Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.857
Filtrar
1.
Acta Virol ; 63(4): 380-391, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31802681

RESUMO

Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an immunosuppressive pathogen that can cause low production efficiency and high mortality rates in chickens. There is no current information on the MDV serotypes and pathotypes circulating in vaccinated commercial farms in Colombia where the birds are vaccinated in the incubator with Gallid herpesvirus (GaHV-2) and Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 (MeHV-1). Based on that, the main focus of this study was to understand the MDV's infection dynamics for the three known serotypes and to detect wild-virus pathogenic strains in 4-layer poultry farms in Antioquia. Samples of blood, feathers and spleens were collected from three randomly chosen animals according to age category: 1, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 days. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) that differentiates between the three serotypes of MDV was used to assess viral loads over time, and phylogenetic analysis of the Meq oncogene was done to compare the strains of MDV with those of known pathogenicity. Meleagrid herpesvirus 1 (MeHV-1) was detected in all blood and feather follicle samples with an average number of genome copies (per 10,000 cells) of 31.44 in blood as expected as a result of vaccination. GaHV-2 was also detected in almost 100% of the blood and feather follicle samples throughout all defined age categories, with an average of 10.65 genome copies in blood samples. Gallid herpesvirus 3 (GaHV-3) was detected in 72% of blood and 84.61% of feather samples, with less than 1 copy per 10,000 cells. Based on the number of 132 bp repeats of the BamHI-H and BamHI-D regions in pooled feather samples, there were 70% (8/25) of attenuated MDV and 30% (17/25) of virulent MDV strains circulating in the farms. Virus isolation was performed successfully from every farm. In conclusion, different strains of MDV are circulating for up to 120 days in layers in Antioquia-Colombia and could be of major impact in poultry health. Keywords: Marek's disease virus (MDV); Antioquia-Colombia; qPCR; PCR; Meq gene phylogeny.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Plumas , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2 , Doença de Marek , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Colômbia , Plumas/virologia , Feminino , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/genética , Doença de Marek/diagnóstico , Doença de Marek/virologia , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
2.
Biochimie ; 166: 203-213, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518617

RESUMO

Influenza A virus (IAV) is one of the most common infectious pathogen and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Although processing the IAV hemagglutinin (HA) envelope glycoprotein precursor is a pre-requisite for viral membrane fusion activity, viral entry and transmission, HA-processing protease is not encoded in the IAV genome and thus the cellular trypsin-type serine HA-processing proteases determine viral infectious tropism and viral pathogenicity. The initial process of IAV infection of the airway is followed by marked upregulation of ectopic trypsin in various organs and endothelial cells through the induction of various proinflammatory cytokines, and this process has been termed the "influenza virus-cytokine-trypsin" cycle. In the advanced stage of IAV infection, the cytokine storm induces disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism and the "metabolic disorders-cytokine" cycle is then linked with the "influenza virus-cytokine-trypsin" cycle, to advance the pathogenic process into energy crisis and multiple organ failure. Application of protease inhibitors and treatment of metabolic disorders that break these cycles and their interconnection is therefore a promising therapeutic approach against influenza. This review discusses IAV pathogenicity on trypsin type serine HA-processing proteases, cytokines, metabolites and therapeutic options.


Assuntos
Glicoproteínas de Hemaglutininação de Vírus da Influenza/metabolismo , Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Humana , Serina Proteases/fisiologia , Internalização do Vírus/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/tratamento farmacológico , Influenza Humana/virologia , Orthomyxoviridae/efeitos dos fármacos , Orthomyxoviridae/patogenicidade , Tripsina/metabolismo
3.
Mol Immunol ; 114: 497-512, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518854

RESUMO

Compounding with the problem of frequent antigenic shift and occasional drift of the segmented genome of Avian Influenza Virus (AIV), vaccines based on major surface glycoproteins such as haemagglutinin (HA) to counter heterosubtypic AIV infection in chickens remain unsuccessful. In contrast, neuraminidase (NA), the second most abundant surface glycoprotein present in viral capsid is less mutable and, in some instances, successful in eliciting inter-species cross-reactive antibody responses. However, without selective activation of B-cells and T-cells, the ability of NA to induce strong cell mediated immune responses is limited, thus NA based vaccines cannot singularly address the risk of virus escape from host defence. To this end, the highly conserved ectodomain of influenza matrix protein-2 (M2e) has emerged as an attractive cross-protective vaccine target. The present study describes the potential of recombinant Lactococcus lactis (rL. lactis) in expressing functional influenza NA or M2e proteins and conferring effective mucosal and systemic immune responses in the intestine as well as in the upper respiratory airways (trachea) of chickens. In addition, lavages collected from trachea and intestine of birds administered with rL. lactis expressing influenza NA or M2e protein were found to protect MDCK cells against avian influenza type A/PR/8/34 (H1N1) virus challenge. Although minor, the differences in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines gene transcripts targeted in this study among the birds administered with either empty or rL. lactis could be attributed to the activation of innate response by L. lactis.


Assuntos
Galinhas/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/imunologia , Lactococcus lactis/imunologia , Neuraminidase/imunologia , Proteínas da Matriz Viral/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Reações Cruzadas/imunologia , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H1N1/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Vacinação/métodos
4.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 762, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477028

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Avian influenza A (H5N6) virus poses a great threat to the human health since it is capable to cross the species barrier and infect humans. Although human infections are believed to largely originate from poultry contaminations, the transmissibility is unclear and only limited information was available on poultry environment contaminations, especially in Fujian Province. METHODS: A total of 4901 environmental samples were collected and tested for Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) from six cities in Fujian Province through the Fujian Influenza Surveillance System from 2013 to 2017. Two patient-related samples were taken from Fujian's first confirmed H5N6 human case and his backyard chicken feces in 2017. Chi-square test or Fisher's exact probability test was used to compare the AIV and the viral subtype positive rates among samples from different Surveillance cities, surveillance sites, sample types, and seasons. Phylogenetic tree analysis and molecular analysis were conducted to track the viral transmission route of the human infection and to map out the evolutions of H5N6 in Fujian. RESULTS: The overall positive rate of the H5 subtype AIVs was 4.24% (208/4903). There were distinctive differences (p < 0.05) in the positive rates in samples from different cities, sample sites, sample types and seasons. The viruses from the patient and his backyard chicken feces shared high homologies (99.9-100%) in all the eight gene segments. Phylogenetic trees also showed that these two H5N6 viruses were closely related to each other, and were classified into the same genetic clade 2.3.4.4 with another six H5N6 isolates from the environmental samples. The patient's H5N6 virus carried genes from H6N6, H5N8 and H5N6 viruses originated from different areas. The R294K or N294S substitution was not detected in the neuraminidase (NA). The S31 N substitution in the matrix2 (M2) gene was detected but only in one strain from the environmental samples. CONCLUSIONS: The H5 subtype of AIVs has started circulating in the poultry environments in Fujian Province. The patient's viral strain originated from the chicken feces in his backyard. Genetic reassortment in H5N6 viruses in Fujian Province was indicated. The H5N6 viruses currently circulating in Fujian Province were still commonly sensitive to Oseltamivir and Zanamivir, but the resistance against Amantadine has emerged.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/isolamento & purificação , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/virologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Patos/virologia , Meio Ambiente , Microbiologia Ambiental , Genes Virais , Abrigo para Animais/normas , Humanos , Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Influenza Aviária/diagnóstico , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Tipagem Molecular , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Orthomyxoviridae/transmissão , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Fatores de Risco
5.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 234-242, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383307

RESUMO

During 2012-2015, six H5N1 avian influenza viruses were isolated from domestic birds and the environment around Qinghai Lake. Phylogenetic analysis of HA genes revealed that A/chicken/Gansu/XG2/2012 (CK/GS/XG2/12) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1a, while A/environment/Qinghai/1/2013 (EN/QH/1/13), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH1/2015 (CK/QH/QH1/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH2/2015 (CK/QH/QH2/15), A/chicken/Qinghai/QH3/2015 (CK/QH/QH3/15), and A/goose/Qinghai/QH6/2015 (GS/QH/QH6/15) belonged to clade 2.3.2.1c. Further analysis of the internal genes of the isolates found that the PB2 gene of EN/QH/1/13 had 99.6% nucleotide identity with that of A/tiger/Jiangsu/1/2013 (H5N1), which clustered into an independent branch with PB2 from multiple subtypes. PB2, PB1, and M genes of CK/QH/QH3/15 were from H9N2, suggesting it was a reassortant of H5N1 and H9N2. Animal studies of three selected viruses revealed that CK/GS/XG2/12, EN/QH/1/13, and CK/QH/QH3/15 were highly lethal to chickens, with intravenous pathogenicity indexes (IVPIs) of 2.97, 2.81, and 3.00, respectively, and systemically replicated in chickens. In a mouse study, three selected H5N1 viruses were highly pathogenic to mice and readily replicated in the lungs, nasal turbinates, kidneys, spleens, and brains. Therefore, isolates in this study appear to be novel reassortants that were circulating at the interface of wild and domestic birds around Qinghai Lake and are lethal to chickens and mice. These data suggest that more extensive surveillance should be implemented, and matched vaccines should be chosen for the domestic birds in this area.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/genética , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Lagos/virologia , Células A549 , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , China/epidemiologia , Cães , Patos/virologia , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Humanos , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1/patogenicidade , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/mortalidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Células Madin Darby de Rim Canino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Filogenia , Vírus Reordenados/genética , Vírus Reordenados/patogenicidade , Replicação Viral
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 592-599, Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1040725

RESUMO

The aim was to determine the spread of genetically similar profiles of Campylobacter in chicken carcasses and evaluate their ability to produce transcripts for ciaB, dnaJ, p19 and sodB genes, before and after cultivation in Caco-2 cells. The strains used were isolated from 420 samples of chicken carcasses chilled and frozen ready for marketing. The species were identified by PCR-multiplex, the phylogeny was determined by RAPD-PCR and the presence of transcripts was performed by RT-PCR. We identified 74 (17.6%) of Campylobacter strains, being 55 (74.3%) C. jejuni and 19 (25.7%) C. coli. The phylogenetic relationship demonstrated heterogeneity between isolates of the same species, with absence of clones, indicating the high level of diversity of circulating genotypes. The gene transcription showed conflicting results before and after the culture in Caco-2 cell, so that before cultivation isolates showed greater capacity to transcribe genes related to survival and after the interaction with human cells, the strains showed higher potential to transcribe genes associated with virulence. The result of this study contributes to the understanding of how these seemingly fragile microorganisms are the most prevalent bacterial agents in human gastroenteritis.(AU)


O objetivo foi determinar a disseminação de perfis geneticamente semelhantes de Campylobacter em carcaças de frango e avaliar sua capacidade de produzir transcritos para os genes ciaB, dnaJ, p19 e sodB, antes e após o cultivo em células Caco-2. As cepas utilizadas foram isoladas de 420 amostras de carcaças de frango resfriadas e congeladas prontas para comercialização. As espécies foram identificadas por PCR-multiplex, a filogenia foi determinada por RAPD-PCR e a presença de transcritos foi realizada por RT-PCR. Identificamos 74 (17,6%) das cepas de Campylobacter, sendo 55 (74,3%) C. jejuni e 19 (25,7%) C. coli. A relação filogenética demonstrou heterogeneidade entre isolados da mesma espécie, com ausência de clones, indicando o alto nível de diversidade dos genótipos circulantes. A transcrição gênica mostrou resultados conflitantes antes e após a cultura em células Caco-2, de modo que, antes do cultivo, os isolados apresentaram maior capacidade de transcrever genes relacionados à sobrevivência e após a interação com células humanas, as linhagens apresentaram maior potencial para transcrever genes associados à virulência. O resultado deste estudo contribui para a compreensão de como esses microrganismos aparentemente frágeis são os agentes bacterianos mais prevalentes na gastroenterite humana.(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Zoonoses/etiologia , Campylobacter jejuni/isolamento & purificação , Campylobacter coli/isolamento & purificação , Galinhas/virologia , Fatores de Virulência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/veterinária , Transcriptoma
7.
Genes (Basel) ; 10(7)2019 07 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31319636

RESUMO

Newcastle Disease (ND) is a continuing global threat to domestic poultry, especially in developing countries, where severe outbreaks of velogenic ND virus (NDV) often cause major economic losses to households. Local chickens are of great importance to rural family livelihoods through provision of high-quality protein. To investigate the genetic basis of host response to NDV, three popular Tanzanian chicken ecotypes (regional populations) were challenged with a lentogenic (vaccine) strain of NDV at 28 days of age. Various host response phenotypes, including anti-NDV antibody levels (pre-infection and 10 days post-infection, dpi), and viral load (2 and 6 dpi) were measured, in addition to growth rate. We estimated genetic parameters and conducted genome-wide association study analyses by genotyping 1399 chickens using the Affymetrix 600K chicken SNP chip. Estimates of heritability of the evaluated traits were moderate (0.18-0.35). Five quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with growth and/or response to NDV were identified by single-SNP analyses, with some regions explaining ≥1% of genetic variance based on the Bayes-B method. Immune related genes, such as ETS1, TIRAP, and KIRREL3, were located in regions associated with viral load at 6 dpi. The moderate estimates of heritability and identified QTL indicate that NDV response traits may be improved through selective breeding of chickens to enhance increased NDV resistance and vaccine efficacy in Tanzanian local ecotypes.


Assuntos
Galinhas/genética , Galinhas/virologia , Ecótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/genética , Doença de Newcastle/virologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Galinhas/imunologia , Biologia Computacional/métodos , Genoma , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Genômica/métodos , Genótipo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/imunologia , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas
8.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 65: 219-225, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300117

RESUMO

The interaction between a low pathogenic avian influenza virus (A/CK/TUN/145/2012), a H9N2 Tunisian isolate, and a vaccine strain (H120) of avian infectious bronchitis, administered simultaneously or sequentially three days apart to chicks during 20 days, was evaluated using ELISA antibody levels, quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analyses and histopathology examination. First, the in vivo replication interference of avian influenza virus (AIV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) was evaluated using qRT-PCR to detect accurately either AIV or IBV genomes or viral copy numbers during dual infections. Second, we have determined the amount of specific antibodies in sera of chick's infected with AIV alone, IBV alone, mixed AIV + IBV, IBV then AIV or AIV IBV 3 days later using an ELISA test. Finally, histopathological analyses of internal organs from inoculated chicks were realized. Quantitative results of AIV and IBV co-infection showed that interferences between the two viruses yielded decreased viral growth. However, in the case of super-infection, the second virus, either AIV or IBV, induced a decrease in the growth of the first inoculated virus. According to our results, vaccine application was safe and do not interfere with AIV H9N2 infection, and does not enhance such infection. In conclusion, co-infection of chicks with AIV and IBV, simultaneously or sequentially, affected the clinical signs, the virus replication dynamics as well as the internal organ integrity. The results proposed that infection with heterologous virus may result in temporary competition for cell receptors or competent cells for replication, most likely interferon-mediated.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/veterinária , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Interferência Viral , Replicação Viral , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Galinhas/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Viral/análise , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
9.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 213: 109882, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31307672

RESUMO

Marek's disease virus (MDV), a highly cell-associated oncogenic avian α-herpesvirus, is the causative agent of malignant transformation of T cells in domestic chickens. The latently infected CD4+CD8- T cells carry the virus through the blood stream and establish lymphomas in the skin, visceral organs and peripheral nerves. The feather follicle epithelium (FFE) is the only anatomical site where fully infectious enveloped virions are produced and eventually disseminated into the environment to infect contact birds. Therefore, skin and FFE play a critical role as being the common source of re-infection of birds sharing the same habitat. The molecular mechanism involved in the replication and assembly of MDV in the FFE leading to the production and release of cell-free infectious virus particles is unknown and to date no viral or host gene has been implicated in the process. To examine alterations in the expression pattern of viral genes, we performed RNA-seq on the skin samples of Marek's disease virus-infected susceptible chickens at 10, 20, and 30 days post infection. For comparative analysis of the expression patterns of viral genes between the skin and spleen of the MD-susceptible and resistant lines, Real-Time RT-PCR was employed. In total, RNA-seq based analysis identified 42 viral genes that were differentially expressed in the skin of infected birds. Majority of the identified genes are involved in DNA replication, capsid, tegument, and envelop formation. Comparative analysis between the skin and spleen of MD-susceptible and resistant chicken lines, revealed significantly higher expression of the genes in the skin of either lines than the spleen. Furthermore, much higher expression of the genes was observed in the skin of the susceptible line than the resistant line.


Assuntos
Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Genes Virais , Herpesvirus Galináceo 2/genética , Doença de Marek/imunologia , Pele/virologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Genoma Viral , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Pele/patologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Baço/patologia , Baço/virologia
10.
Poult Sci ; 98(11): 6019-6025, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309233

RESUMO

Emerging evidence suggests that some members of the tripartite motif (TRIM) family play a crucial role in antiretroviral. However, the chicken TRIM62 antiretroviral activity is unknown. Avian leukosis virus subgroup J (ALV-J) is an avian retrovirus mainly inducing tumor formation and immunosuppression. The purpose of the study was to explore chicken TRIM62's role in ALV-J replication. In this study, we first tested the RNA expression of ALV-J and TRIM62 in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs) cells infected with ALV-J by qRT-PCR. The result showed that ALV-J infection affected TRIM62 RNA expression, first upregulation and then downregulation, with the time course infection of ALV-J. Then, we silenced and overexpressed the TRIM62 to evaluate the effect of TRIM62 on ALV-J replication by qRT-PCR. We found that the knockdown of TRIM62 in CEF cells with shRNA targeting SPRY domain enhanced the viral replication more significantly than that with shRNA targeting coiled coil/unstructured domain, and overexpression of TRIM62 inhibited the viral replication. Further, we detected the effect of the domain deletion on TRIM62's antiviral activity. The result demonstrated that deletion of RING, B-box, coiled-coil domains partially abolished TRIM62's antiviral activity, while SPRY domain deletion resulted in the disappearance of antiviral activity of TRIM62. Taken together, our findings strongly suggested that TRIM62 plays an important role in the restriction of ALV-J replication, and SPRY domain is a prerequisite for the antiviral activity of TRIM62.


Assuntos
Vírus da Leucose Aviária/fisiologia , Proteínas Aviárias/metabolismo , Domínio B30.2-SPRY/genética , Galinhas/virologia , Proteínas com Motivo Tripartido/metabolismo , Replicação Viral , Animais , Embrião de Galinha , Fibroblastos/virologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica
11.
Vet Microbiol ; 235: 25-34, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282376

RESUMO

Five, class II, virulent Newcastle disease virus (vNDV) isolates of different genotypes from different host species were evaluated for their ability to infect, cause disease, and transmit to naïve chickens. Groups of five birds received a low, medium, or high dose, by the oculonasal route, of one of the following vNDV: three chicken-origin, one cormorant-origin, and one pigeon-origin. Three naïve birds were added to each group at two days post-inoculation (DPI) to evaluate transmission. Virus shedding was quantified from swabs (2/4/7 DPI), and seroconversion was evaluated at 14 DPI. All inoculated and contact birds in the chicken-origin vNDV groups succumbed to infection, displaying clinical signs typical of Newcastle disease and shed virus titers above 6 log10 EID50/ml. Birds receiving a high and medium dose of the cormorant virus showed primarily neurological clinical signs with 80% and 60% mortality, respectively. The chickens showing clinical disease shed virus at titers below 4 log10 EID50/ml, and the remaining bird in the high dose group seroconverted with a high HI titer. For the pigeon-origin virus, no clinical signs were observed in any of the birds, but all 5 chickens in the high challenge dose and one bird in the medium challenge group shed virus at mean titers of 3.1 and 2.2 log10 EID50/ml, respectively. Overall, the chicken-origin viruses infected chickens and efficiently transmitted to naïve birds, while the cormorant- and pigeon-origin viruses infected chickens only at the higher doses and did not transmit to other birds.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Columbidae/virologia , Doença de Newcastle/transmissão , Vírus da Doença de Newcastle/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Vacinação , Virulência , Eliminação de Partículas Virais
12.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103632, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325569

RESUMO

Infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) is the etiological agent of a highly contagious and immunosuppressive disease that affects domestic chickens. Toll-like receptors (TLRs), a kind of pattern recognition receptors, help the host to detect invading pathogens. To date, few systematic studies have been reported about the expression changes of TLR in chickens infected with pathogens. In the present study, layer chickens were infected with IBDV and the expression of chicken TLRs (chTLRs) was assayed by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the expression of chTLR1a, 1b, 2a, 3, 4 and 15 was upregulated in the bursa of chickens infected with IBDV compared with noninfected chickens, while chTLR2b, 5, 7 and 21 expression was downregulated. Correlation analysis showed that chTLR3 expressions was directly associated with IBDV VP2 mRNA expression in bursa. These results suggested that different TLRs have different responses to the same viral infection. Some TLRs were activated early on, some later, and some were suppressed. This is the first study to report on the response of all chTLRs to one virus. This provids a valuable overview of the expression pattern of chTLRs when chickens are challenged by pathogens.


Assuntos
Infecções por Birnaviridae/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/metabolismo , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Receptores Toll-Like/metabolismo , Animais , Infecções por Birnaviridae/genética , Infecções por Birnaviridae/virologia , Regulação Viral da Expressão Gênica , Imunidade Inata , Vírus da Doença Infecciosa da Bursa/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/metabolismo , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Proteínas Estruturais Virais/metabolismo
13.
J Vet Sci ; 20(3): e27, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31161745

RESUMO

In 2016, novel H5N6 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus emerged in Korea. During the outbreak, the virus caused the largest culling, especially in brown chicken lines. We determined the pathogenicity and transmissibility of the virus in 2 white chicken lines of the specific pathogen-free chickens, broilers and brown chicken line of Korean native chicken (KNC). A KNC had a longer virus shedding period and longer mean death time than others. Our study showed that this characteristic in the KNC might have contributed to a farm-to-farm transmission of the brown chicken farms.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Cruzamento , Galinhas/virologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/transmissão , República da Coreia , Virulência
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174705

RESUMO

This study was conducted to perform the comparative molecular characterization of avian influenza virus (AIV) H9N2, pathogenicity and seroprevalence in commercial and backyard poultry flocks. Fifty commercial poultry flocks were investigated between 2012 and 2015. Eighteen flocks (36%) out of 50 were positive HA. Seven (38.9%) out of 18 were positive by chromatographic strip test for AI common antigen. By Real-time RT-PCR, only two flocks were positive H9. The molecular characterization of two different AI-H9N2 viruses, one isolated from a broiler flock (A/chicken/Egypt/Mansoura-18/2013) and the other from a layer flock (A/chicken/Egypt/Mansoura-36/2015) was conducted on HA gene. Moreover, a higher seroprevalence, using the broiler strain as a known antigen, was shown in backyard chicken flocks 15/26 (57.7%) than duck flocks 9/74 (12.2%). Interestingly, the pathogenicity index (PI) of the H9N2 broiler strain in inoculated experimental chickens ranged from 1.2 (oculonasal route) to 1.9 (Intravenous route). The PI indicated a highly pathogenic effect, with high mortality (up to 100%) in the inoculated chickens correlated with the high mortality (80%) in the flock where the virus was isolated. The firstly recorded clinical signs, including cyanosis in the combs and wattles and subcutaneous haemorrhages in the leg shanks and lesions, as well as histopathology and immunohistochemistry, revealed a systemic infection of the high pathogenicity with the H9N2 virus. Conversely, the H9N2 layer strain showed a low pathogenicity. In conclusion, as a first report, the molecular analysis and pathogenicity of the tested strains confirmed the presence of a high pathogenicity AIV-H9N2 with systemic infections.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/patogenicidade , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Cianose/virologia , Patos/virologia , Egito/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/mortalidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/mortalidade , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Perus/virologia , Virulência
15.
Vet Microbiol ; 233: 1-4, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31176393

RESUMO

Domestic ducks are considered as the interface between wild aquatic birds and terrestrial poultry and play an important role in the transmission and evolution of avian influenza viruses (AIVs). However, the infectivity of H9N2 AIVs in different domestic duck species has not been systematically evaluated. Here we investigated the infectivity of various genotypes of chicken H9N2 AIVs in Pekin duck (Anas Platyrhynchos), Mallard duck (Anas Platyrhynchos) and Muscovy duck (Cairina Moschata) through intranasal inoculation. We found that Pekin ducks and Mallard ducks were generally resistant to chicken H9N2 virus infection, while Muscovy ducks were relatively susceptible to H9N2 AIVs. All the tested viruses were isolated from oropharynx, trachea and lung tissues of Muscovy ducks. Additionally, genotype 57 (G57) H9N2 AIVs, which was predominant in chickens since 2010, showed increased virus replication in this duck species, indicating an improved interspecies transmission ability of recent H9N2 viruses from chickens to ducks. Our results demonstrated the role of Muscovy ducks in the ecology of H9N2 AIVs. More attentions should be paid to this host during viral surveillances. Additionally, inactivated H9N2 vaccine may be unnecessarily used in Pekin and Mallard ducks.


Assuntos
Patos/virologia , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Replicação Viral , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/genética , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/fisiologia , Pulmão/virologia , Orofaringe/virologia , Traqueia/virologia
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 2750472, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31223613

RESUMO

Chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) causes the atrophy of bone marrow hematopoietic and lymphoid tissues in chicks, leading to huge economic losses all over the world. The using of attenuated vaccine contaminated with CIAV increased the mortality and the pathogenicity of other diseases in many farms. However, it is difficult to detect the CIAV contamination by general detection technology due to the extremely low dose of CIAV in vaccines. In this study, we established a new method called droplet digital Polymerase Chain Reaction (ddPCR) to detect CIAV contamination of vaccines more sensitively and accurately. The lowest detection limitation of this method is 2.4 copies of CIAV plasmid or CIAV contamination at 0.1 EID50/1000 feathers in vaccines without any positive signals of other viruses. Besides, the sensitivity of ddPCR is 100 times greater than that of conventional PCR and 10 times greater than that of real-time PCR. The ddPCR technique is more sensitive and more intuitive. Therefore, it could be valuable for the detection of CIAV contamination in vaccines.


Assuntos
Vírus da Anemia da Galinha/genética , Galinhas/virologia , Contaminação de Medicamentos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Vacinas Virais/análise , Animais , Vacinas Atenuadas/análise , Vacinas Virais/genética
17.
Virus Res ; 267: 59-66, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082454

RESUMO

Avian infectious bronchitis (IB) is a globally circulating bird disease caused by infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). In China, the most prevalent IBV genotype is GI-19/QX-like because the protective efficiency of the classical IBV vaccine is low, and new GI-19 vaccines are under development. In 2018, a GI-22 genotype strain CK/CH/LGD/2018 (abbreviated 'LGD') was isolated in northern China, which caused 10%-30% morality in H120-vaccinated chickens. A phylogenetic analysis showed that this new isolate displays novel features compared with other earlier-isolated reference strains. To monitor the epidemic trend of IBV in China, the pathogenicity of LGD was first evaluated in 1-day-old specific-pathogen-free chickens. LGD induced classical IBV damage in the trachea and kidney, whereas it also infected and damaged the bursa of Fabricius, an important immune organ of chickens. The efficacy of our earlier-developed GI-19 vaccine, strain SZ200, against LGD was also evaluated in this study. The GI-19 genotype vaccine provided sufficient protection against the new GI-22 genotype strain, and may be a promising candidate vaccine with which to control both wild GI-19 and GI-22 strains in the future.


Assuntos
Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/imunologia , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/patogenicidade , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Potência de Vacina , Vacinas Virais/imunologia , Animais , Galinhas/virologia , Genótipo , Vírus da Bronquite Infecciosa/genética , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Organismos Livres de Patógenos Específicos , Vacinação/veterinária , Vacinas Atenuadas/imunologia
18.
Mol Immunol ; 111: 87-94, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048099

RESUMO

Reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV), an avian retrovirus is able to infect a variety of birds and can cause immunosuppression. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of thymic lymphocytes apoptosis, proliferation and T cell subtype with immunosuppression. In this study, a hundred and twenty one-day old SPF chickens were randomly divided into control groups (group C) and a REV infection groups (group I). The chickens of group I received intraperitoneal injections of REV with 104.62/0.1 ml TCID50. On day 14, 21, 28 and 35 post-inoculation, the chickens of C group and I group were sacrificed by cardiac puncture blood collection, and the thymic lymphocytes was sterile collected. The proliferation ability of lymphocytes was tested by Cell Counting Kit-8. Flow cytometry was performed to detect apoptosis, cell cycle stage and the change in T cell subtype. The RNA genome copy numbers of REV virus were detected using real-time PCR. Real-time PCR and western blotting were performed to analyze the expression of CyclinD1 and Bcl-2. Our results showed that REV genome copy number steadily declined, the proliferation potential of thymic lymphocytes was inhibited, lymphocytes apoptosed, the ratio of CD4+/CD8+ decreased and the expression of CyclinD1 and Bcl-2 were firstly inhibited, then rapidly recovered. Thus, immunosuppression lead by REV is closely related to the change of T cell subtype, apoptosis, and proliferation of thymic lymphocytes.


Assuntos
Apoptose/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Galinhas/imunologia , Vírus da Reticuloendoteliose/imunologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Timo/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Ciclo Celular/imunologia , Galinhas/virologia , Ciclina D1/imunologia , Dosagem de Genes/imunologia , Genoma Viral/imunologia , Imunossupressão/métodos , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/imunologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-bcl-2/imunologia , Infecções por Retroviridae/virologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/virologia , Timo/virologia
19.
Acta Trop ; 196: 93-101, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063711

RESUMO

The purpose of this case study is to examine how environmental disruption and agricultural practices act synergistically to create a perfect storm for the spread of avian influenza. Actors in this case study include the vast permafrost landscape of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau; a wild goose that migrates over the Himalayas; the highest altitude railway in the world that traverses the plateau into Tibet; and an avian virus (H5N1). Commencing in 2001, tens of thousands of railway workers travelled to remote regions of the plateau to work on the railway. In order to feed and shelter these workers, the Chinese government established captive-bred goose farms as a source of high protein food. Beginning in 2005 and continuing in subsequent years, Qinghai Lake was the scene for the unprecedented appearance of avian influenza among migratory geese. This was a key moment in the global spread of H5N1 to poultry on three continents. Remote sensing technology suggested an ecological pathway for the transfer of avian viruses among chickens, captive-bred geese, and wild geese. Within a region experiencing rapid climate change, Qinghai Lake is warming even faster than the global average. This may relate to the persistent outbreaks of avian flu strains from Qinghai during the past twelve years. Globally, exponential increases in bird flu outbreaks are not merely a matter of chance mutations in flu viruses but also a result of antecedent social and environmental factors. The Qinghai case study provides real-world examples that bring these factors into sharp focus.


Assuntos
Galinhas/virologia , Gansos/virologia , Virus da Influenza A Subtipo H5N1 , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Animais , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Filogenia , Tibet/epidemiologia
20.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 25(6): 1110-1117, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107212

RESUMO

During 2014-2017, we isolated a novel orthobunyavirus from broiler chickens with severe kidney lesions in the state of Kedah, Malaysia; we named the virus Kedah fatal kidney syndrome virus (KFKSV). Affected chickens became listless and diarrheic before dying suddenly. Necropsies detected pale and swollen kidneys with signs of gout, enlarged and fragile livers, and pale hearts. Experimental infection of broiler chickens with KFKSV reproduced the disease and pathologic conditions observed in the field, fulfilling the Koch's postulates. Gene sequencing indicated high nucleotide identities between KFKSV isolates (99%) and moderate nucleotide identities with the orthobunyavirus Umbre virus in the large (78%), medium (77%), and small (86%) genomic segments. KFKSV may be pathogenic for other host species, including humans.


Assuntos
Infecções por Bunyaviridae/veterinária , Galinhas/virologia , Orthobunyavirus , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/epidemiologia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia , Animais , Biópsia , Genes Virais , Geografia Médica , História do Século XXI , Malásia/epidemiologia , Orthobunyavirus/classificação , Orthobunyavirus/genética , Orthobunyavirus/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/história , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , RNA Viral
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA