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1.
Pan Afr Med J ; 39: 231, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34659604

RESUMO

Introduction: tungiasis is an ectoparasitosis caused by penetration of female sand flea, Tunga penetrans, into the skin of the susceptible animal and the consequent hypertrophy of the parasite. The objective of this study was to assess the association between domestic animals and jigger infection among the residents of Kandara sub-county in central Kenya. Methods: this was a case-control study that involved 776 individuals. Half of this number entailed case group who were jigger infected while the other half was the control, composed of jigger free participants. Structured questionnaires were, administered among the heads of the households to which the participants belonged to gather information concerning the animals they kept. Univariate analysis was, applied. Results: in this study, there were significant differences in age (P=0.008) between the two groups. Disparities in source of income (P<0.001) and level of education (P<0.001) came out as very significant factors in jigger infection. The case group was 10 times more likely to keep dogs than the control(9.6; 95% CI, 5.9-15.6). Case group was also 7 times more likely to rear chicken in comparison to the control (6.6; 95%, 4.2-10.4). The case group was 12 times more likely to let dogs loose in the compound in comparison to the control (12.1: 95%, 5.9-24.5). When compared to the control, this group was also 17 times more likely to keep chicken inside their houses (16.7: 95% CI, 6.8-35.9). Conclusion: there is a very high association between domestic animals and occurrence of tungiasis in Kandara sub-county.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/parasitologia , Tunga/parasitologia , Tungíase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Galinhas/parasitologia , Cães/parasitologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Tungíase/parasitologia
2.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258157, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597342

RESUMO

Eimeria parasites cause enteric disease in livestock and the closely related Cyclospora cayetanensis causes human disease. Oocysts of these coccidian parasites undergo maturation (sporulation) before becoming infectious. Here, we assessed transcription in maturing oocysts of Eimeria acervulina, a widespread chicken parasite, predicted gene functions, and determined which of these genes also occur in C. cayetanensis. RNA-Sequencing yielded ~2 billion paired-end reads, 92% of which mapped to the E. acervulina genome. The ~6,900 annotated genes underwent temporally-coordinated patterns of gene expression. Fifty-three genes each contributed >1,000 transcripts per million (TPM) throughout the study interval, including cation-transporting ATPases, an oocyst wall protein, a palmitoyltransferase, membrane proteins, and hypothetical proteins. These genes were enriched for 285 gene ontology (GO) terms and 13 genes were ascribed to 17 KEGG pathways, defining housekeeping processes and functions important throughout sporulation. Expression differed in mature and immature oocysts for 40% (2,928) of all genes; of these, nearly two-thirds (1,843) increased their expression over time. Eight genes expressed most in immature oocysts, encoding proteins promoting oocyst maturation and development, were assigned to 37 GO terms and 5 KEGG pathways. Fifty-six genes underwent significant upregulation in mature oocysts, each contributing at least 1,000 TPM. Of these, 40 were annotated by 215 GO assignments and 9 were associated with 18 KEGG pathways, encoding products involved in respiration, carbon fixation, energy utilization, invasion, motility, and stress and detoxification responses. Sporulation orchestrates coordinated changes in the expression of many genes, most especially those governing metabolic activity. Establishing the long-term fate of these transcripts in sporulated oocysts and in senescent and deceased oocysts will further elucidate the biology of coccidian development, and may provide tools to assay infectiousness of parasite cohorts. Moreover, because many of these genes have homologues in C. cayetanensis, they may prove useful as biomarkers for risk.


Assuntos
Coccídios/genética , Coccidiose/genética , Eimeria/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Animais , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccídios/patogenicidade , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Cyclospora/genética , Cyclospora/parasitologia , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Humanos , Gado/parasitologia , Modelos Biológicos
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16686, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404893

RESUMO

Leucocytozoon sabrazesi is the intracellular protozoa of leucocytozoonosis, which is transmitted by the insect vectors and affects chickens in most subtropical and tropical regions of the globe, except South America, and causing enormous economic losses due to decreasing meat yield and egg production. In this study, L. sabrazesi gametocytes have been observed in the blood smears, and molecular methods have been used to analyse the occurrence and genetic diversity of L. sabrazesi in blood samples from 313 chickens raised in northern, western and southern parts of Thailand. The nested polymerase chain reaction (nested PCR) assay based on the cytb gene revealed that 80.51% (252/313) chickens were positive of L. sabrazesi. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that L. sabrazesi cytb gene is conserved in Thailand, showed 2 clades and 2 subclades with similarity ranged from 89.5 to 100%. The diversity analysis showed 13 and 18 haplotypes of the sequences from Thailand and from other countries, respectively. The entropy analyses of nucleic acid sequences showed 26 high entropy peaks with values ranging from 0.24493 to 1.21056, while those of amino acid sequences exhibited 5 high entropy peaks with values ranging from 0.39267 to 0.97012. The results; therefore, indicate a high molecular occurrence of L. sabrazesi in chicken blood samples with the associated factors that is statistically significant (p < 0.05). Hence, our results could be used to improve the immunodiagnostic methods and to find appropriate preventive control strategies or vaccination programs against leucocytozoonosis in order to mitigate or eliminate the harmful impact of this infection on chicken industry.


Assuntos
Apicomplexa/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
4.
Avian Dis ; 65(2): 250-256, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412455

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to evaluate and quantify the parasitological challenge in pastured poultry production in the state of Georgia. Over the course of 1 yr, fecal samples from six turkey flocks, 10 broiler flocks, and 13 layer flocks were collected on a pastured farm in 2-wk intervals to determine counts of Eimeria oocysts and nematode eggs. Average coccidia counts were 10,198 oocysts per gram of feces (OPG) in broiler flocks, 1470 OPG in layer flocks, and 695 OPG in turkey flocks. The means in broiler and turkey flocks were higher at their first week on pasture. Counts in broilers and layers were significantly higher in spring than in winter and summer. Coccidia counts in broilers were lower than published numbers in conventionally reared poultry, indicating the rotation system of the pastures might effectively reduce the infection pressure. Next-generation sequencing of PCR products showed the presence of most described Eimeria spp. in broilers, layers, and turkeys. In addition, operational taxonomic units (OTUs) x, y, and z were found. The frequency of species was similar for broilers and layers, with the exception that Eimeria praecox and OTU z were more common in layers. In layer flocks, the average count of roundworm eggs per gram of feces (EPG) was 509 EPG with 80% of the samples being positive. The mean counts had no clear pattern related to age. There was an increase of EPG with the increase of temperatures during spring and summer with the peak at midfall. Worm eggs from laying hens were identified as Ascaridia galli. The seasonal differences suggest that higher temperatures might result in an increase of egg survival and sporulation in the environment.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Perus/parasitologia , Análise de Variância , Criação de Animais Domésticos/classificação , Animais , Ascaridia/classificação , Ascaridia/genética , Ascaridia/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/classificação , Galinhas/genética , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria/isolamento & purificação , Georgia , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Perus/classificação , Perus/genética
5.
Vet Parasitol ; 296: 109515, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242913

RESUMO

The present study aimed to compare different indirect and direct diagnostic techniques to diagnose Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens. Samples of 386 chickens obtained from 24 Paraná properties were used for serological analysis by indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT), modified agglutination test (MAT), and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Animals positive by IFAT and/or MAT had their tissues submitted to the mouse bioassay, and those who were positive in this technique had their blood, tissues, and acidic pepsin tissue digestion submitted to PCR (conventional, nested, and quantitative-PCR (qPCR)). One hundred and nineteen chickens (30.8 %) were positive in at least one of the serological tests, being 102 (26.4 %) in the IFAT, 64 (16.6 %) in the MAT, and 62 (16.0 %) in the ELISA. The IFAT was used as a gold standard, and the MAT showed higher sensitivity (46.0 %) and specificity (94.0) compared to ELISA (43.5 % and 93.6 %, respectively). Ninety samples of eighteen chickens positive in the mouse bioassay were subjected to PCR, and according to molecular tests, the conventional PCR detected the T. gondii DNA in 30 % (27/90) of the samples, in 38.8 % (35/90) with nested-PCR and 40.0 % (36/90) with real-time. According to molecular analyzes, the sensitivity was higher in ITS1 nested-PCR (69.4 %) and specificity in conventional PCR-529bp (90.7 %), using the qPCR as the gold standard. MAT and ELISA had similarities in concordance analyzes. The IFAT was the serological technique with the highest agreement with the mouse bioassay, and serological tests in parallel showed to be a good screening option for the isolation of T. gondii in chick tissues. The PCR markers effectively detected the parasite DNA, and the heart was the tissue with the highest number of positives samples. The conventional PCR had sensitivity similar to nested-PCR and qPCR and could be a cheaper alternative to diagnose T. gondii infection in chicken tissues.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antiprotozoários , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Testes de Aglutinação/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antiprotozoários/sangue , Bioensaio/veterinária , Galinhas/parasitologia , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Camundongos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Testes Sorológicos/veterinária , Toxoplasma/genética , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/diagnóstico
6.
Parasitol Res ; 120(7): 2689-2693, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34146126

RESUMO

Poultry coccidiosis causes considerable economical losses to the livestock industry. Eimeria parasites are responsible for this disease. On a global scale, E. acervulina and E. tenella are amongst the most common Eimeria spp. infecting broilers. E. tenella is commonly used as infection model in in vivo and in vitro studies. On the other hand, E. acervulina has barely been studied under in vitro conditions. A well established and widely used in vitro model for E. tenella infection is the Madin-Darby bovine kidney cell line (MDBK); however, little is known regarding suitability of MDBK cells as host cells for E. acervulina. We infected MDBK monolayers with two different doses, 5 × 104 and 2 × 105, of E. acervulina sporozoites and evaluated cultures at 24 and 96 h post infection (hpi). For comparison, we ran an identical infection assay using E. tenella sporozoites. To assess parasite reproduction, the number of DNA copies of E. acervulina SCAR marker and E. tenella ITS-1 gene was quantified using real-time quantitative PCR. We found that the number of E. acervulina copies increased significantly at 24 hpi in comparison to E. tenella (p < 0.05). After 96 hpi, E. acervulina gene copies were considerably reduced while E. tenella continued to multiply (p < 0.05). Our results show that MDBK monolayers could be used for in vitro research aimed to study E. acervulina sporozoite cell invasion. Nevertheless, modifications of in vitro cultivation appear necessary to allow qualitative and quantitative studies over longer periods of parasite reproduction.


Assuntos
Eimeria/fisiologia , Rim/parasitologia , Animais , Bovinos , Linhagem Celular , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/classificação , Eimeria/genética , Eimeria tenella/genética , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Células Epiteliais , Rim/citologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Esporozoítos/classificação , Esporozoítos/genética , Esporozoítos/fisiologia
7.
Vet Parasitol ; 296: 109497, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147768

RESUMO

Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis caused by the obligate intracellular apicomplexan parasite Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii). Chickens are ground-feeders and represent, especially if free-range, important intermediate hosts in the epidemiology of toxoplasmosis and are used as sentinels of environmental contamination with T. gondii oocysts. Until now, little is known about the burden and regional distribution of T. gondii cysts in the chicken brain. It was therefore the aim of this study to investigate the abundance and specific distribution of T. gondii cysts within the chicken brain following chronic infection with a type II strain (76 K) of T. gondii. A total of 29 chickens were included in the study and divided into control group (n = 9) and two different infection groups, a low dose (n = 10) and a high dose (n = 10) group, which were orally inoculated with 1500 or 150,000 T. gondii oocysts per animal, respectively. Seroconversion was detected in the majority of chickens of the high dose group, but not in the animals of the low dose and the control group. Moreover, T. gondii DNA was detected most frequently in the brain and more frequently in the heart than in liver, spleen, thigh and pectoral muscle using qPCR analysis. The number of T. gondii cysts, quantified in the chicken brain using histological analysis, seems to be considerably lower as compared to studies in rodents, which might explain why T. gondii infected chickens very rarely, if at all, develop neurological deficits. Similar to observations in mice, in which no lateralisation for T. gondii cysts was reported, T. gondii cysts were distributed nearly equally between the left and right chicken brain hemispheres. When different brain regions (fore-, mid- and hindbrain) were compared, all T. gondii cysts were located in the forebrain with the overwhelming majority of these cysts being present in the telencephalic pallium and subpallium. More studies including different strains and higher doses of T. gondii are needed in order to precisely evaluate its cyst burden and regional distribution in the chicken brain. Together, our findings provide insights into the course of T. gondii infection in chickens and are important to understand the differences of chronic T. gondii infection in the chicken and mammalian brain.


Assuntos
Cistos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmose Animal , Animais , Encéfalo/parasitologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Cistos/parasitologia , Cistos/veterinária , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , Toxoplasma/imunologia , Toxoplasmose Animal/parasitologia
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 11609, 2021 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078952

RESUMO

The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate and determine the concentration of prostaglandin GF2α (PGF2α) and isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α in plasma and intestine of specific pathogen-free (SPF) Leghorn chickens challenged with Eimeria maxima, with or without dietary supplementation of curcumin using solid-phase microextraction and ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Eighty 1-day-old male SPF chickens were randomly allocated to one of four groups with four replicates (n = 5 chickens/replicate). Groups consisted of: (1) Control (no challenge), (2) Curcumin (no challenge), (3) Eimeria maxima (challenge), and (4) Eimeria maxima (challenge) + curcumin. At day 28 of age, all chickens in the challenge groups were orally gavaged with 40,000 sporulated E. maxima oocysts. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed in the groups regardless of the treatment or challenge with E. maxima. Enteric levels of both isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α and PGF2α at 7 days and 9 days post-challenge were significantly increased (P < 0.01) compared to the non-challenge control chickens. Interestingly, the enteric levels of both isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α and PGF2α at 7 days post-challenge were significantly reduced in chickens fed curcumin, compared to control chickens challenge with E. maxima. At 9 days post-challenge, only levels of isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α in the enteric samples were significantly reduced in chickens challenged with E. maxima supplemented with curcumin, compared with E. maxima challenge chickens. No differences of isoprostane 8-iso-PGF2α or PGF2α were observed in plasma at both days of evaluation. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between the challenge control or chickens challenge with E. maxima and supplemented with curcumin at both times of evaluation. The results of this pilot study suggests that the antioxidant anti-inflammatory properties of curcumin reduced the oxidative damage and subsequent intestinal mucosal over-production of lipid oxidation products. Further studies to confirm and extend these results in broiler chickens are required.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Curcumina/farmacologia , Dinoprosta/análogos & derivados , Dinoprosta/antagonistas & inibidores , Eimeria/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Ração Animal , Animais , Animais Recém-Nascidos , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/metabolismo , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Dinoprosta/metabolismo , Eimeria/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Eimeria/patogenicidade , Inflamação , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/parasitologia , Masculino , Oocistos/efeitos dos fármacos , Oocistos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oocistos/patogenicidade , Estresse Oxidativo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos
9.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 323, 2021 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Histomonosis is a severe re-emerging disease of poultry caused by Histomonas meleagridis, a protozoan parasite which survives in the environment via the cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum. Following infection, the parasites reside in the ceca and are excreted via host feces. In the present work, male birds of conventional broiler (Ross 308, R), layer (Lohmann Brown Plus, LB) and a dual-purpose (Lohmann Dual, LD) chicken line were infected with 250 embryonated eggs of Ascaridia galli and Heterakis gallinarum, respectively, with the latter nematode harboring Histomonas meleagridis, to investigate a co-infection of nematodes with the protozoan parasite in different host lines. METHODS: In weekly intervals, from 2 to 9 weeks post infection (wpi), individual fecal samples (n = 234) from the chickens were collected to quantify the excretion of H. meleagridis by real-time PCR and to determine the number of nematode eggs per gram (EPG) in order to elucidate excretion dynamics of the flagellate and the nematodes. This was further investigated by indirect detection using plasma samples of the birds to detect antibodies specific for H. meleagridis and worms by ELISA. The infection with H. meleagridis was confirmed by histopathology and immunohistochemistry to detect the flagellate in the cecum of representing birds. RESULTS: The excretion of H. meleagridis could already be observed from the 2nd wpi in some birds and increased to 100% in the last week of the experiment in all groups independent of the genetic line. This increase could be confirmed by ELISA, even though the number of excreted H. meleagridis per bird was generally low. Overall, histomonads were detected in 60% to 78% of birds with temporary differences between the different genetic lines, which also showed variations in the EPG and worm burden of both nematodes. CONCLUSIONS: The infection with H. gallinarum eggs contaminated with H. meleagridis led to a permanent excretion of the flagellate in host feces. Differences in the excretion of H. meleagridis in the feces of genetically different host lines occurred intermittently. The excretion of the protozoan or its vector H. gallinarum was mostly exclusive, showing a negative interaction between the two parasites in the same host.


Assuntos
Ascaridídios/fisiologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Fezes/parasitologia , Nematoides/parasitologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Ceco/parasitologia , Masculino , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Trichomonadida/fisiologia
10.
J Exp Zool A Ecol Integr Physiol ; 335(6): 552-563, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34038036

RESUMO

Stimulating the regulation of pests by their natural enemies is a way to improve the sustainability of agriculture and respect for the environment. However, the presence of natural enemies does not guarantee the existence of a pest control service. To what extent are predatory mites commonly found in henhouses actually able to regulate a major egg industry pest mite, Dermanyssus gallinae? To answer this question, we have experimentally recreated portions of a poultry house ecosystem allowing the development of the pest over several generations in the presence of a chick and detritivorous mites (Astigmata) that are ubiquitous and abundant in layer farms. In these conditions, we compared the growth of D. gallinae populations in the presence and absence of native predatory arthropods. No effect of native predators on the growth of the D. gallinae population could be detected despite high initial predator-to-prey ratios and satisfactory growth of predator populations. Prey switching to the alternative prey Astigmata likely dilutes the effect of predation on the target prey. Further exploration is needed to see whether action could be taken to enhance the effect of top-down regulation.


Assuntos
Artrópodes/fisiologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Comportamento Predatório/fisiologia , Animais , Infestações por Ácaros/terapia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/terapia
11.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2149-2155, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797609

RESUMO

Leucocytozoon has been globally described as avian hosts, and it significantly affects many avian taxa including the fighting cock. The clinical signs of leucocytozoonosis range from asymptomatic to high morbidity leading to increase mortality rates. Interestingly, there are insufficient epidemiological studies of this blood parasite or the molecular identification of infections within the vertebrate host. In this study, 250 blood samples were collected from fighting cocks at 9 districts in Maha Sarakham Province, Thailand. Leucocytozoon infections were screened by blood examination and nested PCR followed by sequence analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome b gene was used to identify Leucocytozoon species. Twenty-two out of 250 (8.8%) samples had confirmed Leucocytozoon infections based on microscopic examination whereas with nested-PCR, 52 samples tested positive. Of these 52, 51 were successfully sequenced among which, one was Plasmodium juxtanucleare, 45 were Leucocytozoon sp. (18%) and 5 were L. schoutedeni (2%). This study is the first report to demonstrate the molecular prevalence of leucocytozoonosis in fighting cock in Thailand. This study indicated that leucocytozoonosis is widespread in fighting cock although the frequency was not determined and needs further study.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Haemosporida , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/epidemiologia , Animais , Citocromos b/genética , Haemosporida/genética , Haemosporida/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Plasmodium/genética , Plasmodium/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Prevalência , Infecções Protozoárias em Animais/parasitologia , Tailândia/epidemiologia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(6): 2219-2231, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33904983

RESUMO

Blastocystis sp. is an intestinal protist parasite commonly found in the feces of humans and animals worldwide. Blastocystis exhibits extensive genetic diversity and has been identified in humans and a variety of animals including other mammals and birds. Blastocystis subtypes do not exhibit strict host specificity which raises the possibility of zoonotic transmission through either direct contact or fecal contamination of food or water. However, reports detailing the subtypes and prevalence of Blastocystis in avian species are limited. Therefore, this study investigated the presence of Blastocystis in chickens by molecular characterization of the small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene. Fecal samples from 130 chickens were collected from local markets in Uberlândia and Belo Horizonte in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. To detect and identify subtypes of Blastocystis, a next-generation amplicon sequencing protocol was used. Forty-four of the 130 (33.8%) chickens examined were positive for Blastocystis. Blastocystis subtypes ST6 (23/130; 17.7%), ST7 (43/130; 33.1%), ST10 (1/130; 0.8%), ST14 (5/130; 3.8%), ST25 (1/130; 0.8%), and a novel subtype (ST29) (2/130; 1.5%) were observed. A nanopore sequencing strategy was used to obtain the near full-length SSU rRNA gene nucleotide sequence and validate novel subtype ST29. Mixed infections containing multiple subtypes were common and identified in 63.6% of Blastocystis-positive chickens. All positive samples contained one or both potentially zoonotic subtypes ST6 and ST7. The prevalence of Blastocystis in chickens was high, and molecular characterization mostly identified subtypes previously found in humans. Thus, chickens may be a source of human infection and environmental contamination.


Assuntos
Infecções por Blastocystis/veterinária , Blastocystis/genética , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Infecções por Blastocystis/parasitologia , Brasil , Fezes/parasitologia , Variação Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Enteropatias Parasitárias/parasitologia , Enteropatias Parasitárias/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , RNA de Protozoário , Zoonoses/parasitologia
13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 653085, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33841436

RESUMO

Eimeria maxima is a common cause of coccidiosis in chickens, a disease that has a huge economic impact on poultry production. Knowledge of immunity to E. maxima and the specific mechanisms that contribute to differing levels of resistance observed between chicken breeds and between congenic lines derived from a single breed of chickens is required. This study aimed to define differences in the kinetics of the immune response of two inbred lines of White Leghorn chickens that exhibit differential resistance (line C.B12) or susceptibility (line 15I) to infection by E. maxima. Line C.B12 and 15I chickens were infected with E. maxima and transcriptome analysis of jejunal tissue was performed at 2, 4, 6 and 8 days post-infection (dpi). RNA-Seq analysis revealed differences in the rapidity and magnitude of cytokine transcription responses post-infection between the two lines. In particular, IFN-γ and IL-10 transcript expression increased in the jejunum earlier in line C.B12 (at 4 dpi) compared to line 15I (at 6 dpi). Line C.B12 chickens exhibited increases of IFNG and IL10 mRNA in the jejunum at 4 dpi, whereas in line 15I transcription was delayed but increased to a greater extent. RT-qPCR and ELISAs confirmed the results of the transcriptomic study. Higher serum IL-10 correlated strongly with higher E. maxima replication in line 15I compared to line C.B12 chickens. Overall, the findings suggest early induction of the IFN-γ and IL-10 responses, as well as immune-related genes including IL21 at 4 dpi identified by RNA-Seq, may be key to resistance to E. maxima.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Coccidiose/veterinária , Suscetibilidade a Doenças/imunologia , Eimeria/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Coccidiose/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Interferon gama/genética , Interleucina-10/genética , Interleucinas/genética , Jejuno/imunologia , Jejuno/parasitologia , Jejuno/patologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , RNA-Seq
14.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(4)2021 04 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917156

RESUMO

In this study, we performed transcriptome analysis in the cecum tissues of negative control untreated non-challenged (NC), positive control untreated challenged (PC), and Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) fed challenged chickens (BS + ET) in order to examine the underlying potential therapeutic mechanisms of Bacillus based probiotic feeding under an experimental Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) infection. Our results for clinical parameters showed that birds in probiotic diet decreased the bloody diarrhea scores, oocyst shedding, and lesion scores compared to positive control birds. RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis revealed that in total, 2509 up-regulated and 2465 down-regulated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected in the PC group versus NC group comparison. In the comparison of BS + ET group versus PC group, a total of 784 up-regulated and 493 down-regulated DEGs were found. Among them, several DEGs encoding proteins involved in immunity, gut barrier integrity, homeostasis, and metabolism were up-regulated by the treatment of probiotic. Functional analysis of DEGs also revealed that some gene ontology (GO) terms related with immunity, metabolism and cellular development were significantly affected by the exposure of probiotic. Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis showed that the DEGs in the cecum of B. subtilis-fed challenged group were mainly participated in the pathways related with immunity and gut barrier integrity, included mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway, extracellular matrix (ECM)-receptor interaction, tight junction, and so on. Taken together, these results suggest that Bacillus based probiotic modulate the immunity, maintain gut homeostasis as well as barrier system and improve chicken metabolism during E. tenella infection.


Assuntos
Bacillus/química , Galinhas/imunologia , Coccidiose/parasitologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Transcriptoma , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/metabolismo , Galinhas/parasitologia , Eimeria tenella/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/parasitologia , Imunidade Celular , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
15.
Trop Biomed ; 38(1): 62-72, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797526

RESUMO

Avian coccidiosis, an important protozoal disease of chicken triggered by coccidian protozoa of genus Eimeria, causes considerable economic losses to broiler producers. The study was designed to assess the efficiency of Origanum majoranum aqueous extract (OMAE) on E. tenella-infected broiler chicken. Birds were divided into four groups including: positive control (PC, challenged with 5×104 sporulated oocysts of E. tenella at the 12th day of age), PC+OMAE (challenged with E. tenella oocysts at the 12th day of age and received OMAE (125 mg/kg BW) orally, started at the 7th day of age, and continued for 14 consecutive days), OMAE (received OMAE (125 mg/kg BW) orally, at the 7th day of age, for 14 consecutive days), and negative control (received basal diet only). Anticoccidial efficacy of OMAE was evaluated by complete blood picture, serum chemistry, serum protein electrophoresis, antioxidants markers, cecal oocysts count, and cecal lesions score. Briefly, collected data indicated that supplementation of OMAE could increase antioxidants concentrations and improve changes in hematobiochemical parameters and serum protein fractions, as well as decrease cecal oocysts count and reduce cecal lesion scores in E. tenella-infected birds. In conclusion, OMAE restores oxidant-antioxidant balance, and its supplementation in broiler chicken can alleviate E. tenella-infection and reduce its severity.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Coccidiostáticos/uso terapêutico , Origanum/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Ceco , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/tratamento farmacológico , Eimeria tenella/efeitos dos fármacos , Contagem de Ovos de Parasitas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 181, 2021 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poultry red mite (PRM) (Dermanyssus gallinae) infestations are a cause of anaemia, impaired productivity and stress-related behaviours linked to reduced hen welfare. A study investigated the potential health, welfare and productivity benefits following fluralaner treatment to eliminate PRM from infested hens. METHODS: A PRM-infested layer house was selected on a free-range farm (5400 hens) and an aviary farm (42,400 hens). Fluralaner (Exzolt®; 0.5 mg/kg body weight) was administered twice, 7 days apart (Weeks 0 and 1), via drinking water. Mite populations were monitored by traps. Cameras recorded nighttime hen behaviours weekly, pre- and post-treatment. On the free-range farm, daytime behaviours were also recorded weekly. For pre- and post-treatment corticosterone assessments, eggs were randomly collected on both farms, and blood samples were collected from 50 randomly selected aviary farm hens. Production parameters were assessed using farm records. RESULTS: Throughout the post-treatment period, fluralaner efficacy against PRM was > 99% on both farms. On the aviary and free-range farms, treatment was followed by significant nighttime increases in the proportion of resting hens (P < 0.0001; P = 0.0175, respectively). Significant post-treatment versus pre-treatment nighttime reductions were observed in head shaking (aviary, P < 0.0001; free-range P = 0.0233) and preening (P = 0.0032; P = 0.0018) and on the aviary farm in bouts of body shaking (P = 0.0108), vertical wing shaking (P = 0.0002), head scratching (P = 0.0335), and gentle feather pecking (P < 0.0001). On the free-range farm there were significant daytime reductions in head scratching (P < 0.0001), head shaking (P = 0.0492) and preening (P = 0.0012). Relative to standard production parameters, no differences were detected on the aviary farm, but on the free-range farm the laying rate decline with increasing age was less than expected and the increase in egg weight greater than expected. Post-treatment increases in egg and plasma corticosterone were suggestive of stress factors in addition to mite infestation. Red blood cell counts and haematocrit increased following treatment. CONCLUSION: Fluralaner treatment eliminated mite challenge, leading to improved hen welfare and health, based on reductions in stress-related behaviours and restoration of the anaemia-inducing effects of mite blood feeding.


Assuntos
Isoxazóis/uso terapêutico , Infestações por Ácaros/tratamento farmacológico , Infestações por Ácaros/veterinária , Ácaros/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Galinhas/parasitologia , Água Potável , Ovos , Feminino , Isoxazóis/normas , Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia
17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9328, 2021 04 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33927299

RESUMO

The isolation and molecular typing of Toxoplasma gondii strains provide an essential basis for a better understanding of the parasite's genetic diversity, determinants of its geographical distribution and associated risks to human health. In this study, we isolated and genetically characterized T. gondii strains from domestic animals in Southern and coastal area of Tunisia. Blood, hearts and/or brains were collected from 766 domestic animals (630 sheep and 136 free-range chickens). Strain isolation from these samples was performed using mouse bioassay and genotyping was carried out with a multiplex PCR technique using 15 microsatellite markers. Thirty viable strains of T. gondii were successfully isolated from tissues of sheep (19/142) and chickens (11/33). In addition, 3 strains could be successfully genotyped from animal tissues for which mouse bioassay was unsuccessful. A large predominance of type II strains (n = 29) was found in the sampled regions, followed by type III (n = 3) and, for the first time in Tunisia, a single isolate of Africa 4 lineage from a sheep. Analyses of population genetics showed the presence of a divergent population of type II lineage in Tunisia, supporting limited recent migrations of strains between Tunisia and other countries of the world.


Assuntos
Galinhas/parasitologia , Ovinos/parasitologia , Toxoplasma/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Toxoplasma/genética , Tunísia
18.
J Parasitol ; 107(2): 262-266, 2021 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33780971

RESUMO

A recent paper in this journal concerning parasites of rock pigeons (Columba livia) published by Ali and colleagues exemplifies a growing trend of misidentified parasites in the literature, despite increased online resources that should help facilitate accurate identification. In the Ali et al. paper, a pigeon louse in the genus Columbicola (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) is misidentified as Menopon gallinae, which is a parasite of chickens (Gallus gallus) and their relatives; moreover, this louse is from an entirely different suborder of lice (Phthiraptera: Amblycera). Another louse is misidentified as Goniodes dissimilis, another parasite of chickens and junglefowl. In addition, photographs of cestodes from pigeons in the same paper are not sufficient to confirm identification. Misidentifications are fueled, in part, by increasing pressure to publish coupled with a decrease in taxonomic expertise. We consider the downstream consequences of misidentification and suggest guidelines for authors, reviewers, and editors that could help to improve the reliability of specimen-based research.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Columbidae/parasitologia , Infestações por Piolhos/veterinária , Ftirápteros/classificação , Animais , Infestações por Piolhos/parasitologia , Parasitologia/métodos , Parasitologia/normas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Especificidade da Espécie
19.
Parasitol Res ; 120(5): 1861-1871, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33689009

RESUMO

Coccidiosis triggered by Eimeria tenella is accompanied by haemorrhagic caecum and high morbidity. Vaccines are preferable choices to replace chemical drugs against coccidiosis. Surface antigens of apicomplexan parasites can adhere to host cells during the infection process. Therefore, truncated fragments coding E. tenella surface antigen 16 (EtSAG16) and 22 (EtSAG22) were cloned into pET-28a prokaryotic vector to express recombinant protein 16 (rEtSAG16) and 22 (rEtSAG22), respectively. Likewise, pEGFP-N1-EtSAG16 and pEGFP-N1-EtSAG22 plasmids were constructed using pEGFP-N1 eukaryotic vector. Further, pEGFP-N1-EtSAG4-16-22 multiple gene plasmid carrying EtSAG4, 16 and 22 were designed as cocktail vaccines to study integral immunoprotective effects. Western blot and RT-PCR (reverse transcription) assay were performed to verify expressions of EtSAG16 and 22 genes. Immunoprotective effects of recombinant protein or DNA vaccine were evaluated using different doses (50 or 100 µg) in vivo. All chickens in the vaccination group showed higher cytokine concentration (IFN-γ and IL-17), raised IgY antibody level, increased weight gain, lower caecum lesion score and reduced oocyst shedding compared with infection control groups (p < 0.05). The highest anticoccidial index (ACI) value 173.11 was from the pEGFP-N1-EtSAG4-16-22 plasmid (50 µg) group. In conclusion, EtSAG16 and 22 might be alternative candidate genes for generating vaccines against E. tenella infection.


Assuntos
Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria tenella/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Protozoários/imunologia , Vacinas Protozoárias/imunologia , Vacinas de DNA/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos de Superfície/imunologia , Galinhas/parasitologia , Coccidiose/imunologia , Coccidiose/prevenção & controle , Citocinas/imunologia , Eimeria tenella/genética , Imunogenicidade da Vacina , Oocistos/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia
20.
Parasitol Res ; 120(4): 1303-1310, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33634412

RESUMO

Raillietina echinobothrida (R. echinobothrida) is one of the most pathogenic and prevalent tapeworms threat to the commercial chickens in China. However, there is a lack of research on their molecular identification and morphological characteristics. This study explored the molecular identification markers for R. echinobothrida in North China based on 18s ribosomal RNA (18s rRNA) gene and the ribosomal DNA second internal transcribed spacer (ITS-2) gene. The BLAST results of 18s rRNA (1643 bp) and ITS-2 (564 bp) gene sequences showed that the isolated intestinal tapeworms were R. echinobothrida. Phylogenetic trees obtained by maximum likelihood (ML) or neighbor-joining (NJ) method revealed that the R. echinobothrida in North China had the closest evolutionary relationship with the species found on the Qinghai-Tibet plateau, China. Morphological observations by hematoxylin staining and scanning electron microscope showed four round suckers and a retractable rostellum on the spherical scolex of R. echinobothrida. Two rows of alternately arranged hooks distributed around the rostellum. There were 30-40 testes in each mature segment. A well-developed cirrus pouch lied outside the excretory duct of mature segment. The gravid segment contained 200-400 eggs and there was a well-developed oncosphere in each egg. In addition, abundant ultrastructural features in mature proglottid of R. echinobothrida in North China were identified by transmission electron microscopy. In conclusion, the present study established ways of molecular phylogenetic identification for R. echinobothrida based on 18s rRNA and ITS-2 gene, and identified the morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of R. echinobothrida in North China.


Assuntos
Cestoides/anatomia & histologia , Cestoides/genética , Infecções por Cestoides/veterinária , Galinhas/parasitologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Animais , Cestoides/classificação , Cestoides/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Cestoides/parasitologia , Infecções por Cestoides/patologia , China , DNA de Helmintos/genética , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Genes de Helmintos , Genes de RNAr , Intestino Delgado/parasitologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/patologia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética
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