Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 7.394
Filtrar
1.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(8)2020 08 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785186

RESUMO

The coronaviruses are a large family of enveloped RNA viruses that commonly cause gastrointestinal or respiratory illnesses in the infected host. Avian coronavirus infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a highly contagious respiratory pathogen of chickens that can affect the kidneys and reproductive systems resulting in bird mortality and decreased reproductivity. The interferon-inducible transmembrane (IFITM) proteins are activated in response to viral infections and represent a class of cellular restriction factors that restrict the replication of many viral pathogens. Here, we characterize the relative mRNA expression of the chicken IFITM genes in response to IBV infection, in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro using the pathogenic M41-CK strain, the nephropathogenic QX strain and the nonpathogenic Beaudette strain. In vivo we demonstrate a significant upregulation of chIFITM1, 2, 3 and 5 in M41-CK- and QX-infected trachea two days post-infection. In vitro infection with Beaudette, M41-CK and QX results in a significant upregulation of chIFITM1, 2 and 3 at 24 h post-infection. We confirmed a differential innate response following infection with distinct IBV strains and believe that our data provide new insights into the possible role of chIFITMs in early IBV infection.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/fisiologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/fisiologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Órgãos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/etiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Carga Viral , Tropismo Viral
2.
Gene ; 761: 145046, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781192

RESUMO

Many studies have shown that the LDB2 gene plays a regulatory role in retinal development and the cell cycle, but its biological role remains unclear. In this study, a 31-bp indel in the LDB2 gene was found for the first time on the basis of 2797 individuals from 10 different breeds, which led to different genotypes among individuals (II, ID and DD). Among these genotypes, DD was the most dominant. Association analysis of an F2 resource population crossed with the Gushi (GS) chicken and Anka chicken showed that the DD genotype conferred a significantly greater semi-evisceration weight (SEW, 1108.665 g ± 6.263), evisceration weight (EW, 927.455 g ± 5.424), carcass weight (CW, 1197.306 g ± 6.443), breast muscle weight (BMW, 71.05 g ± 0.574), and leg muscle weight (LMW, 100.303 g ± 0.677) than the ID genotype (SEW, 1059.079 g ± 16.86; EW, 879.459 g ± 14.446; CW, 1141.821 g ± 17.176; BMW, 67.164 g ± 1.523; and LMW, 96.163 g ± 1.823). In addition, LDB2 gene expression in different breeds was significantly higher in the breast muscles and leg muscles than in other tissues. The expression level in the breast muscle differed significantly among stages of GS chicken development, with the highest expression observed at 6 weeks. The expression levels in the pectoral muscles differed significantly among Ross 308 genotypes. In summary, we studied the relationships between a 31-bp indel in the LDB2 gene and economic traits in chickens. The indel was significantly correlated with multiple growth and carcass traits in the F2 resource population and affected the expression of the LDB2 gene in muscle tissue. In short, our study revealed that the LDB2 gene 31-bp indel can be used as a potential genetic marker for molecular breeding.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/análise , Cruzamento/métodos , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Genótipo , Mutação INDEL , Proteínas com Domínio LIM/metabolismo , Carne , Músculos Peitorais , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Produtos Avícolas
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238189, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841273

RESUMO

The use of reference genes is required for relative quantification in gene expression analysis and the stability of these genes can be variable depending on the experimental design. Therefore, it is indispensable to test the reliability of endogenous genes previously to their use. This study evaluated nine candidate reference genes to select the most stable genes to be used as reference in gene expression studies with the femoral cartilage of normal and epiphysiolysis-affected broilers. The femur articular cartilage of 29 male broilers with 35 days of age was collected, frozen and further submitted to RNA extraction and quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis. The candidate reference genes evaluated were GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT1, MRPS27, MRPS30, RPL30, RPL4, RPL5, and RPLP1. For the gene stability evaluation, three software were used: GeNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder, and a global ranking was generated using the function RankAggreg. In this study, the RPLP1 and RPL5 were the most reliable endogenous genes being recommended for expression studies with femur cartilage in broilers with epiphysiolysis and possible other femur anomalies.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/genética , Cartilagem Articular/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Epifise Deslocada/veterinária , Algoritmos , Animais , Doenças das Aves/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Epifise Deslocada/genética , Epifise Deslocada/metabolismo , Fêmur , Expressão Gênica , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/estatística & dados numéricos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/veterinária , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0234795, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645018

RESUMO

Forkhead box L2 (FOXL2) is a single-exon gene encoding a forkhead transcription factor, which is mainly expressed in the ovary, eyelids and the pituitary gland. FOXL2 plays an essential role in ovarian development. To reveal the effects of FOXL2 on the biological process and gene expression of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs), we established stable FOXL2-knockdown GCs and then analysed them using transcriptome sequencing. It was observed that knocking down FOXL2 affected the biological processes of cell proliferation, DNA replication, and apoptosis and affected cell cycle progression. FOXL2 knockdown promoted cell proliferation and DNA replication, decreased cell apoptosis, and promoted mitosis. In addition, by comparing the transcriptome after FOXL2 knockdown, we found a series of DEGs (differentially expressed genes) and related pathways. These results indicated that, through mediating these genes and pathways, the FOXL2 might induce the cell proliferation, cycle, and DNA replication, and play a key role during ovarian development and maintenance.


Assuntos
Proteína Forkhead Box L2/genética , Proteína Forkhead Box L2/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Animais , Ciclo Celular/genética , Divisão Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Galinhas/genética , Replicação do DNA/genética , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Folículo Ovariano/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
5.
Immunogenetics ; 72(5): 325-332, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488290

RESUMO

Described here is a new, more efficient method for defining major histocompatibility complex-Y (MHC-Y) genotypes in chickens. The MHC-Y region is genetically independent from the classical MHC (MHC-B) region. MHC-Y is highly polymorphic and potentially important in the genetics of disease resistance. MHC-Y haplotypes contain variable numbers of specialized MHC class I-like genes, along with members of four additional gene families. Previously, MHC-Y haplotypes were defined by patterns of restriction fragments (RF) generated in labor-intensive procedures that were difficult to use to define MHC-Y genotypes for large numbers of samples. The method reported here is much simpler. MHC-Y genotypes are distinguished via patterns of PCR products generated from heritable short tandem repeat (STR) regions found immediately upstream of the MHC class I-like genes located throughout MHC-Y haplotypes. To validate the method, fully pedigreed families were analyzed for STR-defined haplotypes in light of haplotypes defined previously by RF patterns. STR-defined MHC-Y patterns segregate in fully pedigreed families as expected and correspond with haplotypes assigned by RF patterns. The patterns provided in STR chromatograms generated by capillary electrophoresis are distinct for different haplotypes and can be scored easily. Investigations into the influence of MHC-Y genetics on immune responses can now realistically be conducted with large sample sets.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Animais , Genótipo , Haplótipos , Família Multigênica/genética , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo
7.
Genet Sel Evol ; 52(1): 31, 2020 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32527317

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The traditional way to estimate variance components (VC) is based on the animal model using a pedigree-based relationship matrix (A) (A-AM). After genomic selection was introduced into breeding programs, it was anticipated that VC estimates from A-AM would be biased because the effect of selection based on genomic information is not captured. The single-step method (H-AM), which uses an H matrix as (co)variance matrix, can be used as an alternative to estimate VC. Here, we compared VC estimates from A-AM and H-AM and investigated the effect of genomic selection, genotyping strategy and genotyping proportion on the estimation of VC from the two methods, by analyzing a dataset from a commercial broiler line and a simulated dataset that mimicked the broiler population. RESULTS: VC estimates from H-AM were severely overestimated with a high proportion of selective genotyping, and overestimation increased as proportion of genotyping increased in the analysis of both commercial and simulated data. This bias in H-AM estimates arises when selective genotyping is used to construct the H-matrix, regardless of whether selective genotyping is applied or not in the selection process. For simulated populations under genomic selection, estimates of genetic variance from A-AM were also significantly overestimated when the effect of genomic selection was strong. Our results suggest that VC estimates from H-AM under random genotyping have the expected values. Predicted breeding values from H-AM were inflated when VC estimates were biased, and inflation differed between genotyped and ungenotyped animals, which can lead to suboptimal selection decisions. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that VC estimates from H-AM are biased with selective genotyping, but are close to expected values with random genotyping.VC estimates from A-AM in populations under genomic selection are also biased but to a much lesser degree. Therefore, we recommend the use of H-AM with random genotyping to estimate VC for populations under genomic selection. Our results indicate that it is still possible to use selective genotyping in selection, but then VC estimation should avoid the use of genotypes from one side only of the distribution of phenotypes. Hence, a dual genotyping strategy may be needed to address both selection and VC estimation.


Assuntos
Cruzamento/métodos , Técnicas de Genotipagem/métodos , Seleção Genética/genética , Análise de Variância , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Simulação por Computador , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Modelos Animais , Modelos Genéticos , Linhagem , Fenótipo
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232418, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421690

RESUMO

Improving the digestive efficiency of broiler chickens (Gallus gallus) could reduce organic waste, increase the use of alternative feed not used for human consumption and reduce the impact of feed in production costs. By selecting chicken lines divergently for their digestive efficiency, we showed previously that digestive efficiency is under genetic control and that the two resulting divergent lines, D+ (high digestive efficiency or "digestibility +") and D- (low digestive efficiency or "digestibility -"), also differ for the abundance of specific bacteria in their caeca. Here we perform a more extensive census of the bacteria present in the digestive microbiota of 60 chickens selected for their low apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn-) or high (AMEn+) digestive efficiency in a [D+ x D-] F8 progeny of 200 individuals. We sequenced the 16S rRNA genes of the ileal, jejunal and caecal microbiotas, and compared the compositions and predicted functions of microbiotas from the different intestinal segments for 20 AMEn+ and 19 AMEn- birds. The intestinal segment of origin was the main factor structuring the samples. The caecal microbiota was the most impacted by the differences in digestive efficiency, with 41 bacterial species with abundances differing between highly and poorly efficient birds. Furthermore, we predicted that the caecal microbiota of efficient birds might be enriched in genes contributing to the degradation of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) from non-starch polysaccharides. These results confirm the impact of the genetic selection led on digestibility on the caecal microbiota taxonomic composition. They open the way toward the identification of specific, causal genes of the host controlling variations in the abundances of bacterial taxons.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Biodiversidade , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Digestão/genética , Digestão/fisiologia , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/fisiologia , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/microbiologia , Intestinos/fisiologia , Masculino , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Seleção Genética
9.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233169, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407420

RESUMO

In broiler hens, the genetic selection increased susceptibility to metabolic disorders and reproductive dysfunctions. In human ovarian cells, grape seed extracts (GSE) improved steroid production. Here, we investigated the effects of a GSE dietary supplementation on egg production and quality, fertility parameters, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and steroid content in yolk egg associated to plasma adipokines in broiler hens. For this, we designed two in vivo experiments, the first one included three groups of hens: A (control), B and C (supplemented with GSE at 0.5% and 1% of the total diet composition, respectively, since week 4), and the second one used two groups of hens: A (control) and D (supplemented with GSE at 1% of the total diet composition since hatching). We assessed the egg production from 23th to 40th weeks and quality at 33th week. After artificial inseminations, the fertility parameters were calculated. In egg yolk, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level and steroid production were evaluated by Ros-Glo H202 and ELISA assay, respectively. Expression of steroidogenic enzymes and adipokines and their receptors was determined by RT-qPCR in ovarian cells and plasma adipokines (RARRES2, ADIPOQ and NAMPT) were evaluated by specific ELISA assays. The fertility parameters and egg production were unaffected by GSE supplementation whatever the experiment (exp.). However, the rate of double-yolk eggs decreased for all GSE supplemented groups (exp. 1 P <0.01, exp.2, P<0.02). In exp.1, C group eggs were bigger and larger (P<0.0001) and the shell elasticity was higher for both B and C (P<0.0003) as compared to control. In the egg yolk, GSE supplementation in both exp. reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis consistent with a decrease in P450 aromatase and StAR mRNA expression and basal in vitro progesterone secretion in granulosa cells (P<0.001). Interestingly, in both exp. RARRES2 plasma levels were positively correlated while ADIPOQ and NAMPT plasma levels were negatively correlated, with steroids and ROS in yolk (P<0.0001). Taken together, maternal dietary GSE supplementation did not affect egg production and fertility parameters whereas it reduced ROS content and steroidogenesis in yolk egg. Furthermore, it ameliorated egg quality by decreasing the number of double-yolk eggs and by improving the size of normal eggs and the elasticity of the shell. Taken together, our data suggest the possibility of using dietary maternal GSE to improve egg quality.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fertilidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Extrato de Sementes de Uva/farmacologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Óvulo/metabolismo , Reprodução/efeitos dos fármacos , Esteroides/biossíntese , Adipocinas/sangue , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Dieta , Gema de Ovo/efeitos dos fármacos , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Feminino , Células da Granulosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Células da Granulosa/metabolismo , Tamanho do Órgão/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Oviposição/efeitos dos fármacos , Óvulo/efeitos dos fármacos , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Receptores de Adipocina/genética , Receptores de Adipocina/metabolismo , Células Tecais/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Tecais/metabolismo
10.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32432320

RESUMO

In recent decades, artificial selection has contributed greatly to meeting the demands for animal meat, eggs, and milk. However, it has also resulted in changes in behavior, metabolic and digestive function, and alterations in tissue development, including the brain and skeleton. Our study aimed to profile the behavioral traits and transcriptome pattern of chickens (broilers, layers, and dual-purpose breeds) in response to artificial selection. Broilers spent less time gathered as a group in a novel arena (P < 0.01), suggesting reduced fearfulness in these birds. Broilers also showed a greater willingness to approach a model predator during a vigilance test but had a greater behavioral response when first exposed to the vocalization of the predator. Genes found to be upregulated and downregulated in previous work on chickens divergently selected for fear responses also showed consistent differences in expression between breeds in our study and indicated a reduction in fearfulness in broilers. Gene ACTB_G1 (actin) was differentially expressed between breeds and is a candidate gene involved with skeletal muscle growth and disease susceptibility in broilers. Furthermore, breed-specific alterations in the chicken domestic phenotype leading to differences in growth and egg production were associated with behavioral changes, which are probably underpinned by alterations in gene expression, gene ontology terms, and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways. The results highlight the change in behavior and gene expression of the broiler strain relative to the layer and a dual-purpose native breed.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Cruzamento , Galinhas/genética , Seleção Genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Galinhas/classificação , Galinhas/fisiologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica
11.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468653

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional effects of rice feeding and carnitine addition to a diet for broiler chicks. Thirty-six male 10-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: corn-based diet (corn group), rice-based diet (rice group), and each diet with added carnitine (100 ppm). The experimental period was 2 weeks. Rice feeding resulted in significantly higher growth performance (body weight gain and feed efficiency) compared to corn feeding. Carnitine addition also resulted in higher growth performance. Breast muscle and thigh muscle weight (g) were significantly higher in broiler chicks fed rice and those fed diets with added carnitine. Liver mRNA expression of IGF-I was significantly higher in broiler chicks fed rice compared to those fed corn. There was no significant difference in mRNA expression of muscle atrogin-1 or liver CPT-I between broiler chicks fed rice and those fed corn, not between broilers chicks fed diets containing carnitine or not. Overall, these results show that rice feeding and carnitine addition improve the growth performance of broiler chicks by increasing mRNA expression of liver IGF-I. In addition, carnitine action is not affected by different cereals (corn and rice).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Oryza , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Zea mays
12.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13396, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468659

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to examine the expression profiles of follistatin (FST) and its associated molecules (MSTN, INHA, INHBB, INHBA, ACVR2A, and ACVR2B) in the oviduct of laying hens at 3 hr and 20 hr post-ovulation (p.o., n = 5; 35 weeks old), molting (n = 5; 60 weeks old), and non-laying (n = 4; 35-60 weeks old) hens and also to localize the FST by using immunohistochemistry assay. Expression of FST was significantly higher (p < .05), and MSTN was lower in the uterus of laying hens around 15-20 hr p.o. (during eggshell formation), however, their expressions in the magnum remain unchanged across different physiological stages of hens. FST was mainly expressed in the luminal and glandular epithelium of the uterine tissues, and their expression intensity was highest in laying hens during the eggshell mineralization. There was a relatively increased expression of INHA in the magnum of laying hens around 3 hr p.o. as compared to non-laying and molting hens. At the same time (3 hr p.o.), there was a significant (p < .05) decrease in the expression of the INHBB, ACVR2A, and ACV2B. These results indicate that follistatin may regulate the differentiation of uterine luminal and glandular epithelium during eggshell biomineralization.


Assuntos
Biomineralização/genética , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/fisiologia , Casca de Ovo/embriologia , Folistatina/genética , Folistatina/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica/genética , Oviductos/metabolismo , Oviposição/genética , Oviposição/fisiologia , Ovulação/genética , Ovulação/fisiologia , Transcriptoma , Animais , Biomineralização/fisiologia , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Diferenciação Celular/fisiologia , Casca de Ovo/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Feminino , Oviductos/fisiologia , Útero/citologia , Útero/metabolismo
13.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110715, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450432

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a necessary trace mineral due to its biological activity. Excessive Cu can induce inflammatory response in humans and animals, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Here, 240 broilers were used to study the effects of excessive Cu on oxidative stress and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in immune organs. Chickens were fed with diet containing different concentrations of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg of Cu/kg dry matter). The experiment lasted for 49 days. Spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius (BF) on day 49 were collected for histopathological observation and assessment of oxidative stress status. Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines were also analyzed. The results indicated that excess Cu could increase the number and area of splenic corpuscle as well as the ratio of cortex and medulla in thymus and BF. Furthermore, excessive Cu intake could decrease activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); but increase contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), TNF-α, IL-1, IL-1ß; up-regulate mRNA levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-1ß, IL-2, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB and protein levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, NF-κB, p-NF-κB in immune organs. In conclusion, excessive Cu could cause pathologic changes and induce oxidative stress with triggered NF-κB pathway, and might further regulate the inflammatory response in immune organs of chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Cobre/toxicidade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/enzimologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/metabolismo , Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , Baço/enzimologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timo/enzimologia , Timo/imunologia , Timo/metabolismo , Timo/patologia
14.
Cytogenet Genome Res ; 160(4): 199-205, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369809

RESUMO

Bird chromosomes, which have been investigated scientifically for more than a century, present a number of unique features. In general, bird karyotypes have a high diploid number (2n) of typically around 80 chromosomes that are divided into macro- and microchromosomes. In recent decades, FISH studies using whole chromosome painting probes have shown that the macrochromosomes evolved through both inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements. However, chromosome painting data are available for only a few bird species, which hinders a more systematic approach to the understanding of the evolutionary history of the enigmatic bird karyotype. Thus, we decided to create an innovative database through compilation of the cytogenetic data available for birds, including chromosome numbers and the results of chromosome painting with chicken (Gallus gallus) probes. The data were obtained through an extensive literature review, which focused on cytogenetic studies published up to 2019. In the first version of the "Bird Chromosome Database (BCD)" (https://sites.unipampa.edu.br/birdchromosomedatabase) we have compiled data on the chromosome numbers of 1,067 bird species and chromosome painting data on 96 species. We found considerable variation in the diploid numbers, which ranged from 40 to 142, although most (around 50%) of the species studied up to now have between 78 and 82 chromosomes. Despite its importance for cytogenetic research, chromosome painting has been applied to less than 1% of all bird species. The BCD will enable researchers to identify the main knowledge gaps in bird cytogenetics, including the most under-sampled groups, and make inferences on chromosomal homologies in phylogenetic studies.


Assuntos
Aves/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Citogenética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Animais , Aves/classificação , Galinhas/genética , Coloração Cromossômica , Diploide , Feminino , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
15.
J Anim Sci ; 98(4)2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267923

RESUMO

Early application of genomic selection relied on SNP estimation with phenotypes or de-regressed proofs (DRP). Chips of 50k SNP seemed sufficient for an accurate estimation of SNP effects. Genomic estimated breeding values (GEBV) were composed of an index with parent average, direct genomic value, and deduction of a parental index to eliminate double counting. Use of SNP selection or weighting increased accuracy with small data sets but had minimal to no impact with large data sets. Efforts to include potentially causative SNP derived from sequence data or high-density chips showed limited or no gain in accuracy. After the implementation of genomic selection, EBV by BLUP became biased because of genomic preselection and DRP computed based on EBV required adjustments, and the creation of DRP for females is hard and subject to double counting. Genomic selection was greatly simplified by single-step genomic BLUP (ssGBLUP). This method based on combining genomic and pedigree relationships automatically creates an index with all sources of information, can use any combination of male and female genotypes, and accounts for preselection. To avoid biases, especially under strong selection, ssGBLUP requires that pedigree and genomic relationships are compatible. Because the inversion of the genomic relationship matrix (G) becomes costly with more than 100k genotyped animals, large data computations in ssGBLUP were solved by exploiting limited dimensionality of genomic data due to limited effective population size. With such dimensionality ranging from 4k in chickens to about 15k in cattle, the inverse of G can be created directly (e.g., by the algorithm for proven and young) at a linear cost. Due to its simplicity and accuracy, ssGBLUP is routinely used for genomic selection by the major chicken, pig, and beef industries. Single step can be used to derive SNP effects for indirect prediction and for genome-wide association studies, including computations of the P-values. Alternative single-step formulations exist that use SNP effects for genotyped or for all animals. Although genomics is the new standard in breeding and genetics, there are still some problems that need to be solved. This involves new validation procedures that are unaffected by selection, parameter estimation that accounts for all the genomic data used in selection, and strategies to address reduction in genetic variances after genomic selection was implemented.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Galinhas/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/veterinária , Genômica , Modelos Genéticos , Suínos/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Densidade Demográfica
16.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0225084, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32240167

RESUMO

Rwanda has about 4.5 million of indigenous chicken (IC) that are very low in productivity. To initiate any genetic improvement programme, IC needs to be accurately characterized. The key purpose of this study was to ascertain the genetic diversity of IC in Rwanda using microsatellite markers. Blood samples of IC sampled from 5 agro-ecological zones were collected from which DNA was extracted, amplified by PCR and genotyped using 28 microsatellite markers. A total of 325 (313 indigenous and 12 exotic) chickens were genotyped and revealed a total number of 305 alleles varying between 2 and 22 with a mean of 10.89 per locus. One hundred eighty-six (186) distinct alleles and 60 private alleles were also observed. The frequency of private alleles was highest in samples from the Eastern region, whereas those from the North West had the lowest. The influx of genes was lower in the Eastern agro-ecological zone than the North West. The mean observed heterozygosity was 0.6155, whereas the average expected heterozygosity was 0.688. The overall inbreeding coefficient among the population was 0.040. Divergence from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was significant (p<0.05) in 90% of loci in all the populations. The analysis of molecular variance revealed that about 92% of the total variation originated from variation within populations. Additionally, the study demonstrated that IC in Rwanda could be clustered into four gene groups. In conclusion, there was considerable genetic diversity in IC in Rwanda, which represents a crucial genetic resource that can be conserved or optimized through genetic improvement.


Assuntos
Cruzamento , Galinhas/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Vigilância da População , Alelos , Animais , Genótipo , Humanos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Ruanda
17.
Food Chem ; 321: 126708, 2020 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32251924

RESUMO

Detection of food adulteration is a challenge. However, the identification of adulterated meat in processed products is important for health and personal preference. Mitochondrial genomic DNA (mtDNA) is a good candidate for reliable identification of meat ingredients; however, the extraction of mtDNA from processed products is a bottleneck for development of detection strategies. Therefore, we constructed a rapid (~5 min) mtDNA extraction device. mtDNAs from different meat samples, such as pork (Sus scrofa), chicken (Gallus gallus), and beef (Bos taurus), were successfully detected in up to 0.1% adulterated animal species. We believe that the proposed strategy could be applied to detect animal species from processed meat products to reduce fraudulent practices.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/isolamento & purificação , Produtos da Carne , Mitocôndrias/genética , Animais , Bovinos , Galinhas/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Sus scrofa/genética , Suínos
18.
J Anim Sci ; 98(5)2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32309860

RESUMO

An increasing number of studies have shown that quantitative trait loci (QTLs) at the end of chromosome 1 identified in different chicken breeds and populations exert significant effects on growth traits in chickens. Nevertheless, the causal genes underlying the QTL effect remain poorly understood. Using an updated gene database, a novel lncRNA (named LncFAM) was found at the end of chromosome 1 and located in a growth and digestion QTL. This study showed that the expression level of LncFAM in pancreas tissues with a high weight was significantly higher than that in pancreas tissues with a low weight, which indicates that the expression level of LncFAM was positively correlated with various growth phenotype indexes, such as growth speed and body weight. A polymorphism screening identified four polymorphisms with strong linkage disequilibrium in LncFAM: a 5-bp indel in the second exon, an A/G base mutation, and 7-bp and 97-bp indels in the second intron. A study of a 97-bp insertion in the second intron using an F2 chicken resource population produced by Anka and Gushi chickens showed that the mutant individuals with genotype II had the highest values for body weight (BW) at 0 days and 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 weeks, shank girth (SG) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, chest width (CW) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, body slant length (BSL) at 8 and 12 weeks, and pelvic width (PW) at 4, 8 and 12 weeks, followed by ID and DD genotypes. The amplification and typing of 2,716 chickens from ten different breeds, namely, the F2 chicken resource population, dual-type chickens, including Xichuan black-bone chickens, Lushi green-shell layers, Dongxiang green-shell layers, Changshun green-shell layers, and Gushi chickens, and commercial broilers, including Ross 308, AA, Cobb and Hubbard broilers, revealed that II was the dominant genotype. Interestingly, only genotype II existed among the tested populations of commercial broilers. Moreover, the expression level in the pancreas tissue of Ross 308 chickens was significantly higher than that in the pancreas tissue of Gushi chickens (P < 0.001), which might be related to the conversion rates among different chickens. The prediction and verification of the target gene of LncFAM showed that LncFAM might regulate the expression of its target gene FAM48A through cis-expression. Our results provide useful information on the mutation of LncFAM, which can be used as a potential molecular breeding marker.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Cromossomos/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/fisiologia , Feminino , Ligação Genética , Genótipo , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Fenótipo
19.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13371, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32285539

RESUMO

Protein proteolytic enzymes (Proprotein Convertase, PC) is a Ca2+ -dependent serine protease family, whose main function is to cleave precursors of biologically inactive proteins or peptide chains into active functional molecules. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 1 (PCSK1) gene is mainly expressed in nerve and endocrine tissues. In this study, PCSK1 was selected as an important candidate gene for abdominal fat content in broilers. We cloned the exon region of chicken PCSK1 gene and found six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Association analysis was carried out and we found that the polymorphisms of these six SNPs were significantly associated with abdominal fat content in G19 and G20 populations. Five of these SNPs were significantly associated with abdominal fat content in G19 and G20 combined population. The polymorphism of these five SNPs was significantly correlated with the abdominal fat content of AA broilers. Together, our study demonstrated that c.927T>C, c.1880C>T, c.*900G>A, and c.*1164C>T were significantly associated with abdominal fat content in populations used in this study, which means that these SNPs in PCSK1 gene could be used as candidate markers to select lean broiler lines.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Pró-Proteína Convertase 1/genética , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Associação Genética , Polimorfismo Genético
20.
Poult Sci ; 99(4): 1813-1821, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241461

RESUMO

Ovaries produce sex hormones, and ovariectomized animals are often used as models for ovarian dysfunction. The liver is a vital organ involved in metabolism and immunity. In the present study, we conducted experiments to investigate the effects of ovariectomy on transcription and metabolic processes in the liver in chicken. Eight Single Comb White Leghorn (SCWL) female chickens were ovariectomized at 17 wk of age, and 8 intact SCWL females served as controls. At 100 wk of age, all chickens were euthanized. High-throughput transcriptome sequencing was performed on liver RNA obtained from ovariectomized and intact females. A total of 267 differentially expressed genes (DEG) were identified in our study. After analysis using DAVID functional annotation tool, one significant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway, the phosphatidylinositol signaling pathway, was clustered. Gene Ontology enrichment analysis yielded 46 significant Gene Ontology terms. Among terms describing biological processes, the glycerolipid metabolic and lipid localization processes were dominant. The anabolic genes, PEPCK and GK5, and the catabolic genes, VTG1; VTG2; PLD5; DGKQ; DGKE; and FABP3, were detected in ovariectomized chickens. Differentially expressed genes such as ENSGALG00000000162, IL-1Β, SVOPL, and CA12 implied that livers in ovariectomized chickens were subjected to strong inflammatory reactions, whereas defenses against endogenous materials were compromised. A comprehensive view of gene expression in the liver of ovariectomized chickens would advance our understanding of lipid metabolism, glycometabolism, and their relationships to pathologies induced by absence of the ovary. The identified DEG indicated that ovariectomy disturbed lipid metabolism in the liver and was accompanied by an increase in hepatic gluconeogenesis and reductions in phosphatidic acid synthesis and lipid carrier capacity.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Fígado/fisiologia , Ovariectomia/veterinária , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Transcriptoma , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Feminino , Ovário/cirurgia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA