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1.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066773

RESUMO

Besides human red blood cells (RBC), a standard model used in AFM-single cell force spectroscopy (SCFS), little is known about apparent Young's modulus (Ea) or adhesion of animal RBCs displaying distinct cellular features. To close this knowledge gap, we probed chicken, horse, camel, and human fetal RBCs and compared data with human adults serving as a repository for future studies. Additionally, we assessed how measurements are affected under physiological conditions (species-specific temperature in autologous plasma vs. 25 °C in aqueous NaCl solution). In all RBC types, Ea decreased with increasing temperature irrespective of the suspension medium. In mammalian RBCs, adhesion increased with elevated temperatures and scaled with reported membrane sialic acid concentrations. In chicken only adhesion decreased with higher temperature, which we attribute to the lower AE-1 concentration allowing more membrane undulations. Ea decreased further in plasma at every test temperature, and adhesion was completely abolished, pointing to functional cell enlargement by adsorption of plasma components. This halo elevated RBC size by several hundreds of nanometers, blunted the thermal input, and will affect the coupling of RBCs with the flowing plasma. The study evidences the presence of a RBC surface layer and discusses the tremendous effects when RBCs are probed at physiological conditions.


Assuntos
Camelus/sangue , Adesão Celular/fisiologia , Galinhas/sangue , Eritrócitos/citologia , Cavalos/sangue , Microscopia de Força Atômica/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Temperatura , Adulto , Animais , Membrana Celular/metabolismo , Humanos
2.
Parasit Vectors ; 14(1): 336, 2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34174965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptosporidium baileyi is an economically important zoonotic pathogen that causes serious respiratory symptoms in chickens for which no effective control measures are currently available. An accumulating body of evidence indicates the potential and usefulness of metabolomics to further our understanding of the interaction between pathogens and hosts, and to search for new diagnostic or pharmacological biomarkers of complex microorganisms. The aim of this study was to identify the impact of C. baileyi infection on the serum metabolism of chickens and to assess several metabolites as potential diagnostic biomarkers for C. baileyi infection. METHODS: Ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) and subsequent multivariate statistical analysis were applied to investigate metabolomics profiles in the serum samples of chickens infected with C. baileyi, and to identify potential metabolites that can be used to distinguish chickens infected with C. baileyi from non-infected birds. RESULTS: Multivariate statistical analysis identified 138 differential serum metabolites between mock- and C. baileyi-infected chickens at 5 days post-infection (dpi), including 115 upregulated and 23 downregulated compounds. These metabolites were significantly enriched into six pathways, of which two pathways associated with energy and lipid metabolism, namely glycerophospholipid metabolism and sphingolipid metabolism, respectively, were the most enriched. Interestingly, some important immune-related pathways were also significantly enriched, including the intestinal immune network for IgA production, autophagy and cellular senescence. Nine potential C. baileyi-responsive metabolites were identified, including choline, sirolimus, all-trans retinoic acid, PC(14:0/22:1(13Z)), PC(15:0/22:6(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)), PE(16:1(9Z)/24:1(15Z)), phosphocholine, SM(d18:0/16:1(9Z)(OH)) and sphinganine. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report on serum metabolic profiling of chickens with early-stage C. baileyi infection. The results provide novel insights into the pathophysiological mechanisms of C. baileyi in chickens.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose/sangue , Cryptosporidium/fisiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Soro/química , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/química , Galinhas/sangue , Cromatografia Líquida , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Metabolômica , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/parasitologia , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
3.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13550, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899985

RESUMO

This research aimed to determine whether the astragalus polysaccharide (AP) can improve the production performance and gut microbiota in Chongren hens.120 Chongren hens (240-d old) were randomly allocated into 4 treatments with 30 hens and fed with a control basal diet (CON) or CON supplemented with the different levels of AP (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) for 56 d. The egg production and feed conversion ratio were decreased (p < .05) with the levels of AP. The yolk weight, yolk color, eggshell thickness, eggshell redness index and egg shell yellowness were increased (p < .05). AP supplementation increased CAT and T-AOC and SOD, and decreased MDA (p < .05). Supplementation of AP decreased IL-2, IL-6 and TNF-α levels (p < .05), but increased the IL-4 level in the liver (p < .05). The villus heights of duodenum, jejunum ileum, the crypt depth and V/C in the jejunum were increased (p < .05). Dietary supplementation of 200 mg/kg AP increased (P relative abundances of Firmicutes and Lactobacteriaceae in the cecum of Chongren hens. In conclusion, addition of AP improved the production performance, egg quality, antioxidant function, and intestinal morphology in hens, which might be associated with the gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Astrágalo (Planta)/química , Galinhas/microbiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ovos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ovulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Polissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes , Galinhas/sangue , Feminino , Mediadores da Inflamação/sangue , Interleucina-2/sangue , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/sangue , Jejuno/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100964, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33652533

RESUMO

The effects of early heat conditioning on the acute heat stress response in broilers were investigated via the growth performance, dopamine, serotonin, and corticosterone and the expression of heat shock proteins (HSP) and heat shock factors. One-day-old chicks (n = 144) were divided into 3 groups in a 35-d experiment (48 chicks per each group). Group 1 (C) was treated with an optimum temperature, group 2 (CH) was treated with 40°C ± 1°C on day 35 (5 h), and group 3 (HH) was treated with 40°C ± 1°C on day 5 (24 h) and day 35 (5 h). On day 7, the body weight gain was lower (P < 0.05) in HH than in C and CH. On day 35, the heat-treated groups (CH and HH) had lower weight gains than the C group (P < 0.05), whereas the feed conversion ratio was lower in HH (P < 0.05). Serum corticosterone was higher in CH than in C, but HH and C did not differ (P < 0.05). Liver HSP70 protein expression was higher in CH than HH and C (P < 0.05), which did not differ, and HSP40 protein expression was higher in CH than C (P < 0.05). These results suggest that early heat conditioning may reduce acute heat stress on broiler.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Crescimento , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Crescimento/fisiologia , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico/genética , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , Temperatura Alta , Ganho de Peso/fisiologia
5.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 68, 2021 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effects of safflower oil and vitamin C (Vit. C) inclusion in broiler chicken diets on the growth performance, apparent ileal digestibility coefficient "AID%" of amino acids, intestinal histology, behavior, carcass traits, fatty acid composition of the breast muscle, antioxidant and immune status for a 35-day feeding period were evaluated. A total of 300 three-day-old Ross chicks (58.25 g ± 0.19) were randomly allotted in a 2 × 3 factorial design consisting of two levels of vitamin C (0 and 400 mg/kg diet) and three levels of safflower oil (0, 5, and 10 g/kg diet). RESULTS: An increase in the final body weight, total body weight gain, total feed intake, and the relative growth rate (P <  0.05) were reported by safflower oil and vitamin C inclusion. Dietary supplementation of safflower oil and vitamin C had a positive effect (P <  0.05) on the ingestive, resting, and feather preening behavior. Vitamin C supplementation increased (P <  0.05) the AID% of lysine, threonine, tryptophan, arginine, and valine. Safflower inclusion (10 g/kg) increased (P <  0.05) the AID% of methionine and isoleucine. Safflower oil inclusion increased (P <  0.05) the levels of stearic acid, linoleic acid, saturated fatty acids, and omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3) in the breast muscle. In contrast, the supplementation of only 10 g of safflower oil/kg diet increased (P = 0.01) the omega-3/omega-6 (ω-3/ω-6) fatty acids ratio. Vit. C supplementation increased (P <  0.05) the CAT serum levels, SOD, and GSH enzymes. Dietary supplementation of safflower oil and vitamin C improved the intestinal histology. They increased the villous height and width, crypt depth, villous height/crypt depth ratio, mucosal thickness, goblet cell count, and intra-epithelium lymphocytic lick cell infiltrations. The serum levels of IgA and complement C3 were increased (P <  0.01) by Vit. C supplementation and prominent in the 400 vit. C +  10 safflower Oil group. CONCLUSION: A dietary combination of safflower oil and vitamin C resulted in improved growth rate, amino acids AID%, intestinal histology, welfare, immune and antioxidant status of birds, and obtaining ω-3 and linoleic acid-enriched breast muscles. The best inclusion level was 400 vit. C +  10 safflower Oil.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Ácido Ascórbico/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Óleo de Cártamo/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ácidos Graxos/análise , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/química
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 01 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33572768

RESUMO

Immunobiotics are probiotics that promote intestinal health by modulating immune responses. Immunobiotics are recognized by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and activate cytokine gene expression. This study aimed to characterize cytokine gene expression in the chicken peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulated with purified TLR ligands and live probiotics. PBMC were isolated from the whole blood. PBMC were stimulated with: lipopolysaccharide (LPS), CpG ODN, Pam3CSK4, Zymosan, galactooligosaccharides (GOS), Lactococcuslactis subsp. cremoris (L. lactis), and Saccharomyces cerevisiae at 42.5 °C and 5% CO2 for 3 h, 6 h, and 9 h. After each time-point, PBMC were harvested for RNA isolation. Relative gene expression was analyzed with RT-qPCR for cytokine genes (IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-3, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12p40, and IFN-É£) and reference genes (ACTB and G6PDH). Genes were clustered into pro-inflammatory genes, Th1/Th2 genes, and Th1-regulators. The gene expression differed between treatments in IL1-ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and IL-12p40 (p < 0.001). The genes IL-1ß, IL-6, and IL-8 had the highest fold change of mRNA expression at 3 h in response to TLR ligands. L. lactis up-regulated the pro-inflammatory genes at the 6 h time-point. L. lactis did not activate the anti-inflammatory IL-10 gene, but activated IL-12p40 at 6 h. Hereby, L. lactis was proven to exert immunostimulatory properties in PBMC.


Assuntos
Galinhas/sangue , Citocinas/genética , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/microbiologia , Citocinas/sangue , Citocinas/classificação , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/imunologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/microbiologia , Lipopeptídeos/farmacologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Células Th1/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Zimosan/farmacologia
7.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247889, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33635917

RESUMO

Avian hepatitis E virus (aHEV) is associated with hepatitis-splenomegaly syndrome, big liver and spleen disease and hepatic rupture haemorrhage syndrome. However, the knowledge about aHEV in commercial layer chickens in Nigeria is scarce. In this study, 460 serum samples obtained from 36 apparently healthy commercial layer chicken flocks in three states (Ogun, Osun and Oyo States) of southwestern Nigeria were analysed by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of anti-aHEV immunoglobulin Y (IgY) antibodies. In total, the overall seroprevalence of anti-aHEV antibodies was 14.6%. The serological analysis revealed that 75% of the flocks examined were positive for anti-aHEV IgY antibodies from chickens of various ages in all three states. The percentage of the seropositive chickens in the three states varied from flock to flock ranging from 60% to 88.8% and seropositive chickens were detected at any age (24-52 weeks of age) without significant differences between the age groups. This is the first report assessing the presence of aHEV antibodies in chickens from Nigeria. The detection of anti-aHEV antibodies in commercial layer chickens in this study emphasizes the importance of serosurveillance in disease monitoring due to the economic threat posed by aHEV as a result of decreased egg production and increased mortality in affected commercial layer chicken farms. However, further studies are essential to reveal the clinical implications and to assess the real burden of aHEV in Nigeria.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/virologia , Hepatite E/sangue , Hepatite E/veterinária , Hepatite Viral Animal/sangue , Hepevirus/imunologia , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/sangue , Esplenopatias/sangue , Esplenopatias/veterinária , Esplenomegalia/sangue , Esplenomegalia/veterinária , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/veterinária , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Hepatite E/virologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/diagnóstico , Hepatite Viral Animal/epidemiologia , Hepatite Viral Animal/virologia , Imunoglobulinas/imunologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Esplenopatias/epidemiologia , Esplenopatias/virologia , Esplenomegalia/epidemiologia , Esplenomegalia/virologia
8.
J Sci Food Agric ; 101(12): 5245-5255, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33611786

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The disadvantages associated with the use of synthetic additives in animal production could threaten human and animal health, and the safety of animal-derived foods. This study assessed the growth performance, blood chemistry, immune indices, selected caeca bacterial population, muscle antioxidant enzyme activities, and meat quality in broiler chickens fed diet supplemented with antibiotic (70% oxytetracycline +30% neomycin), tert-butylhydroxytoluene or onion leaf powder (OLP). One day old Ross 308 chicks (n = 240) were assigned randomly to either D-1, control diet (CD) without additives; D-2, CD + 0.3 g kg-1 antibiotic +0.15 g kg-1 tert-butylhydroxytoluene; D-3, CD + 2.5 g kg-1 OLP; or D-4, CD + 5 g kg-1 OLP for 42 days. RESULTS: The D-2 and D-4 diets improved (P < 0.05) bodyweight gain and feed efficiency in broilers. Platelet and cecal Lactobacillus spp. counts were higher (P < 0.05) whereas muscle cholesterol was lower (P < 0.05) in the OLP-supplemented birds. Supplemented birds had higher (P < 0.01) splenic interleukin-10 and lower (P < 0.01) splenic tumor necrosis factor-α, immunoglobulin A, cecal E. coli and C. perfringens counts compared with the D-1 birds. The D-4 birds had the least (P < 0.05) splenic interleukin-1ß. Dietary supplements increased (P < 0.05) catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity, and lowered (P < 0.05) drip loss, malondialdehyde and carbonyl content in breast meat. CONCLUSION: Dietary supplementation of 5 g kg-1 OLP exerted antimicrobial, immunomodulatory, and antioxidant effects that were comparable to those of antibiotics and tert-butylhydroxytoluene in broiler chickens. © 2021 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/análise , Antibacterianos/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Galinhas/metabolismo , Citocinas/metabolismo , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Cebolas/metabolismo , Baço/metabolismo , Animais , Antibacterianos/síntese química , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/microbiologia , Colesterol/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Carne/análise , Músculos/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
9.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 797-809, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518134

RESUMO

Many types of mycotoxins are found in food sources contaminated with fungi, and if these are ingested in large quantities or over a long period, they can affect the health of humans and domestic animals. Berberine (BBR) is a plant alkaloid with multiple pharmacological functions. This study aimed to investigate the effect of different levels of the plant alkaloid BBR on reducing toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in broilers by examining performance characteristics, blood biochemistry, antioxidant systems, ileum morphology, and histopathology of the liver. The experiment was performed with 288 Ross 308 broilers reared in floor pens for 42 d in a randomized design with 9 treatments. Each treatment was replicated 4 times, and each replicate contained 8 chicks. Experimental treatments included (1) negative control diet with no additives (NC); (2) NC + 2 ppm AFB (positive control AFB; PCAFB); (3) NC + 2 ppm OTA (positive control OTA; PCOTA); (4) PCAFB + 200 mg/kg BBR; (5) PCAFB + 400 mg/kg BBR; (6) PCAFB + 600 mg/kg BBR; (7) PCOTA + 200 mg/kg BBR; (8) PCOTA + 400 mg/kg BBR; and (9) PCOTA + 600 mg/kg BBR. Compared with NC, feeding PCAFB and PCOTA diets reduced average daily feed intake, weight gain, serum concentrations of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and the length and width of ileum villi (P < 0.05). At the same time, these parameters increased in birds fed PCAFB or PCOTA diets supplemented with 600 mg/kg of BBR (P < 0.05). Feeding PCAFB and PCOTA diets increased feed conversion ratio (FCR), serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, serum urea, and liver lesions compared with NC. By contrast, compared with PCAFB and PCOTA, adding 600 mg/kg BBR decreased FCR, AST, LDH, ALT, and GGT activities, urea, and liver lesions (P < 0.05). Overall, supplementation with 600 mg/kg BBR may improve growth performance, liver function, and antioxidant status of broilers fed diets contaminated with AFB and OTA.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1/antagonistas & inibidores , Ração Animal , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ocratoxinas/antagonistas & inibidores , Aflatoxina B1/toxicidade , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Berberina/farmacologia , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Masculino , Ocratoxinas/toxicidade , Distribuição Aleatória
10.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 631-634, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518116

RESUMO

Povidone-iodine (Polidine) is a synthetic broad-spectrum antiseptic and being applied topically to treat wounds and prevent their infection. It is however used by poultry farmers, field veterinarians, and other animal health workers with the claim that it is effective for treatment of infectious bursal disease when administered orally. Hence, an acute oral toxicity study was conducted to ascertain its safety profile. Ten cockerel chicks were randomly selected and divided into 2 groups of 5 chicks per group. One group served as the negative control, whereas the other group was administered povidone-iodine at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg of BW orally. The blood sample was collected at the end of the study to determine changes in hematological and biochemical parameters. In addition, vital organs were also harvested and preserved for histopathological examinations. The result showed that the median lethal dose (LD50) of the povidone-iodine is higher than 2,000 mg/kg of BW in cockerels. There were no significant changes in the hematological parameters measured. Biochemical evaluation (renal and liver function test) showed an increase in aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase levels after administration of povidone-iodine. The study indicated that the LD50 of povidone-iodine is higher than 2,000 mg/kg of BW of cockerels, and there were increases in urinary and liver enzymes at this dose.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos Locais/toxicidade , Infecções por Birnaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/tratamento farmacológico , Povidona-Iodo/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos Locais/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Birnaviridae/tratamento farmacológico , Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Galinhas/sangue , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Dose Letal Mediana , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Povidona-Iodo/administração & dosagem
11.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 746-754, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518128

RESUMO

Antemortem blood biochemical and blood gas analyses are routinely used in health screening and diagnosis of disease in domestic veterinary species. These testing modalities are not routinely performed in poultry, in part, due to the distance from the diagnostic laboratory. Portable blood analyzers such as the i-STAT and VetScan (VS2) can be used to obtain results on the farm without delay, potentially offering a more practical option for poultry practitioners. We investigated the time effect on blood chemistry values and compared the results obtained using the i-STAT and VS2 with those obtained using conventional laboratory analyzers (GEM Premier 3000 and Cobas c501, respectively). We tested blood from 60 healthy chickens. Each sample was tested in triplicate using each of the portable analyzers and once using conventional analyzers. All samples were analyzed within 60 minutes of collection. The concentrations of some analytes were outside the limit of detection of the portable analyzers (i.e., bile acids). Although statistically significant differences were found for some biochemical analytes over time, the actual mean or median differences were too small to be considered of clinical importance. As observed in mammals, significant time-dependent changes in blood gas analytes were observed in whole blood samples exposed to ambient air. Correlation coefficients between portable and conventional analyzers were moderate to high for most of the analytes. For the most part, there was an agreement between the portable and conventional analyzers. We identified constant and proportional biases in the measurement of multiple analytes by both the i-STAT and VS2. Future studies are warranted to establish analyzer-specific reference intervals for poultry.


Assuntos
Análise Química do Sangue/veterinária , Gasometria/veterinária , Galinhas/sangue , Testes Hematológicos/veterinária , Laboratórios/normas , Animais , Análise Química do Sangue/instrumentação , Gasometria/instrumentação , Testes Hematológicos/instrumentação , Testes Imediatos/normas , Valores de Referência , Fatores de Tempo
12.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1034-1048, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518062

RESUMO

This study investigated the effect of berberine (BBR) on growth performance and composition and function of cecal microbiota in yellow-feathered broilers. A total of 360 1-day-old female broilers were assigned to 3 dietary treatments, each with 6 replicates of 20 birds. The dietary treatments consisted of a basal diet as negative control (NC), basal plus 200 mg/kg oxytetracycline calcium and 250 mg/kg nasiheptide as an antibiotic positive control (PC), and basal plus 250 mg/kg BBR. On day 21, 42, and 63, one chicken from each replicate was randomly selected for blood collection and cecal sampling. The 16S rRNA sequencing technology was used to analyze the community composition and function of cecal microbiota. Dietary supplementation with antibiotics or BBR increased the final body weight (BW) at day 63 and the average daily gain (ADG) during 1 to 21 d compared with the NC (P < 0.05). Supplementation with BBR improved the average daily feed intake (ADFI) at 22 to 42 d, 43 to 63 d, and 1 to 63 d (P < 0.05). Feed efficiency, indicated by feed to gain ratio (F/G), increased with PC during day 1 to 21 compared with NC (P < 0.05). The plasma concentrations of total protein at 42 d and uric acid at 21 d were increased, whereas creatine concentration at 63 d was decreased by BBR treatment (P < 0.05). The Chao 1 and Shannon index representing microbial α-diversity was reduced by BBR treatment (P < 0.05). The abundances of phylum Firmicutes and genera Lachnospiraceae, Lachnoclostridium, Clostridiales, and Intestinimonas were decreased, whereas the abundances of phylum Bacteroidetes and genus Bacteroides were increased with BBR treatment. Functional prediction of microbiota revealed that BBR treatment enriched pathways related to metabolism, organismal systems, and genetic information processing, especially DNA replication. The abundance of phylum Bacteroidetes, and genera Bacteroides and Lactobacillus in cecal contents were positively correlated with broiler growth performance. These results demonstrated dietary BBR supplementation improved the growth performance of yellow-feathered broilers, and was closely related to the significant changes in cecal microbiota composition.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Berberina/administração & dosagem , Ceco/microbiologia , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Berberina/farmacologia , Galinhas/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Feminino , RNA Ribossômico 16S/química
13.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1142-1153, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518073

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to determine and evaluate the impact of the age and housing system on blood indicators (triacylglycerides, total cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, total proteins, albumin, glucose) and physical egg quality parameters (egg weight, shape index and surface area, eggshell proportion, thickness, strength, and color, albumen proportion and index, Haugh units, yolk proportion, index and yolk-to-albumen ratio) in selected native breeds of the Czech Republic (the Czech Golden Spotted hens) and Slovakia (the Oravka hens). Furthermore, the concentration of cholesterol in the yolk was determined. A total of 132 animals were used. There were 60 eggs collected from each breed at each monitored period for the evaluation of egg quality. Blood samples were taken by puncture of a wing vein. The assessments were made when the hens were of 34, 42, and 50 weeks old. Enriched cages and floor pens with litter were used as housing systems. The effects of breed, housing system, and age were observed. Furthermore, interactions among these factors were calculated. The significant effect of housing system was found in total cholesterol (P = 0.098) and aspartate aminotransferase (P = 0.0343) and the significant effect of age in total protein (P = 0.0392). The significant effect of breed (P = 0.0199), housing system (P = 0.0001), and age (P = 0.0001) was found in concentration of cholesterol in the yolk. Regarding the egg quality, the significant effect of breed (P = 0.0001) was found in eggshell color, albumen index and Haugh units, whereas the significant effect of housing system was found in egg weight (P = 0.0002), egg surface area (P = 0.0003), eggshell proportion (P = 0.0460), thickness (P = 0.0216), strength (P = 0.0049), and color (P = 0.0009). The significant effect of age was determined in all parameters except for the eggshell proportion and strength. The results represent an interesting comparison of changes in biochemical blood and egg quality parameters. It is necessary to further evaluate these indicators, especially in other genetic resources of hens, where the data are often nonexisting.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Galinhas/fisiologia , Ovos/normas , Abrigo para Animais/classificação , Envelhecimento/sangue , Animais , Galinhas/sangue , Colesterol/análise , Colesterol/sangue , República Tcheca , Casca de Ovo , Gema de Ovo/química , Feminino , Óvulo , Soro , Eslováquia
14.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 1205-1212, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518078

RESUMO

Sustainability of poultry farming relies on the development of more efficient and autonomous production systems in terms of feed supply. This implies a better integration of adaptive traits in breeding programs, including digestive efficiency, to favor the use of a wider variety of feedstuffs. The objective of the study was to better characterize the kinetics of development of the digestive tract in broilers, in relationship with digestive efficiency by measuring various digestive parameters as well as serum color. Absolute and relative growth of gastrointestinal tract organs were compared between 2 divergent chicken lines selected on digestive efficiency (AMEn) during 7 wk of development. We show that as early as 7 d of age, these 2 lines differs for several organs developments and that these differences remain visible later on. In addition, the allometry of the gizzard and intestine segments is different between the 2 lines, with efficient birds putting more effort in the upper part of the digestive tract during postnatal development and less-efficient birds putting more effort in the lower part of the gastrointestinal tract. Interestingly, we also showed that differences in serum pigmentation, which is a good biomarker for digestive capacity, could be a convenient diagnostic tool to discriminate between chickens with high or low digestive efficiency at early stages of development. In conclusion, this study showed that selection of chickens for AMEn had large impacts in gastrointestinal development including at early stages and is a valuable resource for further studies on the genetic and physiological control of the response of the animal to feed variations.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Cruzamento/normas , Galinhas/fisiologia , Digestão/fisiologia , Trato Gastrointestinal/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Cruzamento/métodos , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Masculino
15.
Poult Sci ; 100(3): 100801, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518325

RESUMO

Heat stress (HS) is a critical concern to the poultry industry as it affects both productivity and well-being. Various managerial and nutritional strategies have been proposed to mitigate the negative effects of HS in chickens, with plant-based additives showing promise. Recently, we reported the positive effect of a phytogenic feed additive (PFA) on growth performance in HS birds. Owing to the antioxidant nature of these compounds, we sought to further explore the effect of PFA on whole blood circulating chemokines, cytokines, and inflammasomes in HS broilers. Broilers (600 males, 1 d) were randomly assigned to 12 environmental chambers, subjected to 2 environmental conditions (12 h cyclic heat stress, HS, 35°C vs. thermoneutral condition [TN], 24°C) and fed 3 diets (control, PFA-C 250 ppm, PFA-C 400 ppm) in a 2 × 3 factorial design. After 21 d of cyclic HS, blood samples were collected for target gene expression analysis. HS upregulated the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and downregulated glutathione peroxidase-3 (GPX-3), and there was diet × temperature interaction for SOD2, GPX-1, and GPX-3, where gene expression was increased by PFA-C250 during HS but was unchanged for PFA-C400. Plasma total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content were increased by HS. Gene expression of interleukin-18 (IL-18) was decreased by HS, without further effect of PFA. HS increased tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), but this effect was mitigated by PFA-C400. C-C motif chemokine ligands 4 and 20 (CCL4 and CCL20) showed a similar pattern to TNFα, with PFA-C400 ameliorating the negative effect of HS. The nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome was decreased by HS and further lowered by PFA-C400, but the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain, leucine-rich repeat, and CARD domain containing 3 (NLRC3) and nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat containing X1 (NLRX1) inflammasomes were increased by PFA under TN conditions, with no effects of HS. Heat shock proteins (HSP) and heat shock factors (HSF) were unaffected by PFA or HS. Together these data indicate that gene expression of circulating inflammatory factors are dysregulated during HS, and supplemental dietary PFA may be protective.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Inflamassomos , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/imunologia , Dieta/veterinária , Inflamassomos/sangue , Inflamassomos/genética , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Transcriptoma
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(2): 517-526, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518104

RESUMO

With the pressure to reduce antibiotics use in poultry production, cost-effective alternative products need to be developed to enhance the bird's immunity. The present study evaluated the efficacy of cranberry fruit by-products to modulate immunity in broiler chickens. Broiler Cobb 500 chicks were fed a control basal diet, basal diet supplemented with bacitracin (BACI, 55 ppm), cranberry pomace at 1% and 2% (CP2), or cranberry pomace ethanolic extract at 150 and 300 ppm (COH300) for 30 d. Blood sera were analyzed at days 21 and 28 of age for Ig levels by ELISA. The innate and adaptive immune-related gene expression levels in the liver and bursa of Fabricius were investigated at 21 d of age by quantitative polymerase chain reaction arrays. At day 21, the highest IgY level was found in the blood serum of the CP2-fed birds. In the liver, 13 of the 22 differentially expressed genes were downregulated across all treatments compared with the control. Expression of genes belonging to innate immunity such as caspase 1 apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase, chemokine receptor 5, interferon gamma, myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, and Toll-like receptor 3 were significantly downregulated mainly in BACI- and COH300-fed birds. In the bursa, 5 of 9 genes associated with the innate immunity were differentially expressed. The expression of anti-inflammatory IL-10 gene was upregulated in all treatment groups in bursa compared with the control. The expression of transferrin gene was significantly upregulated in livers of birds fed COH300 and in bursa of birds fed BACI, indicating feeding practices and organ-dependant modulation of this gene in broiler. Overall results of this study showed that cranberry product feed supplementation modulated the innate immune and suppressed proinflammatory cytokines in broilers, providing a platform for future investigations to develop berry products in poultry feeding.


Assuntos
Bolsa de Fabricius/imunologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Fígado/imunologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon , Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bolsa de Fabricius/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/sangue , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Frutas , Imunidade Inata/genética , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vaccinium macrocarpon/química
17.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 210: 111825, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412284

RESUMO

To explore the effect of florfenicol (FFC) combined with Salvia miltiorrhiza polysaccharide (SMPs) on immune function of Broilers. One hundred and twenty-one-day-old chicks were chosen and divided into 6 groups. The group A received standard basal diet only, the group B received a basal diet with FFC (0.15 g/L diet), and the group C, D, E received a basal diet with FFC (0.15 g/L diet) and SMPs (1.25 g/L, 2.5 g/L, 5 g/L diet),the group F received a basal diet with SMPs (5 g/L diet). FFC can significantly inhibit the growth performance of broilers, but has no significant damage to the immune function of broilers. The combination of FFC and SMPs can improve the growth performance of broilers, increase the number of leukocyte subtypes in blood (P < 0.05), increase the number of Newcastle disease (ND) and avian influenza (AI) antibodies in blood, the number of immunoglobulins, and the content of cytokines (P < 0.05). In addition, it significantly improve the lymphocyte conversion rate of broiler peripheral blood (P < 0.05). So that, synergistic use of FFC and SMPs can enhance immune responses in Broilers.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Salvia miltiorrhiza , Tianfenicol/análogos & derivados , Ração Animal , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Citocinas/sangue , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Influenza Humana/imunologia , Leucócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Tianfenicol/farmacologia
18.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 319-324, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357696

RESUMO

The Green-legged Partridgelike fowl is an old Polish indigenous breed of chicken. Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are one of the best sources of precursor cells that can be used for the conservation and proliferation of the endangered breeds of bird. Initially, the chicken PGCs colonize at the anterior extraembryonic region called "germinal crescent," and after the establishment of blood vascular circulation, they temporally circulate via the embryonic blood vascular system along with embryonic blood cells. They further colonize at the microcapillary networks of both right and left future gonadal regions. Subsequently, they migrate interstitially to reach gonadal anlages, where they begin to differentiate and eventually develop into the future ova or sperm. The basic knowledge regarding the concentration and the total number of circulating PGCs (cPGCs) throughout their circulating phase in the early embryonic stages is crucial for providing an insight into the mechanisms by which they circulate and colonize at the capillary networks of left and right future gonadal regions in each developmental stage. The present study aims to determine the most efficient developmental stage that is suitable to collect cPGCs. The concentration of cPGCs was directly measured, and total volume of embryonic blood was calculated based on the concentration of PKH26-stained embryonic blood cells which were injected 10 min before the blood sampling process in the same embryo during each stage of embryonic development from stage 13 Hamburger and Hamilton (HH; Hamburger and Hamilton, 1951) to 16 HH. Analysis of whole embryonic bloodstream revealed that at stage 14 HH of embryonic development, peak total number of cPGCs (386.3 cells/µL) and peak concentration of cPGCs (18.6 cells/µL) were observed. Later, there was a decrease in concentration, suggesting that the cPGCs might be trapped gradually by the capillary networks at the future gonadal regions after stage 15 HH.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Células Germinativas , Animais , Células Sanguíneas , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/sangue , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Células Germinativas/citologia , Gônadas/citologia
19.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 1-8, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357671

RESUMO

In commercial egg production, laying hen chicks are exposed to several stressful events during incubation, hatching, and their first hours in life. We have previously shown that hatching and processing are associated with increased corticosterone concentration and further affect behavior and stress sensitivity in a short- as well as long-term perspective. However, it is not known whether these long-term stress effects are caused by the hatchery processing (sex sorting, vaccination, conveying, and loading for transport) or if they are mainly caused by potentially stressful events before processing, during incubation and hatching. In the present study, the aim was to assess the effects of incubation and hatching only, compared to stress effects from the entire hatchery processing. We compared Lohmann LSL chicks incubated, hatched, and processed in a commercial hatchery with chicks incubated and hatched at the same time but not further processed. We studied behavior in a novel arena and during tonic immobility, as well as weight development and corticosterone reaction during a stress challenge. Processed chicks had poorer weight development and were more active in the novel arena test. However, there were no significant differences between the groups in corticosterone reactivity or tonic immobility. When comparing with previous data, both groups had elevated corticosterone concentrations compared to what we had previously reported from chicks hatched under calm and non-stressful conditions. In conclusion, incubation and hatching alone caused long-term stress effects in chickens, but further processing exacerbated these effects to some extent.


Assuntos
Criação de Animais Domésticos , Galinhas , Estresse Fisiológico , Criação de Animais Domésticos/métodos , Criação de Animais Domésticos/normas , Animais , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/fisiologia , Corticosterona/sangue , Feminino , Abrigo para Animais , Masculino , Ganho de Peso
20.
Poult Sci ; 100(1): 174-185, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33357679

RESUMO

A total of 2622 male broilers were distributed in a 2 × 5 factorial design, using 2 lipid sources (soybean oil and palm fat), 5 levels of vitamin A supplementation (0, 3,000, 6,000, 12,000, and 24,000 IU kg-1), with 10 replicates, and also 1 control diet (CD) for each lipid source used (7 replicates), each experimental unit being composed of 23 birds. During the first 21 d (how were the birds fed) and from 22 to 42 d of age, a redistribution of the treatments was carried out in a 2 × 2 × 5 factorial design: half of the repetitions of each treatment received the diet of the initial treatment, and the others received the CD with its type of lipid source. In the phase from 1 to 21 d of age, the effect of lipid source on feed intake (FI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR), and the effect of vitamin supplementation on FI and weight gain (WG) were observed, with a quadratic response for both variables. At 42 d of age, the lipid source and vitamin A level influenced the FI, whereas the WG and FCR showed interactions between period and the level of vitamin A supplementation. Neither lipid source resulted in blood parameters out of the typical pattern for birds, and the same was observed in relation to dietary vitamin A supplementation. From 1 to 21 d of age, a vitamin A supplementation of 15,585 IU kg-1 was estimated, and at 42 d, 15,527 IU kg-1 and 15,148 IU kg -1 were estimated for the periods 1 to 21 d and 1 to 42 d, respectively.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Animal , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais , Vitamina A , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Desenvolvimento Ósseo/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas/sangue , Galinhas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Galinhas/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Gorduras Insaturadas na Dieta/farmacologia , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Vitamina A/farmacologia , Vitaminas/farmacologia
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