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3.
Naturwissenschaften ; 107(2): 11, 2020 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32072268

RESUMO

Acoustic communication plays an important role in the life of insects and especially in representatives of the order Orthoptera. Their vibrational signalling, unlike signalling by sound, is poorly studied. The pygmy grasshoppers Tetrix tenuicornis (Sahlberg, 1891) belonging to the ancestral family Tetrigidae (Orthoptera) can produce several types of substrate-borne vibratory signals using their mid-legs. The emission of these signals is not accompanied by visible movements of any parts of the body. The goal of our study was to elucidate the mechanism of production of these vibrations. For this, we synchronously recorded the vibratory signals and the muscle activity in various regions of the legs and thorax in freely moving males. The obtained results revealed an unusual mechanism for the emission of acoustic signals. We found that the strongest muscle activity during the emission of the vibratory signals was recorded in the mesofemur and mesotibia. According to the position of the electrode, these muscles are the flexor and extensor of the tibia, levators and depressors of the tarsus, and probably pretarsus. The motor system employed during the emission of vibratory signals was most similar to that of the jump of locusts and probably is performed as a result of co-contraction of antagonistic muscles of the tibia, tarsus, and pretarsus. The data obtained make significant additions to the presentation of a variety of insect acoustic communication systems.


Assuntos
Comunicação Animal , Gafanhotos/fisiologia , Vibração , Animais , Masculino
4.
Gene ; 731: 144362, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31935512

RESUMO

Acrididae family is characterized by diverse phylogenetic uncertainties, with different paraphyletic subfamilies. This study characterized the mitogenome of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus brasiliensis and determined its phylogenetic position in the family Acrididae. Sequencing was performed on an Illumina platform. The Short Oligonucleotide Analysis Package (SOAP) was used for genome assembly and the MITOS Web Server for annotation. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using mtDNA nucleic acid and protein sequences of R. brasiliensis and more 63 species belonging to 12 subfamilies of Acrididae. Phylogenetic trees were reconstructed using Bayesian inference with a relaxed molecular clock to estimate the speciation divergence time between taxa. The mitochondrial genome of R. brasiliensis has 15,571 bp of length, is rich in AT (72%), and contains 37 genes, including 13 protein-encoding genes, 22 genes encoding transfer RNA and two genes encoding ribosomal RNA. In addition, we also have annotated intergenic spacers and gene overlaps. The phylogenetic trees based on nucleic acid and amino acid sequences showed similar topologies. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that R. brasiliensis is grouped as an early offset of the Acrididae family. Phylogenetic analyses also corroborated the presence of several paraphyletic subfamilies in the family Acrididae including Gomphocerinae. The positioning of R. brasiliensis in the mtDNA phylogenetic tree further supports paraphyly of this subfamily. Moreover, the basal position of R. brasiliensis suggests that Gomphocerinae probably originated in South America.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Gafanhotos/classificação , Gafanhotos/genética , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , DNA Mitocondrial/análise , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
5.
J Parasitol ; 106(1): 46-52, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31990623

RESUMO

Recently, the heteroxenous eyeworm, Oxyspirura petrowi, has gained attention due to its prevalence in the declining game bird, Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus), but the intermediate hosts of many nematodes remain unknown. However, identifying the intermediate host of O. petrowi with traditional techniques would be difficult and time-consuming, especially considering there are more than 80 potential orthopteran hosts just in Texas. To screen a large number of samples quickly and effectively, primers for nested PCR (nPCR) were developed using the internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) region. Then the nPCR was used to identify which of the 35 species collected from the Order Orthoptera were potential intermediate hosts of O. petrowi. With this technique, 18 potential intermediate hosts were identified. Later, we collected live specimens of species that tested positive to confirm the presence of larvae, but larvae were not found in the live specimens, nor in the extra tissue of the species that had tested positive for O. petrowi DNA. Despite this, this study demonstrated that nPCR is more sensitive than traditional techniques and can be a valuable tool in determining the intermediate hosts of parasites.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/transmissão , Insetos Vetores/parasitologia , Ortópteros/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/veterinária , Thelazioidea/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Colinus/parasitologia , DNA de Helmintos/química , DNA de Helmintos/isolamento & purificação , Gafanhotos/classificação , Gafanhotos/genética , Gafanhotos/parasitologia , Gryllidae/classificação , Gryllidae/genética , Gryllidae/parasitologia , Larva/classificação , Larva/genética , Ortópteros/classificação , Ortópteros/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Infecções por Spirurida/parasitologia , Infecções por Spirurida/transmissão , Thelazioidea/classificação , Thelazioidea/isolamento & purificação
6.
J Chem Ecol ; 46(2): 138-149, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31853816

RESUMO

Chemosensory proteins (CSPs) are thought to play roles in the insect olfactory system by binding and carrying hydrophobic odorants across the aqueous sensillar lymph. The band-winged grasshopper, Oedaleus asiaticus Bei-Bienko, is one of the most important grasshopper pests in northern China, but there is little information about its olfactory system. In order to investigate the olfactory functions of CSPs in this pest, three CSP genes (OasiCSP4, OasiCSP11 and OasiCSP12) were expressed in Escherichia coli, and the binding affinities of the three recombinant CSP proteins were measured for 16 volatiles from the host plant (Stipa krylovii), fecal material and body of live adult O. asiaticus using fluorescence competitive binding assays. To further verify their olfactory functions, RNA interference (RNAi) and electrophysiological recording were conducted. The three recombinant proteins displayed different degrees of binding to various volatiles in ligand-binding assays, with OasiCSP12 having higher binding affinities for more volatiles than OasiCSP4 and OasiCSP11. OasiCSP12 exhibited strong binding affinities (Ki < 20 µΜ) for five host plant volatiles and one volatile from the live body of adult O. asiaticus. The transcript levels of the three OasiCSP genes were significantly lower after silencing the individual genes by RNAi, which in turn reduced the EAG responses in adults of both sexes to most tested compounds. Our study indicates that these three OasiCSPs are involved in the detection of volatile semiochemicals, and may play important roles in finding host plants and in aggregation in O. asiaticus.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos/metabolismo , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/metabolismo , Animais , Ligação Competitiva , Feminino , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Masculino , Poaceae/química , Poaceae/metabolismo , Ligação Proteica , Interferência de RNA , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/metabolismo , Receptores Odorantes/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores Odorantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes/química , Proteínas Recombinantes/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/metabolismo
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 187: 109830, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648074

RESUMO

A second intracellular copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (icCuZnSOD2) and manganese SOD (MnSOD) were cloned and characterized in Oxya chinensis. The open reading frame (ORF) of OcicCuZnSOD2 and OcMnSOD are 462 and 672 bp encoding 153 and 223 amino acids, respectively. OcicCuZnSOD2 contains two signature sequences, one potential N-glycosylation site, and seven copper/zinc binding sites. OcMnSOD includes a mitochondria targeting sequence of 7 amino acids at N-terminal, one signature sequence, two N-glycosylation sites, and four manganese binding sites. The secondary structure and homology model of OcicCuZnSOD2 include nine ß sheets, two Greek-key motifs, and one electrostatic loop. OcMnSOD contains nine α-helices and three ß-sheets. Phylogenetic analysis shows that OcMnSOD is evolutionarily conserved while OcicCuZnSOD2 may be gene duplication and is paralogous to OcicCuZnSOD1. OcMnSOD expressed widely in all tissues and developmental stages. OcicCuZnSOD2 showed testis-specific expression and expressed highest in the 5th-instar nymph and the adult. The optimum temperatures and pH values of the recombinant OcicCuZnSOD2 and OcMnSOD were 40 °C and 8.0. They were stable at 25-55 °C and at pH 5.0-12.0 and pH 6.0-12.0, respectively. The activity and mRNA expression of each OcSOD were assayed after chlorpyrifos treatments. Total SOD and CuZnSOD activities first increased then declined under chlorpyrifos stress. Chlorpyrifos induced the mRNA expression and activity of OcMnSOD as a dose-dependent manner and inhibited OcicCuZnSOD2 transcription. The role of each OcSOD gene in chlorpyrifos stress was investigated using RNAi and disc diffusion assay with Escherichia coli overexpressing OcSOD proteins. Silencing of OcMnSOD significantly increased ROS content in chlorpyrifos-exposed grasshoppers. Disc diffusion assay showed that the plates with E. coli overexpressing OcMnSOD had the smaller inhibition zones around the chlorpyrifos-soaked filter discs. These results implied that OcMnSOD played a significant role in defense chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos/metabolismo , Gafanhotos/enzimologia , Proteínas de Insetos/fisiologia , Metais Pesados/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/fisiologia , Animais , Cobre/metabolismo , Gafanhotos/classificação , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/genética , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Manganês/metabolismo , Filogenia , Superóxido Dismutase/química , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Zinco/metabolismo
8.
Pest Manag Sci ; 76(1): 227-235, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150148

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Epacromius coerulipes is a widely distributed locust pest species. Chemical control is the main method used to kill locusts; however, this can result in the selection of locusts with resistance to chemical pesticides. Therefore, the study of resistance is of great significance for the sustainable management of locusts. RESULTS: In this study, to investigate the relationship between detoxification enzymes and butene-fipronil resistance in E. coerulipes, resistant strains of the locust were compared with sensitive strains. The synergism of synergistic agents was significantly enhanced, and the activities of multifunctional oxidase, carboxylesterase, and glutathione sulfur transferase were significantly increased. Transcriptome sequencing revealed 226 detoxification enzyme genes and 23 upregulated genes. Neighbor-joining was used to construct a phylogenetic tree of related gene families, which included 59 P450 genes, 52 carboxylesterases (CarE) genes, and 25 glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis results of overexpressed genes in the resistant population combined with a phylogenetic tree showed that four P450 genes belonged to the CYP6, CYP4, CYP18 and CYP302 families, two CarE genes belonged to Clade A families, and one GST gene belonged to the Sigma family. These family members were annotated as detoxification enzyme genes of metabolic insecticide in the transcriptome databases. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that P450, CarE and GST together resulted in moderate resistance to butene-fipronil in locusts. The analysis revealed several overexpressed detoxification enzyme genes that will be the focus of future studies on the mechanism of resistance to butene-fipronil. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , Glutationa Transferase , Hidrocarbonetos Halogenados , Inativação Metabólica , Inseticidas , Filogenia , Pirazóis
9.
J Insect Sci ; 19(6)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31812980

RESUMO

Vitellogenin receptor (VgR) mediates the intake of vitellin via oocytes, thus exerting an important role in vitellogenesis. In this study, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid-amplification of cDNA ends techniques were adopted to clone the CiVgR gene, namely the VgR gene of Calliptamus italicus, i.e., Orthopteran. The full length of CiVgR was 5,589 bp, and the open reading frame was estimated to be 5,265 bp, which encoded 1,754 amino acids (aa). Sequence alignment analysis showed that CiVgR belonged to the superfamily of low-density lipoprotein receptor genes, which contained several conserved domains, including ligand-binding domains, epidermal growth factor precursor homology domains, transmembrane domains, and cytoplasmic domains. However, no O-linked sugar domain was identified. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CiVgR had the closest genetic relationship to Blattarias. RT-PCR showed that CiVgR was only specifically expressed in the ovarian tissue of females. quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcription of CiVgR already appeared in the fourth-instar nymph of C. italicus, which gradually increased after adult emergence, peaked at the previtellogenesis stage, and then started to decrease. The expression pattern of CiVgR was closely associated with vitellogenesis. The findings of this study further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in the reproduction of C. italicus, and provide new ideas to control this insect.


Assuntos
Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Gafanhotos/metabolismo , Receptores de Superfície Celular/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Feminino , Masculino , Filogenia , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética , Reprodução , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos
10.
Zootaxa ; 4593(1): zootaxa.4593.1.1, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716069

RESUMO

Temnomastax is the commonest genus of monkey grasshoppers in the central region of South America. Herein the revision of this genus is presented. Three new species are described, Temnomastax descampsi Olivier sp. nov., Temnomastax monnei Olivier sp. nov., and Temnomastax otavioi Olivier sp. nov. Temnomastax chiquitos syn. nov. is proposed as a new synonym of Temnomastax borellii. Three morphological groups are proposed: the Beni group composed of Temnomastax beni; the Latens group composed of T. borellii, T. hamus, T. latens and T. monnei sp. nov.; and the Tigris group composed of T. descampsi sp. nov., T. otavioi sp. nov., T. ricardoi and T. tigris. Identification keys, biological and distribution data are provided.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Aranhas , Distribuição Animal , Animais , América do Sul
11.
Zootaxa ; 4590(5): zootaxa.4590.5.3, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716074

RESUMO

There are numerous pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrigidae) that exhibit leaf-like appearance. Leaf-mimic species can be found mainly in the subfamily Cladonotinae (tribes Cladonotini, Xerophyllini). Two leaf-mimic pygmy grasshopper species found in India, Pakistan (Oxyphyllum pennatum Hancock, 1909) and Borneo (Paraphyllum antennatum Hancock, 1913) are the only macropterous leaf-like species of Asia and were traditionally assigned to subfamily Cladonotinae. Our study present new records of these species, as well as updated descriptions. Oxyphyllum pennatum is recorded for the first time from Chhattisgarh (Central India), and furthermore, records from Pakistan were reviewed and confirmed. Paraphyllum antennatum is reported from a few localities in the mountains of Borneo (East Malaysia). New records found in online social media (Flickr, iNaturalist) were implemented. Brachypronotal specimens of P. antennatum are reported. After comparison with Cladonotini and Xerophyllini members, we conclude that Oxyphyllum and Paraphyllum should not be regarded Cladonotinae members. Traditional assignment was based on superficial resemblance to leaf-like Cladonotinae genera (e.g. Phyllotettix, Hymenotes, Holoarcus, Xerophyllum). However, comparison of morphological characters reveals that Oxyphyllum shares morphology with Tetriginae genera, while Paraphyllum shares morphology with Asian Metrodorinae. Here, we assign the genus Oxyphyllum to Tetriginae and the genus Paraphyllum to Metrodorinae.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Animais , Bornéu , Índia , Malásia , Paquistão
12.
Zootaxa ; 4624(3): zootaxa.4624.3.8, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716215

RESUMO

A taxonomic review of the genus Longgenacris You Li, 1983 is provided, the taxonomic position of the genus is discussed briefly and clarified; the original placement of the genus in the subfamily Melanoplinae is confirmed. Type species of the genus Fruhstorferiola Willemse, 1922 is redescribed and new synonymy is proposed: Fruhstorferiola tonkinensis (Willemse, 1921) = Longgenacris rufiantennus Zheng et Wei, 2003, syn. nov.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Distribuição Animal , Animais
13.
Zootaxa ; 4614(1): zootaxa.4614.1.2, 2019 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716386

RESUMO

Oedipoda cynthiae n. sp. (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Oedipodinae) is described from Apulia (South Italy). In the past, the same population here considered had been assigned to O. miniata and later to O. charpentieri. Morphological features, biogeographical considerations, and a preliminary molecular analysis confirm that this population must be assigned to a new species, which is described and illustrated here.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Animais , Itália
14.
Zootaxa ; 4564(2): zootaxa.4564.2.10, 2019 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31716509

RESUMO

The new species, Hilethera xinjiangensis sp. nov. (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Oedipodinae) is described based on specimens collected from Xinjiang, northern China. The new species is similar to H. brevipennis Zheng Lu, 2002 and H. turanica Uvarov, 1925, but differs from: (1) dark brown in general coloration, (2) darker coloration in forewings, (3) forewings longer than H. brevipennis but shorter than H. turanica, (4) cubital area of forewings boarder than H. brevipennis and H. turanica, (5) hind tibiae dark brown with two light yellow pre-basal rings, while dark with one fade pre-basal ring in H. brevipennis and light yellow with three dark rings in H. turanica.In addition, the complete mitogenome of holotype was sequenced using next-generation sequencing technology. The total length of the assembled mitogenome is 16,145 bp, representing 13 protein-coding genes, 22 transfer RNA genes, two ribosomal RNA genes and one noncoding region (D-loop region). The new mitogenome sequence is compared with published Oedipodinae mitogenomes and the phylogenetic relationships within the subfamily are reconstructed. The results infer that the gene cox1 could be a useful marker for higher phylogenetic level, while the genes nd5 and rrnL could be potentially useful markers between closely related species.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Animais , China , Gafanhotos/genética , Ortópteros/genética , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico , RNA de Transferência
15.
Zootaxa ; 4609(1): zootaxa.4609.1.8, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717124

RESUMO

A new species of the Neotropical grasshopper genus Aptoceras Bruner, 1908 is described from individuals collected in the Iguaçu National Park, Paraná State, Brazil. Aptoceras iguassuensis n. sp. inhabits in shrubs in the Atlantic Forest. The species belongs to the genus group Nicarchae Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893. Descriptions, photographs, and illustrations of the male and female, as well as photographs of the male phallic sclerites are presented. An identification key for the five species of Aptoceras from Brazil and a distribution map are also given.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Animais , Brasil , Feminino , Florestas , Masculino , Parques Recreativos
16.
Zootaxa ; 4604(2): zootaxa.4604.2.7, 2019 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717194

RESUMO

Sphingonotus (Sphingonotus) changlangensis sp. nov.  is a new species of  Sphingonotus  described from Namdapha National Park, Changlang District, Arunachal Pradesh, India. An annotated checklist of members of the genus  Sphingonotus occurring in India is provided.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Índia , Parques Recreativos
17.
J Insect Sci ; 19(6)2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31752021

RESUMO

Global warming has dominated worldwide climate change trends, and adaptability to high temperatures is the main factor underlying the spread of the pest Calliptamus italicus in Xinjiang Province, China. However, knowledge about the molecular mechanisms responsible for this adaptability and other related biological properties of C. italicus remain relatively unclear. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a key tool for gene expression analysis associated with various biological processes. Reference genes are necessary for normalizing gene expression levels across samples taken from specific experimental conditions. In this study, transcript level of five genes (GAPDH, 18S, TUB, ACT, and EF1α), commonly used as reference genes, were evaluated under nine different temperatures (27, 30, 33, 36, 39, 42, 45, 48, and 51°C) to assess their expression stability and further select the most suitable to be used on normalization of target gene expression data. Gene expression profiles were analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software packages. The combined results demonstrated that the best-ranked reference genes for C. italicus are EF1α, GAPDH, and ACT under different thermal stress conditions. This is the first study that assesses gene expression analysis across a range of temperatures to select the most appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR data normalization in C. italicus. These results should assist target gene expression analysis associated with heat stress in C. italicus.


Assuntos
Genes Essenciais , Gafanhotos/genética , Temperatura Ambiente , Animais , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
18.
Zootaxa ; 4629(4): zootaxa.4629.4.2, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712499

RESUMO

The tetrigid genus Criotettix Bolívar, 1887 from China is taxonomically reviewed. The genus now includes 39 species from China, in which two new species are described and illustrated, namely: Criotettix longispinus Deng, sp. nov. and Criotettix undatifemurus Deng, sp. nov..Their distribution and an annotated identification key to Chinese species are provided.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Distribuição Animal , Animais , China
19.
Zootaxa ; 4686(3): zootaxa.4686.3.9, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719484

RESUMO

A new genus and species of pygmy grasshopper (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae) is described from Eocene Baltic amber. Danatettix hoffeinsorum gen. et sp. nov. is assigned to the subfamily Batrachideinae based on antennae with more than 19 antennomeres, sulcate mesofemora, and rectangular paranota. This species is readily distinguished from other batrachideines by a markedly produced vertex, pronotum with divergent internal and external lateral carinae, and highly setiferous female lateral basivalvular sclerite with scabrose integument. The morphology of Danatettix suggests placement within the here defined Tettigidea genus group (comprising Eutettigidea Hancock, 1914, Paurotarsus Hancock, 1900, and Tettigidea Scudder, 1862) and suggests that the latter had diverged from the new Scaria genus group (comprising Eotetrix Gorochov, 2012, Rehnidium Grant, 1956 and Scaria Bolívar, 1887) by the Early Eocene.


Assuntos
Besouros , Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Âmbar , Animais , Países Bálticos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Fósseis
20.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 286, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660950

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Edible insects, including Oxya chinensis sinuosa Mishchenko (Oc), which is consumed as food in Asia, are considered as a human food shortage alternative, and also as a preventive measure against environmental destruction. Ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation, which causes skin photodamage, is considered as an extrinsic skin aging factor. It reduces skin hydration, and increases wrinkle formation and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inflammatory cytokine expression. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the anti-aging effects of an ethanol extract of Oc (Oc.Ex). METHODS: A UVB-irradiated hairless mouse model was used to examine relevant changes in skin hydration, wrinkle formation, and skin epidermal thickness. Also, antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were analyzed, and Oc. Ex skin protective effects against UVB irradiation-induced photoaging were examined by determining the levels of skin hydration factors. RESULTS: Oc.Ex improved epidermal barrier dysfunctions such as increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and capacitance reduction in UVB-irradiated mice. It upregulated skin hydration-related markers, including hyaluronic acid (HA), transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß, and pro-collagen, in UVB-irradiated mice, compared with the vehicle control group. It also reduced UVB-induced wrinkle formation, collagen degradation, and epidermal thickness. Additionally, it remarkably suppressed the increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and restored the activity of SOD and CAT in UVB-irradiated mice, compared with the vehicle control group. Furthermore, Oc. Ex treatment downregulated the production of inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) signaling pathway activated by UVB irradiation. CONCLUSION: This study revealed that Oc. Ex reduced skin thickness and the degradation of collagen fibers by increasing hydration markers and collagen-regulating factors in the skin of UVB-irradiated mice. It also inhibited UVB-induced antioxidant enzyme activity and inflammatory cytokine expression via MAPK signaling downregulation, suggesting that it prevents UVB-induced skin damage and photoaging, and has potential for clinical development in skin disease treatment.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos/química , Protetores contra Radiação/farmacologia , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelhecimento da Pele/efeitos da radiação , Animais , Catalase/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Epiderme/efeitos dos fármacos , Epiderme/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Pelados , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Raios Ultravioleta/efeitos adversos
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