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1.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13436, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32761774

RESUMO

Probiotics are growing alternatives to antibiotics, and can contribute to the prevention and treatment of diseases and enhance livestock production. Lactobacillus (L.) ingluviei is a novel probiotic species with growth-enhancement effects; however, this species remains poorly understood, and there have been (to our knowledge) no studies focusing on its immunological effects. Here, we isolated L. ingluviei C37 (LIC37) from chicken and evaluated the bacterium's immunomodulatory properties to explore its probiotic potential. Real-time quantitative PCR and ELISA showed that in vitro exposure of inflammation-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages to heat-killed LIC37 led to decreases in tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin (IL)-6 levels and an increase in IL-10. These findings suggested that LIC37 exerts anti-inflammatory effects by modulating cytokine profiles. This species may be an attractive probiotic bacterial strain for use in animal production.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Lactobacillus , Lipopolissacarídeos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Animais , Imunomodulação , Camundongos
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237541, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32834007

RESUMO

There is growing interest in exploring the chickens' intestinal microbiota and understanding its interactions with the host. The objective is to optimize this parameter in order to increase the productivity of farm animals. With the goal to isolate candidate probiotic strains, specific culturomic methods were used in our study to culture commensal bacteria from 7-days old chicks raised in two farms presenting long history of high performance. A total of 347 isolates were cultured, corresponding to at least 64 species. Among the isolates affiliated to the Firmicutes, 26 had less than 97% identity of their partial 16S sequence with that of the closest described species, while one presented less than 93% identity, thus revealing a significant potential for new species in this ecosystem. In parallel, and in order to better understand the differences between the microbiota of high-performing and low-performing animals, caecal contents of animals collected from these two farms and from a third farm with long history of low performance were collected and sequenced. This compositional analysis revealed an enrichment of Faecalibacterium-and Campylobacter-related sequences in lower-performing animals whereas there was a higher abundance of enterobacteria-related sequences in high-performing animals. We then investigated antibiosis activity against C. jejuni ATCC 700819 and C. jejuni field isolate as a first phenotypic trait to select probiotic candidates. Antibiosis was found to be limited to a few strains, including several lactic acid bacteria, a strain of Bacillus horneckiae and a strain of Escherichia coli. The antagonist activity depended on test conditions that mimicked the evolution of the intestinal environment of the chicken during its lifetime, i.e. temperature (37°C or 42°C) and oxygen levels (aerobic or anaerobic conditions). This should be taken into account according to the stage of development of the animal at which administration of the active strain is envisaged.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter/isolamento & purificação , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Envelhecimento , Animais , Campylobacter/genética , Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Fazendas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia
3.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237108, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32750076

RESUMO

Anatomically terminal parts of the urinary, reproductive, and digestive systems of birds all connect to the cloaca. As the feces drain through the cloaca in chickens, the cloacal bacteria were previously believed to represent those of the digestive system. To investigate similarities between the cloacal microbiota and the microbiota of the digestive and reproductive systems, microbiota inhabiting the colon, cloaca, and magnum, which is a portion of the chicken oviduct of 34-week-old, specific-pathogen-free hens were analyzed using a 16S rRNA metagenomic approach using the Ion torrent sequencer and the Qiime2 bioinformatics platform. Beta diversity via unweighted and weighted unifrac analyses revealed that the cloacal microbiota was significantly different from those in the colon and the magnum. Unweighted unifrac revealed that the cloacal microbiota was distal from the microbiota in the colon than from the microbiota in the magnum, whereas weighted unifrac revealed that the cloacal microbiota was located further away from the microbiota in the magnum than from the microbiota inhabiting the colon. Pseudomonas spp. were the most abundant in the cloaca, whereas Lactobacillus spp. and Flavobacterium spp. were the most abundant species in the colon and the magnum. The present results indicate that the cloaca contains a mixed population of bacteria, derived from the reproductive, urinary, and digestive systems, particularly in egg-laying hens. Therefore, sampling cloaca to study bacterial populations that inhabit the digestive system of chickens requires caution especially when applied to egg-laying hens. To further understand the physiological role of the microbiota in chicken cloaca, exploratory studies of the chicken's cloacal microbiota should be performed using chickens of different ages and types.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Cloaca/microbiologia , Colo/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Oviductos/microbiologia , Animais , Feminino , Flavobacterium/genética , Flavobacterium/patogenicidade , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/patogenicidade , Metagenoma , Pseudomonas/genética , Pseudomonas/patogenicidade
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32609751

RESUMO

To explore the molecular mechanism of the effect of Bacillus cereus PAS38 on the immunity of broilers, sixty 7-day-old broilers were divided into two groups with three replicates. The control group was fed with basal diet, and the treatment group was fed with basal diet containing Bacillus cereus PAS38 1×106 CFU/g. Thymus and bursa of fabricius were taken from two groups of broilers at the age of 42 days, total RNA was extracted, differential gene library was constructed by SSH technology, and immune-related differential genes were screened. Then, we used siRNA to interfere with the expression of some differential genes in the original generation lymphocytes of broiler blood to detect the change of cytokines mRNA expression level. A total of 42 immune-related differentially expressed genes were screened, including 22 up-regulated genes and 20 down-regulated genes. When 7 differentially up-regulated genes associated with enhanced immune function were interfered with in lymphocytes, some immune-promoting cytokines were down-regulated. These results showed that Bacillus cereus PAS38 might up-regulate the expression of JCHAIN, PRDX1, CD3E, CDK6 and other genes in immune organs of broilers, thereby affecting the development of immune organs, the expression of various cytokines and the transduction of immune signals, improving the immune capacity of broilers.


Assuntos
Bacillus cereus/imunologia , Bolsa de Fabricius , Galinhas , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Timo , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/efeitos dos fármacos , Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/imunologia , Técnicas de Hibridização Subtrativa/métodos , Timo/efeitos dos fármacos , Timo/imunologia
5.
Toxicon ; 185: 203-212, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687887

RESUMO

The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) contaminates animal feed worldwide, frequently resulting in poor performance and economic losses. Data concerning the effects on poultry health or focusing on intestinal toxicity or the response to oxidative stress are scarce. Also, there is a need for strategies to mitigate the negative effects of DON. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus spp. treatments on the intestine, liver and kidney of poultry fed a DON-contaminated diet. To achieve this aim, histological, morphometrical and histochemical assays were performed. The oxidative stress response was also analyzed by the tests: reduced glutathione, ferric reducing ability, reducing of 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid), nitro blue tetrazolium detection of superoxide anion, and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. One-day-old broilers chickens (n 50) were submitted to the following treatments: control, DON (19.3 mg kg-1), viable Lactobacillus spp. + DON (VL + DON), heat-inactivated Lactobacillus spp. + DON (HIL + DON), Lactobacillus spp. culture supernatant + DON (LCS + DON). The animals received the contaminated diet for seven days. DON increased the intestinal and liver lesion score, while the Lactobacillus spp. treatments (LT) remained like the control. DON reduced the villi height and increased the crypt depths. The LT showed crypt depths similar to control, and higher villi: crypt ratio in duodenum and jejunum. In the ileum, the LT reduced the goblet cell count in relation to DON group. DON increased the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in jejunum and ileum, while the VL + DON treatment induced a significant decrease in IEL in comparison to DON. DON-diet induced an oxidative stress response in the intestine and liver, and also reduced the antioxidant capacity in these tissues, while LT treatments remained mostly similar to control. DON induced no change in redox balance in the kidney. The LT improved the intestinal health after DON acute exposure, reducing the oxidative stress damage mainly on jejunum and liver.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Micotoxinas/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , Tricotecenos/toxicidade , Ração Animal , Animais , Contaminação de Alimentos , Intestinos , Lactobacillus
6.
Food Chem ; 332: 127398, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32610260

RESUMO

Herein, a label-free and dual-readout immunochromatographic test strip (ITS) for the sensitive detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) O157:H7 by taking advantages of the strong capture ability of Fe3O4@CuS nanostructures (NSs) towards bacteria and their ultrahigh photothermal effects (PTEs) was reported. Especially, without the customarily antibody (Ab)-labeled probe, Fe3O4@CuS NSs could be adsorbed onto the surfaces of bacteria to form Fe3O4@CuS-bacteria conjugates and then trapped by immobilized Abs on the test line (T-line), forming a characteristic yellow band. After direct immunoreactions, the PTEs of Fe3O4@CuS NSs endowed T-line to be irradiated by an 808 nm infrared light, obtaining satisfactory sensitivity and accuracy. Under optimal conditions, E. coli O157:H7, as low as 103 and 102 CFU/mL, could be monitored in colorimetric and photothermal modes. Additionally, E. coli O157:H7 was successfully detected in beef, chicken, milk and honey samples by this proposed platform with a recovery of 80-120%.


Assuntos
Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Cobre/química , Escherichia coli O157/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Férricos/química , Microbiologia de Alimentos/métodos , Animais , Anticorpos Monoclonais/imunologia , Bovinos , Galinhas/microbiologia , Cromatografia de Afinidade/instrumentação , Escherichia coli O157/imunologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos/instrumentação , Mel/microbiologia , Limite de Detecção , Leite/microbiologia , Fitas Reagentes/química , Carne Vermelha/microbiologia
7.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 334, 2020 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723290

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Shotgun metagenomics based on untargeted sequencing can explore the taxonomic profile and the function of unknown microorganisms in samples, and complement the shortage of amplicon sequencing. Binning assembled sequences into individual groups, which represent microbial genomes, is the key step and a major challenge in metagenomic research. Both supervised and unsupervised machine learning methods have been employed in binning. Genome binning belonging to unsupervised method clusters contigs into individual genome bins by machine learning methods without the assistance of any reference databases. So far a lot of genome binning tools have emerged. Evaluating these genome tools is of great significance to microbiological research. In this study, we evaluate 15 genome binning tools containing 12 original binning tools and 3 refining binning tools by comparing the performance of these tools on chicken gut metagenomic datasets and the first CAMI challenge datasets. RESULTS: For chicken gut metagenomic datasets, original genome binner MetaBat, Groopm2 and Autometa performed better than other original binner, and MetaWrap combined the binning results of them generated the most high-quality genome bins. For CAMI datasets, Groopm2 achieved the highest purity (> 0.9) with good completeness (> 0.8), and reconstructed the most high-quality genome bins among original genome binners. Compared with Groopm2, MetaBat2 had similar performance with higher completeness and lower purity. Genome refining binners DASTool predicated the most high-quality genome bins among all genomes binners. Most genome binner performed well for unique strains. Nonetheless, reconstructing common strains still is a substantial challenge for all genome binner. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we tested a set of currently available, state-of-the-art metagenomics hybrid binning tools and provided a guide for selecting tools for metagenomic binning by comparing range of purity, completeness, adjusted rand index, and the number of high-quality reconstructed bins. Furthermore, available information for future binning strategy were concluded.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Genéticas , Metagenoma/genética , Metagenômica/métodos , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Genoma Microbiano , Aprendizado de Máquina , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina não Supervisionado
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0229699, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32525954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Antibiotic use for livestock is presumed to be a contributor to the acquisition of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes in humans, yet studies do not capture AMR data before and after livestock introduction. METHODS: We performed a feasibility study by recruiting a subset of women in a delayed-start randomized controlled trial of small-scale chicken farming to examine the prevalence of clinically-relevant AMR genes. Stool samples were obtained at baseline and one year post-randomization from five intervention women who received chickens at the start of the study, six control women who did not receive chickens until the end of the study, and from chickens provided to the control group at the end of the study. Stool was screened for 87 clinically significant AMR genes using a commercially available qPCR array (Qiagen). RESULTS: Chickens harbored 23 AMR genes from classes found in humans as well as additional vancomycin and ß-lactamase resistance genes. AMR patterns between intervention and control women appeared more similar at baseline than one year post randomization (PERMANOVA R2 = 0.081, p = 0.61 at baseline, R2 = 0.186, p = 0.09 at 12 months) Women in the control group who had direct contact with the chickens sampled in the study had greater similarities in AMR gene patterns to chickens than those in the intervention group who did not have direct contact with chickens sampled (p = 0.01). However, at one year there was a trend towards increased similarity in AMR patterns between humans in both groups and the chickens sampled (p = 0.06). CONCLUSIONS: Studies designed to evaluate human AMR genes in the setting of animal exposure should account for high baseline AMR rates. Concomitant collection of animal, human, and environmental samples over time is recommended to determine the directionality and source of AMR genes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT02619227.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Fazendas , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Uganda
9.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0232831, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497096

RESUMO

The burden of enteric pathogens in poultry is growing after the ban of antibiotic use in animal production. Organic acids gained attention as a possible alternative to antibiotics due to their antimicrobial activities, improved nutrient metabolism and performance. The current study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of organic acid blend on broilers cecal microbiota, histomorphometric measurements, and short-chain fatty acid production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium challenge model. Birds were divided into four treatments, including a negative control, positive control challenged with S. Typhimurium, group supplemented with an organic acid blend, and birds supplemented with organic acid blend and Salmonella challenged. Results illustrate significant differences in feed conversion ratios and production efficiency factor between treatment groups, however, the influence of organic acid supplement was marginal. Organic acid blend significantly increased cecal acetic and butyric acids concentrations when compared to unsupplemented groups and resulted in minor alterations of intestinal bacterial communities.


Assuntos
Acetatos/metabolismo , Ração Animal , Butiratos/metabolismo , Galinhas/microbiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/farmacologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia , Salmonelose Animal/terapia , Salmonella typhimurium/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/metabolismo , Ácidos Graxos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/farmacologia , Íleo/metabolismo , Íleo/ultraestrutura , Mananas/administração & dosagem , Microvilosidades/ultraestrutura , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Distribuição Aleatória , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonella typhimurium/isolamento & purificação , Salmonella typhimurium/metabolismo
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234920, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559224

RESUMO

Sanguinarine is a bioactive compound as a quaternary benzophenanthridine alkaloid from plant of the Macleaya cordata, Papaveraceae family. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sanguinarine supplementation on growth performance, serum biochemistry parameters, intestinal mucosal morphology and gut microbiome in yellow feathered broilers. Two hundred and seventy 1-d-old female broilers were randomly assigned to 3 treatments ① Basal diet (NG); ② Basal diet containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (50mg/Kg diet) (ANT); ③ Basal diet containing sanguinarine (0.7 mg/ kg of feed) (SAG). The statistical results showed that dietary sanguinarine supplementation enhanced growth performance and decreased glucose, uric acid as well as urea nitrogen levels of broilers at 28d of age (P<0.05). The 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that sanguinarine significantly decreased the species from the phyla Bacteroidetes, and increased the species from phyla Firmicutes. Moreover, dietary sanguinarine supplementation improved mucosal morphology to achieve higher ratio of intestinal villus height to crypt depth (P < 0.05), and decreased the concentrations of TNF-α and IL-4 in jejunum mucosal. This study demonstrated that sanguinarine supplementation in the diet of yellow feathered broilers improved intestinal morphology and microbiota community structure to promote growth performance on 1-28d.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Benzofenantridinas/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Isoquinolinas/farmacologia , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Proteínas Aviárias/genética , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Bacteroidetes/efeitos dos fármacos , Bacteroidetes/patogenicidade , Benzofenantridinas/administração & dosagem , Glicemia/metabolismo , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Firmicutes/efeitos dos fármacos , Firmicutes/patogenicidade , Interleucina-4/genética , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Isoquinolinas/administração & dosagem , Jejuno/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Jejuno/metabolismo , Jejuno/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/sangue
11.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008866, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32530914

RESUMO

Escherichia coli is mostly a commensal of birds and mammals, including humans, where it can act as an opportunistic pathogen. It is also found in water and sediments. We investigated the phylogeny, genetic diversification, and habitat-association of 1,294 isolates representative of the phylogenetic diversity of more than 5,000 isolates from the Australian continent. Since many previous studies focused on clinical isolates, we investigated mostly other isolates originating from humans, poultry, wild animals and water. These strains represent the species genetic diversity and reveal widespread associations between phylogroups and isolation sources. The analysis of strains from the same sequence types revealed very rapid change of gene repertoires in the very early stages of divergence, driven by the acquisition of many different types of mobile genetic elements. These elements also lead to rapid variations in genome size, even if few of their genes rise to high frequency in the species. Variations in genome size are associated with phylogroup and isolation sources, but the latter determine the number of MGEs, a marker of recent transfer, suggesting that gene flow reinforces the association of certain genetic backgrounds with specific habitats. After a while, the divergence of gene repertoires becomes linear with phylogenetic distance, presumably reflecting the continuous turnover of mobile element and the occasional acquisition of adaptive genes. Surprisingly, the phylogroups with smallest genomes have the highest rates of gene repertoire diversification and fewer but more diverse mobile genetic elements. This suggests that smaller genomes are associated with higher, not lower, turnover of genetic information. Many of these genomes are from freshwater isolates and have peculiar traits, including a specific capsule, suggesting adaptation to this environment. Altogether, these data contribute to explain why epidemiological clones tend to emerge from specific phylogenetic groups in the presence of pervasive horizontal gene transfer across the species.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Evolução Molecular , Transferência Genética Horizontal , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano/genética , Animais , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Austrália , Galinhas/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Fezes/microbiologia , Água Doce/microbiologia , Tamanho do Genoma , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/microbiologia , Sequências Repetitivas Dispersas/genética , Mucosa Intestinal/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Filogenia , Microbiologia do Solo , Fatores de Virulência/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
12.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108669, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497922

RESUMO

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections and staphylococcal food poisoning (SFP). This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence and enterotoxigenicity of MRSA in broiler chicken meat and giblets. A total of 5.5% (8/144) of the examined samples were contaminated with mecA positive/mecC negative MRSA, with staphylococcal counts of approximately 102 colony forming units (CFU)/g in breast, leg and gizzard samples and approximately 3.3 × 103 CFU/g in frozen liver samples. Most MRSA isolates (75%, 6/8) harboured the staphylococcal enterotoxin B (seb) gene. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) showed that MRSA isolates initiated SEB production in experimentally contaminated chicken livers within 24 h of storage at temperatures over 8 °C. SEB was maximally produced at 24 °C when the MRSA counts reached 7.3 × 103 ± 1.2 × 103 CFU/g sample homogenate. The current study concludes that the main broiler chicken MRSA isolates in Egypt harbour the seb gene. To mitigate possible SEB production, especially in broiler chicken livers, a maximum "out of refrigeration" time limit should be implemented for cold chain poultry products.


Assuntos
Enterotoxinas/genética , Armazenamento de Alimentos/métodos , Fígado/microbiologia , Carne/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/genética , Produtos Avícolas/microbiologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/isolamento & purificação , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/metabolismo , Refrigeração , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
13.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 330: 108559, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599476

RESUMO

Salmonella Heidelberg resistant to ceftiofur (a third-generation cephalosporin antimicrobial agent) in broiler chicken products pose a risk to public health in Canada. The objective of this study was to assess the extent of that risk and to evaluate the effect of intervention measures along the agri-food chain. A stochastic farm-to-fork quantitative microbial risk assessment model was developed following the Codex Alimentarius Guidelines for Risk Analysis of Foodborne Antimicrobial Resistance. Different scenarios were analyzed to assess the individual relative effects of 18 possible interventions in comparison to a baseline scenario. The baseline scenario represented the first year of on-farm antimicrobial use surveillance in the Canadian broiler industry and the year before an industry-imposed ban on the preventive use of antimicrobials of very high importance to human health (2013), where 31.3% of broiler flocks consisted of birds to which ceftiofur was administered. The baseline scenario predicted an average probability of illness of 1.1 per 100,000 servings (SE: 0.064 per 100,000), corresponding to an average of 22,000 human infections (SE: 1900) with ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg per year, which is likely an overestimation. This risk was reduced by 90% or 20% when two separate scenarios designed to capture the effect of withdrawing preventive ceftiofur use from poultry production were simulated using different approaches; data used for the former scenario were confounded by other potential concomitant control measures (e.g. Salmonella vaccination programme), so the true effect likely lies somewhere between the two estimates. A theoretical 'worst case' scenario where all flocks had birds exposed to ceftiofur increased the risk by 107%. A 50% reduction in the probability of human prior exposure to antimicrobials, which has a selective and competitive effect for Salmonella spp. following ingestion of contaminated products, reduced the risk by 65%. Other promising measures that could be considered for further risk management included improved cleaning and disinfection between broiler flocks on farm (risk reduction by 26%), exclusive use of air chilling (risk reduction by 34%), and the improvement of meat storage and preparation conditions, e.g., no temperature abuse at retail (risk reduction by 88%). These findings showed the importance of a structured approach to assessing and potentially implementing effective interventions to reduce the risk associated with ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg at different steps along the agri-food chain. Major data gaps included information on concentrations of resistant bacteria, cross contamination at processing and how ceftiofur-resistant S. Heidelberg behave in comparison with susceptible ones, e.g., in terms of growth and survival ability, as well as pathogenicity and virulence.


Assuntos
Resistência às Cefalosporinas , Galinhas/microbiologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Canadá/epidemiologia , Cefalosporinas/administração & dosagem , Cefalosporinas/farmacologia , Humanos , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Medição de Risco , Salmonella/efeitos dos fármacos , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle
14.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13399, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32512648

RESUMO

Probiotics have been defined as live microorganisms that are administered in an appropriate amount to provide health benefits to the host animal. In this study, we investigated the effect of L. salivarius DJ-sa-01 secreting the 3D8 single-chain variable fragment (3D8 scFv) on the growth performance, cytokine secretion, and intestinal microbial flora of chickens. The experiment was divided into the control group and L. salivarius expressing 3D8 scFv experimental group. Chicken was fed 109 colony-forming units (CFUs) of wild-type (WT) L. salivarius or 3D8 scFv-secreting L. salivarius daily for 35 days. The administration of L. salivarius expressing 3D8 scFv significantly improved the body weight of chickens compared with the administration of WT L. salivarius. A 16S ribosomal RNA metagenomic analysis showed that Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla in both experimental groups. At the genus level, Lactobacillus was more abundant (22.82%) in the L. salivarius/3D8 group compared with the WT L. salivarius group. The serum levels of cytokines, such as IL-8, TNF-α, IL-1ß, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IGF1, were significantly reduced in the L. salivarius/3D8-treated chickens. In summary, our results suggest that L. salivarius expressing 3D8 scFv could be considered a feed additive for improving the growth performance, immune function, and disease resistance of poultry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Homeostase , Lactobacillus salivarius , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/administração & dosagem , Animais , Citocinas/sangue , Feminino
15.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13409, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32524726

RESUMO

This study was aimed to explore the comparative acidifying properties of 2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio) butanoic acid (HMTBA) and a combination of DL-methionine (DLM) and acidifier in male broiler production. A total of 480 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly divided into four treatments: A (low HMTBA, 0.057% HMTBA); B (low acidifier, 0.05% DLM + 0.057% acidifier); C (high HMTBA, 0.284% HMTBA); and D (high acidifier, 0.25% DLM + 0.284% acidifier). At 21 d, growth performance, chyme pH, digestive enzyme activities, and intestinal microflora were measured. The pH of crop, gizzard, and ileum contents was higher in the HMTBA treatment group than in DLM + acidifier treatment group. Furthermore, acidifier supplementation promoted growth of butyrate-producing bacteria such as Faecalibacterium, whereas high HMTBA (0.284%) inhibited the proliferation of acid-producing bacteria including Roseburia and Collinsella. The chymotrypsin activity was lower in the HMTBA group than in the DLM + acidifier group. In contrast, high-level HMTBA group showed higher average daily gain and average daily feed intake than the DLM + acidifier group. These results suggested that HMTBA work through different pathways with DLM plus acidifier.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Metionina/análogos & derivados , Metionina/farmacologia , Animais , Quimotripsina/metabolismo , Papo das Aves , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Conteúdo Gastrointestinal , Moela das Aves , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Íleo , Masculino , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108750, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559710

RESUMO

For the first time, this study evaluates consumer exposure via poultry meat to Enterobacteriaceae with capacity to develop severe extraintestinal infections by either bacterial virulence and/or antibiotic resistance traits. The characterization of 256 isolates and the assessment of five parameters, showed that 96 of 100 poultry meat samples from supermarkets of northwest Spain posed ≥ one potential risk: i) 96% carried Enterobacteriaceae resistant to antimicrobials of categories A (64% to monobactams) or B (95% to cephalosporins 3rd and 4rd- generation, quinolones and/or polymixins) of the new categorization of EMA. ii) More than one extended-spectrum-ß-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae species were recovered from 28% of poultry meat. iii) High-risk lineages of E. coli, including multidrug-resistant ST131-H22, were present in 62% of samples. iv) E. coli recovered from 25% of samples conformed the ExPEC status. v) E. coli from 17% of samples satisfied the UPEC status. Of note, the recovery from different samples of two E. coli CC10-A (CH11-54) carrying mcr-1.1-bearing IncX4 plasmids, and four E. coli CC10-A (eae-beta1) of the hybrid pathotype aEPEC/ExPEC. (ESBL)-producing K. pneumoniae were isolated from 27% of samples. In summary, poultry meat microbiota is a source of genetically diverse Enterobacteriaceae, resistant to relevant antimicrobials and potentially pathogenic for consumers.


Assuntos
Exposição Dietética/estatística & dados numéricos , Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/genética , Microbiologia de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Carne/microbiologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Escherichia coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/isolamento & purificação , Escherichia coli Extraintestinal Patogênica/genética , Escherichia coli Extraintestinal Patogênica/isolamento & purificação , Klebsiella pneumoniae/efeitos dos fármacos , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genética , Plasmídeos/genética , Espanha/epidemiologia , Perus , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/genética , Escherichia coli Uropatogênica/isolamento & purificação
17.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0225871, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32369478

RESUMO

The potential of probiotics to manipulate the intestinal microbial ecosystem toward commensal bacteria growth offers great opportunity for enhancing health and performance in poultry. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of five probiotic-based formulations in modulating cecal microbiota in broilers at 21 and 42 days of age. Probiotics investigated included a synbiotic (SYNBIO), a yeast (YEAST), and three single-strain formulations of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (SINGLE1), B. subtilis (SINGLE2) and B. licheniformis (SINGLE3). Alpha-diversity analyses showed that cecal microbiota of SINGLE1, SINGLE2, and YEAST had low diversity compared to the control diet with no feed additive (CON) at 21d. At the same age, weighted Unifrac distance measure showed significant differences between samples from SYNBIO and CON (P = 0.02). However, by analyzing principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) with unweighted Unifrac, there was no evidence of clustering between CON and probiotic treatments. By 42d, there were no differences in alpha or beta-diversity in the microbiota of probiotic treatments compared to CON. Similarly, taxonomic microbial profiling did not show major changes in cecal microbial taxa. In conclusion, not all probiotic-based formulations tested had a core benefit on the modulation of microbiota. However, based on the quantitative beta diversity results, SYNBIO greatly influenced the cecal microbial community structure attributable to transient variations in relative taxon abundance.


Assuntos
Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/microbiologia , Alimentos Formulados , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Probióticos , Animais
18.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 328: 108660, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32450393

RESUMO

Salmonella (S.) Infantis is currently the most common serovar in broilers and boiler meat in the European Union. In the field, eradication of S. Infantis in affected poultry flocks is considered extremely difficult. Despite stringent cleaning and disinfection measures between the placement of flocks, recurrent infections are often reported. So far, the efficacy of disinfectants on S. Infantis has rarely been studied. Therefore, in the present in-vitro study the bacteriostatic and bactericidal efficacy of ten commercial disinfectants were tested against seven S. Infantis field isolates. Combinations of aldehyde and quarternary ammonium were the active compounds of five, peroxygen of three, cresol and alkylamines of one disinfectant, respectively. Investigations were performed according to standard protocols and regulations. Different concentrations of disinfectants were used to test the bacteriostatic efficacy. Different temperatures and low and high protein exposures were applied as variables to investigate the bactericidal efficacy. Following neutralization of the disinfectants an additional incubation step was introduced to investigate the revitalisation potential of S. Infantis. The bacteriostatic efficacy could be assessed for seven disinfectants. For three disinfectants a bacteriostatic effect was observed when the recommended concentration was used, whereas with four disinfectants only increased concentrations led to this effect. The bactericidal efficacy was not influenced by temperature, whereas high protein exposure decreased the efficacy of nine disinfectants. Furthermore, reactivation of S. Infantis was revealed after application of disinfectants for the majority of products. Interestingly, the strain of S. Infantis influenced the efficacy of the disinfectants. Overall, products based on aldehydes and quarternary ammonium compounds proved most efficient, followed by peroxgen, cresol and alkylamines.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Salmonelose Animal/prevenção & controle , Salmonella enterica/efeitos dos fármacos , Aldeídos/farmacologia , Compostos de Amônio/farmacologia , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Cresóis/farmacologia , Microbiologia de Alimentos , Carne/microbiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Salmonella enterica/classificação , Salmonella enterica/isolamento & purificação
19.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 327: 108656, 2020 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32445835

RESUMO

Campylobacter is the world's leading cause of bacterial gastroenteritis, causing nearly 9 million cases of food poisoning in Europe every year. Poultry is considered the main source of Campylobacter infection to humans. The objectives of the study were to determine occurrence of C. jejuni and C. coli in chickens, the antimicrobial resistance, genotypes, and relatedness of the isolates. A total of 177 chicken samples obtained from informal butcher shops (fresh), formal poultry slaughterhouses (refrigerated) and retail market (frozen) were analyzed. Isolation of Campylobacter spp. was conducted according to the ISO 10272-2006 method. Multiplex PCR was used for confirmation and identification of the isolates. The disk diffusion method was used to determine the antimicrobial resistance of the isolates and multilocus sequence typing was used for genotyping. The proportion of samples with Campylobacter spp. was 31.6% among all chicken samples (fresh and refrigerated 47.5%, frozen 0%) C. coli was isolated from 42.4% of chicken samples obtained from butcher shops and from 18.6% of samples obtained in formal slaughterhouses. C. jejuni was isolated from 17.0% of samples obtained in butcher shops and formal slaughterhouses. Campylobacter spp. was not isolated in frozen chicken samples. All tested isolates showed resistance toward ciprofloxacin and susceptibility toward imipenem and all of the isolates were multidrug resistant toward 5 or more antimicrobials. Three sequence types were identified among 10 C. coli isolates and seven sequence types were identified among 10 C. jejuni isolates. Among sequence types, chicken isolates shared similarities of both phenotypic and genetic levels.


Assuntos
Infecções por Campylobacter/veterinária , Campylobacter coli , Campylobacter jejuni , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Matadouros , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/epidemiologia , Infecções por Campylobacter/microbiologia , Campylobacter coli/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter coli/genética , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter jejuni/efeitos dos fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/genética , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/microbiologia , Resistência Microbiana a Medicamentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/microbiologia , Genótipo , Humanos , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Prevalência
20.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0227725, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469888

RESUMO

The surge in the prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria in poultry is a global concern as it may pose an extended threat to humans and animal health. The present study aimed to investigate the colonization proportion of extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) and carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (EPE and CPE, respectively) in the gut of healthy poultry, Gallus gallus domesticus in Kaski district of Western Nepal. Total, 113 pooled rectal swab specimens from 66 private household farms and 47 commercial poultry farms were collected by systematic random sampling from the Kaski district in western Nepal. Out of 113 pooled samples, 19 (28.8%) samples from 66 backyard farms, and 15 (31.9%) from 47 commercial broiler farms were positive for EPE. Of the 38 EPE strains isolated from 34 ESBL positive rectal swabs, 31(81.6%) were identified as Escherichia coli, five as Klebsiella pneumoniae (13.2%), and one each isolate of Enterobacter species and Citrobacter species (2.6%). Based on genotyping, 35/38 examined EPE strains (92.1%) were phylogroup-1 positive, and all these 35 strains (100%) had the CTX-M-15 gene and strains from phylogroup-2, and 9 were of CTX-M-2 and CTX-M-14, respectively. Among 38 ESBL positive isolates, 9 (23.7%) were Ambler class C (Amp C) co-producers, predominant were of DHA, followed by CIT genes. Two (6.5%) E. coli strains of ST131 belonged to clade C, rest 29/31 (93.5%) were non-ST131 E. coli. None of the isolates produced carbapenemase. Twenty isolates (52.6%) were in-vitro biofilm producers. Univariate analysis showed that the odd of ESBL carriage among commercial broilers were 1.160 times (95% CI 0.515, 2.613) higher than organically fed backyard flocks. This is the first study in Nepal, demonstrating the EPE colonization proportion, genotypes, and prevalence of high-risk clone E. coli ST131 among gut flora of healthy poultry. Our data indicated that CTX-M-15 was the most prevalent ESBL enzyme, mainly associated with E. coli belonging to non-ST131clones and the absence of carbapenemases.


Assuntos
Galinhas/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/tratamento farmacológico , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , beta-Lactamases/genética , Animais , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/enzimologia , Enterobacteriaceae/patogenicidade , Escherichia coli/enzimologia , Escherichia coli/patogenicidade , Infecções por Escherichia coli/genética , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , beta-Lactamases/isolamento & purificação
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