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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(15)2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360823

RESUMO

Many matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are produced in the mammalian reproductive system and participate in the regulation of its functions. In birds, the limited information available thus far indicates that MMPs are significant regulators of avian ovarian and oviductal functions, too. Some MMPs and inhibitors of MMPs are present in the hen reproductive tissues and their abundances and/or activities change according to the physiological state. The intraovarian role of MMPs likely includes the remodeling of the extracellular matrix (ECM) during folliculogenesis, follicle atresia, and postovulatory regression. In the oviduct, MMPs are also involved in ECM turnover during oviduct development and regression. This study provides a review of the current knowledge on the presence, activity, and regulation of MMPs in the female reproductive system of birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Metaloproteinases da Matriz/metabolismo , Ovário/metabolismo , Oviductos/metabolismo , Inibidores Teciduais de Metaloproteinases/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 223: 112566, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340153

RESUMO

Artemisia ordosica is one of the main shrubby perennials belonging to Artemisia species of Asteraceae and could be used in folk Chinese/Mongolian medicine to treat symptoms of various inflammatory ailments. The present study was conducted to investigate the protective effects of dietary Artemisia ordosica polysaccharide (AOP) against lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced oxidative stress in broilers via Nrf2/Keap1 and TLR4/NF-κB pathway. A total of 192 1-day-old Arbor Acres male broilers were randomly allotted to four treatments with 6 replicates (n = 8): (1) CON group, non-challenged broilers fed basal diet; (2) LPS group, LPS-challenged broilers fed basal diet; (3) AOP group, non-challenged broilers fed basal diet supplemented with 750 mg/kg AOP; (4) LPS+AOP group, LPS-challenged broilers fed basal diet supplemented with 750 mg/kg AOP. The trial included starter phase (d 1-14), stress period Ⅰ (d 15-21), convalescence Ⅰ (d 22-28), stress period Ⅱ (d 29-35) and convalescence Ⅱ (d 36-42). During stress period Ⅰ (on d 15, 17, 19 and 21) and stress period Ⅱ (on d 29, 31, 33 and 35), broilers were injected intra-abdominally either with LPS solution or with an equal amount of sterile saline. The results showed that dietary AOP supplementation alleviated LPS-induced reduction in antioxidant enzyme activity and excessive production of ROS, 8-OHdG and PC in serum of broilers challenged with LPS. Moreover, dietary AOP supplementation alleviated the decrease of T-AOC and activities of SOD, CAT and GPx in liver of broilers challenged with LPS by increasing expression of Nrf2, and inhibiting over-expression of Keap1 both at gene and protein level. Additionally, dietary AOP supplementation decreased the over-production of IL-1ß and IL-6 in liver of broilers challenged by LPS through decreasing mRNA expression of TLR4, MyD88, NF-κB P65, IL-1ß and IL-6, and alleviating the increase of protein expression of TLR4, IKKß, NF-κB P65, IL-1ß, IL-6, and the decrease of protein expression of IkBα. In conclusion, dietary AOP supplementation could alleviate LPS-induced oxidative stress through Nrf2/Keap1 and TLR4/NF-κB pathway.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Lipopolissacarídeos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Artemisia/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Proteína 1 Associada a ECH Semelhante a Kelch/genética , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Masculino , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Polissacarídeos , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética
3.
Free Radic Biol Med ; 174: 211-224, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34363946

RESUMO

An acidosis, a decrease of pH within a living tissue, may alter yields of radical reactions if participating radicals undergo partial or complete protonation. One of photosensitizers found in the human eye lens, kynurenic acid (KNA-), possesses pKa 5.5 for its radical form that is close to physiological pH 6.89 for a healthy lens. In this work we studied the influence of pH on mechanisms and products of photoinduced radical reactions between KNA- and amino acids tryptophan (Trp) and tyrosine (Tyr) within a globule of model protein, Hen White Egg Lysozyme (HEWL). Our results show that the rate constant of back electron transfer from kynurenyl to HEWL• radicals with the restoration of initial reagents - the major decay pathway for these radicals - does not change in the pH 3-7. The quantum yield of HEWL degradation is also pH independent, however a shift of pH from 7 to 5 completely changes the outcome of photoinduced damage to HEWL from intermolecular cross-linking to oxygenation. HPLC-MS analysis has shown that four of six Trp and all Tyr residues of HEWL are modified in different extents at all pH, but the lowering of pH from 7 to 5 significantly changes the direction of main photodamage from Trp62 to Trp108 located at the entrance and bottom of enzymatic center, respectively. A decrease of intermolecular cross-links via Trp62 is followed by an increase in quantities of intramolecular cross-links Tyr20-Tyr23 and Tyr23-Tyr53. The obtained results point out the competence of cross-linking and oxygenation reactions for Trp and Tyr radicals within a protein globule and significant increase of oxygenation to the total damage of protein in the case of cross-linking deceleration by coulombic repulsion of positively charged protein globules.


Assuntos
Ácido Cinurênico , Triptofano , Aminoácidos , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Muramidase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Tirosina
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101275, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273648

RESUMO

Feed costs represent a significant portion of the cost of poultry production. This study, in 3 experiments, was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a heat-stable xylanase (XYL) as a dietary supplement and its effect on digesta viscosity, nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn), and live performance in broiler chicks. Experiment 1: the objective was to determine the effects of the amount and type of enzyme supplementation on digesta viscosity, AMEn, and bird performance using 7 diets. The dietary treatments were: no supplementation (C), 5 levels of XYL (1 to 16 ppm), or supplementation with a carbohydrase cocktail (CC). Experiment 2: the objective was to determine the interaction of the dietary XYL and the energy content of the feed. There were 2 levels of XYL (0 and 20 ppm) and 3 dietary energy levels (2,770, 2,920, and 3,070 kcal/kg ME). Experiment 3: the objective was to determine the interaction of the dietary XYL and feed form. The treatments were: 5 levels of XYL (0 to 40 ppm) and 2 feed forms (mash and crumble). Broiler chicks were reared in battery cages to 21 d. Statistical analysis of the data was completed using Proc GLM of SAS (9.2) (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). In experiment 1, increasing XYL (0 to 16 ppm) resulted in a decrease in digesta viscosity and an increase in AMEn. The XYL included as low as 1 ppm resulted in a significant increase in AMEn which reached 5% with 16 ppm XYL. In contrast, increase in BWG (4%) above values with the basal diet was greatest with 1 ppm XYL. In experiment 2, the caloric content of the diet influenced the increase in AMEn with inclusion of XYL, 8% and 6% increases with 2,920 kcal/kg and 3,070 kcal/kg diets, respectively. Without addition of XYL, BWG was significantly lower when fed the diet with the highest energy content. In experiment 3, feed form x XYL influenced the effect of XYL on BWG. The BWG was greater when birds were fed the crumble diet with XYL vs when they were fed the mash feed with XYL. The xylanase proved effective for broilers to 21 d when fed the diets used herein with changes in digesta viscosity, increased dietary AMEn, and improved bird performance represented by either BW gain or FCR.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Endo-1,4-beta-Xilanases/metabolismo , Metabolismo Energético , Temperatura Alta , Triticum/metabolismo , Viscosidade
5.
Poult Sci ; 100(9): 101368, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34314937

RESUMO

The blood gas and biochemical reference range established with i-STAT clinical analyzer in avian has become common, however, the reference value for various laying hen lines is limited. Therefore, blood gas and biochemical reference intervals will be established for Lohmann Silver layers in the pre- and post-laying periods. The blood sample was collected at a 4-wk interval. A total of 230 Lohmann Silver layers including 80 pullets (5-17 wk) and 150 laying hens (21-37 wk) were collected for whole blood measurement with the i-STAT clinical analyzer. The CG8+ cartridge provides values of the following 13 parameters: sodium (Na mmol/L), potassium (K mmol/L), ionized calcium (iCa mmol/L), glucose (Glu mg/dL), hematocrit (Hct% Packed Cell Volume [PCV]), pH, partial pressure carbon dioxide (PCO2 mm Hg), partial pressure oxygen (PO2 mm Hg), total concentration carbon dioxide (TCO2 mmol/L), bicarbonate (HCO3 mmol/L), base excess (BE mmol/L), oxygen saturation (sO2%), and hemoglobin (Hb g/dL). The correlation of these parameters and the effect of physiological status were investigated. The reference value interval was established with a reference value advisor for pre-laying and post-laying birds. Correlations were found to be statistically significant, especially between BE and HCO3 and TCO2. Besides, values in Na, iCa, K, Hct, Hb, sO2 differed significantly between the pre- and post-laying periods. Data in this study might serve as important information for facilitating the genetic selection and assessing the health of Lohmann Silver laying hens.


Assuntos
Gasometria/veterinária , Galinhas , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Valores de Referência , Sódio
6.
Molecules ; 26(13)2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34279373

RESUMO

Fatty acid content and lipid oxidation products were compared in chicken breast and leg meats derived from birds fed on animal-fat- and vegetable-oil-based diets, supplemented with ginseng prong powder. The first experiment examined polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content and the formation of primary and secondary lipid oxidation products in meats stored at refrigeration temperatures (4 °C) for up to 10 days, while the second experiment examined similar changes in the poultry meats when frozen stored at -18 °C, for up to six months. Results showed that initial lipid hydroperoxide concentrations increased in both breast and leg meat within the first week of refrigerated storage and also was ongoing during the first three to four months of frozen storage. A higher (p < 0.05) PUFA content in leg meat, especially in broilers fed a vegetable-oil-blended diet, corresponded to greater tendency for generation of primary lipid oxidation products after refrigerated and frozen storage (p < 0.05). The inclusion of powdered ginseng prong in broiler diets significantly inhibited (p < 0.05) secondary lipid oxidation products (e.g., malonaldehyde [MDA]) formation in both stored leg and breast meat, compared to controls. Significant interactions (p < 0.05) were obtained for storage time and inclusion of ginseng against production of primary and secondary lipid oxidation in broiler breast and leg meats from broilers fed PUFA-containing diets. We conclude that including ginseng prong in broiler growing diets represents a viable strategy to control lipid oxidation in refrigerated/cold-stored meat products.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Peroxidação de Lipídeos , Carne/normas , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Alimentos Congelados/normas , Músculo Esquelético/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem
7.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299491

RESUMO

Black soldier fly larvae (BSFL)-derived proteins are gaining popularity as sustainable pet food ingredients. According to the literature, these ingredients have strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Due to the ability of BSFL protein derivatives to donate hydrogen atoms and/or electrons to counterpoise unstable molecules, they could possibly help in the prevention of osteoarthritis. During this study, the antiarthritic potential of BSFL protein derivatives was evaluated using the following assays: (1) proteinase inhibition, (2) erythrocyte membrane stability, (3) reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by activated macrophages, (4) ROS production by monocytes, and (5) cellular toxicity. Additionally, the glucosamine content of these ingredients was also evaluated. Chicken meal is commonly used in pet food formulations and was used as an industrial benchmark. The results obtained during this study demonstrated the strong antiarthritic potential of BSFL protein derivatives. We found that BSFL protein derivatives are not only useful in preventing the development of arthritis but could also help to cure it due to the presence of glucosamine. We also found that chicken meal could contribute to the development of arthritis by increasing ROS production by monocytes.


Assuntos
Dípteros/metabolismo , Larva/metabolismo , Proteínas/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/métodos , Células HL-60 , Humanos
8.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101139, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225200

RESUMO

This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of dietary algae-derived polysaccharides (ADP) from Enteromorpha prolifera against heat stress (HS)-induced bursa of Fabricius injure in broilers, and to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effect. A total of 144 8-week-old male yellow-feathered broilers were randomly allocated into 3 treatments of 6 replicates each (8 broilers per replicate): thermoneutral zone group (TN, fed basal diet); heat stress group (HS, fed basal diet); heat stress + ADP group (HSA, basal diet supplemented with 1,000 mg/kg ADP). Broilers in TN group were raised at 23.6 ± 1.8°C during the whole study. Broilers in HS and HSA groups were exposed to 33.2 ± 1.5°C for 10 h/day. The experimental period lasted for four weeks. The results showed that HS and dietary ADP had no significant effects on bursa of Fabricius index (P > 0.05). HS exposure increased the apoptosis rate of bursa of Fabricius (P < 0.05), and the apoptosis rate was reduced by dietary ADP (P < 0.05). Besides, broilers in HS and HSA groups had a lower glutathione-S transferase (GST) activity and total anti-oxidation capacity (T-AOC), whereas had a higher malondialdehyde (MDA) levels of bursa of Fabricius than those in TN group (P < 0.05). HS exposure elevated the concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-4, and IL-6, while decreased the concentration of interferon-γ (INF-γ) and IL-2 (P < 0.05), and dietary inclusion of ADP reduced the IL-1ß level and increased the IL-2 level of bursa of Fabricius (P < 0.05). Compared with TN group, broilers in HS and HSA groups had lower relative mRNA expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and GSTT1 in bursa of Fabricius (P < 0.05). Additionally, HS exposure down-regulated the mRNA expression of inhibitor kappa B alpha (IκBα), IFN-γ, and IL-2, while up-regulated the mRNA expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65, TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6 in bursa of Fabricius (P < 0.05). However, dietary inclusion of ADP up-regulated the mRNA expression of IκBα and down-regulated the mRNA expression of NF-κB p65, TNF-α, and IL-6 in bursa of Fabricius (P < 0.05). Furthermore, HS exposure increased the relative protein expression levels of total and nuclear NF-κB p65 (P < 0.05), but dietary ADP supplementation reduced the relative protein expression levels of total and nuclear NF-κB p65 in bursa of Fabricius (P < 0.05). Collectively, dietary ADP ameliorated the impairment of histology, cell apoptosis and immune balance in bursa of Fabricius of heat stressed broilers, which is involved in modulation of NF-κB signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Bolsa de Fabricius , Galinhas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , NF-kappa B , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Clorófitas , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Masculino , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101285, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34229215

RESUMO

Melatonin (MEL) plays an important role in regulating growth and development of organisms and the cellular metabolism. This study was conducted to explore the role of MEL in mediating monochromatic light-induced secretion of somatostatin (SST) in the hypothalamus and pituitary in chicks. Pinealectomy models of newly hatched broilers were exposed to white (WL), red (RL), green (GL), and blue (BL) lights. The results showed that SST immunoreactive neurons and fibers were distributed in the hypothalamus. SST and SST receptor 2 (SSTR2) mRNA and protein levels in the hypothalamus and pituitary were higher in chicks exposed to RL than in chicks exposed to GL and BL. However, after pinealectomy, the mRNA and protein levels of SST and SSTR2 in the hypothalamus and pituitary in the different light groups were increased, and the differences between the groups disapeared. The expression trend of SSTR5 mRNA in the pituitary was the idential to that of SSTR2 mRNA in the pituitary. In vitro, exogenous SST inhibited growth hormone (GH) secretion, and selective antogonists of SSTR2 and SSTR5 promoted GH secretion. Selective antogonists of the melatonin receptor 1b (Mel1b) and Mel1c increased the relative concentrations of SST in the adenohypophysis cells. These results indicated that monochromatic light affects the expression of SST in chick hypothalamus and pituitary. MEL, via Mel1b and Mel1c, decreased SST secretion under GL, which was associated with the inhibition of SST, SSTR2, and SSTR5 in adenohypophysis cells.


Assuntos
Melatonina , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Receptores de Melatonina/genética , Receptores de Melatonina/metabolismo , Somatostatina
10.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200590

RESUMO

The aim of the presented research was to obtain reconstituted atelocollagen fibers after extraction from poultry cartilage using the pepsin-acidic method in order to remove telopeptides from the tropocollagen. Firstly, we examined the extraction of collagen from the cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) after proteoglycans (PG) had been removed by the action of salts, i.e., NaCl or chaotropic MgCl2. Additionally, the effects of the salt type used for PG and hyaluronic acid removal on the properties of self-assembled fibers in solutions at pH 7.4 and freeze-dried matrices were investigated. The basic features of the obtained fibers were characterized, including thermal properties using scanning calorimetry, rheological properties using dynamic oscillatory rheometry, and the structure by scanning electron microscopy. The fibers obtained after PG removal with both analyzed types of salts had similar thermal denaturation characteristics. However, the fibers after PG removal with NaCl, in contrast to those obtained after MgCl2 treatment, showed different rheological properties during gelatinization and smaller diameter size. Moreover, the degree of fibrillogenesis of collagens after NaCl treatment was complete compared to that with MgCl2, which was only partial (70%). The structures of fibers after lyophilization were fundamentally different. The matrices obtained after NaCl pretreatment form regular scaffolds in contrast to the thin, surface structures of the cartilage matrix after proteoglycans removal using MgCl2.


Assuntos
Cartilagem/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Colágeno/metabolismo , Proteoglicanas/metabolismo , Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Animais , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Pepsina A/metabolismo
11.
Res Vet Sci ; 139: 166-171, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34332419

RESUMO

There are currently no vaccines or effective drugs to prevent the disorders caused by avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J). Hence, it is critical to identify potential biomarkers in ALV-J-infected chickens to prevent ALV-J-induced disorders. We hypothesized that ALV-J infection alters metabolic profile in chickens. In the present study, a nontargeted metabolomics approach based on liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to find differential metabolites in plasma samples from ALV-J-infected chickens and healthy controls. The parametric statistical test (Student's t-test) and fold change analysis were used for univariate analysis. Multivariate statistical analyses included principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The levels of methyl bromide, pyraclonil, hexaflumuron, lythidathion, 3-phosphoglycerol-glutathione, bis-4-nitrophenyl phosphate, 4-ketocyclophosphamide, oxidized photinus luciferin, phenyl sulfate, and aryl sulfate significantly decreased, whereas the levels of 2-methylthiobenzothiazole, irinotecan, methadone, 3-o-ethyl-l-ascorbic acid, and o-acetylneuraminic acid markedly increased in ALV-J-infected chickens as compared to those in healthy controls. These data provide metabolic evidence and potential biomarkers for ALV-J-induced alterations in plasma metabolism.


Assuntos
Vírus da Leucose Aviária , Leucose Aviária , Galinhas , Metabolômica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Animais , Biomarcadores , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/virologia
12.
Food Chem ; 363: 130234, 2021 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34126569

RESUMO

Myoglobin (Mb), hemeprotein that binds dioxygen in muscle, affects meat colour. Moreover, in presence of peroxides, metMb is a potent oxidant involved in oxidative rancidity in meat. Here, following pigeon Mb purification and primary structure mass spectroscopy characterization, we determined its autoxidation rate and pseudoperoxidase activity with respect to chicken and E. woodcock Mbs. The three Mbs exhibit different autoxidation rates (0.153-h-1 pigeon, 0.194-h-1 chicken and 0.220-h-1 E. woodcock Mbs) and similar specificity constant (9.86x103 M-1s-1 pigeon, 8.81x103 M-1s-1 chicken and 9.90x103 M-1s-1 E. woodcock Mbs), considering their pseudoperoxidase activity. Moreover, for the first time, we detected an increase in pseudoperoxidase activity in presence of Ca2+, particularly at pH 5.8. NMR and CD data indicate that the nonspecific Ca2+ binding induces small local structural rearrangements that in turn slightly reduce pigeon Mb thermal stability. However, considering Ca2+ concentration variations before and post-mortem, this finding must be considered for meat preservation.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Mioglobina , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Columbidae/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Mioglobina/metabolismo , Oxirredução
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(7): 101159, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34077847

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) on breast muscle lipid metabolism in broilers. In experiment 1, 36 thirty-five-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated into 6 treatment groups with 6 birds in a completely randomized design. The broilers were subjected to intravenous injection of His-SUMO-ANGPTL4 at the dose of 0 (injection of normal saline [NS]), 20, 100, 500, 2,500, or 12,500 ng/kg BW, respectively. The results showed that broilers at 30 min after His-SUMO-ANGPTL4 at the level of 12,500 ng/kg BW intravenous injection had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid in the serum, higher (P < 0.05) adipose triglyceride lipase and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 mRNA expression in the breast muscle, but lower (P < 0.05) lipoprotein lipase (LPL) mRNA expression in the breast muscle. In experiment 2, 18 thirty-five-day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allocated into 3 treatment groups with 6 birds in a completely randomized design. The broilers were subjected to intravenous injection of NS, His-SUMO, or His-SUMO-ANGPTL4 (12,500 ng/kg BW) in order to rule out the effect of His-SUMO tag. It's confirmed that ANGPTL4 could increase (P < 0.05) concentrations of triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid in the serum, enhance (P < 0.05) adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA expression in the breast muscle, and decrease (P < 0.05) LPL mRNA expression in the breast muscle. In experiment 3 and 4, co-culture experiments of chicken primary myoblasts and NS, His-SUMO, or His-SUMO-ANGPTL4 (250 pg/mL, physiological dose) were set up to monitor the cytotoxicity of ANGPTL4 and the changes of lipid metabolism-related genes expression. It was found that cell viability was not affected but LPL mRNA expression in chicken primary myoblasts was highly reduced (P < 0.05) by ANGPTL4. In conclusion, ANGPTL4 could promote lipodieresis and inhibit LPL in the breast muscle of broilers.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Lipase Lipoproteica/metabolismo , Masculino , Músculos/metabolismo
14.
J Food Sci ; 86(7): 2851-2860, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146404

RESUMO

Ribavirin (RBV) is an effective antiviral drug, whose use is prohibited in animal husbandry worldwide. In this work, a novel immunizing hapten of RBV, named Hapten 4, was designed by comparing the conformational and electronic properties of RBV and haptens based on computational chemistry. Hapten 4 was synthesized and conjugated with carrier proteins to produce monoclonal antibody (mAb). The obtained mAb 4C3 for RBV exhibited an IC50 value of 6.24 ng/ml in an indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA) and displayed no cross-reaction with five other antiviral drugs, including amantadine. The applicability of the developed icELISA was verified in chicken, with a calculated limit of detection of 4.23 µg/kg. The recoveries in spiked chicken were 79.2%-107.3% with a coefficient of variation less than 15.9%. The results indicated that the produced antibody from the new hapten was reliable and would be useful for RBV screening in chicken. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: RBV is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug, which is commonly used illegally in poultry farms. A high-affinity mAb 4C3 against RBV was produced and used to develop icELISA with acceptable sensitivity and accuracy. The constructed icELISA has excellent performance for detecting RBV residues in chicken.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Haptenos/biossíntese , Ribavirina/análise , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/metabolismo , Feminino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ribavirina/imunologia , Ribavirina/metabolismo
15.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 428, 2021 Jun 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34107898

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Estrogen plays an essential role in female development and reproductive function. In chickens, estrogen is critical for lipid metabolism in the liver. The regulatory molecular network of estrogen in chicken liver is poorly understood. To identify estrogen-responsive genes and estrogen functional sites on a genome-wide scale, we determined expression profiles of mRNAs, lncRNAs, and miRNAs in estrogen-treated ((17ß-estradiol)) and control chicken livers using RNA-Sequencing (RNA-Seq) and studied the estrogen receptor α binding sites by ChIP-Sequencing (ChIP-Seq). RESULTS: We identified a total of 990 estrogen-responsive genes, including 962 protein-coding genes, 11 miRNAs, and 17 lncRNAs. Functional enrichment analyses showed that the estrogen-responsive genes were highly enriched in lipid metabolism and biological processes. Integrated analysis of the data of RNA-Seq and ChIP-Seq, identified 191 genes directly targeted by estrogen, including 185 protein-coding genes, 4 miRNAs, and 2 lncRNAs. In vivo and in vitro experiments showed that estrogen decreased the mRNA expression of PPARGC1B, which had been reported to be linked with lipid metabolism, by directly increasing the expression of miR-144-3p. CONCLUSIONS: These results increase our understanding of the functional network of estrogen in chicken liver and also reveal aspects of the molecular mechanism of estrogen-related lipid metabolism.


Assuntos
MicroRNAs , RNA Longo não Codificante , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Estrogênios , Feminino , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo
16.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 195, 2021 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022889

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ovarian chronic inflammation has been known to incidence in the laying hen mainly via increasing laying frequency and microbial infection, especially during late stage of production period. This study was aimed to evaluate beta-2 adrenergic agonist (Beta-2 Adrenergic Agonist, BAA) Salmeterol and beta blocker (Beta Blocker, BB) Propranolol on the gene expression of the ovarian pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators, inflammatory responses of immune system, ovarian functions and, hormones in the laying hens on the late stage of production period. Forty-eight White Leghorn hens aged 92 weeks were used for 4 weeks to be supplemented by Salmeterol and Propranolol. Ovulation rate and follicular growth were determined based on laying frequency and ovarian visual evaluation, respectively; the mRNA expressions of follicular beta-2 adrenergic receptor (Beta-2 Adrenergic Receptor, ß2ADR), cyclooxygenases (Cyclooxygenases, COX) 1 and 2, and cytokines were measured by real-time PCR. The plasma concentration of ovarian hormones, cellular, and humoral immune responses were measured via ELISA, heterophil to lymphocyte ratio (Heterophil to Lymphocyte ratio, H:L), and sheep red blood cell (Sheep Red Blood Cell, SRBC) test, respectively. RESULTS: As compared to control, both of BAA Salmeterol and BB Propranolol resulted in a significant decrease in the mRNA expression of ß2ADR, cyclooxygenases, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (P < 0.01). A significant elevation was observed in the ovulation rate (P < 0.05), plasma estradiol content on both treated groups (P < 0.05), and the content of progesterone and was just significantly (P < 0.05) increased in Salmeterol group. H:L was reduced in BAA group (P < 0.05), and immunoglobulin (Ig) M was elevated in both treated hens, when compared to control. The results indicated that Salmeterol significantly increases body weight (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The stimulation and inhibition of beta-2 adrenergic signaling could reduce ovarian inflammatory condition in addition to enhancing laying efficiency in the aged laying hens.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Ovário/metabolismo , Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/metabolismo , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/farmacologia , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/farmacologia , Androgênios/sangue , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Sistema Imunitário/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular , Imunidade Humoral , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ovário/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovário/imunologia , Progesterona/sangue , Propranolol/farmacologia , Xinafoato de Salmeterol/farmacologia
17.
Poult Sci ; 100(7): 101089, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34051408

RESUMO

As a member of the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome degradation pathway, Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCHL1) plays a key role in post-translational modification and protein degradation, and it is extensive and important for the regulation of various biological functions of the organism. However, its function remains unclear in goose growth performance. In this study, the full-length genomic DNA and coding region of UCHL1 gene was firstly cloned and characterized in Yangzhou goose. Tissue expression profile revealed that UCHL1 was exclusively expressed in brain and gonads. A novel single nucleotide polymorphisms c.-652C>T which is significantly related to 64-d body weight of Yangzhou goose was found in UCHL1 promoter region by comparative sequencing. Correlation analysis in a population of 405 geese showed that TT genotype individuals had higher body weight than CC individuals in male, but not in female geese. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that the single nucleotide polymorphisms c.-652C>T is located at the core promoter region of UCHL1, and the promoter transcription activity was significantly increased (P < 0.01) when allele C changed to T. Geese with TT genotype had higher mRNA level of UCHL1 in brain tissue than those of CC genotype (P < 0.01). Compared with CC individuals, neuropeptide Y and AdipoR1 mRNA level was significantly higher in TT individuals (P < 0.05), while FAS mRNA level was lower in the TT individuals (P < 0.05). In summary, we identify a novel mutation in the promoter of UCHL1 gene, which can alter transcriptional activity of UCHL1 gene, and affect the growth performance of male goose.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Gansos , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Gansos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/metabolismo
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 219: 112305, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34029840

RESUMO

The wide usage of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) results in its increasing occurrence in the environment and increasing attention in regard to human and animal health. BDE-209 is an endocrine disruptor for hypothyroidism, but the toxicity mechanism is unclear. Here, the histopathology and transcriptome sequencing of thyroid tissue from broiler chicks were investigated by supplemental feeding with different concentrations of BDE-209 for 42 days (0-4 g/kg in basal diet), followed by determining the levels of thyroid hormones in serum. The results showed ruptured and even hyperplastic follicular epithelial cells in the thyroid, and a total of 501 differentially expressed genes were screened out: 222 upregulated and 279 downregulated. Based on the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes database, neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway was significantly enriched, and α1D-adrenergic receptor, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor, thyroid stimulating hormone receptor, and somatostatin receptor type 2 were shown to be candidate biomarkers. Thyroxine was a possible biomarker due to clear reduction in serum and significant correlation with exposure concentrations. These results suggested that oral intake of BDE-209 can cause structural injuries and even hyperplasia, and affect gene transcription involved in the neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathway of thyroid, as well as thyroid hormones in serum.


Assuntos
Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/toxicidade , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Hormônios Tireóideos/metabolismo , Tiroxina/metabolismo , Transcriptoma
19.
Food Chem ; 360: 130054, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34020367

RESUMO

A depletion study of toltrazuril and its metabolites was performed using 20 hens medicated via drinking water for two days in a dosage of 7 mg kg-1 per kg body weight. Afterward, eggs were collected for 42 days. Residues were analyzed in whole eggs and yolk and whites. Toltrazuril sulfone was found to be the most predominant in all matrices, the highest concentration was found in the yolk - 5567 µg kg-1, followed by whole eggs samples - 4767 µg kg-1 and egg whites - 532 µg kg-1. On last day toltrazuril sulfone were still detected - 22.5 µg kg-1. 70 days is required to concentration of toltrazuril sulfone reach zero. Administrating toltrazuril before the laying phase can pose a risk of residues of toltrazuril sulfone in eggs. Setting Maximum Residue Limit could reduce the risk of non-complaint samples and ensure the safety of consumers, but still requires 44 days of the withdrawal period.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Resíduos de Drogas/análise , Ovos/análise , Triazinas/análise , Administração Oral , Animais , Clara de Ovo/análise , Gema de Ovo/química , Feminino , Sulfonas/análise , Triazinas/administração & dosagem , Triazinas/metabolismo
20.
Pol J Microbiol ; 70(1): 33-43, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33815525

RESUMO

Short-term or acute temperature stress affect the immune responses and alters the gut microbiota of broilers, but the influences of long-term temperature stress on stress biomarkers and the intestinal microbiota remains largely unknown. Therefore, we examined the effect of three long-term ambient temperatures (high (HC), medium (MC), and low (LC) temperature groups) on the gene expression of broilers' heat shock proteins (Hsps) and inflammation - related genes, as well as the caecal microbial composition. The results revealed that Hsp70 and Hsp90 levels in HC group significantly increased, and levels of Hsp70, Hsp90, IL-6, TNF-α, and NFKB1 in LC group were significantly higher than in MC group (p < 0.05). In comparison with the MC group, the proportion of Firmicutes increased in HC and LC groups, while that of Bacteroidetes decreased in LC group at phylum level (p < 0.05). At genus level, the proportion of Escherichia/Shigella, Phascolarctobacterium, Parabacteroides,and Enterococcus increased in HC group; the fraction of Faecalibacterium was higher in LC group; and the percentage of Barnesiella and Alistipes decreased in both HC and LC groups (p < 0.05). Functional analysis based on communities' phylogenetic investigation revealed that the pathways involved in environmental information processing and metabolism were enriched in the HC group. Those involved in cellular processes and signaling, metabolism, and gene regulation were enriched in LC group. Hence, we conclude that the long-term temperature stress can greatly alter the intestinal microbial communities in broilers and may further affect the host's immunity and health.


Assuntos
Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Feminino , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/metabolismo , Masculino , Filogenia , Temperatura
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