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1.
Trop Biomed ; 38(1): 28-32, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797520

RESUMO

Infectious bronchitis viral (IBV) (Avian coronavirus) diseases is among the major reproductive diseases affecting the avian production in Africa. There is scanty information on its current status and vaccination compliance among captive wild birds (CWB) and indigenous chickens (LC) in Nigeria. This study aimed to assess the exposure and the risk factors associated with IBV in CWB and LC from North-central and South west regions of Nigeria. Sera samples from 218 LC and 43 CWB were examined for IBV IgG using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Also, owners of LC and managers of CWB were interviewed using a pre-tested structured checklist. An overall IBV prevalence of 42.9% (112/261) was obtained. Captive wild birds and indigenous chickens had 11.6% (5/43) and 49.1% (107/218) prevalence respectively with a significant difference (p< 0.0001, OR= 7.3, 95% CI= 2.8-19.3). Also, geo-location indicated significant difference in IBV exposure among birds (p<=0.034). Furthermore, the study showed that there had never been laboratory screening on all acquired wild birds for exposure to infectious agents in the study location while none of these birds (LB/CWB) had history of vaccination. Since IBV is endemic in Nigeria, the use of vaccine for prophylactic measure should be advocated among LC and CWB owners in order to avoid unnecessary losses. Also, the essence of screening for infectious agents in newly acquired wild birds should be considered crucial for health sustenance and public safety.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Animais , Animais Selvagens/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos
2.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 51, 2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33494765

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), a coronavirus, is one of the most important poultry pathogens worldwide due to its multiple serotypes and poor cross-protection. Vaccination plays a vital role in controlling the disease. The efficacy of vaccination in chicken flocks can be evaluated by detecting neutralizing antibodies with the neutralization test. However there are no simple and rapid methods for detecting the neutralizing antibodies. RESULTS: In this study, a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (pELISA) as a possible alternative to the neutralization test for evaluating the immune response to IBV vaccine was developed. The pELISA could indirect evaluate neutralizing antibody titers against different types of IBV in all tested sera. The titers measured with the pELISA had a coefficient of 0.83 for neutralizing antibody titers. CONCLUSIONS: The pELISA could detect antibodies against different types of IBV in all tested sera. The pELISA has the potential to evaluate samples for IBV-specific neutralizing antibodies and surveillance the infection of IBV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Testes de Neutralização , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Testes de Neutralização/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
3.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111825, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412284

RESUMO

To explore the effect of florfenicol (FFC) combined with Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMPs) on immune function of Broilers. One hundred and twenty-one-day-old chicks were chosen and divided into 6 groups. The group A received standard basal diet only, the group B received a basal diet with FFC (0.15 g/L diet), and the group C, D, E received a basal diet with FFC (0.15 g/L diet) and SMPs (1.25 g/L, 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L diet),the group F received a basal diet with SMPs (5 g/L diet). FFC can significantly inhibit the growth performance of broilers, but has no significant damage to the immune function of broilers. The combination of FFC and SMPs can improve the growth performance of broilers, increase the number of leukocyte subtypes in blood (P < 0.05), increase the number of Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) antibodies in blood, the number of immunoglobulins, and the content of cytokines (P < 0.05). In addition, it significantly improve the lymphocyte conversion rate of broiler peripheral blood (P < 0.05). So that, synergistic use of FFC and SMPs can enhance immune responses in Broilers.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Ração Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Tianfenicol/farmacologia
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111886, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33421725

RESUMO

Molybdenum (Mo) is not only an important rare metal that is widely used in industrial production but also an essential trace element for plants and animals. Nevertheless, in Mo polluted areas, excess Mo intake will not only cause gout in humans but also cause diarrhea in livestock and growth inhibition of chickens. Heterophils extracellular traps (HETs) are an important way to clear pathogens in the innate immune system of the chicken. However, the effects of Mo on the innate immune responses of HETs formation in chicken, and the mechanism undergoing this phenomenon remain unknown. In the study, we firstly aim to investigate the effects of sodium molybdate (Na2MoO4) on chicken HETs formation in vitro, and further to explore its related metabolic requirements and molecular mechanisms. Chicken heterophils were cultured with Na2MoO4, and Na2MoO4-induced HETs structures were analyzed by confocal microscopy. Moreover, Na2MoO4-induced HETs were quantified by Quant-iT PicoGreen® dsDNA Assay kits and fluorescence microplate. It has been shown that Na2MoO4 truly triggered HETs-like structures that were composed of DNA decorated with citrullinated histone 3 (citH3) and elastase. The inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK signaling pathway significantly reduced Na2MoO4-induced HETs formation. Further experiments on energy metabolism involving Na2MoO4-induced HETs formation showed that Na2MoO4-induced HETs release was relevant to glucose, and the inhibitors of glycolysis including 3PO, AZD23766 and 3-Bromopyuvic acid, the inhibitors of glucose transport including STF31 and Ritonavir and NSC23766 significantly decreased Na2MoO4-induced HETs formation. In summary, these results demonstrate that Mo does induce chicken HETs formation in vitro, and the formation of HETs is a process relying on glucose transport 1 (GLUT1),glucose transport 4 (GLUT4), glycolysis, and ROS production depended on the activation of NADPH oxidase, ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways, which also reflects the early innate immune responses of chicken against excessive molybdenum intake.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Armadilhas Extracelulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Molibdênio/toxicidade , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/imunologia , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 4/imunologia , Glicólise , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidases/imunologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/imunologia
5.
Mol Genet Genomics ; 296(2): 331-339, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33404883

RESUMO

Allelic transmission ratio distortion (TRD) is the significant deviation from the expected ratio under Mendelian inheritance theory, which may be resulted from multiple disrupted biological processes, including germline selection, meiotic drive, gametic competition, imprint error, and embryo lethality. However, it is less known that whether or what extent the allelic TRD is present in farm animals. In this study, whole-genome resequencing technology was applied to reveal TRD loci in chicken by constructing a full-sib F1 hybrid population. Through the whole-genome resequencing data of two parents (30 ×) and 38 offspring (5 ×), we detected a total of 2850 TRD SNPs (p-adj < 0.05) located within 400 genes showing TRD, and all of them were unevenly distributed on macrochromosomes and microchromosomes. Our findings suggested that TRD in the chicken chromosome 16 might play an important role in chicken immunity and disease resistance and the MYH1F with significant TRD and allele-specific expression could play a key role in the fast muscle development. In addition, functional enrichment analyses revealed that many genes (e.g., TGFBR2, TGFBR3, NOTCH1, and NCOA1) with TRD were found in the significantly enriched biological process and InterPro terms in relation to embryonic lethality and germline selection. Our results suggested that TRD is considerably prevalent in the chicken genome and has functional implications.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/veterinária , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Resistência à Doença , Feminino , Genética Populacional , Genótipo , Padrões de Herança , Masculino
6.
Gene ; 766: 145077, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941951

RESUMO

Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a contagious poultry paramyxovirus, leading to substantial economic losses to the poultry industry. Here, RNA-seq was carried out to investigate the altered expression of immune-related genes in chicken thymus within 96 h in response to NDV infection. In NDV-infected chicken thymus tissues, comparative transcriptome analysis revealed 1386 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) at 24 h with 989 up- and 397 down-regulated genes, 728 DEGs at 48 h with 567 up- and 161 down-regulated genes, 1514 DEGs at 72 h with 1016 up- and 498 down-regulated genes, and 1196 DEGs at 96 h with 522 up- and 674 down-regulated genes, respectively. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis showed that these candidate targets mainly participate in biological processes or biochemical, metabolic and signal transduction processes. Notably, there is large enrichment in biological processes, cell components and metabolic processes, which may be related to NDV pathogenicity. In addition, the expression of five immune-related DEGs identified by RNA-seq was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Our results indicated that the expression levels of AvBD5, IL16, IL22 and IL18R1 were obviously up-regulated, and Il-18 expression was also changed, but not significantly, which play key roles in the defense against NDV. Overall, we identified several candidate targets that may be involved in the regulation of NDV infection, which provide new insights into the complicated regulatory mechanisms of virus-host interactions, and explore new strategies for protecting chickens against the virus.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/genética , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Transcriptoma/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Regulação para Cima/imunologia
7.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 110-118, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357673

RESUMO

Coccidiosis, the parasitic disease caused by Eimeria spp., is controlled during broiler chicken production through the inclusion of in-feed anticoccidial medications. Live-coccidiosis vaccination has become an increasingly common alternative to these medications. Monitoring infections with Eimeria spp. in flocks can be accomplished through determining the concentration of oocysts excreted in the fecal material (i.e., oocysts per gram; OPG). The purpose of our study was to sample commercial Ontario broiler chicken flocks at various times of the year to determine weekly OPG counts for flocks that use either an in-feed anticoccidial medication or a live-coccidiosis vaccine. Weekly sampling of 95 flocks from placement to market permitted documentation of oocyst cycling patterns typical of conventional and antibiotic-free flocks, and variation of these patterns in summer and winter. Medicated flocks had higher and later peak oocyst shedding compared with vaccinated flocks. Flocks reared in the summer peaked in oocyst shedding earlier than flocks reared in the winter. Despite what appears to be poorer coccidiosis control in the medicated flocks, the performance data were similar for these flocks compared with vaccinated flocks. This is the first study describing typical patterns of parasite shedding in Ontarian commercial broiler chicken flocks; these data will provide a baseline of expected Eimeria spp. infections in Canadian broiler chicken flocks to ensure optimal coccidiosis prevention.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , Oocistos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Protozoárias , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Coccidiose/diagnóstico , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Ontário/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/veterinária
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 39-46, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357705

RESUMO

H9N2 avian influenza viruses (AIV) continue to circulate in vaccinated chicken flocks in China, which prompted us to investigate the differential immune protection factors induced by H9N2 AIV infection and immunization for analyzing the reason of protection deficiency of H9N2 AIV inactivated vaccine. In this study, we firstly explored virus-induced optimal immune responses in chicken after H9N2 AIV infection. And, we found that H9N2 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody level, antiviral interferon-stimulated genes including 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase-like and myxovirus resistance 1, CD8+ T cell response in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) accompanied by the cytotoxicity-associated genes, including poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and IFN-r play important roles in defending against H9N2 infection. Besides, we observed that vaccine immunization triggered the similar H9N2 HI antibody level as viral infection, the increase of CD4+ T cell percentage instead of CD8+ T cell percentage in PBL. Moreover, we further made a comparative analysis of immune-related gene expression profile in PBL and lung after H9N2 AIV infection and immunization, respectively. The results showed that vaccine immunization contributed to the up-regulation of Th2 cytokine. But the deficiency of cytotoxicity-associated genes induced by H9N2 AIV inactivated vaccine may be the potential key reason of protection deficiency. These findings provide evidence and direction for developing effective H9N2 AIV vaccines.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2 , Vacinas contra Influenza , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Galinhas/imunologia , China , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 47-54, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357706

RESUMO

As the demand for alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) increases in food animal production, phytobiotic compounds gain popularity because of their ability to mimic the desirable bioactive properties of AGP. Chestnut tannins (ChT) are one of many phytobiotic compounds used as feed additives, particularly in South America, for broilers because of its favorable antimicrobial and growth promotion capabilities. Although studies have observed the microbiological and immunologic effects of ChT, there is a lack of studies evaluating the metabolic function of ChT. Therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the cecal metabolic changes induced by ChT inclusion and how they relate to growth promotion. A total of 200 day-of-hatch broiler chicks were separated into 2 feed treatment groups: control and 1% ChT. The ceca from all the chicks in the treatment groups were collected on day 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 after hatch. The cytokine mRNA quantitative RT-PCR was determined using TaqMan gene expression assays for IL-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and interferon gamma quantification. The cytokine expression showed highly significant increased expressions of IL-6 and IL-10 on day 2 and 6, whereas the other proinflammatory cytokines did not have significantly increased expression. The results from the kinome array demonstrated that the ceca from birds fed with 1% ChT had significant (P < 0.05) metabolic alterations based on the number of peptides when compared with the control group across all day tested. The increased expression of IL-6 appeared to be strongly indicative of altered metabolism, whereas the increased expression of IL-10 indicated the regulatory effect against other proinflammatory cytokines other than IL-6. The ChT initiate a metabolic mechanism during the first 10 d in the broiler. For the first time, we show that a phytobiotic product initially modulates metabolism while also potentially supporting growth and feed efficiency downstream. In conclusion, a metabolic phenotype alteration in the ceca of chickens fed ChT may indicate the importance of enhanced broiler gut health.


Assuntos
Ceco , Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Taninos , Animais , Ceco/efeitos dos fármacos , Ceco/metabolismo , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interleucinas/genética , Fenótipo , Taninos/farmacologia
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 9-18, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357711

RESUMO

Chicken MDA5 (chMDA5), the essential accepted pattern recognition receptors for detecting cytoplasmic viral RNA in chicken, initiates interferon ß (IFN-ß) generation. However, there is an incomplete elucidation of regulating chMDA5-mediated IFN-ß production. NEMO-related protein, optineurin, was identified as inhibitors of virus triggered IFN-ß induction in human or mice. In this study, full length of chicken optineurin (chOPTN) was cloned from chicken embryo fibroblast, and its role in inhibiting IFN-ß signaling pathway was further explored. Full-length chOPTN encodes 547 amino acids residues and contains unique LC3 interaction region and ubiquitin binding domain. Chicken optineurin mRNA and protein are widely expressed in different tissues, especially the heart, kidney, and bursal fabricius (BF). Overexpressed chOPTN not only inhibits poly I:C or homos-induced human IFN-ß promoter activation in 293T cells but also suppresses poly I:C, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) genome double-strand RNA (dsRNA), and chMDA5-induced chicken IFN-ß (chIFN-ß) promoter activation. In addition, we first revealed that chOPTN negatively regulates chIFN-ß production via inhibiting ubiquitination of chicken TBK1, which is dependent on the ubiquitin-binding domain of chOPTN. Moreover, chIFN-ß stimulus, poly I:C, and IBDV genome dsRNA improve chOPTN expression. Endogenous chOPTN expression is also upregulated by IBDV infection in 293T, DF-1 cells, as well as in BF. Therefore, our results suggested that chOPTN plays an inhibition role of chMDA5-mediated chIFN-ß signaling pathway in chicken cells.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ciclo Celular , Galinhas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/imunologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/fisiologia , Helicase IFIH1 Induzida por Interferon/imunologia , Interferon beta/genética , RNA de Cadeia Dupla/genética
11.
Avian Dis ; 64(4): 451-456, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33347551

RESUMO

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) congenic chicken lines have been used as a model to study infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) immune responses in chickens. Zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) are trace minerals that act as enzyme cofactors in cellular reactions. In addition, Zn is an important modulator of immune responses, especially in the respiratory tract. Zinc and Zn + Mn amino acid complex supplements were tested to alleviate the effects of an IBV challenge using relatively resistant and susceptible MHC congenic chicken lines. Prior to the challenge with IBV, the amino acid-bound supplements induced better weight gain in the IBV-resistant chicken line (331/B2) compared to the birds fed with the sulfate-delivered supplements. No body weight differences were detected between IBV-challenged and unchallenged 331/B2 birds supplemented with Zn in amino acid complex. A reduction of respiratory signs was observed in 335/B19 birds fed with the diet supplemented with Zn in amino acid complexes at 4 dpi. Compared to the sulfate-bound trace minerals, 331/B2 chickens fed with the amino acid-bound supplements presented milder clinical sign trends at 6 dpi and less severe airsacculitis at 14 dpi. The total antibody response in serum in 331/B2 birds fed with the amino acid-bound Zn ration was the highest among all groups tested. Both amino acid-delivered trace mineral supplements induced a slightly higher antibody response than the sulfate-bound ration in both chicken lines. This experiment provides insights into the effect of Zn and Mn on the immunity of chickens with known different susceptibilities to IBV.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/dietoterapia , Aminoácidos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Animais Congênicos , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/veterinária , Haplótipos , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade , Manganês/administração & dosagem , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Zinco/administração & dosagem
12.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 502, 2020 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33176685

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genomic and genetic studies often require a target list of genes before conducting any hypothesis testing or experimental verification. With the ever-growing number of sequenced genomes and a variety of different annotation strategies, comes the potential for ambiguous gene symbols, making it cumbersome to capture the "correct" set of genes. In this article, we present and describe the Avian Immunome DB (AVIMM) for easy gene property extraction as exemplified by avian immune genes. The avian immune system is characterised by a cascade of complex biological processes underlaid by more than 1000 different genes. It is a vital trait to study particularly in birds considering that they are a significant driver in spreading zoonotic diseases. With the completion of phase II of the B10K ("Bird 10,000 Genomes") consortium's whole-genome sequencing effort, we have included 363 annotated bird genomes in addition to other publicly available bird genome data which serve as a valuable foundation for AVIMM. CONSTRUCTION AND CONTENT: A relational database with avian immune gene evidence from Gene Ontology, Ensembl, UniProt and the B10K consortium has been designed and set up. The foundation stone or the "seed" for the initial set of avian immune genes is based on the well-studied model organism chicken (Gallus gallus). Gene annotations, different transcript isoforms, nucleotide sequences and protein information, including amino acid sequences, are included. Ambiguous gene names (symbols) are resolved within the database and linked to their canonical gene symbol. AVIMM is supplemented by a command-line interface and a web front-end to query the database. UTILITY AND DISCUSSION: The internal mapping of unique gene symbol identifiers to canonical gene symbols allows for an ambiguous gene property search. The database is organised within core and feature tables, which makes it straightforward to extend for future purposes. The database design is ready to be applied to other taxa or biological processes. Currently, the database contains 1170 distinct avian immune genes with canonical gene symbols and 612 synonyms across 363 bird species. While the command-line interface readily integrates into bioinformatics pipelines, the intuitive web front-end with download functionality offers sophisticated search functionalities and tracks the origin for each record. AVIMM is publicly accessible at https://avimm.ab.mpg.de .


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Interface Usuário-Computador , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Galinhas/imunologia , Genômica , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/genética
13.
Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao ; 36(10): 2066-2075, 2020 Oct 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33169571

RESUMO

To achieve uniform soluble expression of multiple proteins in the same Escherichia coli strain, and simplify the process steps of antigen production in genetic engineering subunit multivalent vaccine, we co-expressed three avian virus proteins including the fowl adenovirus serotype 4 (FAdV-4) Fiber-2 protein, infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) VP2 protein and egg-drop syndrome virus (EDSV) Fiber protein in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells after optimization of gene codon, promoter, and tandem expression order. The purified proteins were analyzed by Western blotting and agar gel precipitation (AGP). The content of the three proteins were well-proportioned after co-expression and the purity of the purified proteins were more than 80%. Western blotting analysis and AGP experiment results show that all the three co-expression proteins had immunoreactivity and antigenicity. It is the first time to achieve the three different avian virus antigens co-expression and co-purification, which simplified the process of antigen production and laid a foundation for the development of genetic engineering subunit multivalent vaccine.


Assuntos
Antígenos Virais , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa , Vacinas Sintéticas , Vacinas Virais , Animais , Antígenos Virais/análise , Antígenos Virais/genética , Bioensaio , Galinhas/imunologia , Escherichia coli/genética , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/imunologia , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
14.
Vet Res ; 51(1): 110, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32883344

RESUMO

Canine parvovirus (CPV) can cause acute and highly contagious bloody enteritis in dog. To obtain antibodies against CPV, hens were immunized with virus-like particles (VLP) of CPV-VP2. The IgY single chain fragment variables (scFv) were generated by T7 phage display system and expressed in E. coli system. The titer of the primary scFv library reached to 1.5 × 106 pfu/mL, and 95% of the phages contained the target fragments. The CPV-VLP and CPV-VP2 protein showed similar reaction values to the purified scFv in the ELISA test, and the results of ELISA analysis using IgY-scFv toward CPV clinical samples were consistent with commercial immunochromatographic assay (ICA) and PCR detection, the scFv did not show cross reactivity with canine distemper virus (CDV) and canine coronavirus (CCV). IgY-scFv was successfully expressed in CRFK cells, and in the virus suppression assay, 55% of CPV infections were eliminated within 24 h. Docking results demonstrated that the number of amino acids of the binding sides between scFv and VP2 were AA37 and AA40, respectively. This study revealed the feasibility of a novel functional antibody fragment development strategy by generating diversified avian IgY-scFv libraries towards the pathogenic target of interest for both detection and therapeutic purposes in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Neutralizantes/imunologia , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Proteínas do Capsídeo/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/veterinária , Parvovirus Canino/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Doenças do Cão/diagnóstico , Doenças do Cão/imunologia , Cães , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Feminino , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Infecções por Parvoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Parvoviridae/imunologia , Infecções por Parvoviridae/virologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/genética
15.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13448, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815239

RESUMO

The current experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of different dietary chromium supplementation sources, chromium oxide (Cr2 O3 ), chromium methionine (Cr-Met), or chromium yeast (Cr-yeast), at different levels each (500 or 1,000 ppb) on growth performance, physiological traits, and carcass characteristics of broiler chicks. A total of 490 seven-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly distributed into 7 experimental groups each in 10 replicates of 7 birds each. The groups were control, 500 ppb Cr2 O3 , 1,000 ppb Cr2 O3 , 500 ppb Cr-Met, 1,000 ppb Cr-Met, 500 ppb Cr-yeast, and 1,000 ppb Cr-yeast. The results showed significant superiority of the organic chromium sources (Cr-Met or Cr-yeast) concerning body weight and weight gain, the group supplemented with 1,000 ppb Cr-yeast consumed the lowest feed (3,185 g) and had the best feed conversion ratio (1.60) compared to the control (1.73). The chromium treatments recorded significantly better protein and lipid profile, antioxidant status, and immunological parameters than the control group. Similarly, dietary chromium supplementation increased carcass yield and decreased intestinal pathogenic bacteria. In conclusion, supplementing broiler diets with organic chromium sources at 1,000 ppb promotes growth performance, physiological traits, and carcass characteristics; such chromium treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and immunity levels of broilers.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Compostos de Cromo/administração & dosagem , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Masculino , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ganho de Peso
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238068, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32841290

RESUMO

Newcastle Disease (ND) is a viral disease spread worldwide with a high impact on economy and animal welfare. Vaccination against Newcastle Disease is one of the main control measures in countries such as Germany with endemic occurrence of Newcastle Disease virus in the free ranging bird population. The German Standing Veterinary Committee on Immunization (StIKo Vet) recommends to revaccinate chickens at intervals of six weeks against Newcastle Disease with attenuated live vaccines via drinking water or spray in line with the SPCs (Summary of Product Characteristics) of current vaccines. However, it is still common practice to revaccinate only every twelve weeks because the SPCs of former vaccines proposed a revaccination after checking the antibody titer which based on practical knowledge was typically sufficient for twelve weeks. The aim of this study was to evaluate if a vaccination interval of twelve weeks against Newcastle Disease under field conditions results in sufficient seroconversion to protect flocks. Antibody titers of 810 blood samples from 27 backyard flocks of chickens were analyzed by ELISA- and HI-tests between 69 and 111 days after vaccination of the flocks with attenuated live vaccines of the ND strain Clone 30. Furthermore, data on the flocks such as breed, sex and age were collected through a questionnaire. In this study a sufficient antibody titer was found in 26 of these flocks. Therefore, a vaccination interval of every twelve weeks with the live vaccines tested is suitable for a vaccination protocol against Newcastle Disease. The lack of seroconversion of one flock also emphasizes the need for regular vaccination monitoring by serological testing and re-evaluation of the vaccination process if needed.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/análise , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Doença de Newcastle/prevenção & controle , Vacinação/métodos , Animais , Alemanha , Fatores de Tempo
17.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609751

RESUMO

To explore the molecular mechanism of the effect of Bacillus cereus PAS38 on the immunity of broilers, sixty 7-day-old broilers were divided into two groups with three replicates. The control group was fed with basal diet, and the treatment group was fed with basal diet containing Bacillus cereus PAS38 1×106 CFU/g. Thymus and bursa of fabricius were taken from two groups of broilers at the age of 42 days, total RNA was extracted, differential gene library was constructed by SSH technology, and immune-related differential genes were screened. Then, we used siRNA to interfere with the expression of some differential genes in the original generation lymphocytes of broiler blood to detect the change of cytokines mRNA expression level. A total of 42 immune-related differentially expressed genes were screened, including 22 up-regulated genes and 20 down-regulated genes. When 7 differentially up-regulated genes associated with enhanced immune function were interfered with in lymphocytes, some immune-promoting cytokines were down-regulated. These results showed that Bacillus cereus PAS38 might up-regulate the expression of JCHAIN, PRDX1, CD3E, CDK6 and other genes in immune organs of broilers, thereby affecting the development of immune organs, the expression of various cytokines and the transduction of immune signals, improving the immune capacity of broilers.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/imunologia , Bolsa de Fabricius , Galinhas , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Timo , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/efeitos dos fármacos , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Técnicas de Hibridização Subtrativa/métodos , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/imunologia
18.
Euro Surveill ; 25(25)2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32613937

RESUMO

The advent of COVID-19, has posed a risk that human respiratory samples containing human influenza viruses may also contain SARS-CoV-2. This potential risk may lead to SARS-CoV-2 contaminating conventional influenza vaccine production platforms as respiratory samples are used to directly inoculate embryonated hen's eggs and continuous cell lines that are used to isolate and produce influenza vaccines. We investigated the ability of these substrates to propagate SARS-CoV-2 and found that neither could support SARS-CoV-2 replication.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Coronavirus/fisiologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Cultura de Vírus/métodos , Replicação Viral , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Linhagem Celular , Galinhas/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cães , Ovos , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave
19.
Exp Parasitol ; 216: 107945, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615133

RESUMO

Despite decades of investigation to clarify protective mechanisms of anticoccidial responses, one crucial field is neglected, that is, protective memory responses in primed birds. Protective memory immunity is critical for host resistance to reinfection and is the basis of modern vaccinology, especially in developing successful subunit vaccines. There are important differences between the immune responses induced by infections and antigens delivered either as killed, recombinant proteins or as live, replicating vector vaccines or as DNA vaccines. Animals immunized with these vaccines may fail to develop protective memory immunity, and is still naïve to Eimeria infection. This may explain why limited success is achieved in developing next-generation anticoccidial vaccines. In this review, we try to decipher the protective memory responses against Eimeria infection, assess immune responses elicited by various anticoccidial vaccine candidates, and propose possible approaches to develop rational vaccines that can induce a protective memory response to chicken coccidiosis.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/imunologia , Memória Imunológica/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Intestinos/imunologia , Intestinos/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Recidiva , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas de Subunidades/imunologia
20.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512648

RESUMO

Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms that are administered in an appropriate amount to provide health benefits to the host animal. In this study, we investigated the effect of L. salivarius DJ-sa-01 secreting the 3D8 single-chain variable fragment (3D8 scFv) on the growth performance, cytokine secretion, and intestinal microbial flora of chickens. The experiment was divided into the control group and L. salivarius expressing 3D8 scFv experimental group. Chicken was fed 109 colony-forming units (CFUs) of wild-type (WT) L. salivarius or 3D8 scFv-secreting L. salivarius daily for 35 days. The administration of L. salivarius expressing 3D8 scFv significantly improved the body weight of chickens compared with the administration of WT L. salivarius. A 16S ribosomal RNA metagenomic analysis showed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in both experimental groups. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was more abundant (22.82%) in the L. salivarius/3D8 group compared with the WT L. salivarius group. The serum levels of cytokines, such as IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IGF1, were significantly reduced in the L. salivarius/3D8-treated chickens. In summary, our results suggest that L. salivarius expressing 3D8 scFv could be considered a feed additive for improving the growth performance, immune function, and disease resistance of poultry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Homeostase , Lactobacillus salivarius , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/administração & dosagem , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino
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