Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.526
Filtrar
1.
Zootaxa ; 4915(1): zootaxa.4915.1.6, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756586

RESUMO

The specimens studied were collected with sweep net and pitfall in the forests, agro-forests, herbaceous fallows, and crop fields of 14 localities in the southern part of Cameroon, from August 2015 to February 2018. The results show that Heteracris hannai sp. nov. and Heteracris lecoqi sp. nov. differ from previously known species of the same genus by the pattern of coloration and the details or shape of the phallic complex. H. lecoqi sp. nov. is characterized by light brownish body; male cercus with flattened, downcurved and obtuse apex; lophus strongly curved; interlophal space with V shape; apodeme of cingulum bow, convergent, with V-shape; valve of cingulum in lateral view longer than apical valve of penis; ramus in ventral view joined. H. hannai sp. nov. is distinct to other species by brown to grey body; male cercus with apex rounded, curved inside; lophus curved; interlophal space with U-shape; apodeme of cingulum thick, slightly parallel, with U shape; valve of cingulum in lateral view hardly longer than apical valve of penis; ramus in ventral view opened. The characteristics of H. guineensis are closer to H. hannai sp. nov. than to H. lecoqi sp. nov. H. lecoqi sp. nov. was collected only in the fallows while H. hannai sp. nov. was collected in the forests, agro-forests, fallows, and crop fields. Compared to H. guineensis, both new species are scarce in the natural vegetation and their distribution area is limited to two and four localities respectively for H. lecoqi sp. nov. and H. hannai sp. nov. All these three grasshopper's species were recorded as accidental species in all types of vegetation.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Camarões , Masculino
2.
Zootaxa ; 4933(2): zootaxa.4933.2.2, 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756795

RESUMO

A new peculiar, spiky, and yellowish species of the genus Tegotettix Hancock, 1913 is described from the Davao region of the island of Mindanao (the Philippines)-T. derijei sp. n. (Mindanao horned pygmy devil). The species is visually similar to T. cristiferus (Günther, 1935) from Borneo and T. armatus Hancock, 1913 from Borneo, which is the type species of the genus, and of which a new record from Sabah is also presented in the study. The new species is also similar to an undescribed species from Bukidnon, which we presented by photographs in its natural habitat. To date, T. armatus was known only from old descriptions and drawings and has not been reported for more than 100 years. A brief overview of the species of the genus Tegotettix, with its division into three species groups, is presented.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Animais , Filipinas
3.
Zootaxa ; 4949(1): zootaxa.4949.1.8, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756999

RESUMO

Six Anatolian and one European populations of the Myrmeleotettix maculatus species group, which contains M. maculatus and M. ethicus species, have been studied by using molecular genetics methods with mitochondrial COI gene. Myrmeleotettix ethicus is an Anatolian endemic species with local distribution whereas M. maculatus is distributed in western Palearctic. The phylogenetic analysis (ML and BI analyses) of the M. maculatus species group in Anatolia reveals that it consistently recovered two well-supported main clades and four different lineages. Molecular time estimates suggest that the diversification of the M. maculatus species group took place between the Late Tortonian (around 8-9 My) and the Middle of Pliocene-Pleistocene (around 4.3 My-present) periods and the current distribution of the genetic diversity has been affected by the uplifting of the Central Anatolian plateau, the termination of the Messinian salinity crisis, and the Quaternary climatic changes.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Gafanhotos/genética , Filogenia , Filogeografia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
4.
Zootaxa ; 4861(4): zootaxa.4861.4.7, 2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311210

RESUMO

The genus Celebesia Bolívar, 1917 consists of four species endemic to Sulawesi Island, namely C. acuticerca C. Bolívar, 1917, C. ferruginata (Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1898), C. heinrichi Ramme, 1941, and C. linduensis Storozhenko, sp. nov. Distribution of species is clarified and an updated key to the species of Celebesia is given. Male genitalia of this genus is described and illustrated for the first time. The genus Pyrgophistes Key, 1992 is transferred from the tribe Catantopini to Mesambriini and a new synonymy is proposed: Mesambriini Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893 = Pyrgophistina Key, 1993, syn. nov.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Indonésia , Ilhas , Masculino
5.
Zootaxa ; 4894(2): zootaxa.4894.2.8, 2020 Dec 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311087

RESUMO

A new species and a key to 10 species of the genus Lemba Huang, 1983, namely Lemba wushanensis sp. nov. is described in this paper from China. The new species is similar to L. sichuanensis Ma et al, 1994, but differs from the latter by the length of tegmen 2.7 times width in male, length of interspace of mesosternum 3.5 times width in male, posterior margin of epiproct straight; ancorae of epiphallus not inward tilt and vertical diameter 1.8 times subocular furrow in female. The type specimens are deposited in the Northwest Plateau Institute of Biology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xining, China.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
6.
Zootaxa ; 4869(2): zootaxa.4869.2.3, 2020 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311361

RESUMO

The first annotated checklist of ensiferan and caeliferan Orthoptera of Slovakia is presented. Altogether, we found 129 species (59 Ensifera, 70 Caelifera) in the fauna of Slovakia, based on a critical revision of museum collections, all records published since 1826 and our own unpublished data from mapping in 1994-2019 (~2000 sites located in 97.5% of the mapping grid cells). Forty-four species reach the limit of their distributional range within the country, and 31 have their northern limit there. Four species are endemic to Slovakia. In total, 11 species were erroneously reported from the country and are not included in this checklist. The relatively rich species spectrum reflects the diversity of habitats in an area of about 50 thousand km2 and elevations from 94 to 2,655 masl. We found 30 species exclusive for the Pannonian and 18 for the Alpine biogeographical region in the study area. We emphasize changes compared to previous species lists published in 1977 and 1999, when nine species were first recorded after 1999, and eight other species have been missing for more than 50 years. Distributional patterns, accompanied by site maps, are commented for 42 species. Taxonomic, nomenclatural and zoogeographical problems are discussed for a further 23 species. Based on the actual IUCN Red List criteria, we assessed all 129 species. The species were red-listed as follows: regional extinct (Celes variabilis), critically endangered (Isophya beybienkoi, I. costata, Poecilimon fussii, Pachytrachis gracilis, Saga pedo, Paracaloptenus caloptenoides, Acrotylus insubricus, Stenobothrus fischeri), endangered (Poecilimon intermedius, Gampsocleis glabra, Pholidoptera frivaldszkyi, Myrmeleotettix antennatus), vulnerable (nine species), near threatened (18) and data deficient (12). A brief account of the Orthoptera research history in Slovakia is outlined.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Animais , Ecossistema , Eslováquia
7.
Zootaxa ; 4894(3): zootaxa.4894.3.12, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311079

RESUMO

Wide nosed pygmy grasshoppers (Tetrigidae: Cladonotinae) are grasshoppers in which the frontal costa bifurcates into strongly divergent facial carinae, between which there is wide scutellum. Altogether seven genera and thirteen species inhabit India and Sri Lanka. Tribe Cladonotini is represented in this region by five genera and nine species (Cladonotus-4 spp., Deltonotus-2 spp., Gignotettix-1 sp., Hancockella-1 sp., and Yunnantettix-1 sp.), while the tribe Xerophyllini by two genera, Tettilobus (3 sp.) and Potua (1 sp.). For this Potua species it is not clear if it belongs to this genus. A simple identification key to Cladonotinae of India and Sri Lanka is provided. New synonyms are: Deltonotus humilis syn. nov., Epitettix tamilus syn. nov. and Potua aptera syn. nov., synonymous with Deltonotus gibbiceps. Deltonotus cristatus should be regarded nomen nudum. A new species, assigned to the genus Tettilobus is described from the Western Ghats of Kerala, Tettilobus trishula Skejo, Bhaskar et Stermsek sp. n. Furthermore, we present the first records of D. subcucullatus from India (Kerala).


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , Baratas , Índia , Sri Lanka
8.
Zootaxa ; 4885(1): zootaxa.4885.1.7, 2020 Nov 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311290

RESUMO

The representation in the Maltese Islands of the Order Orthoptera, including the Tettigonioidea, Grylloidea, Gryllotalpoidea, Tetrigoidea, Pyrgomorphoidea and Acridoidea, is reviewed for the first time in almost fifty years. A total of fifty-five species are treated, of which forty-six are accepted and nine are rejected on the basis of re-evaluated taxonomic evidence, including the re-examination of actual specimens from historical collections, and consideration of species' distribution. Two species, namely, Platycleis sabulosa Azam, 1901 and Oecanthus dulcisonans Gorochov, 1993, are reported for the first time from the Maltese Islands. Of the confirmed taxa, the occurrence of three species, Oedipoda caerulescens caerulescens (Linnaeus, 1767), Sphingonotus obscuratus lameerei Finot, 1902, and Sphingonotus savignyi savignyi Saussure, 1884, is considered accidental and another species, Schistocerca gregaria gregaria (Forskål, 1775), is known for its dependence on episodes of passage from the African mainland, while the status of another four taxa remains unclear. Extirpation of some of the rare and localised species, such as Conocephalus conocephalus (Linnaeus, 1767), Ruspolia nitidula (Scopoli, 1786), Brachytrupes megacephalus (Lefebvre, 1827), and Heteracris adspersa (Redtenbacher, 1889), is not excluded unless appropriate conservation measures are introduced and implemented.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Gryllidae , Ortópteros , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Ilhas
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4939, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009390

RESUMO

Acoustic communication is enabled by the evolution of specialised hearing and sound producing organs. In this study, we performed a large-scale macroevolutionary study to understand how both hearing and sound production evolved and affected diversification in the insect order Orthoptera, which includes many familiar singing insects, such as crickets, katydids, and grasshoppers. Using phylogenomic data, we firmly establish phylogenetic relationships among the major lineages and divergence time estimates within Orthoptera, as well as the lineage-specific and dynamic patterns of evolution for hearing and sound producing organs. In the suborder Ensifera, we infer that forewing-based stridulation and tibial tympanal ears co-evolved, but in the suborder Caelifera, abdominal tympanal ears first evolved in a non-sexual context, and later co-opted for sexual signalling when sound producing organs evolved. However, we find little evidence that the evolution of hearing and sound producing organs increased diversification rates in those lineages with known acoustic communication.


Assuntos
Acústica , Evolução Biológica , Gafanhotos/classificação , Gafanhotos/genética , Filogenia , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Genoma Mitocondrial , Gafanhotos/anatomia & histologia , Audição/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Som , Fatores de Tempo , Transcriptoma/genética
11.
Zootaxa ; 4802(3): zootaxa.4802.3.9, 2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056049

RESUMO

The complete mitochondrial genomes of three species of Haplotropidini were sequenced, annotated and analyzed. Then, combined with 18 species mitogenomes of Acridoidea and 1 species of Tridactyloidea, the phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed by maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian (BI) methods based on PCGs. The phylogenetic relationship tree showing that Sulcotropis Yin et Chou is a valid genus and not a synonym of Haplotropis Saussure, 1888. A new species Sulcotropis xiaowutaiensis sp. nov. is described in this paper from China, it is allied to Sulcotropis cyanipes Yin et Chou, 1979, but differs from latter by median carina of pronotum cut by posterior transverse sulcus slightly, epiphallus with middle part equal both sides in high, cercus of male gradually widened at base, interspace of mesosternum narrowed in the base slightly and subgenital plate of female oblong, hind margin with small acute angle in the middle. Type specimens are deposited in the College of Life Sciences, Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, China.


Assuntos
Genoma Mitocondrial , Gafanhotos , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Tamanho Corporal , China , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Filogenia
12.
Zootaxa ; 4820(1): zootaxa.4820.1.4, 2020 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056082

RESUMO

Euryphyminae is a Southern African endemic subfamily, which to date consists of 23 genera. We collected all available information from historic literature accounts, 626 positively identified museum specimens from 16 genera and 624 fresh field-collected specimens from eight genera to review the Euryphyminae genera of South Africa. Three genera are recorded for the first time to occur in South Africa; Rhodesiana Dirsh, 1959, Acrophymus Uvarov, 1922 and Plegmapteropsis Dirsh, 1956, while Aneuryphymus rhodesianus species is also recorded for the first time in South Africa. This brings the total number of genera occurring in South Africa from 14 to 16 genera of Euryphyminae. Finally, distribution maps for each genus are provided along with an updated key to genera.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , Museus
13.
Zootaxa ; 4821(2): zootaxa.4821.2.5, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056323

RESUMO

The paper describes a new species of a Sri Lankan twighopper, genus Cladonotus Saussure, 1862 (Orthoptera: Tetrigidae: Cladonotini), C. bhaskari sp. n., based on a single female specimen collected and photographed by T. Kirschey in 2016 in Sinharaja rainforest (SW Sri Lanka). The new species is clearly distinguished from other species of the genus by its long and spine-like frontomedial projection and cockscomb-shaped promedial projection. Species of this genus resemble tiny twigs, hence the name 'twighopper'. Our new specimen is the first known female of the genus, and we also present the first photograph of the member of this genus in the natural habitat. An annotated identification key for the Cladonotus species is provided. Furthermore, we synonymize genus Hypsaeus Bolívar, 1887 syn. nov. with Hymenotes Westwood, 1837, based on the pronotal variability of the leaf-like pygmy grasshoppers in the Philippines and introduce one new combination-Hymenotes westwoodi (Bolívar, 1887) comb. nov..


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , Feminino , Sri Lanka
14.
Zootaxa ; 4767(3): zootaxa.4767.3.8, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056560

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Euthystiroides Zhang, Zheng Ren, 1995 i.e. Euthystiroides heilongjiangensis sp. nov is described from Heilongjiang, China. The new species is allied to E. dalianensis Zhang, Zheng Ren, 1995, but differs from latter by head shorter than pronotum distinctly and without black stripe in the middle, tegmina of male narrower, length 4.0 times width; length of interspace 1.9 times minimum width in mesosternum and width of epiphallus almost equal to high.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
15.
Zootaxa ; 4851(2): zootaxa.4851.2.7, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056731

RESUMO

Two species of the pygmy grasshopper genus Lamellitettigodes Günther are described: Lamellitettigodes diversifemoris Lu Zha sp. n. from Hainan, and Lamellitettigodes sagittatus (Bolívar) from Hainan and Yunnan, PR China. Both species are photographed and compared with their allies. Taxonomic changes are proposed: Lamellitettigodes bimaculatus (Zheng) comb. nov. is transferred from Euparatettix bimaculatus Zheng, and Euparatettix tuberifemora Deng, Zheng Wei syn. nov. is synonymized with Lamellitettigodes sagittatus. Lamellitettigodes and its allied genera, Euparatettix, Paratettix, Hedotettix, Tetrix and Ergatettix are compared with each other, and useful diagnostic characters for them are recommended. An updated species key for Lamellitettigodes is provided.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , China
16.
Zootaxa ; 4838(4): zootaxa.4838.4.5, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056804

RESUMO

The species Melanotettix dibelonius Bruner, 1904 was previously recorded from Michoacán and Guerrero states in Mexico. This species is characterized by its tegmina, which are always shorter than head and pronotum together and sometimes shorter than the pronotum. After recent field expeditions (2015-2019) and an extensive review of museum specimens from the most important Orthoptera collections in Mexico and USA (291 specimens), we discovered a long-winged form of this species south of its previous known range, which effectively expanded its distribution range into Oaxaca state. We discuss some aspects regarding the patterns of geographic distribution and morphological variation among the long-winged and short-winged morphs. We conduct statistical analyses and observed that on average, the tegmina of long-winged individuals (both females and males) are slightly longer than twice the length of pronotum; whereas in short-winged individuals the tegmina are nearly as long or slightly longer than the length of the pronotum. Moreover, on average, females appear to have longer tegmina than males in both morphotypes. We provide photographic records of both forms live and mounted, the most comprehensive distribution map to date and a discussion of evolutionarily interesting patterns found in this species.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Animais , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Masculino , México , Polimorfismo Genético
17.
Zootaxa ; 4759(1): zootaxa.4759.1.12, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056940

RESUMO

A new species of the genus Mongolotettix Rehn, 1928 i.e. Mongolotettix moheensis sp. nov is described from Jiangsu, China. The new species is allied to M. zhengi Li et Lian, 1994, but differs tegmina of male longer, almost almost reaching the base of epiproct, maximum width of cubital area 2.5 times maximum width of medial area, width of epiphallus equal to high, fulculae smaller and interspace of mesosternum narrowed in the middle slightly. Type specimens are deposited in the Natural Museum of Hebei University, Baoding, Hebei, China.


Assuntos
Gafanhotos , Estruturas Animais , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , China , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
18.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238636, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970696

RESUMO

Statistically robust monitoring of threatened populations is essential for effective conservation management because the population trend data that monitoring generates is often used to make decisions about when and how to take action. Despite representing the highest proportion of threatened animals globally, the development of best practice methods for monitoring populations of threatened insects is relatively uncommon. Traditionally, population trend data for the Nationally Endangered New Zealand grasshopper Brachaspis robustus has been determined by counting all adults and nymphs seen on a single ~1.5 km transect searched once annually. This method lacks spatial and temporal replication, both of which are essential to overcome detection errors in highly cryptic species like B. robustus. It also provides no information about changes in the grasshopper's distribution throughout its range. Here, we design and test new population density and site occupancy monitoring protocols by comparing a) comprehensive plot and transect searches at one site and b) transect searches at two sites representing two different habitats (gravel road and natural riverbed) occupied by the species across its remaining range. Using power analyses, we determined a) the number of transects, b) the number of repeated visits and c) the grasshopper demographic to count to accurately detect long term change in relative population density. To inform a monitoring protocol design to track trends in grasshopper distribution, we estimated the probability of detecting an individual with respect to a) search area, b) weather and c) the grasshopper demographic counted at each of the two sites. Density estimates from plots and transects did not differ significantly. Population density monitoring was found to be most informative when large adult females present in early summer were used to index population size. To detect a significant change in relative density with power > 0.8 at the gravel road habitat, at least seventeen spatial replicates (transects) and four temporal replicates (visits) were required. Density estimates at the natural braided river site performed poorly and likely require a much higher survey effort. Detection of grasshopper presence was highest (pg > 0.6) using a 100 m x 1 m transect at both sites in February under optimal (no cloud) conditions. At least three visits to a transect should be conducted per season for distribution monitoring. Monitoring protocols that inform the management of threatened species are crucial for better understanding and mitigation of the current global trends of insect decline. This study provides an exemplar of how appropriate monitoring protocols can be developed for threatened insect species.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Voo Animal/fisiologia , Gafanhotos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Feminino , Geografia , Nova Zelândia , Dinâmica Populacional , Probabilidade , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
SAR QSAR Environ Res ; 31(11): 803-814, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32938208

RESUMO

High-dimensionality is one of the major problems which affect the quality of the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) modelling. Obtaining a reliable QSAR model with few descriptors is an essential procedure in chemometrics. The binary grasshopper optimization algorithm (BGOA) is a new meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, which has been used successfully to perform feature selection. In this paper, four new transfer functions were adapted to improve the exploration and exploitation capability of the BGOA in QSAR modelling of influenza A viruses (H1N1). The QSAR model with these new quadratic transfer functions was internally and externally validated based on MSEtrain, Y-randomization test, MSEtest, and the applicability domain (AD). The validation results indicate that the model is robust and not due to chance correlation. In addition, the results indicate that the descriptor selection and prediction performance of the QSAR model for training dataset outperform the other S-shaped and V-shaped transfer functions. QSAR model using quadratic transfer function shows the lowest MSEtrain. For the test dataset, proposed QSAR model shows lower value of MSEtest compared with the other methods, indicating its higher predictive ability. In conclusion, the results reveal that the proposed QSAR model is an efficient approach for modelling high-dimensional QSAR models and it is useful for the estimation of IC50 values of neuraminidase inhibitors that have not been experimentally tested.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Antivirais/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/enzimologia , Neuraminidase/antagonistas & inibidores , Relação Quantitativa Estrutura-Atividade , Proteínas Virais/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Biologia Computacional , Desenho de Fármacos , Gafanhotos , Modelos Químicos
20.
Nature ; 584(7822): 528-530, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788700
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...