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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(40): 11236-11243, 2019 Oct 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539244

RESUMO

A method for the simultaneous determination of 27 sulfonamides in poultry feathers using ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was established in this study. The samples were extracted using 0.1 mol/L HCl solutions in a 60 °C water bath for 2 h, purified using hydrophilic-lipophilic balance solid-phase extraction, nitrogen-dried, and then reconstituted for UPLC-MS/MS analysis, which was performed with a CSH-C18 column. Linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, recovery, and precision were calculated in accordance with Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. For linearity, all standard curves showed a standard coefficient greater than 0.99, and the recoveries and coefficient of variation were 89-115% and <20%, respectively. The limit of detection and limit of quantification were 0.2-5 and 0.5-20 ng/g, respectively. The method was successfully applied to sulfamethazine (SMZ) residue accumulation monitoring in laying hen feathers and sulfonamide residue monitoring on poultry feathers. SMZ residue accumulation in the laying hen feathers was studied after administration with 100 mg/kg of SMZ for 21 consecutive days. SMZ residues were still detected in feathers 14 days after drug administration and persisted for up to 85 days. Results from 42 poultry feather samples showed that the feather is a suitable medium to monitor the illegal use of sulfonamides in poultry production.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Drogas/farmacocinética , Plumas/química , Sulfametazina/farmacocinética , Sulfonamidas/química , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Resíduos de Drogas/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos de Drogas/metabolismo , Feminino , Limite de Detecção , Extração em Fase Sólida , Sulfametazina/química , Sulfametazina/isolamento & purificação , Sulfametazina/metabolismo , Sulfonamidas/isolamento & purificação , Sulfonamidas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(42): 11675-11683, 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545598

RESUMO

To better appreciate the alterations of egg proteins and their modifications during embryonic development, a comparative and quantitative study was performed aimed at chicken egg white and yolk proteome and N-glycoproteome after 12 days of incubation using tandem mass tag (TMT)-labeling technology in conjunction with reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). A total of 334 unique N-glycosite-containing peptides from 153 N-glycoproteins were identified, of which 82 N-glycosite-containing peptides showed significant changes after 12 days of incubation. The varied proteome was mainly involved with antibacterial, ionic binding, cell proliferation, and embryonic development, while the different degrading and/or absorbing priorities of egg proteins were proposed. This study provides substantial insight into the effects of N-glycoprotein variations on the utilization of egg proteins by chicken embryo during incubation.


Assuntos
Embrião de Galinha/química , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Animais , Embrião de Galinha/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Embrião de Galinha/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Clara de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/química , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Proteômica , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9727-9737, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398034

RESUMO

The present study aimed to search for chicken abdominal fat deposition-related polymorphisms within RB1 and to provide functional evidence for significantly associated genetic variants. Association analyses showed that 11 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in intron 17 of RB1, were significantly associated with both abdominal fat weight (P < 0.05) and abdominal fat percentage (P < 0.05). Functional analysis revealed that the A allele of g.32828A>G repressed the transcriptional efficiency of RB1 in vitro, through binding nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-KB) and SRY-related HMG box protein 2 (SOX2). Furthermore, RB1 mRNA expression levels in the abdominal fat tissue of individuals with the A/A genotype of g.32828A>G were lower than those of individuals with the G/G genotype. Collectively, we propose that the intronic SNP g.32828A>G of RB1 is an obesity-associated variant that directly affects binding with NF-KB and SOX2, leading to changes in RB1 expression which in turn may influence chicken abdominal fat deposition.


Assuntos
Adiposidade , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/genética , Proteína do Retinoblastoma/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição SOX/metabolismo , Gordura Abdominal/metabolismo , Alelos , Animais , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Sítios de Ligação , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Íntrons , NF-kappa B/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição SOX/genética
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9950-9957, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31403788

RESUMO

Protein glycosylation is a ubiquitous posttranslational modification that modulates protein properties, thereby influencing bioactivities within a system. Duck egg white (DEW) proteins exhibit diverse biological properties compared with their chicken egg white (CEW) counterparts, which might be related to glycosylation. N-Glycoproteome analysis of DEW was conducted, and a total of 231 N-glycosites from 68 N-glycoproteins were identified. Gene ontology analysis was used to elucidate the biofunctions of DEW N-glycoproteins and compare them with those of CEW, which showed that the differences mostly involved molecular functions and biological processes. The biological functions of DEW N-glycoproteins were illuminated through bioinformatics analysis and comparison with CEW orthologues, which showed different allergenicities and antibacterial abilities. These divergences might be initiated by specific alterations in glycosylation, which can enhance the proteolysis resistance and protein steric hindrance. These results provide new insights for discovering the effects of N-glycosylation on biofunctions during the divergence of homologous proteins.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Patos/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Galinhas/metabolismo , Patos/metabolismo , Proteínas do Ovo/genética , Proteínas do Ovo/metabolismo , Clara de Ovo/química , Glicoproteínas/genética , Glicoproteínas/metabolismo , Glicosilação , Proteômica
5.
Food Chem ; 301: 125198, 2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374533

RESUMO

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of five rubber seed oil (RSO) levels (0, 1%, 2%, 4%, and 6%) on hens laying performance, egg quality, and yolks fatty acid composition and cholesterol contents. Three hundred and sixty 30-week-old Lohmann Brown laying hens were allotted to 5 groups. The results showed that the egg production was increased in 4% RSO group (P < 0.05), but egg quality parameters and the contents of dry matter, lipid, and protein in yolks were not influenced among treatments (P > 0.05). Yolk cholesterol contents were reduced in RSO supplemental groups (P < 0.05). The concentration of total n-3 PUFA in yolks increased gradually while the ratio of n-6/n-3 decreased gradually with increasing dietary RSO levels (P < 0.001). In conclusion, dietary RSO supplementation increased yolk n-3 PUFA levels, improved yolk color, and reduced yolk cholesterol contents without negative influence on laying performance parameters.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Galinhas , Colesterol/metabolismo , Gema de Ovo/química , Gorduras Insaturadas/farmacologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/metabolismo , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Colesterol/análise , Suplementos Nutricionais , Gema de Ovo/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/análise , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Lipídeos/análise
6.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(32): 9002-9008, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31322885

RESUMO

The diphenylurea 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) is the residue of concern left in edible tissues of broilers fed diets containing the anticoccidial nicarbazin. When chicken meat is submitted to thermal processing, p-nitroaniline (p-NA) is expected from DNC degradation. This work aimed at evaluating whether thermal processing of DNC-containing chicken meat induces p-NA appearance. First, a hydrolysis assay was performed in aqueous solutions at 100 °C in different pH, confirming that DNC cleavage yields p-NA. Then a novel LC-MS/MS method was used to detect traces of this aromatic amine in DNC-containing chicken breast fillets subjected to cooking methods. Our evidence showed p-NA occurrence in such chicken meat samples, which corroborated results from hydrolysis assay. The p-NA appearance in fillets was rather discrete during boiling treatment, but its concentration became pronounced over time for grilling, frying, and roasting, achieving respectively 326.3, 640.0, and 456.9 µg/kg. As far as we are concerned, no other research identified degradation products from DNC residue in heat-processed chicken fillets. Therefore, this study leads to additional approaches to assess impacts on food safety.


Assuntos
Compostos de Anilina/química , Carbanilidas/química , Coccidiostáticos/química , Resíduos de Drogas/química , Carne/análise , Nicarbazina/química , Compostos de Anilina/metabolismo , Animais , Carbanilidas/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Coccidiostáticos/metabolismo , Culinária , Resíduos de Drogas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Nicarbazina/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(14): 6582-6588, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31328268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study was conducted to investigate effects of dietary zinc methionine (Zn-Met) supplementation on laying performance, zinc (Zn) status, intestinal morphology, and Zn transporters in laying hens compared with zinc sulfate (ZnSO4 ). A total of 384 Hyline Grey laying hens (38 weeks old) with similar performance (1.42 ± 0.07 kg) were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments and fed with a basal diet (control) or the basal diet supplemented with Zn, either as Zn-Met at 40 and 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet or as ZnSO4 at 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet, for 10 weeks. RESULTS: There was no difference in egg weight, egg production, feed intake, and feed conversation ratio among all groups (P > 0.05). Compared with the control, Zn contents were increased (P < 0.05) in the liver, duodenum, and jejunum of laying hens fed diets supplemented with different Zn sources. There was no difference (P > 0.05) in Zn contents in liver, duodenum, and jejunum between diets supplemented with Zn-Met or ZnSO4 at 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet. Compared with the control and the ZnSO4 group (80 mg Zn/kilogram diet), supplementation with Zn-Met of 80 mg Zn/kilogram diet increased (P < 0.05) villus height, villus area, and villus height/crypt depth ratio but reduced (P < 0.05) crypt depth in jejunum. Expression of metallothionein messenger RNA of jejunum in the group fed a diet containing Zn-Met (80 mg Zn/kilogram diet) was higher (P < 0.05) than that in the control. CONCLUSION: These results indicated that Zn-Met has positive effects on the Zn status of liver, duodenum, and jejunum, intestinal morphology, and metallothionein messenger RNA expression in jejunum of laying hens compared with ZnSO4 . © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Intestinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Compostos Organometálicos/administração & dosagem , Zinco/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Ovos/análise , Feminino , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/administração & dosagem , Metionina/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Zinco/análise
8.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 899-908, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351298

RESUMO

Triphenyl phosphate (TPHP; CAS # 115-86-6), a commonly used plasticizer and flame retardant, has been reported in wild birds and identified as a potential high-risk chemical. We exposed Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) by in ovo injection, and once hatched, orally each day for 5 days to safflower oil (controls) or TPHP dissolved in vehicle at low (5 ng TPHP/g), mid (50 ng TPHP/g), or high (100 ng TPHP/g) nominal TPHP doses. The low TPHP dose reflected concentrations in wild bird eggs, with mid and high doses 10x and 20x greater to reflect potential increases in environmental TPHP concentrations in the future. Despite no effects on mRNA expression in thyroid-related genes, TPHP exposure enhanced thyroid gland structure in high TPHP males, but in females, suppressed thyroid gland structure and activity (all TPHP females), and circulating free triiodothyronine (high TPHP females only). Consistent with thyroidal changes, and compared to controls, mid and high TPHP chicks experienced significantly reduced resting metabolic rate (≤13%) and growth (≤53%); mid TPHP males and high TPHP females were significantly smaller. The observed thyroidal effects and suppressed growth and metabolic rate of the quail chicks suggest that TPHP may adversely affect the health of wild birds.


Assuntos
Coturnix/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Organofosfatos/toxicidade , Glândula Tireoide/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Metabolismo Basal , Galinhas/metabolismo , Coturnix/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Retardadores de Chama/metabolismo , Retardadores de Chama/toxicidade , Masculino , Plastificantes , Codorniz , Glândula Tireoide/metabolismo , Tri-Iodotironina
9.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 411(23): 6081-6090, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273411

RESUMO

A nanooptosensor based on the fluorescence quenching of a composite probe was fabricated for the detection of sarafloxacin. The components of the nanocomposite fluorescent probe were a high affinity material of polydopamine polymer (PDA), a selective material of molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP), and optically sensitive quantum dots (QDs). The developed nanocomposite fluorescent probe exhibited excellent selectivity and sensitivity for sarafloxacin. The molecularly imprinted polymer had an imprinting factor (IF) of 8.18 and produced a probe that quenched fluorescence more effectively than a non-imprinted polymer (NIP) probe. The emission intensity of the MIP probe was linearly quenched by sarafloxacin over a range of 0.10 to 15.0 µg L-1 with a determination coefficient (R2) of 0.9966. The developed nanooptosensor had a limit of detection of 0.05 µg L-1. The optosensor detected sarafloxacin in chicken meat samples with recoveries ranging from 82.8 to 99.1% with an RSD below 3%. The found concentrations in spiked samples were compared well with recoveries obtained by HPLC method of detection. This developed nanooptosensor is simple to operate and cost-effective and the analytical procedure is rapid. Graphical abstract.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/análise , Ciprofloxacino/análogos & derivados , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Indóis/química , Carne/análise , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Polímeros/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Animais , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ciprofloxacino/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Limite de Detecção , Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Pontos Quânticos/ultraestrutura
10.
Food Chem ; 300: 125134, 2019 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323608

RESUMO

Water soluble caffeic acid derivatives in aqueous extracts of mate (Ilex paraguariensis) showed a direct dose-dependent response, protecting protein thiols in a chicken breast meat model system when oxidation was initiated by a lipophilic radical initiator (2,2'-azobis(2,4-dimethylvaleronitrile; AMVN). In contrast, an inverse dose-dependent response was obtained when initiated by a hydrophilic radical initiator (2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane)dihydrochloride; AAPH), pointing toward a mechanism, where a specific concentration of water-soluble polyphenol yields optimum protection. Optimal concentrations of mate extract for the protection of thiols against radicals initiated in the lipid phase (AMVN) or in the aqueous phase (AAPH) were 0.1-0.5% and 0.01-0.1%, respectively. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) extract showed a pro-oxidative effect involving quinones from oxidation of pyrogallol-type catechins (epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), gallocatechin-3-gallate (GCG), and epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG)) and not the catechol-type catechins (catechin and epicatechin).


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Ilex paraguariensis/química , Proteínas de Carne/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Compostos de Sulfidrila/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Chá/química
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(22): 23002-23009, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31183751

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to find the concentration of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in feed, drinking water, and their residues in meat and internal organs in broilers at three different locations in Charsadda. For this purpose, a total of 48 representative water and feed samples and 240 meat and internal organs of broilers were collected. Significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentrations of Zn and Mn were found in feed samples. In water samples assessed for heavy metals, a significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of Pb was observed at Umerabad and Kula Dher as compared with Nisatta whereas a significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of Ni was recorded at Umerabad as compared with Nisatta and Kula Dher. Similarly, a significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of Mn in water was recorded at Kula Dher as compared with Nisatta and Umerabad. The concentration of Pb in water at all locations and the concentration of Ni at Umerabad were above the maximum permissible limits. A significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of Pb in the liver, breast, and thigh muscles and a significantly (P < 0.05) higher concentration of Mn in the liver, gizzard, breast, and thigh muscles of broilers were recorded at Kula Dher. A significantly (P < 0.05) higher mean concentration of Pb, Cd, Ni, Mn, and Zn was recorded in the liver as compared with the gizzard, breast, and thigh muscles. It was concluded from the present study that broiler farms near the roadside/canal and waste disposal site/wastewater drains cause accomulaiton of high concentrations of some heavy metals in meat and internal organs of broiler birds.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/análise , Animais , Cádmio/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Manganês/análise , Carne , Metais Pesados/química , Níquel/análise , Paquistão , Saúde Pública , Águas Residuárias , Zinco/análise
12.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23453-23459, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201704

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) as a widespread toxic heavy metal accumulates in animal food including chicken meat through food chain enrichment and finally threatens human health. Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral and possesses antagonistic effects on Cd-induced multiple organs' toxicity in chickens. The objective of the present study was to reveal the antagonistic mechanisms of Se to Cd from the aspects of oxidative stress, inflammation, and meat quality in chicken breast muscles. Firstly, the results showed that Cd significantly elevated the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and protein carbonyl, and declined the levels of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) to trigger oxidative stress in chicken breast muscles. However, Se treatment significantly alleviated Cd-induced oxidative stress by increasing the levels of GSH-Px, SOD, and CAT, and decreasing the levels of MDA, H2O2, and protein carbonyl. Secondly, Se obviously inhibited the expressions of Cd-activated inflammation-related genes including tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2), and prostaglandin E synthase (PTGEs) in chicken breast muscles. Thirdly, meat quality-related parameters including pH45min, ultimate pH (pHu), and drip loss were also detected, and the results showed that Se markedly recovered Cd-induced dropt of pH45min and increase of drip loss in chicken breast muscles. In brief, these findings demonstrated that Se significantly alleviated Cd-induced oxidative stress and inflammation, and declined meat quality of chicken breast muscles.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Galinhas/fisiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Carne/análise , Selênio/metabolismo , Animais , Cádmio/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/metabolismo , Inflamação , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(23): 23967-23980, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31222655

RESUMO

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that poses a huge potential threat to human and animal health. Therefore, it is necessary to study its damage mechanism. In the present study, we have examined the protective effects of Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids on oxidative stress and apoptosis in the spleen of chickens induced by Cd. One hundred and twenty healthy Hailan white chickens (7-day-old) were randomly divided into the following four groups: control group, Cd group, triterpenoid group, and Cd-triterpenoid group. The chickens were euthanized on the 20th, 40th, and 60th days, and the spleens were removed. Cd and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px)) activities, and inflammatory factor (tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1ß and IL-6)) and apoptotic factor (caspase-3, BAX, and Bcl-2) expressions were detected. The results showed that Ganoderma lucidum triterpenoids could reduce the content of Cd and MDA; increase the antioxidant enzyme activities (SOD and GSH-Px); decrease the expression of inflammatory factors (TNF-α) and interleukin (IL-1ß and IL-6); increase the expression of apoptotic factor (Bcl-2); and decrease the expression of apoptotic factors (caspase-3 and Bax). It showed that the triterpenoids of Ganoderma lucidum had significant protective effects on oxidative stress and apoptosis of chicken spleen, which provided a theoretical basis for further prevention and treatment of cadmium poisoning.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Substâncias Perigosas/toxicidade , Reishi , Terpenos/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/metabolismo , Caspase 3 , Galinhas/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Baço/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
14.
BMC Vet Res ; 15(1): 180, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146764

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) and multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4) are involved in uric acid excretion in humans and mice. Despite evidence suggesting that renal proximal tubular epithelial cells participate in uric acid excretion in chickens, the roles of BCRP and MRP4 therein remain unclear. This study evaluated the relationship between BCRP and MRP4 expression and renal function in chickens. RESULTS: Sixty laying hens were randomly divided into four treatment groups: a control group (NC) fed a basal diet; a sulfonamide-treated group (SD) fed the basal diet and supplemented with sulfamonomethoxine sodium via drinking water (8 mg/L); a fish meal group (FM) fed the basal diet supplemented with 16% fishmeal; and a uric acid injection group (IU) fed the basal diet and intraperitoneally injected with uric acid (250 mg/kg body weight). The results showed that serum uric acid, creatinine, and blood urea nitrogen levels were significantly higher in the SD and IU, but not FM, than in the NC groups. Renal tubular epithelial cells in the SD and IU groups were damaged. Liver BCRP and MRP4 mRNA and protein levels were significantly decreased in the SD and IU groups, but slightly increased in the FM group. In the SD group, BCRP and MRP4 were significantly increased in the ileum and slightly increased in the kidney. In the FM group, BCRP and MRP4 were significantly increased in the kidney and slightly increased in the ileum. In the IU group, BCRP and MRP4 were significantly increased in the kidney and ileum. BCRP and MRP4 expression in the jejunum was not affected by the treatments. CONCLUSION: Together, these results demonstrate that BCRP and MRP4 are involved in renal and intestinal uric acid excretion in chickens and that BCRP is positively related to MRP4 expression. Further, impairment of renal function results in an increase in serum uric acid as well as a compensatory increase in BCRP and MRP4 in the ileum; however, under normal renal function, renal BCRP and MRP4 are the main regulators of uric acid excretion.


Assuntos
Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Membro 2 da Subfamília G de Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Animais , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Galinhas/sangue , Células Epiteliais/ultraestrutura , Feminino , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Rim/ultraestrutura , Túbulos Renais/ultraestrutura , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue
15.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(13): 5680-5686, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150113

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poultry meat has high levels of histidine-containing dipeptides (HCD) and consumption of meat rich in HCD may elicit certain health benefits. The aim of this work was to compare the HCD content (anserine and carnosine) in the breast and thigh muscles of two broiler strains differing in growth rate, feeding regime, and age at slaughter. A 3 (production system) × 2 (sex) × 2 (age at slaughter) full factorial arrangement was applied with fast-growing Ross 308 chicks fed ad libitum (ROSS-AL), slow-growing Sasso T451 chicks fed ad libitum (SASSO-AL), and Ross 308 chicks given limited feeding (ROSS-LIM). At the age of 40 and 62 days, eight birds per production system × sex combination were randomly selected for sampling of the breast and thigh muscle. Muscle HCD content was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). RESULTS: Across treatments, levels of anserine were 2.5- and 1.9-fold higher than carnosine in breast and thigh muscle respectively (P < 0.001), and levels of anserine and carnosine were 2.2- and 2.8-fold higher respectively in breast versus thigh muscle (P < 0.001). In breast muscle, SASSO-AL had higher levels of HCD than ROSS-AL and ROSS-LIM (P < 0.001). Considering different market meat types, breast muscle of 62-day-old SASSO-AL birds had more than threefold higher content of HCD compared to thigh muscle of 40-day-old ROSS-AL birds (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Large differences in muscle HCD content were found, varying according to type of muscle and broiler. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anserina/análise , Carnosina/análise , Galinhas/metabolismo , Histidina/metabolismo , Músculo Esquelético/química , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Anserina/metabolismo , Carnosina/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Feminino , Masculino , Carne/análise , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo
16.
J Anim Sci ; 97(8): 3169-3179, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247079

RESUMO

Oxidative stress is an unavoidable consequence of aerobic metabolism. Whereas high amounts of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause oxidation, low levels play important roles in signal transduction. In a Pedigree male (PedM) broiler model of feed efficiency (FE), the low FE phenotype was characterized by increased ROS in isolated mitochondria (muscle, liver, and duodenum) with a pervasive protein oxidation in mitochondria and tissues. Subsequent proteogenomic studies in muscle revealed evidence of enhanced mitoproteome abundance, enhanced mitochondrial phosphocreatine shuttling expression, and enhanced ribosome assembly in the high FE phenotype. Surprisingly, an enhanced infrastructure would foster greater repair of damaged proteins or organelles through the autophagy and proteosome pathways in the high FE phenotype. Although protein and organelle degradation, recycling, and reconstruction would be energetically expensive, it is possible that energy invested into maintaining optimal function of proteins and organelles contributes to cellular efficiency in the high FE phenotype. New findings in mitochondrial physiology have been reported in the last several years. Reverse electron transport (RET), once considered an artifact of in vitro conditions, now is recognized to play significant roles in inflammation, ischemia-reperfusion, muscle differentiation, and energy utilization. A topology of ROS production indicates that ROS derived from Complex I of the respiratory chain primarily causes oxidation, whereas ROS generated from Complex III are primarily involved in cell signaling. It is also apparent that there is a constant fission and fusion process that mitochondria undergo that help maintain optimal mitochondrial function and enables mitochondria to adjust to periods of nutrient limitation and nutrient excess. Understanding the balancing act that mitochondria play in health and disease will continue to be a vital biological component in health-production efficiency and disease in commercial animal agriculture.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Proteínas Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Animais , Masculino , Oxirredução , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais
17.
Br Poult Sci ; 60(3): 279-287, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31146535

RESUMO

1. This study analysed whether in ovo injection of ascorbic acid before incubation and at high incubation temperature influenced blood characteristics and performance in broilers reared in different temperature conditions. 2. A total of 3,000 fertile eggs from broiler breeders (Cobb®) were randomly divided into three incubation treatments: no ascorbic acid injection and egg incubation at 37.5°C (control); no ascorbic acid injection and egg incubation at 39°C; in ovo ascorbic acid injection prior to incubation (6 µg AA/100 µl water) and egg incubation at 39°C. 3. Male chicks hatched from the three incubation treatments were submitted to three distinct rearing temperatures (control, cold and hot) from the third week of age onwards (540 chicks were divided into 6 treatments with 5 replicates per treatment). 4. Measurements at 42 d showed that, after egg incubation at 39°C, the haematocrit, haemoglobin values, ionised calcium and glucose concentrations were increased and base excess values were reduced. However, in ovo injection of ascorbic acid normalised all these parameters. 5. Partial CO2 and O2 pressure were higher with increased rearing temperature. Blood pH was lower when eggs were incubated at 39°C and injected with ascorbic acid. In ovo injection of ascorbic acid induced leucocytosis due to lymphocytosis and heterophilia, restored basophils rate and led to monocytopoenia. Leucocytosis was triggered by hot rearing temperature due to lymphocytosis, eosinophilia and heterophilia. 6. The results obtained in this study showed that in ovo injection of ascorbic acid before incubation may serve as a long-term stimulator and modulator of the broiler immune system, and that high incubation temperatures induce adaptations in the electrolytic balance, minimising or avoiding the occurrence of respiratory alkalosis under hot rearing temperature.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ácido Ascórbico/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Temperatura Alta , Óvulo/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Análise Química do Sangue , Galinhas/sangue , Testes Hematológicos , Injeções/veterinária , Masculino
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(21): 21828-21834, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31134545

RESUMO

The effect of selenium on excessive fatty acid-induced apoptosis and abnormal amino acid metabolism in the liver is well known, because it is an important site in the fatty acid metabolism pathway. However, the protective role of nano-elemental selenium (nano-Se) supplementation against hexavalent chromium (K2Cr2O7)-induced abnormal fatty acid metabolism has not been evaluated yet. Therefore, we conducted chicken experiments with different nano-Se supplementation doses to investigate the role of nano-Se against Cr(VI)-induced adverse effects. For this purpose, a total of 120 1-day-old chicks were randomly divided into control group, Cr(VI)-exposed group, protection group, treatment group, prevention group, and nano-Se control group. The results of RT-qPCR showed that the nano-Se supplementation notably downregulated (P < 0.01) the messenger RNA (mRNA) expression levels of fatty acid synthase (FASN), whereas nano-Se supplementation significantly upregulated (P < 0.01) the mRNA expression level of acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 (ACOX1) in chicken's liver at day 35 of the experiment. Similar results were further verified by western blot analysis. Moreover, nano-Se supplementation significantly enhanced and reduced the antibody expression levels of ACOX1 and FASN in immunohistochemical analysis, respectively. Thus, finally, it was concluded that nano-Se can alleviate K2Cr2O7-induced abnormal fatty acid metabolism in chicken's liver.


Assuntos
Galinhas/metabolismo , Cromo/toxicidade , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Selênio/farmacologia , Acil-CoA Oxidase/genética , Acil-CoA Oxidase/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintase Tipo I/metabolismo , Regulação Enzimológica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Fígado/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/administração & dosagem , Nanopartículas/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/química
19.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(18): 18181-18190, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31037529

RESUMO

Chromium is used in daily life and has a wide range of functions. It plays an important role in protein synthesis and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Chromium is found in trivalent Cr(III) and hexavalent Cr(VI) form; Cr(III) is relatively stable and intimately participates with many phenomena of metabolisms. Whereas, Cr(VI) is toxic, which results in growth inhibition and leading to changes in components of antioxidant systems as well as secondary metabolites. However, the molecular mechanism that is involved in Cr (VI)-induced hepatotoxicity is still unclear. For this purpose, 40 chickens were randomly assigned into two groups: the normal group (feeding the basic diet and clear water), the chromium group (16%LD50, 74.24 mg/kg/day K2Cr2O7 ). The samples were subjected to pathological examination and UHPLC-QE-MS non-target metabolomics method for metabolomics analysis of broiler liver using principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The central venous cells of the broiler liver in the chromium poisoning group showed turbidity and flaky necrosis, nuclear condensation, nuclear rupture, and even nuclear dissolution. The differential metabolite analysis between the chromium poisoning and the control group showed that 32 differential metabolites were upregulated and 15 were downregulated in positive ion mode. Whereas,17 differential metabolites were downregulated, and 35 were downregulated in negative ion mode (P ≤ 0.05). The potential marker substances are oleic acidamide, farnesylacetone, betaine, taurine, choline, and galactinol. Additionally, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways showed that the lipid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, membrane transport, digestive system, and nervous system were the most important metabolic pathways in the liver. This study provides a theoretical basis for the future understanding of the pathogenesis of chromium poisoning and a new insight of the subsequent molecular mechanism of chromium hepatotoxicity.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/toxicidade , Galinhas , Cromo/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolômica , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Galinhas/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Fígado/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Distribuição Aleatória
20.
Chemosphere ; 231: 1-9, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31128342

RESUMO

As toxic elements when excessive, arsenic (As) and copper (Cu) are two naturally occurring elements that may be ingested by the organism at the same time. However, the precise damaged mechanism and the pathways that are activated by As and/or Cu is rarely researched in gizzard, a unique organ of birds. In this study, ultrastructural observations, TdT-mediated dUTP Nick-End Labeling, real-time quantitative PCR and Western blotting were performed to evaluate the toxic effects of chronic exposure to Cu2+ and/or arsenite on chicken gizzard. The results revealed that increased apoptosis and autophagy levels induced by Cu2+ and arsenite appeared to be independent of oxidative stress, which didn't have significant changes in different treatment groups at the same time point. Nevertheless, the redox balance gradually deviated with the extension of time. And increased mitochondrial division and decreased fusion were also caused by Cu2+ and arsenite. In conclusion, apoptosis and autophagy in gizzard induced by Cu2+ and/or arsenite, at least, strongly linked with the disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis. Our study showed that the combination of Cu2+ and arsenite produces stronger toxicity. The results of this study can serve as a reference for agicultural feeding and environmental protection, that is, to avoid the combined exposure of Cu2+ and arsenite to prevent greater economic losses and health risks.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Trióxido de Arsênio/toxicidade , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Sulfato de Cobre/toxicidade , Moela das Aves/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Animais , Arsenitos/toxicidade , Galinhas/metabolismo , Masculino , Dinâmica Mitocondrial , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
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