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1.
Environ Pollut ; 292(Pt A): 118335, 2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34637835

RESUMO

Sown seeds are a key component of many farmland birds' diets due to natural food shortages in autumn and winter. Because these seeds are often treated with pesticides, their ingestion by birds can result in toxic effects. For risk assessment, data on treated seed toxicity should be combined with information about exposure risk for wild birds and the factors that modulate it. We characterized the exposure of red-legged partridges to pesticide-treated seeds through the analysis of digestive contents of birds shot by hunters (n = 194) in an agricultural region in central Spain. We measured the contribution of sown seeds to the partridges' diet and how it related to pesticide exposure. Moreover, we evaluated the influence of landscape composition on the intake of sown seeds and pesticides by partridges. During peak sowing time, seeds constituted half (50.7%) of the fresh biomass ingested by partridges, which consumed mostly winter cereal seeds (42.3% of biomass). Residues of seven fungicides and one insecticide (active ingredients) were detected in 33.0% of birds. The presence of pesticides in digestive contents was linked to the ingestion of cereal sown seeds. Moreover, dietary exposure of birds to pesticides was modulated by landscape characteristics, being lower in areas with heterogeneous landscapes, greater habitat mosaic and more natural vegetation. The estimated dietary intake of pesticides resulting from our field observations, in combination with experimental data on pesticide toxicity, raise concerns about the risks that pesticide-treated cereal seeds pose to granivorous bird populations. Our results highlight the importance of farming landscape composition and diversification, which should be considered as a priority in the agricultural policy to mitigate pesticide risks to farmland birds through the consumption of treated seeds.


Assuntos
Fungicidas Industriais , Galliformes , Inseticidas , Animais , Fungicidas Industriais/toxicidade , Inseticidas/análise , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Sementes/química , Espanha
2.
BMC Ecol Evol ; 21(1): 194, 2021 10 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34689746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The boreal forest is one of the largest biomes on earth, supporting thousands of species. The global climate fluctuations in the Quaternary, especially the ice ages, had a significant influence on the distribution of boreal forest, as well as the divergence and evolution of species inhabiting this biome. To understand the possible effects of on-going and future climate change it would be useful to reconstruct past population size changes and relate such to climatic events in the past. We sequenced the genomes of 32 individuals from two forest inhabiting bird species, Hazel Grouse (Tetrastes bonasia) and Chinese Grouse (T. sewerzowi) and three representatives of two outgroup species from Europe and China. RESULTS: We estimated the divergence time of Chinese Grouse and Hazel Grouse to 1.76 (0.46-3.37) MYA. The demographic history of different populations in these two sibling species was reconstructed, and showed that peaks and bottlenecks of effective population size occurred at different times for the two species. The northern Qilian population of Chinese Grouse became separated from the rest of the species residing in the south approximately 250,000 years ago and have since then showed consistently lower effective population size than the southern population. The Chinese Hazel Grouse population had a higher effective population size at the peak of the Last Glacial Period (approx. 300,000 years ago) than the European population. Both species have decreased recently and now have low effective population sizes. CONCLUSIONS: Combined with the uplift history and reconstructed climate change during the Quaternary, our results support that cold-adapted grouse species diverged in response to changes in the distribution of palaeo-boreal forest and the formation of the Loess Plateau. The combined effects of climate change and an increased human pressure impose major threats to the survival and conservation of both species.


Assuntos
Mudança Climática , Galliformes , Animais , Ecossistema , Galliformes/genética , Humanos , Densidade Demográfica , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma
3.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0253635, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34610035

RESUMO

Hunter harvest is a potential factor contributing to population declines of sage-grouse (Centrocercus spp.). As a result, wildlife agencies throughout western North America have set increasingly more conservative harvest regulations over the past 25 years to reduce or eliminate hunter success and concomitant numbers of harvested greater (C. urophasianus) and Gunnison (C. minimus) sage-grouse. Sage-grouse hunting has varied widely over time and space, which has made a comprehensive summary of hunting management challenging. We compiled data on harvest regulations among 11 western U.S. states and 2 Canadian provinces from 1870-2019 to create a timeline representative of hunting regulations. We compared annual harvest boundaries and area-weighted average hunting regulations, 1995-2018, relative to administrative boundaries and areas of high probability of sage-grouse occupation. We also summarized estimated numbers of birds harvested and hunters afield, 1995-2018, across both species' ranges. From 1995-2018, there was a 30% reduction in administrative harvest boundaries across the greater sage-grouse range compared to a 16.6% reduction in area open to harvest within 8 km from active leks. Temporary closures occurred in response to wildfires, disease outbreaks, low population numbers, and two research projects; whereas, permanent closures primarily occurred in small populations and areas on the periphery of the species distribution. Similarly, area-weighted possession limits and season length for greater sage-grouse decreased 52.6% and 61.0%, respectively, while season start date stayed relatively stable (mean start date ~259 [mid-September]). In contrast, hunting of the now federally-threatened Gunnison sage-grouse ended after 1999. While restrictions in harvest regulations were large in area, closures near areas of high greater sage-grouse occupancy were relatively smaller with the same trend for Gunnison sage-grouse until hunting ceased. For greater sage-grouse, most states reduced bag and possession limits and appeared to adhere to recommendations for later and shorter hunting seasons, reducing potential for additive mortality.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/fisiologia , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Ecossistema , América do Norte , Dinâmica Populacional , Codorniz/fisiologia , Estações do Ano
4.
Poult Sci ; 100(11): 101428, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34601439

RESUMO

Considering the value of guinea fowl keets, successful incubation of eggs is particularly desirable in this poultry species. This study evaluated the effect of egg storage duration on egg quality, heat production, hematological parameters during embryonic development and post hatch performance of guinea fowl broilers. A total of 800 hatching eggs of guinea fowl were used for this study. Before incubation, 12 eggs per treatment were used to analyse egg quality. Then, eggs were numbered, weighed, and assigned to 2 treatment groups of 400 eggs each according to storage duration of 5, and 10 d at a temperature of 18°C. The eggs were set for incubation at 37.7°C and 55% relative humidity for 28 d in a forced-draft incubator. To determine heat production as a measure of metabolism, 60 eggs in each replicate were transferred to respiratory cages post hatch two 12 wk old guinea fowl were also used to determine heat production. CO2 and O2 were recorded to calculate heat production at internal pipping, hatch and at 12 wk of age. The hatched keets were reared for 12 wk and data were collected on feed intake, body weight and feed conversion ratio. Blood samples were collected at hatch and at 12 wk of age from 24 guinea fowls per treatment to analyze haematological parameters. The results showed that embryos and guinea fowls at 12 wks of age from eggs stored for 5 d had higher (P ˂ 0.05) heat production and body weights. However, a significant higher (P ˂ 0.05) level of basophile, eosinophils, and lymphocytes was observed in guinea fowls from 10 d storage egg. It was concluded that extended duration of egg storage negatively influenced the metabolic rate of embryos. It also impacted hematological parameters which may suggest influence on immune response during embryonic and post-hatch growth.


Assuntos
Galinhas , Galliformes , Animais , Peso Corporal , Desenvolvimento Embrionário , Óvulo
5.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e249159, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586192

RESUMO

There is a paucity of research conducted on microbial prevalence in pheasants. The microbiota of captive birds has zoonotic significance and must be characterize. Present study is therefore planned to assess the microbiota from oral, fecal and gut content of captive avian species. It will be helpful in characterization of harmful microbes. Different samples taken from oral, gut and feces of ring-necked pheasants (Phasianus colchicus), green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor), golden pheasant (Chrysolophus pictus) and silver pheasant (Lophura nycthemera). Samples were collected, diluted, and inoculated onto different agar plates (MacConkey, SS agar, MSA and nutrient agar) for cultivation of bacterial species. Colonies of E.coli, Staphylococcus spp. Brachyspira spp. and Campylobacter spp were observed based on colony morphology. Colony forming unit showed E. coli as frequently found bacteria in fecal, oral and gut contents of all the above pheasants. The overall significance difference was found among bacterial species of golden pheasants, green pheasant, ring-necked pheasant, and silver pheasants. It was concluded that E.coli is predominant isolated from heathy pheasants followed by Campylobacter, Staphylococcus and Brachyspira.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Animais , Escherichia coli , Fezes
6.
Glob Chang Biol ; 27(24): 6602-6614, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34582611

RESUMO

Global climate change has led to range shifts in plants and animals, thus threatening biodiversity. Latitudinal shifts have been shown to be more pronounced than elevational shifts, implying that northern range edge margins may be more capable to keeping pace with warming than upper elevational limits. Additionally, global climate change is expected to disadvantage habitat specialists. In the Alps, climatic variation along the elevation gradient allows the coexistence of habitat specialists and generalists. Alpine species are anticipated to adapt their elevational ranges to the change of various climate variables caused by global climate change. Regional differences might buffer elevational shifts. Furthermore, distinct climate variables might differently affect the shifts of habitat specialists and generalists. To study the effect of climate change on Alpine species, we analysed hunting bag, climate and biogeographical data of two grouse species (Tetrao tetrix and Lagopus muta) and two hare species (Lepus timidus varronis and L. europaeus) in Grisons, Switzerland, over a period of 30 years. Our results based on 84,630 harvested specimens were as follows: (1) only three out of seven climate variables changed significantly within the study period. (2) The grouse species significantly shifted towards higher elevations, whereas the hare species only shifted in their minimum/maximum elevations. (3) Hunting elevation of habitat generalists increased more than in habitat specialists. (4) The elevational shifts were mostly related to the number of frost days. (5) Hunting elevation increased especially in the southern biogeographical region. To conclude, all four taxa respond to climate change but habitat generalists more rapidly than habitat specialists. The range shift to higher elevations due to global climate change will lead to a reduction in habitat availability for snow-adapted species. Climate change is thus a serious threat to alpine biodiversity. Regions rich in alpine habitats will have an increased responsibility to conserve these species.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Lebres , Altitude , Animais , Mudança Climática , Ecossistema , Temperatura
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256633, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34543290

RESUMO

Habitat loss from land-use change is one of the top causes of declines in wildlife species of concern. As such, it is critical to assess and reassess habitat suitability as land cover and anthropogenic features change for both monitoring and developing current information to inform management decisions. However, there are obstacles that must be overcome to develop consistent assessments through time. A range-wide lek habitat suitability model for the lesser prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus pallidicinctus), currently under review by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service for potential listing under the Endangered Species Act, was published in 2016. This model was based on lek data from 2002 to 2012, land cover data ranging from 2001 to 2013, and anthropogenic features from circa 2011, and has been used to help guide lesser prairie-chicken management and anthropogenic development actions. We created a second iteration model based on new lek surveys (2015 to 2019) and updated predictors (2016 land cover and cleaned/updated anthropogenic data) to evaluate changes in lek suitability and to quantify current range-wide habitat suitability. Only three of 11 predictor variables were directly comparable between the iterations, making it difficult to directly assess what predicted changes resulted from changes in model inputs versus actual landscape change. The second iteration model showed a similar positive relationship with land cover and negative relationship with anthropogenic features to the first iteration, but exhibited more variation among candidate models. Range-wide, more suitable habitat was predicted in the second iteration. The Shinnery Oak Ecoregion, however, exhibited a loss in predicted suitable habitat that could be due to predictor source changes. Iterated models such as this are important to ensure current information is being used in conservation and development decisions.


Assuntos
Galinhas/fisiologia , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Galliformes/fisiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Pradaria , Humanos , Codorniz/fisiologia
8.
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci ; 376(1836): 20200247, 2021 10 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34482722

RESUMO

Understanding when learning begins is critical for identifying the factors that shape both the developmental course and the function of information acquisition. Until recently, sufficient development of the neural substrates for any sort of vocal learning to begin in songbirds was thought to be reached well after hatching. New research shows that embryonic gene activation and the outcome of vocal learning can be modulated by sound exposure in ovo. We tested whether avian embryos across lineages differ in their auditory response strength and sound learning in ovo, which we studied in vocal learning (Maluridae, Geospizidae) and vocal non-learning (Phasianidae, Spheniscidae) taxa. While measuring heart rate in ovo, we exposed embryos to (i) conspecific or heterospecific vocalizations, to determine their response strength, and (ii) conspecific vocalizations repeatedly, to quantify cardiac habituation, a form of non-associative learning. Response strength towards conspecific vocalizations was greater in two species with vocal production learning compared to two species without. Response patterns consistent with non-associative auditory learning occurred in all species. Our results demonstrate a capacity to perceive and learn to recognize sounds in ovo, as evidenced by habituation, even in species that were previously assumed to have little, if any, vocal production learning. This article is part of the theme issue 'Vocal learning in animals and humans'.


Assuntos
Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Galliformes/fisiologia , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Aves Canoras/fisiologia , Spheniscidae/fisiologia , Vocalização Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Modelos Biológicos , Comportamento Social
9.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 26-29, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339118

RESUMO

Michigan has abundant resources for outdoor activity including upland gamebird hunting in the wild and on licensed hunting preserves. Due to the popularity of hunting, Michigan had a thriving gamebird industry before the economic downturn of 2008/2009. After the economic downturn, the number of gamebird preserves decreased. To understand the health issues faced by captive gamebird raisers while the industry was thriving, a 25-year retrospective study of gamebird submissions to the Michigan State University Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory from 1983 through 2008 was undertaken. Although pheasants, quail, partridges, grouse, and mallard ducks were raised, pheasants greatly outnumbered all other gamebird species, both in numbers and submissions, and quail were the next most predominant species. Causes for submission included parasitic, bacterial, viral, and miscellaneous causes. Parasitic diseases were predominant, with coccidiosis being the leading diagnosis in pheasants and partridges and Capillaria spp. infestation of the crop prevailing in quail. Bacterial diseases were the next most predominant affliction, with clostridial enteritis, both necrotic and ulcerative, in quail, and a variety of bacterial diseases were found in pheasants and partridges. Rotaviral enteritis and adenovirus were the most prevalent viral diseases in pheasants, with adenovirus being the predominant viral disease in quail and paramyxovirus the most prevalent in partridges. From these findings, we conclude that gamebird submissions should be closely screened for parasitic diseases and the diagnosis confirmed at necropsy through scraping and examination of affected tissues.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Galliformes , Animais , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/parasitologia , Michigan/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
10.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 171-176, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339137

RESUMO

Trueperella pyogenes is an opportunistic Gram-positive bacterium that induces purulent lesions and abscesses in cattle, small ruminants, and swine. In birds, T. pyogenes infections have been linked to lameness and osteomyelitis in turkeys (Phasianidae) and hepatic fibriscess in turkeys and pigeons (Columbidae). An 18-mo-old backyard rooster with a history of progressive emaciation was submitted to the California Animal Health and Food Safety (CAHFS) laboratory system. At necropsy, unusual numerous miliary granulomas were identified, primarily in the spleen, but granulomas were also observed in air sacs and lungs. Microscopically, few to moderate numbers of granulomas with giant cells were observed in the spleen, lung, air sacs, and crop composed of necrosis and mixed inflammatory cell inflammation including multinucleated giant cells, fibrin deposition, and fibrosis. Trueperella pyogenes was isolated from the air sacs and trachea. Avibacterium paragallinarum PCR was positive from the tracheal swab. A retrospective analysis of CAHFS data on T. pyogenes between 2000 and 2020 identified 24 cases in avian species: chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus; 16/24), turkeys (5/24), Pekin duck (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus; 1/24), parrot (Psittaciformes; 1/24), and pheasant (Phasianidae; 1/24). Although T. pyogenes infection in birds is rare, the clinical signs and gross lesions might be indistinguishable from avian mycobacteriosis in some cases and should be considered in the differential diagnosis.


Assuntos
Actinomycetaceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Actinomycetales/veterinária , Galinhas , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/diagnóstico , Actinomycetaceae/fisiologia , Infecções por Actinomycetales/diagnóstico , Infecções por Actinomycetales/microbiologia , Animais , California , Patos , Galliformes , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/microbiologia , Psittaciformes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Perus
11.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452362

RESUMO

The revealed prevalence of coronaviruses in wild bird populations in Poland was 4.15% and the main reservoirs were birds from orders Anseriformes and Charadriiformes, with a prevalence of 3.51% and 5.59%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected more often than deltacoronaviruses, with detection rates of 3.5% and 0.7%, respectively. Gammacoronaviruses were detected in birds belonging to six orders, including Anseriformes, Charadriiformes, Columbiformes, Galliformes, Gruiformes, and Passeriformes, indicating a relatively wide host range. Interestingly, this was the only coronavirus detected in Anseriformes (3.51%), while in Charadriiformes, the prevalence was 3.1%. The identified gammacoronaviruses belonged to the Igacovirus and Brangacovirus subgeneras. Most of these were igacoviruses and formed a common phylogenetic group with a Duck Coronavirus 2714 and two with an Avian Coronavirus/Avian Coronavirus9203, while the viruses from the pigeons formed a distinct "pigeon-like" group, not yet officially represented. The presence of deltacoronaviruses was detected in birds belonging to three orders, Charadriiformes, Galliformes, and Suliformes indicating a narrower host range. Most identified deltacoronaviruses belonged to the Buldecovirus subgenus, while only one belonged to Herdecovirus. Interestingly, the majority of buldecoviruses were identified in gulls, and they formed a distinct phylogenetic lineage not represented by any officially ratified virus species. Another separate group of buldecoviruses, also not represented by the official species, was formed by a virus identified in a common snipe. Only one identified buldecovirus (from common pheasant) formed a group with the ratified species Coronavirus HKU15. The results obtained indicate the high diversity of detected coronaviruses, and thus also the need to update their taxonomy (establishing new representative virus species). The serological studies performed revealed antibodies against an infectious bronchitis virus in the sera of white storks and mallards.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Biodiversidade , Doenças das Aves/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Gammacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens/classificação , Anseriformes/virologia , Charadriiformes/virologia , Columbiformes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Patos/virologia , Galliformes/virologia , Gammacoronavirus/classificação , Gammacoronavirus/genética , Filogenia , Polônia
12.
Parasitol Res ; 120(9): 3229-3244, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34370069

RESUMO

Parasite ecology has recently focused on elucidating patterns and processes that shape helminth communities in avian hosts. However, helminths parasitizing gamebirds are still poorly understood. Here we describe the gastrointestinal nematode fauna of Swainson's spurfowl, Pternistis swainsonii (Phasianidae) and helmeted guineafowl, Numida meleagris (Numididae), collected at three and four localities, respectively, in South Africa and analyze the prevalence, mean abundance and diversity of their helminth communities. Eleven nematode species were collected from spurfowl, which had a mean number of nematode species per host of 3.01 ± 0.18, whereas guineafowl harboured 15 nematode species, with a mean number of nematode species per host of 3.93 ± 0.12. Focusing on the most prevalent species, we also asked if host sex and/or age were associated with infracommunity structure with regard to nematode counts and species richness, as well as the species and taxonomic composition of infracommunities. While pooling data of nematode species masked the influence of host characteristics on helminth communities, analysis of individual nematode species revealed a number of patterns. In particular, adult female bias was seen in Tetrameres swainsonii in spurfowl and in Allodapa dentigera and Gongylonema congolense in guineafowl; Acuaria gruveli reached higher numbers in adult spurfowl than in juveniles, and helminth infracommunities in juvenile male guineafowl were more species rich than those in adult males. Combined, our results suggest that helminth communities of spurfowl and guineafowl are associated with a complex interplay of numerous factors, including host characteristics, parasite traits and environmental conditions.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Helmintíase Animal , Nematoides , Spiruroidea , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Galliformes/parasitologia , Helmintíase Animal/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , África do Sul/epidemiologia
13.
Avian Dis ; 65(1): 90-94, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34339128

RESUMO

A semiannual immunization with a commercial inactivated H9 subtype avian influenza virus (AIV) vaccine developed for poultry has been used to prevent and control the avian influenza (AI) infections among captured wild birds in Shanghai Zoo. However, the overall safety and effectiveness of the poultry vaccine for housed birds in the zoo remain unclear. To verify the safety and efficacy of the commercial inactivated H9 AI vaccine on zoo birds and to explore a more reasonable and effective immunization procedure, 48 zoo birds, including 11 Oriental white storks, 25 peafowl, and 12 silver pheasants, were administered the AI vaccine developed for poultry use. Then, the clinical signs of the immunized birds were observed for 2 weeks, and the antibodies against H9 AI were determined via the hemagglutination inhibition test. Results showed that no harmful effects related to the vaccination were observed, and the antibody titers of the Oriental white stork, peafowl, and silver pheasants were all higher than 7 log 2 at 21 days, 30 days, 60 days, 120 days, and 180 days postimmunization. For further study, the H9 AIV titers of 11 peafowls and 6 Oriental storks, which were raised in the nursing ground, were continuously monitored for 15 months. All of their antibody titers were above the national standards of China (5 log 2; GB/T18936-2003), even at 12 months and 15 months postimmunization. We concluded that the commercial inactivated H9 AI vaccine used at the present time in Shanghai Zoo can induce high and prolonged immune responses in vaccinated birds.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Aves , Vírus da Influenza A Subtipo H9N2/imunologia , Vacinas contra Influenza/imunologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Formação de Anticorpos , China , Feminino , Galliformes , Testes de Inibição da Hemaglutinação/veterinária , Vacinas contra Influenza/administração & dosagem , Influenza Aviária/virologia , Masculino , Doenças das Aves Domésticas/virologia
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 799: 149406, 2021 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34426345

RESUMO

Many farmland bird populations are declining, and their negative trends are often associated with changes in land-use or farming practices, including the use of agrochemicals. The red-legged partridge (RLP) is a Mediterranean farmland game species of high socio-economic importance whose populations are thought to have declined sharply since the mid-20th century associated with farmland changes. However, no large-scale studies have tested whether abundance or trends of RLP are related to farmland composition or management. We used hierarchical distance sampling models to estimate RLP abundance in 2010 in central Spain (Castilla-La Mancha), a main European population stronghold of this species. We studied associations between RLP density and land-uses (including variation in management: irrigated crops or organic farming). We also assessed regional abundance variation over seven years (2010-2017) and its relationship with changes in land-use. Our results show that RLP abundance increased with the availability of natural vegetation and traditional rain-fed vineyards, but decreased with increasing proportions of tree crops and irrigated vineyards; the latter association was less pronounced in areas sensitive to nitrate contamination in water, where the amount of fertilizers applied in farmland and use of certain farming practices is more strictly regulated. These results support the idea that increases in intensive vineyards are detrimental to the RLP. We also report a strong population decline of RLP in the region, with a 51% abundance reduction in seven years. This decline was steeper in areas where more natural vegetation had been lost and where ecological tree crops had increased. Overall, our results indicate that changes in land-use (type of crop, or the destruction of natural vegetation in farmland) and farming practices (e.g. use of irrigation in certain crops, use of nitrates) have important impacts on this farmland bird, affecting both spatial distribution and population dynamics.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Galliformes , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Fazendas , Densidade Demográfica , Espanha , Análise Espaço-Temporal
15.
Acta Vet Hung ; 69(3): 282-290, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34460430

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus reuteri E81 (LRE) probiotic supplementation on heat stress responses in chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar). The birds were divided into two groups, one of which was exposed to heat stress (HS). Within each group, four subgroups, each including 64 birds, were created for the three treatment doses (200, 400 or 600 mg/kg) of LRE and the control. The experiment was started with day-old birds, kept at a temperature of 25 °C or 37 °C. After a 7-day adjustment period, the LRE supplementation lasted for 35 days. The levels of different adipokines, including visfatin (VF), adiponectin (ADP), chemerin (CHEM), as well as the concentration of plasma citrulline (CIT) and the levels of thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in the blood were measured at 21 and 42 days of age. A significant correlation (P < 0.01) was found between LRE supplementation and the decrease in serum VF, ADP, CIT, T3 and T4 levels in partridges exposed to HS. On the other hand, no significant relationship was found between LRE supplementation and the serum CHEM and TSH levels (P > 0.05). We concluded that the addition of 600 mg/kg LRE is beneficial in preventing intestinal damage and inflammation provoked by HS.


Assuntos
Galliformes , Probióticos , Adipocinas , Animais , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Hormônios Tireóideos
16.
Poult Sci ; 100(8): 101207, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34242944

RESUMO

Primordial germ cells (PGCs) are the precursors of germline cells that generate sperm and ova in adults. Thus, they are promising tools for gene editing and genetic preservation, especially in avian species. In this study, we established stable male and female PGC lines from 6Hungarian indigenous chicken breeds with derivation rates ranging from 37.5 to 50 percent. We characterized the PGCs for expression of the germ cell-specific markers during prolonged culture in vitro. An in vivo colonization test was performed on PGCs from four Hungarian chicken breeds and the colonization rates were between 76 and 100%. Cryopreserved PGCs of the donor breed (Partridge color Hungarian) were injected into Black Transylvanian Naked Neck host embryos to form chimeric progeny that, after backcrossing, would permit reconstitution of the donor breed. For 24 presumptive chimeras 13 were male and 11 were female. In the course of backcrossing, 340 chicks were hatched and 17 of them (5%) were pure Partridge colored. Based on the backcrossing 1 hen and 3 roosters of the 24 presumptive chimeras (16.6%) have proven to be germline chimeras. Therefore, it was proven that the original breed can be recovered from primordial germ cells which are stored in the gene bank. To our knowledge, our study is a first that applied feeder free culturing conditions for both male and female cell lines successfully and used multiple indigenous chicken breeds to create a gene bank representing a region (Carpathian Basin).


Assuntos
Galinhas , Galliformes , Animais , Galinhas/genética , Criopreservação/veterinária , Feminino , Galliformes/genética , Células Germinativas , Hungria , Masculino , Regeneração
17.
Gene ; 801: 145841, 2021 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274481

RESUMO

Mitochondrial sequences were among the first molecular data collected for phylogenetic studies and they are plentiful in DNA sequence archives. However, the future value of mitogenomic data in phylogenetics is uncertain, because its phylogenetic signal sometimes conflicts with that of the nuclear genome. A thorough understanding of the causes and prevalence of cyto-nuclear discordance would aid in reconciling different results owing to sequence data type, and provide a framework for interpreting megaphylogenies when taxa which lack substantial nuclear data are placed using mitochondrial data. Here, we examine the prevalence and possible causes of cyto-nuclear discordance in the landfowl (Aves: Galliformes), leveraging 47 new mitogenomes assembled from off-target reads recovered as part of a target-capture study. We evaluated two hypotheses, that cyto-nuclear discordance is "genuine" and a result of biological processes such as incomplete lineage sorting or introgression, and that cyto-nuclear discordance is an artifact of inaccurate mitochondrial tree estimation (the "inaccurate estimation" hypothesis). We identified seven well-supported topological differences between the mitogenomic tree and trees based on nuclear data. These well-supported topological differences were robust to model selection. An examination of sites suggests these differences were driven by small number of sites, particularly from third-codon positions, suggesting that they were not confounded by convergent directional selection. Hence, the hypothesis of genuine discordance was supported.


Assuntos
Galliformes/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Filogenia , Animais , Núcleo Celular/genética
18.
Parasitol Res ; 120(8): 2973-2979, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34236530

RESUMO

We detected Eimeria oocysts from Japanese green pheasants (Phasianus versicolor) at a zoo in Osaka, Japan. The oocyst isolates were subspherical or ovoidal shaped and measured 17.2 (range 14.7-20.0) µm in length and 14.8 (13.3-16.7) µm in width with a length/width (L/W) ratio of 1.2 (1.0-1.4) and each had one polar granule. The oocysts lacked a residuum and micropyle. Sporocysts measured 9.8 (6.7-13.3) µm in length and 5.9 (4.7-7.3) µm in width, with a L/W ratio of 1.2 (1.1-1.4). Compared to previously published values, this strain shows morphological similarities with an isolate of E. teetartooimia from ring-necked pheasants from other countries. Phylogenetic analysis of the 18S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes places the isolate in a clade related to chicken Eimeria spp., such as E. acervulina or E. brunetti. Although further analysis is needed, this information can be helpful for the diagnosis and determination of virulence of Eimeria spp. in pheasants.


Assuntos
Coccidiose , Eimeria , Galliformes , Oocistos , Animais , Coccidiose/veterinária , Eimeria/citologia , Eimeria/genética , Fezes , Galliformes/parasitologia , Japão , Oocistos/citologia , Oocistos/genética , Filogenia
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