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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235109, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609724

RESUMO

Data on the transfer of artificial radionuclides from the environment to the food supply is necessary for internal dose assessment. There is a necessity for expanding and improving the available information on these factors in order to make better dose models for specific scenarios. This paper describes the results of a field experiment with broiler chickens on the transfer factor (Ff) and concentration ratio (CR) for the long-term intake of 241Am and 137Cs with grass meal and soil. The broilers were divided into two groups, each group had nine subgroups and each subgroup had three broilers. The radionuclide concentrations in the feed and the thigh muscle, thigh bone, and liver of 54 broilers divided between the grass meal and soil groups were evaluated by gamma spectrometry for 241Am and 137Cs. The duration of feeding with "contaminated" sources ranged between 1-70 days. The equilibrium stage of 241Am in muscle and bone occurs on the 1st and 40th day, respectively; for 137Cs in muscle- 30th days of intake and for liver and bone- 7th days. For 241Am, the liver did not reach equilibrium stage during the 70 days of intake. Ff of 137Cs in the "forage-muscle" and "soil-muscle" systems were determined as 1.9±0.3 and 0.18±0.05; Ff of 241Am in the "soil-muscle" system was-7.5×10-5.


Assuntos
Amerício/análise , Radioisótopos de Césio/análise , Galinhas , Contaminação Radioativa de Alimentos/análise , Aves Domésticas , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/análise , Amerício/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Radioisótopos de Césio/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Poluentes Radioativos do Solo/metabolismo
2.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232831, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497096

RESUMO

The burden of enteric pathogens in poultry is growing after the ban of antibiotic use in animal production. Organic acids gained attention as a possible alternative to antibiotics due to their antimicrobial activities, improved nutrient metabolism and performance. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of organic acid blend on broilers cecal microbiota, histomorphometric measurements, and short-chain fatty acid production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium challenge model. Birds were divided into four treatments, including a negative control, positive control challenged with S. Typhimurium, group supplemented with an organic acid blend, and birds supplemented with organic acid blend and Salmonella challenged. Results illustrate significant differences in feed conversion ratios and production efficiency factor between treatment groups, however, the influence of organic acid supplement was marginal. Organic acid blend significantly increased cecal acetic and butyric acids concentrations when compared to unsupplemented groups and resulted in minor alterations of intestinal bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Butiratos/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia , Salmonelose Animal/terapia , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/ultraestrutura , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Microvilosidades/ultraestrutura , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Distribuição Aleatória , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo
3.
Food Chem ; 330: 127167, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32531632

RESUMO

Eggshell matrix (EM) proteins play an important biological role in eggshell mineralization and embryo development. Many studies have demonstrated that some matrix proteins undergo posttranslational modifications, including phosphorylation and glycosylation, which have important regulatory effects on the functional properties of the proteins. Systematic analysis of the proteome, the phosphorylated modified proteome and the glycosylated modified proteome of the chicken EM was performed using a proteomics strategy. A total of 112 phosphorylation sites from 69 phosphoproteins and 297 N-glycosylation sites from 182 N-glycoproteins were identified in the chicken EM. Among all these identified modified proteins, 129 were not identified in the proteome (547 proteins). Therefore, a total of 676 EM proteins were identified in this study. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis indicated that EM proteins and phosphoproteins were mainly enriched in regulation of enzyme activity, while EM N-glycoproteins were enriched in immune response regulation.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Casca de Ovo/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Fosfoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Glicosilação , Fosforilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Proteômica
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 201: 110835, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32563159

RESUMO

The activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) occurs through the binding of dioxin-like compounds (DLCs) or natural ligands. In this pathway, the AHR-ARNT (AHR nuclear translocator) heterodimer serves to regulate critical physiological functions, such as immune responses and the metabolism of xenobiotics. Birds have three AHR isoforms (AHR1, AHR1ß, and AHR2) and two ARNT isoforms (ARNT1 and ARNT2). However, how AHR and ARNT dimerization pair in birds regulates the AHR signaling pathway in an isoform-specific manner remains unknown. In this study, we initially sought to clarify the major chicken AHR-ARNT (ckAHR-ckARNT) pairs by estimating the mRNA tissue distributions of various ckAHR and ckARNT isoforms. Our results indicated that the ckAHR1-ckARNT1 represented the major dimerization pair in most tissues except the brain. We then measured the transactivation potencies of various ckAHR-ckARNT pairs by natural ligands and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), in in vitro reporter gene assays using COS-7 and LMH cell lines. Our results from the in vitro assays demonstrated that the ckAHR1-ckARNT1 pair was strongly activated by the five natural ligands, namely, 6-formylindolo [3,2-b]carbazole, L-kynurenin, kynurenic acid, indoxyl-3-sulfate, and 1,3,7-tribromodibenzo-p-dioxin, but not by TCDD. In in silico ligand docking simulations with ckAHR1 homology models, all the natural ligands showed a interaction pattern that was distinct from that observed with anthropogenic DLCs, including TCDD. In conclusion, our findings indicate that the ckAHR1-ckARNT1 may be the most important dimerization pair in most tissues for regulating the physiological functions driven by natural ligands, although it was less reactive to TCDD.


Assuntos
Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/metabolismo , Multimerização Proteica , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/metabolismo , Xenobióticos/metabolismo , Animais , Translocador Nuclear Receptor Aril Hidrocarboneto/genética , Células COS , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Chlorocebus aethiops , Simulação por Computador , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ligação Proteica , Isoformas de Proteínas , Receptores de Hidrocarboneto Arílico/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Especificidade da Espécie , Transfecção
5.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13400, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512640

RESUMO

Biochemical and hematological examination of blood and individual assessment of the birds were performed in Lohman Brown laying hens at 45 weeks of age housed in different systems. The biochemical examination revealed higher (p < .01) corticosterone levels, creatine kinase, and aspartate aminotransferase activity and lower (p < .01) levels of lactate, triglycerides, albumin, calcium, and phosphorus in aviary hens compared to hens housed in furnished cages. Hematological examination of hens housed in aviaries revealed higher (p < .05) hematocrit, leukocytes, heterophils, eosinophils, basophils, monocytes, and H/L ratio. Furthermore, hens housed in aviaries had lower (p < .01) body weight than hens in furnished cages, they were worse feathered (p < .001), had more damaged combs (p < .05), and poorer physical condition (p < .01). In contrast, caged hens showed worse (p < .01) feather condition of the wings due to abrasion and claws due to overgrowth. The results have shown that the housing system has a significant impact on the internal environment and condition of birds and that housing in aviaries without taking into account the specifics of such housing may lead to significant stress and disturbance to the welfare of laying hens.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Abrigo para Animais , Bem-Estar do Animal , Animais , Peso Corporal , Corticosterona/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Plumas/patologia , Feminino , Oviposição
6.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(5): e1008188, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365080

RESUMO

As a canonical adaptor for the Toll-like receptor (TLR) family, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88 (MyD88) has crucial roles in host defense against infection by microbial pathogens, and its dysregulation might induce autoimmune diseases. Here, we demonstrate that the chicken Cullin 3-based ubiquitin ligase adaptor Speckle-type BTB-POZ protein (chSPOP) recognizes the intermediate domain of chicken MyD88 (chMyD88) and degrades it through the proteasome pathway. Knockdown or genetic ablation of chSPOP leads to aberrant elevation of chMyD88 protein. Through this interaction, chSPOP negatively regulates NF-κB pathway activity and thus the production of IL-1ß upon LPS challenge in chicken macrophages. Furthermore, Spop-deficient mice are more susceptible to infection with Salmonella typhimurium. Collectively, these findings demonstrate MyD88 as a bona fide substrate of SPOP and uncover a mechanism by which SPOP regulates MyD88 abundance and disease susceptibility.


Assuntos
Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/metabolismo , Proteínas Nucleares/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Células A549 , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Animais , Células CHO , Galinhas/metabolismo , Cricetulus , Proteínas Culina/metabolismo , Células HeLa , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/fisiologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/genética , Fator 88 de Diferenciação Mieloide/fisiologia , Proteínas Nucleares/fisiologia , Complexo de Endopeptidases do Proteassoma/metabolismo , Proteólise , Proteostase/fisiologia , Proteínas Repressoras/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Ubiquitinação
7.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 200: 110715, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450432

RESUMO

Copper (Cu) is a necessary trace mineral due to its biological activity. Excessive Cu can induce inflammatory response in humans and animals, but the underlying mechanism is still unknown. Here, 240 broilers were used to study the effects of excessive Cu on oxidative stress and NF-κB-mediated inflammatory responses in immune organs. Chickens were fed with diet containing different concentrations of Cu (11, 110, 220, and 330 mg of Cu/kg dry matter). The experiment lasted for 49 days. Spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius (BF) on day 49 were collected for histopathological observation and assessment of oxidative stress status. Additionally, the mRNA and protein levels of NF-κB and inflammatory cytokines were also analyzed. The results indicated that excess Cu could increase the number and area of splenic corpuscle as well as the ratio of cortex and medulla in thymus and BF. Furthermore, excessive Cu intake could decrease activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px); but increase contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), TNF-α, IL-1, IL-1ß; up-regulate mRNA levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1, IL-1ß, IL-2, iNOS, COX-2, NF-κB and protein levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, NF-κB, p-NF-κB in immune organs. In conclusion, excessive Cu could cause pathologic changes and induce oxidative stress with triggered NF-κB pathway, and might further regulate the inflammatory response in immune organs of chicken.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Cobre/toxicidade , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/enzimologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Bolsa de Fabricius/metabolismo , Bolsa de Fabricius/patologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/genética , Baço/enzimologia , Baço/imunologia , Baço/metabolismo , Baço/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Timo/enzimologia , Timo/imunologia , Timo/metabolismo , Timo/patologia
8.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232953, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428017

RESUMO

The unpleasant smell released from dead bodies, may serve as an alarm for avoiding certain behaviour or as feeding or oviposition attractants for animals. However, little is known about their effect on the structure and function of proteins. Previously, we reported that using the aroma form of TEMED (a diamine), representative of the "smell of death", could completely inhibit the fibril formation of HEWL, as an antibacterial enzyme, and a model protein for fibrillation studies. To take this further, in this study we investigated the kinetics of TEMED using a number of techniques and in particular X-ray crystallography to identify the binding site(s) of TEMED and search for hotspot(s) necessary to inhibit fibril formation of HEWL. Structural data, coupled with other experimental data reported in this study, revealed that TEMED completely inhibited fibril formation and stabilized the structure of HEWL through enhancement of the CH-Π interaction and binding to an inhibitor hotspot comprised of residues Lys33, Phe34, Glu35 and Asn37 of HEWL. Additionally, results from this study showed that the binding of TEMED increased the activity and thermal stability of HEWL, helping to improve the function of this antibacterial enzyme. In conclusion, the role of the "smell of death", as an important signal molecule affecting the activity and stability of HEWL was greatly highlighted, suggesting that aroma producing small molecules can be signals for structural and functional changes in proteins.


Assuntos
Etilenodiaminas/química , Muramidase/metabolismo , Odorantes/análise , Amiloide/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos , Sítios de Ligação , Galinhas/metabolismo , Cristalografia por Raios X , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares
9.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13390, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32468653

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional effects of rice feeding and carnitine addition to a diet for broiler chicks. Thirty-six male 10-day-old broiler chicks were assigned to one of the following four treatment groups: corn-based diet (corn group), rice-based diet (rice group), and each diet with added carnitine (100 ppm). The experimental period was 2 weeks. Rice feeding resulted in significantly higher growth performance (body weight gain and feed efficiency) compared to corn feeding. Carnitine addition also resulted in higher growth performance. Breast muscle and thigh muscle weight (g) were significantly higher in broiler chicks fed rice and those fed diets with added carnitine. Liver mRNA expression of IGF-I was significantly higher in broiler chicks fed rice compared to those fed corn. There was no significant difference in mRNA expression of muscle atrogin-1 or liver CPT-I between broiler chicks fed rice and those fed corn, not between broilers chicks fed diets containing carnitine or not. Overall, these results show that rice feeding and carnitine addition improve the growth performance of broiler chicks by increasing mRNA expression of liver IGF-I. In addition, carnitine action is not affected by different cereals (corn and rice).


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/genética , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/fisiologia , Carnitina/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Expressão Gênica , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like I/metabolismo , Oryza , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Animais , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Zea mays
10.
Chemosphere ; 253: 126729, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289610

RESUMO

Microorganisms with high tetracycline (TC) degradation efficiencies are required for biological processes for TC-containing wastewater treatment. With multiple enrichment cultures, a TC-degrading strain TR5 was isolated from chicken manure mixture in a large broiler farm, which was identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and biochemical properties. Strain TR5 could degrade TC quickly (∼90% within 36 h) with the initial TC concentration of 200 mg/L under optimized conditions via single-factor experiment coupled with RSM. Strain TR5 could detoxify TC and generate much less toxic products as long as cultured more than one day. Three TC-degrading pathways were proposed based on 8 possible products. A transformant containing a plasmid from TR5 acquired TC-degrading ability, indicating that TC-degrading genes were located on this plasmid. Complete sequencing of pYK5 showed that isomerase-, oxidoreductase-, and transferases-encoding genes were found and were inferred to be involved in TC degradation. TR5 may not degrade TC completely and it can utilize some carbon-containing compounds derived from TC via the effect of formylglutathione hydrolase-encoding gene. Our findings showed that strain TR5 could be a promising agent for wastewater treatment, and genes involved in TC degradation are worthy of further investigations for enzyme preparations development.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Genes Bacterianos , Klebsiella/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tetraciclina/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Animais , Biodegradação Ambiental , Galinhas/metabolismo , Klebsiella/genética , Esterco/análise , Redes e Vias Metabólicas/genética , Plasmídeos , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética
11.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13327, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219959

RESUMO

Excessive lipid peroxidation negatively affects the physiological response and meat quality of chickens. Delaying post-hatch feeding was previously found to increase lipid peroxidation in the skeletal muscle of finishing broiler chickens. The aims of this study were to investigate the effects of delayed post-hatch feeding on lipid peroxidation and the mRNA expressions of antioxidant enzymes in the pectoralis major muscle of broiler chicks during the post-hatching period. Newly hatched chicks either had immediate free access to feed (freely-fed chicks) or had no access to feed from 0 to 2 days old (delayed-fed chicks), after which both groups were fed ad libitum until 4 or 13 days old. The lipid peroxidation level was higher in the delayed-fed than freely-fed chicks at 2, 4, and 13 days old. At 2 days old, the mRNA expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD, and GPX7 were lower in the delayed-fed than freely-fed chicks, while catalase mRNA levels did not differ. Furthermore, at 4 and 13 days old, lower mRNA expressions of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD were observed in the delayed-fed than freely-fed chicks. These results suggest that delaying post-hatch feeding reduces the mRNA levels of Cu/Zn-SOD and Mn-SOD, consequently affecting muscle lipid peroxidation in chicks during subsequent growth.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas/metabolismo , Métodos de Alimentação/veterinária , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Peroxidases/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Animais , Expressão Gênica , Peroxidases/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13351, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219964

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of L-theanine on carcass traits, meat quality, muscle antioxidant capacity, and amino acid (AA) profiles of broilers. Three hundred 1-day-old Ross 308 male broilers were randomly allotted to five groups with six replicates. Birds were fed the basal diet or basal diet with 300, 600, 900, or 1,500 mg/kg L-theanine for 42 consecutive days. The results showed that L-theanine quadratically increased dressing percentage, eviscerated percentage, and leg muscle yield (p < .05). Meanwhile, drip loss, cooking loss, shear force, L*24h, and muscle lactate content decreased quadratically in response to dietary L-theanine supplementation (p < .05), while pH24h and muscle glycogen content were quadratically improved by L-theanine (p < .05). Notably, the contents of muscle malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl, and the activities of muscle total antioxidant capacity, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase decreased quadratically in response to dietary L-theanine supplementation (p < .05), suggesting that the oxidative stress level of muscle was decreased quadratically. Moreover, L-theanine quadratically increased the concentrations of most of muscle essential AA, nonessential AA, and flavor AA (p < .05). In conclusion, L-theanine can be used as a valuable feed additive to modulate carcass traits, meat quality, muscle antioxidant status, and AA profiles of boilers, and its optimum addition level is 600 mg/kg based on the present study.


Assuntos
Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Glutamatos/administração & dosagem , Glutamatos/farmacologia , Carne/análise , Músculos/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/análise , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glicogênio/análise , Glicogênio/metabolismo , Ácido Láctico/análise , Ácido Láctico/metabolismo , Malondialdeído/análise , Malondialdeído/metabolismo
13.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1655-1662, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111330

RESUMO

The liver is the main site of de novo lipogenesis in poultry, and hepatic lipid metabolism disorder will lead to excessive abdominal fat deposition or fatty liver disease, finally causing huge economic loss. The present study was conducted to investigate developmental changes in hepatic lipid metabolism of chicks from embryonic periods to the first week after hatching. Liver samples were collected from embryonic day 11 (E11) to the age of day 7 posthatch (D7) for lipid metabolism analysis. Hematoxylin-eosin and Oil Red O staining analysis showed that hepatic lipids increased gradually during embryonic period and declined posthatch; The sum of hepatic triglycerides and cholesterol reached the peak at E19 and D1 by ELISA analysis (P < 0.05). Acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, and acyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression in the liver were higher from E17 to D1 with the peak at E19 when compared with those at E13 and E15 (P < 0.05). Hepatic elongase of very long-chain fatty acids 6 and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein mRNA abundance were lower during embryonic periods but reached relative higher level after hatching (P < 0.05). On the contrary, hepatic carbohydrate response element binding protein (ChREBP), carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1, and peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor α expression were higher during embryonic periods but decreased posthatch (P < 0.05). The mRNA abundance of sterol-regulatory element binding protein 1c was the lowest at E13 and E15, then increased gradually from E17 to D1, while decreased from D3 to D7 little by little (P < 0.05). In summary, hepatic lipogenesis genes have different expression patterns during the embryonic periods and the first week of posthatch, which might be activated by ChREBP during embryonic periods; fatty acid oxidation was enhanced around the hatched day but declined posthatch. These findings will broaden the understanding of physiological characteristics and dynamic pattern about hepatic lipid metabolism in chicks.


Assuntos
Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/fisiologia , Fígado/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos/metabolismo , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipogênese , Fígado/embriologia , Fígado/crescimento & desenvolvimento , RNA Mensageiro
14.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110338, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32135376

RESUMO

2,2',3,5',6-Pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB95) is known as a persistent pollutant that was found in eggs in China. PCB 95 can be metabolized into OH-PCB95 and MeO-PCB95 in liver microsomes. However, the toxicity and its mechanism of PCB95 or its metabolites have been little studied on laying hens. Herein, chicken embryo liver cells of laying hens were selected and treated with different levels of PCB95 and its two metabolites, and the EC50 of PCB95, OH-PCB95, MeO-PCB95 was 80.85, 4.81 and 107.04 µg/mL respectively, indicating that OH-PCB95 is much more cytotoxic than PCB95 or MeO-PCB95. Targeted metabolomics was further used to study the effects of the parent compound and its metabolites on cell metabolism. The results showed that four primary types of glycerophospholipids were down-regulated after exposure to PCB95 and its metabolites, especially PE and PS (60% more than the control for PCB95, 40% for OH-PCB95, and less than 40% for MeO-PCB95). KEGG pathway analysis based on amino acid metabolism showed that PCB95 may mainly interfere with the amino acids involved in immune regulation (phenylalanine and tyrosine), and OH-PCB95 may be associated with genetic disoders (cysteine, methionine and purine metabolism). However, the metabolic pathways induced by MeO-PCB95 are quite different from those induced by PCB95 and OH-PCB95, affecting mainly D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, alanine and glutamate metabolism, and arginine and proline metabolism; these pathways mainly regulate the elimination of excess purines and are involved in the synthesis of the amino acids required by cells. These results showed that OH-PCB95 has the highest toxicity on chicken embryo liver cells and MeO-PCB95 could be a detoxification product of PCB95 and OH-PCB95. This study contributes to the understanding of the different effects of PCB95 and its metabolites on cellular metabolism, and the data are helpful in evaluating the hepatotoxic effects of these compounds.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Bifenilos Policlorados/toxicidade , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/metabolismo , China , Ovos , Poluentes Ambientais/metabolismo , Feminino , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Metabolômica , Metionina/metabolismo , Microssomos Hepáticos/metabolismo , Testes de Toxicidade
15.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1254-1266, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111303

RESUMO

Pioneer colonization of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) by bacteria is thought to have major influence on neonatal tissue development. Previous studies have shown in ovo inoculation of embryos with saline (S), species of Citrobacter (C, C2), or lactic acid bacteria (L) resulted in an altered microbiome on day of the hatch (DOH). The present study investigated GIT proteomic changes at DOH in relation to different inoculations. Embryos were inoculated in ovo with S or ∼102 cfu of C, C2, or L at 18 embryonic days. On DOH, the GIT was collected, and tissue proteins were extracted for analysis via tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 493 proteins were identified for differential comparison with S at P ≤ 0.10. Different levels were noted in 107, 39, and 78 proteins in C, C2, and L groups, respectively, which were uploaded to Ingenuity Pathway Analysis to determine canonical pathways and biological functions related to these changes. Three members of the cytokine family (interleukin [IL]-1ß, IL6, and Oncostatin M) were predicted to be activated in C2, indicated with Z-score ≥ 1.50, which suggested an overall proinflammatory GIT condition. This was consistent with the activation of the acute-phase response signaling pathway seen exclusively in C2 (Z-score = 2.00, P < 0.01). However, activation (Z-score = 2.00) of IL-13, upregulation of peroxiredoxin-1 and superoxide dismutase 1, in addition to activation of nitric oxide signaling in the cardiovascular system of the L treatment may predict a state of increased antioxidant capacity and decreased inflammatory status. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-mediated oxidative stress response (Z-score = 2.00, P < 0.01) was predicted to be upregulated in C which suggested that chicks were in an inflammatory state and associated oxidative stress, but the impact of these pathways differed from that of C2. These changes in the proteome suggest that pioneer colonizing microbiota may have a strong impact on pathways associated with GIT immune and cellular development.


Assuntos
Carga Bacteriana , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Proteoma/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia
16.
Poult Sci ; 99(3): 1379-1386, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111312

RESUMO

Estrone, 17ß-estradiol, and testosterone are naturally occurring hormones excreted in broiler litter. With some potential for environmental concern from the hormones, understanding management practices effect on hormone concentrations is beneficial for the poultry industry. As the amount of hormones potentially introduced into the environment is directly related to the concentration at the time of land application, the purpose of this study was to investigate hormone dynamics in stacked broiler litter during the storage period before removal from the farm and/or land application. Stack temperatures and hormones concentrations were monitored at 15, 45, 75 cm, and 105 cm (measured from the stack bottom) in 6 different on-farm stack houses over 4 or 8 wk. Significant differences in temperature were determined by height and by stack. Stack temperatures during the first 4 wk ranged from 41.5°C to 54.5°C, and all stacks reached maximum temperature by 7 D. Highest temperatures were observed at the 45-cm or 75-cm height. Average stack temperatures correlated with the ambient temperature. Hormone concentration did not vary with height within each house. In 5 of the 6 stack houses, the concentrations of 17ß-estradiol and/or testosterone significantly decreased after stacking for 4 or 8 wk (35 to 64%) with only one house showing a significant decrease in estrone concentration (72% in 4 wk). The percent change of estrone and 17ß-estradiol mineralization during the first 4 wk was negatively correlated with the 7-D temperature of the pile (r2 = 0.80), indicating that the high temperatures observed during stacking may inhibit estrogen mineralization. In this study, hormone degradation decreased with high temperatures. Therefore, stack management favoring at least a period of low temperatures may help promote mineralization of these hormones and reduce any potential for introduction into the surrounding environment.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Estradiol/análise , Estrona/análise , Esterco/análise , Testosterona/análise , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Animais , Temperatura
17.
J Food Prot ; 83(4): 710-714, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32221574

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Arsenic contamination in chicken is a cause of concern because of the potential health problems that may arise. In Trinidad and Tobago, chicken consumption averages about 53.8 kg per person per year, and chicken accounts for 85% of all the meat consumed locally. Fourteen chicken samples of imported, locally grown, and local organically farmed chickens were obtained from poultry depots and local supermarkets and were analyzed in triplicate. The concentration of total arsenic in the imported chicken ranged from below the method detection limit (MDL) to 512.50 µg/kg, and the concentration in the locally produced chicken ranged between

Assuntos
Arsênico/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Animais , Carne/análise , Medição de Risco , Trinidad e Tobago
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 194: 110420, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32151861

RESUMO

In order to alleviate toxic effects of aflatoxins B1 (AFB1) and zearalenone (ZEA) on broiler production performance and gut microbiota, three kinds of compound probiotics (CP) were selected. The optimal ratios of Bacillus subtilis, Lactobacillus casei and Candida utilis in broiler diets were 7, 5 and 6 log CFU/g for ZEA biodegradation (CP1); 6, 7 and 7 log CFU/g for AFB1 biodegradation (CP2); 7, 6 and 7 log CFU/g for ZEA + AFB1 biodegradation (CP3). A total of 350 1-day-old Ross broilers were randomly divided into 7 groups. Group A was the basal diet, group B-G contained ZEA, AFB1, ZEA + AFB1, ZEA + CP1, AFB1+CP2, ZEA + AFB1+CP3, respectively. The experiment showed that AFB1 or AFB1+ZEA significantly decreased broiler production performance, damaged liver and jejunum, increased mycotoxin residues in broiler body; however, three kinds of compound probiotics additions could alleviate mycotoxin negative effects on the above parameters (p < 0.05). The gut microbiota analysis indicated that AFB1+ZEA increased jejunal microbial richness, but which were decreased to almost the same level as the control group by CP3 addition. CP3 addition significantly increased jejunal Firmicutes and Lactobacillus aviarius abundances. The correlative analysis showed that gut Lactobacillus aviarius abundance was positively correlated with average daily gain (ADG) of broilers (p < 0.05), while AFB1+ZEA addition decreased its relative abundance, indicating that CP3 addition increased broiler growth by increasing Lactobacillus aviarius abundance. AFB1 and ZEA residues in broiler body were negatively correlated with the gut beneficial bacterial abundances (p < 0.01), but positively correlated with the potentially harmful bacterial abundances (p < 0.05), which inferred that CP3 addition could decrease mycotoxin residues through positively regulating gut relative bacterial abundances. In conclusion, compound probiotics could keep gut microbiota stable, degrade mycotoxins, alleviate histological lesions, increase production performance and reduce mycotoxin toxicity for broilers.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/farmacologia , Zearalenona/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Ração Animal/microbiologia , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Firmicutes/isolamento & purificação , Distribuição Aleatória
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 193: 110372, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32114238

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fluorine at levels of 31, 431, 1237 mg/kg feed on cecum microbe, short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and intestinal barrier function of laying hens. The results showed that the intestinal morphology and ultrastructure were damaged by dietary high F intake. The mRNA expression levels of zonula occludens-1, zonula occludens-2, claudin-1, and claudin-4 were decreased in jejunum and ileum. However, the concentrations of serum diamine oxidase, and D-lactic acid and intestinal contents of interleukin 1 beta, interleukin 6, and Tumor necrosis factor-alpha were increased. Consistent with this, dietary high F intake altered the cecum microbiota, with increasing the concentration of pathogens, such as Proteobacteria and Escherichia-Shigella, as well as, decreasing the contents of beneficial bacteria, such as Lactobacillus, and expectedly, reduced the SCFAs concentrations. In conclusion, the actual results confirmed that (1) high dietary F intake could damage the intestinal structure and function, with impaired intestinal barrier and intestinal inflammation, and (2) destroy the cecum microbial homeostasis, and decrease the concentrations of SCFAs, which aggravate the incidence of intestinal inflammation in laying hens.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas , Fluoretos/toxicidade , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/anatomia & histologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Claudinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Dieta , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Feminino , Intestinos/patologia , Intestinos/ultraestrutura , Lactobacillus , Junções Íntimas/metabolismo
20.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13326, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32219924

RESUMO

Antibiotics stimulate the growth of animals but result in drug residues and bacterial resistance. In this study, the negative effect of antibiotics on abdominal fat deposition was evaluated in broilers. The results showed that adding both chlortetracycline (50 g/1,000 kg) and tylosin (50 g/1,000 kg) significantly increased abdominal fat weight, abdominal fat percentage (p < .05), and triglyceride and cholesterol levels (p < .05) in blood. Also, both products synchronously stimulated intestinal absorption and synthesis of liver fat. The expression levels of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Î³ (PPARγ), diacylgycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), lipoprotein lipase (LPL), and fatty acid-binding protein (FABP4) genes in abdominal fat tissue significantly increased (p < .05 or 0.01) when antibiotics were added to the feed. However, no significant difference was found in expression of the fatty acid synthesis (FAS) or acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) genes. Further in vitro study results revealed that antibiotics had no effect on fat content or the related gene expression levels in preadipocytes. In summary, the antibiotics induced fat deposition in adipose tissues by activating extracellular absorption of fatty acids from intestinal absorption and synthesis of liver fat. However, it shows no direct regulation by adipose tissue.


Assuntos
Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Clortetraciclina/farmacologia , Tilosina/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Clortetraciclina/efeitos adversos , Colesterol/sangue , Diacilglicerol O-Aciltransferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Ácido Graxo/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Absorção Intestinal , Lipase Lipoproteica/genética , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , PPAR gama/genética , PPAR gama/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Tilosina/efeitos adversos
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