can reduce production losses due to disease. When vaccination is used to achieve herd immunity, expenditures are proportional to the critical vaccination coverage, which decreases with [Formula: see text]. The effect of [Formula: see text] on losses is considered separately for epidemic and endemic disease. Losses for epidemic diseases are proportional to the probability and size of major epidemics. Losses for endemic diseases are proportional to the infected fraction of the population at the endemic equilibrium. RESULTS: When genetic improvement reduces expenditures on vaccination, expenditures decrease with [Formula: see text] at an increasing rate. When genetic improvement reduces losses in epidemic or endemic diseases, losses decrease with [Formula: see text] at an increasing rate. Hence, in all cases, the economic value of [Formula: see text] increases as [Formula: see text] decreases towards 1. DISCUSSION: [Formula: see text] and its economic value are more informative for potential benefits of genetic improvement than heritability estimates for survival after a disease challenge. In livestock, the potential for genetic improvement is small for epidemic microparasitic diseases, where disease control measures limit possibilities for phenotyping. This is not an issue in aquaculture, where controlled challenge tests are performed in dedicated facilities. If genetic evaluations include infectivity, genetic gain in [Formula: see text] can be accelerated but this would require different testing designs. CONCLUSIONS: When [Formula: see text], its economic value is zero. The economic value of [Formula: see text] is highest at low values of [Formula: see text] and approaches zero at high values of [Formula: see text].


Assuntos
Doenças dos Animais/economia , Doenças dos Animais/genética , Cruzamento/economia , Gado/genética , Seleção Artificial , Doenças dos Animais/imunologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Animais , Resistência à Doença , Feminino , Gado/imunologia , Gado/fisiologia , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos
8.
Animal ; 14(2): 312-321, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31581971

RESUMO

In the livestock industry, subcutaneous and visceral fat pads are considered as wastes, while intramuscular fat or marbling fat is essential for improving flavor and palatability of meat. Thus, strategies for optimizing fat deposition are needed. Intramuscular adipocytes provide sites for lipid deposition and marbling formation. In the present article, we addressed the origin and markers of intramuscular adipocyte progenitors - fibro-adipogenic progenitors (FAPs), as well as the latest progresses in mechanisms regulating the proliferation and differentiation of intramuscular FAPs. Finally, by targeting intramuscular FAPs, possible nutritional manipulations to improve marbling fat deposition are discussed. Despite recent progresses, the properties and regulation of intramuscular FAPs in livestock remain poorly understood and deserve further investigation.


Assuntos
Adipogenia/fisiologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Gado/fisiologia , Adipócitos/metabolismo , Animais , Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Carne , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Nutrientes , Células-Tronco/fisiologia
9.
Bioinspir Biomim ; 15(2): 026004, 2020 02 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31869827

RESUMO

Robots based on simplified or abstracted biomechanical concepts can be a useful tool for investigating how and why animals move the way they do. In this paper we present an extremely simple quadruped robot, which is able to walk with no form of software or controller. Instead, individual leg movements are triggered directly by switches on each leg which detect leg loading and unloading. As the robot progresses, pitching and rolling movements of its body result in a gait emerging with a consistent leg movement order, despite variations in stride and stance time. This gait has similarities to the gaits used by walking primates and grazing livestock, and is close to the gait which was recently theorised to derive from animal body geometry. As well as presenting the design and construction of the robot, we present experimental measurements of the robot's gait kinematics and ground reaction forces determined using high speed video and a pressure mat, and compare these to gait parameters of animals taken from literature. Our results support the theory that body geometry is a key determinant of animal gait at low speeds, and also demonstrate that steady state locomotion can be achieved with little to no active control.


Assuntos
Marcha/fisiologia , Gado/fisiologia , Primatas/fisiologia , Robótica/instrumentação , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Movimento (Física) , Gravação em Vídeo
10.
Meat Sci ; 162: 108025, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841730

RESUMO

Heat stress is one of the most stressful events in the life of livestock with harmful consequences for animal health, productivity and product quality. Ruminants, pigs and poultry are susceptible to heat stress due to their rapid metabolic rate and growth, high level of production, and species-specific characteristics such as rumen fermentation, sweating impairment, and skin insulation. Acute heat stress immediately before slaughter stimulates muscle glycogenolysis and can result in pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat characterized by low water holding capacity (WHC). By contrast, animals subjected to chronic heat stress, have reduced muscle glycogen stores resulting in dark, firm and dry (DFD) meat with high ultimate pH and high WHC. Furthermore, heat stress leads to oxidative stress, lipid and protein oxidation, and reduced shelf life and food safety due to bacterial growth and shedding. This review discusses the scientific evidence regarding the effects of heat stress on livestock physiology and metabolism, and their consequences for meat quality and safety.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/veterinária , Gado/fisiologia , Aves Domésticas/fisiologia , Animais , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/metabolismo , Transtornos de Estresse por Calor/fisiopatologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Gado/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Água
11.
Reprod Domest Anim ; 54 Suppl 4: 22-31, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267609

RESUMO

In vitro gamete differentiation could revolutionize animal production by decreasing generation intervals, increasing the number of gametes per animal and facilitating the dissemination of elite genetics. In addition, it could help to develop new strategies for the conservation of endangered species. The recent in vitro reconstitution of germ cell development in mice has inspired researchers to invest their best efforts into reproducing this achievement in livestock species. With this goal in mind, multiple differentiation approaches and cell sources have been evaluated. The degree of success in these evaluations varies according to the species and the stage of development studied, but, in general, partially positive results have been obtained. Evidence suggests that although functional gametes with true reproductive potential are still to be obtained, it is a matter of time before this goal is achieved.


Assuntos
Gametogênese/fisiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/citologia , Técnicas de Reprodução Assistida/veterinária , Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/citologia , Células-Tronco Germinativas Adultas/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino , Gado/fisiologia , Masculino , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes/fisiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 14(7): e0219771, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31295312

RESUMO

Horses are a highly mobile population, with many travelling locally, nationally, and internationally to participate in shows and sporting events. However, the nature and extent of these movements, as well as the potential impact they may have on disease introduction and spread, is not well documented. The objective of this study was to characterise the movement network of a sample of horses in Ontario, Canada, over a 7-month equestrian season. Horse owners (n = 141) documented their travel patterns with their horse(s) (n = 330) by completing monthly online questionnaires between May and November 2015. Directed networks were constructed to represent horse movements in 1-month time periods. A total of 1754 horse movements met the inclusion criteria for analysis. A variety of location types were included in each monthly network, with many including non-facilities such as parks, trails, and private farms. Only 34.3% of competitions attended by participants during the study period were regulated by an official equestrian organisation. Comparisons of the similarity between monthly networks indicated that participants did not travel to the same locations each month, and the most connected locations varied between consecutive months. While the findings should not be generalized to the wider horse population, they have provided greater insight into the nature and extent of observed horse movement patterns. The results support the need to better understand the variety of locations to which horses can travel in Ontario, as different types of locations may have different associated risks of disease introduction and spread.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Cavalos/epidemiologia , Cavalos/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Esportes , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gado/fisiologia , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Ontário , Registros , Estações do Ano , Inquéritos e Questionários , Viagem
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 7254, 2019 05 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31076638

RESUMO

Invasive species can spread rapidly at local and national scales, creating significant environmental and economic impacts. A central problem in mitigation efforts is identifying methods that can rapidly detect invasive species in a cost-effective and repeatable manner. This challenge is particularly acute for species that can spread over large areas (>1 million km2). Wild pigs (Sus scrofa) are one of the most prolific invasive mammals on Earth and cause extensive damage to agricultural crops, native ecosystems, and livestock, and are reservoirs of disease. They have spread from their native range in Eurasia and North Africa into large areas of Australia, Africa, South America, and North America. We show that the range of invasive wild pigs has increased exponentially in Canada over the last 27 years following initial and ongoing releases and escapes from domestic wild boar farms. The cumulative range of wild pigs across Canada is 777,783 km2, with the majority of wild pig distribution occurring in the Prairie Provinces. We evaluate eight different data collection and evaluation/validation methods for mapping invasive species over large areas, and assess their benefits and limitations. Our findings effectively map the spread of a highly invasive large mammal and demonstrate that management efforts should ideally rely on a set of complementary independent monitoring methods. Mapping and evaluating resulting species occurrences provide baseline maps against which future changes can be rapidly evaluated.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Suínos/fisiologia , África , África do Norte , Animais , Austrália , Canadá , Análise Custo-Benefício , Ecossistema , Fazendas , Espécies Introduzidas , Gado/fisiologia , América do Norte , América do Sul , Sus scrofa/fisiologia
14.
J Anim Sci ; 97(7): 3142-3152, 2019 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070226

RESUMO

Poor maternal nutrition, both restricted-feeding and overfeeding, during gestation can negatively affect offspring growth, body composition, and metabolism. The effects are observed as early as the prenatal period and often persist through postnatal growth and adulthood. There is evidence of multigenerational effects demonstrating the long-term negative impacts on livestock production. We and others have demonstrated that poor maternal nutrition impairs muscle growth, increases adipose tissue, and negatively affects liver function. In addition to altered growth, changes in key metabolic factors, increased glucose concentrations, insulin insensitivity, and hyperleptinemia are observed during the postnatal period. Furthermore, there is recent evidence of altered metabolism in specific tissues (e.g., muscle, adipose, and liver) and stem cells. The systemic and local changes in metabolism demonstrate the importance of determining the mechanism(s) by which maternal diet programs offspring growth and metabolism in an effort to develop novel management practices to improve the efficiency of growth and health in these offspring.


Assuntos
Gado/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Composição Corporal , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Fígado/metabolismo , Especificidade de Órgãos , Gravidez , Estresse Fisiológico
15.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(2): 321-330, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103184

RESUMO

Developmental programming became an area of interest to understand negative environmental impacts on progeny performance. Recently, the concept that we may be able to harness developmental programming to target animals to their niche in the production system has gained recognition. Female fertility is an area where developmental programming has been moderately successful; however, the mechanisms remain unclear. Although some studies have demonstrated differences in gonadal development and attainment of puberty in response to developmental programming, these have not translated to improved fertility. To improve response to developmental programming, it is critical to identify factors that contribute to inconsistencies across studies.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Gado/fisiologia , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Gravidez
16.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(2): 331-341, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103185

RESUMO

The concept of developmental programming was established using epidemiologic studies that investigated chronic illnesses in humans, such as coronary heart disease and hypertension. In livestock species, the impacts of developmental programming are important for production and welfare reasons and are used as research models for human and other animal species. Dams should be in adequate nutritional status to ensure optimal nutrient supply for fetal growth, including development of their immune system. Beef and dairy cows with insufficient nutrient intake during gestation produce calves with reduced immunity against diseases, such as scours, respiratory disease, and mastitis.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Bovinos/imunologia , Ingestão de Energia , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Gado/imunologia , Gado/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Gravidez
17.
Vet Clin North Am Food Anim Pract ; 35(2): 365-378, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31103188

RESUMO

Stimuli experienced in utero can have a lasting impact on livestock growth, reproduction, and performance. Variations in environment, production system, and management strategies lead to discrepancies in the literature regarding how specific treatments influence animal performance. Studies comparing the influence of maternal undernutrition to well-fed counterparts typically result in decreased productivity of offspring. Via adaptation to nutritional or environmental stressors, dams may develop mechanisms to ensure proper nutrient supply to the fetus. It appears nutrient deprivation must be severe for consistent results. Potential mechanisms for altered performance in grazing systems and overnutrition settings are discussed.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Bovinos/fisiologia , Desenvolvimento Fetal/fisiologia , Prenhez/fisiologia , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Gado/fisiologia , Gravidez , Reprodução
18.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5575, 2019 04 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944349

RESUMO

The benefits of shelter in increasing crop yields and accelerating ripening has been well researched in fruit, arable and horticultural crops. Its benefits to pasture, despite its importance for livestock production, is less well researched. In this work, Miscanthus shelterbelts were established on an intensively irrigated dairy farm. Seven key ecosystem services associated with these belts were identified and quantified. Pasture yield and quality were recorded in Miscanthus-sheltered and control field boundaries with little shelter. Pasture yield increased by up to 14% in the sheltered areas downwind of Miscanthus. Pasture quality was equivalent in the sheltered and open areas. Miscanthus provided more favourable nesting sites for bumblebees and for New Zealand endemic lizards (skinks) compared to field boundaries. The sheltered areas also had higher mineralisation rates of organic matter and higher numbers of earthworms. Using a high-yielding sterile grass such as Miscanthus to deliver a wide range of ecosystem services also produced a bioenergy feedstock. In conclusion, full benefits of shelterbelts to the farming system cannot be fully assessed unless direct and indirect benefits are properly assessed, as in this work.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Poaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Produtos Agrícolas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Fazendas , Gado/fisiologia , Nova Zelândia
19.
Anim Genet ; 50(3): 207-216, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30937948

RESUMO

Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) is of great economic importance as a provider of milk and meat in many countries. However, the milk yield of buffalo is much lower than that of Holstein cows. Selection of candidate genes related to milk production traits can be applied to improve buffalo milk performance. A systematic review of studies of these candidate genes will be greatly beneficial for researchers to timely and efficiently understand the research development of molecular markers for buffalo milk production traits. Here, we identified and classified the candidate genes associated with buffalo milk production traits. A total of 517 candidate genes have been identified as being associated with milk performance in different buffalo breeds. Nineteen candidate genes containing 47 mutation sites have been identified using the candidate gene approach. In addition, 499 candidate genes have been identified in six genome-wide association studies (GWASes) including two studies performed with the bovine SNP chip and four studies with the buffalo SNP chip. Genes CTNND2 (catenin delta 2), APOB (apolipoprotein B), FHIT (fragile histidine triad) and ESRRG (estrogen related receptor gamma) were identified in at least two GWASes. These four genes, especially APOB, deserve further study to explore regulatory roles in buffalo milk production. With growth in the number of buffalo genomic studies, more candidate genes associated with buffalo milk production traits will be identified. Therefore, future studies, such as those investigating gene location and functional analyses, are necessary to facilitate the exploitation of genetic potential and the improvement of buffalo milk performance.


Assuntos
Búfalos/genética , Leite , Animais , Búfalos/classificação , Búfalos/fisiologia , Cromossomos de Mamíferos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Gado/classificação , Gado/genética , Gado/fisiologia , Leite/química
20.
J Anim Sci ; 97(5): 2258-2269, 2019 Apr 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30869128

RESUMO

Nutrition and other external factors are known to have a marked effect on growth of skeletal muscle, modulated, at least in part, through effects on satellite cells. Satellite cells and their embryonic precursors play an integral role in both prenatal and postnatal skeletal muscle growth of mammals. Changes in maternal nutrition can impact embryonic muscle progenitor cells which ultimately impacts both prenatal and postnatal skeletal muscle development. Satellite cells are important in postnatal skeletal muscle growth as they support the hypertrophy of existing myofibers. Hypertrophy of existing fibers is the only mechanism of postnatal muscle growth because muscle fiber number is fixed at birth and fiber nuclei have exited the cell cycle. Because fiber nuclei do not divide, additional nuclei required for hypertrophy must be acquired from satellite cells. To date, little research has aimed at determining whether nutrition directly impacts satellite cell populations within skeletal muscle of livestock species. However, it is well established that nutrition alters circulating concentrations of various growth factors such as insulin-like growth factor 1, epidermal growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, and fibroblast growth factor. Each of these different growth factors impacts satellite cell proliferation and/or activation, indicating that nutrition likely plays a large role in skeletal muscle growth through impacting the satellite cell pool in both prenatal and postnatal growth. The relationship among nutrition, growth factors, and satellite cells relative to skeletal muscle growth is an important area of research that warrants further consideration.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular , Proliferação de Células , Gado/fisiologia , Estado Nutricional , Células Satélites de Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Animais , Ciclo Celular , Feminino , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intercelular/análise , Gado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Materna , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Gravidez
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